Sociology Unit 1 Sociology (Unit 1) Define Sociology Scientific study of human society, human behavior and social interactions. Four Components of Sociology 1. Science- scientific method of study Four Components of Sociology 2. Humans- most social and symbolic SYMBOLIC SYMBOLIC Four Components of Sociology 3. Patterns- certain things occur in society for it to function. Four Components of Sociology 4. Groups- sets of people that interact that have shared expectations. Five Areas Sociologists Study 1. Population Characteristics Demography Human ecology Technology Your position in society Five Areas Sociologists Study 2. Social Behavior Group behavior Attitude, change, conformity, leadership, morale, interaction, results of conflict, roles. Individual Behavior Attitude, change, conformity, leadership, morale, interaction, results of conflict, roles. Five Areas Sociologists Study 3. Social Institutions Organizations that have certain functions Education Religious Government Family Law Five Areas Sociologists Study 4. Cultural Influences What unifies us and regulates us Communication Art Language Knowledge Beliefs Teenage dress Five Areas Sociologists Study 5. Social Change Fashions Inventions Revolution War Technology Social Sciences Define- disciplines that study human behavior or institutions and functions of human society in a a scientific manner. Other Social Sciences Anthropology- comparative study of past and present cultures. Psychology- study of individual behavior and thinking organisms. Economics- study of people’s choices in an effort to satisfy needs and wants. Political Science- examine the organizations and operation of government History- study of past events Sociological Perspective Define- looking at social life in a scientific and systematic way. Must use science, logic, study and observe, something that is consistent. Look through other eyes and from many perspectives to reach conclusion. Gather as much information as possible. Social Imagination Define- relationship between individual experiences and forces in the larger society that shape our society. Inventor- C. Wright Mills Empiricism- that generalizations are valid if they rely on evidence that can be observed directly or verified through our senses. Why do people get married? Social Imagination Why do we do this? - Solve problems, learn about relationship between people, people and events, people and concepts. We will try to look at how people make “sense” of the world, even if it is not sensible to us. Understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context. Auguste Comte Harriet Martineau Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber Jane Addams Emile Durkheim Three Levels of Suicide 1. Egoistic- not involved with others, lonely, committed to personal beliefs. 2. Altruistic- high level of solidarity or bonds that unite society; willing to die for ideals. 3. Anomic- feel disconnected to societies goals b/c they cannot reach them W.E.B. DuBois W.E. B. Dubois - 1868 – 1963 Founded NAACP - ed. Crisis Magazine Whites say and preach blacks are inferior which affects social condition Uses Sociology to show effects on racism later an advocate for militant resistance Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons - 1902 - 1979 Very empirical - comprehensive, comparative, objective Translate Weber and Durkheim work The Social System - society is a stable well ordered and interrelated system Functionalist – thought that even though society always changing, same classes and institutions mesh smoothly, some don’t Paradigm Def- are models or frameworks for questions that generate and guide research. Window to the world/reality Theory Def- a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another. From paradigms sociologists come up with theories. Functionalist Theory Def- views society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system. Gears and parts, everything has its place and work together; each component important. People agree on what best for society and work together to make it run smoothly. Manifest Function Def- the intended and recognized consequence of some element of society. EX-automobile for transportation b/c its gets you there faster; airplane; house; Latent Function Def- the unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society. EX: automobile gains social standing through display of wealth; airplane (own); house (bigger and worth more); Conflict Theory Def- the forces in society that promote competition and change. Have and have nots…money, power, job Conflict comes from have nots wanting more; revolution comes about…change Also, nonviolent competition between various groups in society…men and women. Interested to know how those who have power use it on people who do not have power. Interactionist Perspective a. Focuses on how individuals make sense of or interpret the social world in which they participate. b. Focuses on human behavior on person to person level - 1 on 1 Symbolic Interaction George Herbert Mead (1863 - 1931) Study how people use symbols…the things to which we attach meaning to develop their views of the world and communicate with one another. Concerned with the meanings that people place on their own and others behavior People think about, consider carefully, and even rehearse what they will do - people do not act or react automatically Ethnomethodology Harold Garfinkal -the study of the sets of rules or guidelines that individuals use to initiate behavior, respond to behavior and modify behavior in social settings. look at common place look at unwritten rules. Dramaturgy Def- Erving Goffman - in order to create an impression people play roles and their performance is judged by others who are alert to any slips that might reveal the actors true character try to impress life is a stage EX: Dating, marriage, job interview, want something from parents, teacher, parent, priest Three levels of Sociological Study 5. Three Levels of Sociology a. Micro - concerned with behaviors of individual and his immediate others - How do people create and take roles in groups? Group structure? - study interaction in small groups, self-image enactment of roles. b. Macro - looks at whole societies and change - ask how societies and institutions change - look at revolutions, intercontinental migrations, and emergence of new institutions, ... c. Middle - social phenomena at community level or in businesses and volunteer associations - how does bureaucracies affect people?