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  Unit 1
              Sociology (Unit 1)
   Define Sociology

       Scientific study of human society,
        human behavior and social interactions.
    Four Components of Sociology
   1. Science- scientific
    method of study
    Four Components of Sociology
   2. Humans- most social and symbolic
    Four Components of Sociology
   3. Patterns- certain things occur in society for
                 it to function.
    Four Components of Sociology
   4. Groups- sets of
    people that interact that
    have shared
        Five Areas Sociologists Study
   1. Population Characteristics
       Demography
       Human ecology
       Technology
       Your position in society
     Five Areas Sociologists Study
   2. Social Behavior
       Group behavior
            Attitude, change, conformity, leadership, morale,
             interaction, results of conflict, roles.
       Individual Behavior
            Attitude, change, conformity, leadership, morale,
             interaction, results of conflict, roles.
     Five Areas Sociologists Study
   3. Social Institutions
       Organizations that have certain functions
            Education
            Religious
            Government
            Family
            Law
     Five Areas Sociologists Study
   4. Cultural Influences
       What unifies us and regulates us
            Communication
            Art
            Language
            Knowledge
            Beliefs
            Teenage dress
     Five Areas Sociologists Study
   5. Social Change
       Fashions
       Inventions
       Revolution
       War
       Technology
               Social Sciences
   Define- disciplines that study human behavior
    or institutions and functions of human society
    in a a scientific manner.
          Other Social Sciences
   Anthropology- comparative study of past and
    present cultures.
   Psychology- study of individual behavior and
    thinking organisms.
   Economics- study of people’s choices in an
    effort to satisfy needs and wants.
   Political Science- examine the organizations
    and operation of government
   History- study of past events
           Sociological Perspective
   Define- looking at social life in a scientific and
    systematic way.

       Must use science, logic, study and observe,
        something that is consistent.

       Look through other eyes and from many
        perspectives to reach conclusion. Gather as much
        information as possible.
               Social Imagination
   Define- relationship between individual
    experiences and forces in the larger society
    that shape our society.
       Inventor- C. Wright Mills

       Empiricism- that generalizations are valid if they
        rely on evidence that can be observed directly or
        verified through our senses.

       Why do people get married?
             Social Imagination
   Why do we do this? - Solve problems, learn
    about relationship between people, people and
    events, people and concepts.

    We will try to look at how people make
    “sense” of the world, even if it is not sensible
    to us. Understanding human behavior by
    placing it within its broader social context.
Auguste Comte
Harriet Martineau
Herbert Spencer
Karl Marx
Emile Durkheim
Max Weber
Jane Addams
               Emile Durkheim
   Three Levels of Suicide
    1. Egoistic- not involved with others, lonely,
       committed to personal beliefs.

    2. Altruistic- high level of solidarity or bonds that
      unite society; willing to die for ideals.

    3. Anomic- feel disconnected to societies goals b/c
      they cannot reach them
              W.E.B. DuBois
W.E. B. Dubois - 1868 – 1963
     Founded NAACP - ed. Crisis Magazine
     Whites say and preach blacks are inferior which
      affects social condition
     Uses Sociology to show effects on racism
     later an advocate for militant resistance
                 Talcott Parsons
   Talcott Parsons - 1902 - 1979
       Very empirical - comprehensive, comparative,
       Translate Weber and Durkheim work
       The Social System - society is a stable well
        ordered and interrelated system
       Functionalist – thought that even though society
        always changing, same classes and institutions
        mesh smoothly, some don’t
   Def- are models or frameworks for questions
    that generate and guide research.

   Window to the world/reality
Def- a general statement about how some parts
 of the world fit together and how they work;
 an explanation of how two or more facts are
 related to one another.

   From paradigms sociologists come up with
           Functionalist Theory
   Def- views society as a set of interrelated parts
    that work together to produce a stable social

   Gears and parts, everything has its place and
    work together; each component important.

   People agree on what best for society and work
    together to make it run smoothly.
             Manifest Function
   Def- the intended and recognized consequence
    of some element of society.

   EX-automobile for transportation b/c its gets
    you there faster; airplane; house;
              Latent Function
   Def- the unintended and unrecognized
    consequence of an element of society.

   EX: automobile gains social standing through
    display of wealth; airplane (own); house
    (bigger and worth more);
                Conflict Theory
   Def- the forces in society that promote competition
    and change.

   Have and have nots…money, power, job
   Conflict comes from have nots wanting more;
    revolution comes about…change
   Also, nonviolent competition between various groups
    in society…men and women.
   Interested to know how those who have power use it
    on people who do not have power.
        Interactionist Perspective
   a. Focuses on how individuals make sense of
        or interpret the social world in which they

   b. Focuses on human behavior on person to
        person level - 1 on 1
            Symbolic Interaction
   George Herbert Mead (1863 - 1931)
   Study how people use symbols…the things to which
    we attach meaning to develop their views of the
    world and communicate with one another.
   Concerned with the meanings that people place on
    their own and others behavior
   People think about, consider carefully, and even
    rehearse what they will do - people do not act or react
   Harold Garfinkal
   -the study of the sets of rules or guidelines that
    individuals use to initiate behavior, respond to
    behavior and modify behavior in social
       look at common place
       look at unwritten rules.
   Def- Erving Goffman - in order to create an
    impression people play roles and their
    performance is judged by others who are alert
    to any slips that might reveal the actors true
       try to impress
       life is a stage
       EX: Dating, marriage, job interview, want
        something from parents, teacher, parent, priest
Three levels of Sociological Study
   5. Three Levels of Sociology
   a. Micro - concerned with behaviors of individual and his immediate others
         - How do people create and take roles in groups? Group structure?
         - study interaction in small groups, self-image enactment of roles.

   b. Macro - looks at whole societies and change
         - ask how societies and institutions change
         - look at revolutions, intercontinental migrations, and emergence of
           new institutions, ...

   c. Middle - social phenomena at community level or in businesses and
           volunteer associations
         - how does bureaucracies affect people?