Conclusion This study identifies three types of factor underpinning the rise in child sex ratio in contemporary India: the anthropological structure of population settlement and the historical distribution of groups with patriarchal traditions, the new-found prosperity of the rural and urban middle classes, and the spatial diffusion of norms of discrimination and new behaviour. On a broader view, the country's rapid development could help to bolster selective behaviour among the middle classes: they were the first to benefit from the economic boom that followed liberalization in 1991 and their proportion in the national population will continue to grow, with a potentially negative effect on the child sex ratio if the upwardly mobile groups adopt the same discriminatory practices.
Economic, Social and Spatial D
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