How the Brain Learns - PowerPoint Presentation by decree

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									             How the Brain Learns
   Colleton County
    School District

   Administrative
    Meeting –
    July 28, 2005
How the Brain Learns
      Exterior Parts of the Brain
   Frontal Lobes –
    planning & thinking

   Temporal Lobe –
    sound, speech, LTM

   Occipital – visual
    processing

   Parietal lobe –
    orientation,
    calculations
          Interior Parts of the Brain
   Limbic System –
    generation of
    emotions

   Thalamus – processes
    sensory stimuli –
    except smell

   Hippocampus –
    checks info in
    working memory to
    stored experiences
                  Cerebrum
   Thinking, memory, speech and muscular
    movement are controlled by areas in the
    cerebrum.

   Frontal Lobe – Monitors:
    – Higher Order thinking
    – Directing Problem Solving
    – Regulating excesses of the emotional system
              Cerebral Mode

                                     R
                                     I
L
                                     G
E
                                     H
F   Logical          Holistic        T
T   Analytical       Intuitive
    Fact Based       Integrating     M
M   Qualitative      Synthesizing    O
O
                                     D
D
                                     E
E
    Organized        Interpersonal
                                     Non
V   Sequential       Emotional
E   Planned          Kinesthetic
                                     V
R   Detailed         Feeling Based
                                     E
B
                                     R
A
                                     B
L
                                     A
                                     L
              Limbic Mode
              Brain Transmissions
   Neurons
    transmit
    impulses
    along an
    axon and
    across the
    synapse to
    the dendrites
    of the
    neighboring
    cell
            1,000,000,000,000,000 synapses

   Learning occurs by changing
    the synapses so that the
    influence of one neuron on
    another also changes.

   The more complex the skills
    demanded in an occupation, the
    more dendrites were found on
    the neurons – creates more sites
    in which to store learnings
                  How the Brain Learns

   Connections the brain finds
    useful become permanent;
    those not useful are
    eliminated as the brain
    selectively strengthens and
    prunes connections based
    on experience.

   What are the implications
    for teaching?
                     Effective Teaching

Requires:
–    Planning
–   Essential elements of effective
    instruction
–   Competent teacher
–   Constant stream of decisions
–   Students actively engaged
–   Compatibility to how students
    learn
        The Brain is a novelty seeker

   The brain has a
    persistent interest in
    novelty.

   An environment that
    contains mostly
    predictable stimuli
    lowers the brain’s
    interest
      Using Novelty in Lessons
   Humor
   Movement – get the blood flowing
   Multi-sensory Instruction – interesting colorful
    visuals - & talk about their learning
   Quiz Games – helps students rehearse – adds
    repetitions for long term memory
   Music – Mr. Morton
Information Processing Model
 Learning
 Storing
 Remembering
    – Are all dynamic and interactive processes
Information Processing Model
   It limits its scope to the major cerebral
    operations that deal with:
    – Collecting
    – Evaluating
    – Storing
    – Retrieving information
    – The parts that are most useful to educators
          Information Processing Model
                                             Self Concept
                    Past Experiences
 Sight

Hearing

Touch
           Immed                       Sense &     Long
                       Working                     Term
           Memory      Memory          Meaning
 Smell                                            storage

                                                  Cognitive
 Taste                                            Belief
                                                  System
               Sensory
               Register
                 out
                       Memory
   Short term memory:
    – All of the early steps of temporary memory that
      lead to stable long term memory
          Immediate Memory – holds data for 30 seconds

          Working Memory – limited capacity – conscious
           activity – captures our focus and demands our
           attention – occurs in the frontal lobes
             Working Memory
 Capacity – varies with age
 Younger 5 –       2 items
 Between 5 - 14    5 items
 14 and older      7 items

   The limited capacity explains why we need to
    memorize a song or poem in stages – increase
    capacity through chunking.

   How can this relate to learning new vocabulary
    words?
               Working Memory
   Time Limits
    – Age dependent
        Pre-adolescents – 5 – 10 minutes

        Adolescents & Adults – 10 – 20 minutes



          Fatigue or boredom sets in resulting in a loss of
           focus - unless a change in the way the individual is
           dealing with an item.
Priorities for Working Memory   W
                                O
                                R
                                K
   Data Affecting Survival      I
                                N
                                G
  Data Generating Emotions      M
                                E
                                M
 Data for new learning          O
                                R
                                Y
Criteria for Long term Storage
   We cannot recall what we have not stored
   Emotional experiences have a high probability
    of being permanently stored

   Does it make sense? (oh now I see)
    – Learner can understand based upon experience

   Does it have meaning? (how will I use it)
    – Is the item relevant
           Sense & Meaning
   Sense and Meaning are independent of each
    other
   When new learning is comprehensible
    (sense) and can be connected to past
    experiences (meaning) – retention is
    dramatically improved.
                   Sense & Meaning
   Students often listen to things that make
    sense but lack meaning.
    – If they do not find meaning after the learning
      episode – there is little likelihood of long term
      storage
    – Teachers often wonder why students forgot the
      lesson – (meaning – relevance must be clear)
      learn it because its on PACT
                        Sense & Meaning
   Past experiences always influence new learning.

   Teachers spend about 90% of their planning time
    devising lessons so that students will understand
    the objective (sense) – they need to be more
    mindful of helping students establish meaning.

