One area in which traditional lean tools do not directly apply is high-mix, low-volume or make-to-order environments. The underlying lean philosophies do work if tailored to fit a company's particular business parameters. Since make-to-order businesses are made up of many smaller orders, the overhead burden increases more than in a high-volume environment of standardized products and orders. That said, each company must look at its current business plan and decide where the bottlenecks are in executing change. In make-to-order environments, metrics must have a different base line. One example is to measure how well each work order is executed in relation to its lead-time and cost. A bottleneck is not only determined by the varying needs of the customer but by downtime, quality, absenteeism, and the team leader support ratio. Start simple. Once you are comfortable with metrics, use quotations or work orders as the customer expectation, and measure against them.