   Integrating the curriculum increases meaning and
    retention
   Teachers must understand the intent of the standards
    Probability of being Stored in Memory

M
E
A
N
I     Moderate
N                      Very
        To
G                      High
       High
P
R
E                    Moderate
S       Very
E                      To
        Low
N                     High
T
?

           Sense Present ?
                   Retention
   Research has shown that:
    – The greatest loss of newly acquired information
      or a skill occurs within 18 – 24 hours


   If a learner cannot recall information within
    24 hours – there is a high probability that it
    was not permanently stored
                Self Concept
 Continuum – very low to very high
 Emotions play an important part in forming
  a person’s self concept.

   People will participate in learning activities
    that have yielded success for them and
    avoid those that have produced failure
                 Self Concept
   Hierarchy of Data Processing:
    – When a concept struggles with an emotion, the
      emotion almost always wins!

    – It is possible for the rational system (frontal
      lobe) to override emotions – but that takes time
      and conscious effort.
                      Self Concept
   The learner must believe that participating
    in the learning situation will produce new
    successes rather than repeat past failures.

   A teacher teaches children, not merely
    content. It is vital to create the conditions
    for success – educational & human relations
    skills(intentionally maximizing success)
               Self Concept
   The self concept is important in controlling
    the feedback loop and determining how the
    individual will respond to almost any new
    learning situation.

   What are the implications for instruction?
                              Constructivism
   Students are more likely to gain greater
    understanding of and derive greater pleasure
    from learning when allowed to transform
    the learning into creative thoughts and
    products.

   (learning on a continuum, direct instruction provides a foundation, inquiry or constructivism, cooperative learning can
    take the learning to new and creative levels)
         How the Brain Learns –
          Why it is Important?
   When do students remember best in a learning episode?

   How can I help students understand and remember more of
    what I teach?

   Why is focus so important, and why is it so difficult to get?

   How can humor and music help the teaching learning
    process?

   How can I get students to find meaning in what they are
    learning?
   Why is transfer such a powerful principle of learning, and
    how can it destroy a lesson without my realizing it?
     How the Brain Learns –
 Physical aspects associated with learning
 How the brain processes information
 Memory – Retention & Learning
 The power of Transfer
 Brain Specialization and Learning
 The Brain and the Arts
 Thinking Skills and Learning
    Instructional Approaches
 Direct Instruction
 Cooperative Learning
 Interdisciplinary Units
 Integrated Thematic Units
          Using Humor to Enhance Learning

 Gets Attention
 Creates a positive Climate
 Increases retention
    – Emotions enhance retention
    – Positive feelings from laughter
      increase probability of retention
    – It is an effective discipline tool
    – No teasing or sarcasm
       Increase processing time through motivation

 Generate Interest –
  powerful motivator                                                   Motivation


 Establish Accountability                    8
                                              7




                             Degree of Original
                                              6
 Provide Feedback

                                 Learning
                                              5
                                              4                                                 Degree of Learning
                                              3
    – Prompt                                  2
                                              1
    – Specific                                0
                                                  1

                                                      3

                                                          5

                                                              7

                                                                  9

                                                                      11

                                                                           13

                                                                                 15

                                                                                      17

                                                                                           19
    – Corrective                                              Level of Concern



   Level of Concern
      Increase processing time through motivation

   Level of Concern
    – Provide consequences

    – Visibility & Proximity                                                  Motivation

                                                     8

    – Varying the amount of time                     7




                                    Degree of Original
                                                     6




                                        Learning
                                                     5
      allotted to complete a task                    4                                                 Degree of Learning
                                                     3
                                                     2
    – Varying the amount of help                     1
                                                     0
      or support available.
                                                         1

                                                             3

                                                                 5

                                                                     7

                                                                         9

                                                                             11

                                                                                  13

                                                                                        15

                                                                                             17

                                                                                                  19
                                                                     Level of Concern
        Creating Meaning in new Learning

   Modeling
    – Accurately & unambiguously highlight the critical
        attributes

    – Teacher presents first to ensure students get it correct
        during this prime time when retention is the highest.

    – Avoid controversial issues that evoke strong emotions
        that can redirect the learner’s attention
    –   Emotions can shut out rational thought
      Creating Meaning in new Learning

   Using examples from students’ experience
    – Brings prior knowledge into working memory
      which promotes making sense and attaching
      meaning.
    – It is important that the examples are clearly
      relevant to the new learning – should be
      planned in advance.
      Creating Meaning in new Learning

   Creating artificial Meaning
    – Mnemonic Devices
        Homes – Great Lakes

        Roy G Biv

        Others
Using Closure to Enhance Sense & Meaning

   It is during closure that a student often
    completes the rehearsal process and attaches
    sense and meaning to the new learning.
   Closure is different from Review
    – The student does most of the work by mentally
      rehearsing and summarizing the concepts and
      deciding whether they make sense and have
      meaning.
Using Closure to Enhance Sense & Meaning

   Closure is an investment that can pay off
    dramatically in increased retention of
    learning.

   Closure is one of the most under used
    elements of effective instruction.
Using Closure to Enhance Sense & Meaning

   Closure can occur at various times:
    – It can start a lesson – think about two causes of WWII
      that we studied yesterday and be prepared to discuss
      them….

    – It can occur during a lesson – Complete this problem on
      area before we move on to finding the volume…

    – It should also take place at the end – to tie the entire
      lesson together…

								
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