PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH Chapter 2 Introduction ► Allof us go through times of difficulty and times of joy. Times of difficulty can sap energy, drain emotions, and break the spirit Times of joy lift our spirit, boost self-esteem, and raise the awareness of our capabilities (self-efficacy) Defining Psychosocial Health ► Includes 4 of the 6 Dimensions of Health Mental (Intellectual) ►Thinking Emotional ►Feeling Social ►Relating Spiritual ►Being Defining Psychosocial Health ► Elements shared by psychosocially healthy people: Feel good about themselves Feel comfortable with other people Control tension and anxiety Able to meet the demands of life Curb hate and guilt Maintain a positive outlook Enrich the lives of others Cherish the things that make them smile Value diversity Appreciate and respect nature Defining Mental Health ► Mental Health The „thinking' part of psychosocial health ►Includes values, attitudes, and beliefs ►Ability to reason, interpret, and remember ►Ability to sense, perceive, evaluate what is happening, and to solve problems Healthy vs. Unhealthy ►Healthypeople respond positively ►Unhealthy people respond irrationally Defining Emotional Health ► Emotional Health The „feeling‟ part of psychosocial health ► Includes love, hate, anxiety, and joy ► An interplay of 4 components: 1. Physiological arousal 2. Feelings 3. Cognitive processes 4. Behavioral reactions Defining Emotional Health ► From R. Lazarus 4 basic types of emotions: 1. Emotions resulting from harm, loss, or threats 2. Emotions resulting from benefits 3. Borderline emotions such as hope and compassion 4. Complex emotions such as grief, disappointment, bewilderment, and curiosity Defining Emotional Health ► Emotionally healthy people respond appropriately to upsetting events ► Emotionally unhealthy people are overwhelmed and overpowered by upsetting events and feelings ► Emotional health affects social health: Warm, welcoming vs. hostile and moody Defining Social Health ► Social Health The „relating‟ part of psychosocial health ► Interaction with others ► Ability to adapt to social situations ► Ability to listen, express opinions and beliefs, form relationships, and act responsibly 2 key aspects are important: 1. Social bonds 2. Social supports Defining Social Health ► Social bonds Reflect the general degree and nature of interpersonal contacts and interactions ► Serve 6 major functions: 1. Intimacy 2. Group integration 3. Opportunity to give or receive nurturance 4. Reassurance of one‟s worth 5. Assistance and guidance 6. Advice Defining Social Health ► Social supports Structural and functional aspects of social interactions Refer to relationships that bring positive benefits to individuals Can be ►Expressive emotional support and encouragement ►Structural housing or money Defining Spiritual Health ► Spiritual Health The „being‟ part of psychosocial health ►A difficult-to-describe need for meaning and purpose in life (spirituality) Can involve music, nature, one or more gods Perhaps a belief in a unifying force that gives meaning to life Perhaps a belief in something greater than our personal and physical existence Defining Spiritual Health ► From Dr. N. Lee Smith: Peace with oneself and the environment Feeling of empowerment and control Connectedness to oneself and others Sense of purpose Enjoyment of personal growth and potential Sense of hope Defining Spiritual Health ► Spiritual Health continued… 4 main themes: 1. Interconnectedness connections involving relationships with ourselves, others and purpose in life 2. Mindfulness awareness and acceptance of the reality of the present moment (“in the zone”) 3. As part of daily life embodied in faith, hope, and love 4. Communal harmony realization of life‟s goals, desires and values and how they impact others Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health ► External factors Most reactions are a direct result of experiences and expectations 3 important external factors ►Family influences can be healthy and nurturing or dysfunctional showing negative behaviors and/or physical abuse ►Environmental influences include schools, health care, socioeconomic status ►Social bonds and social supports Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health ► Internal factors Include hereditary traits, physical health and fitness, and mental/emotional health Self-efficacy ►A belief in one‟s own skill ►Past success or failure leads to an expectation of further success or failure in that particular task or skill ►Positive self-efficacy gives a sense of personal control Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health ► Internal factors continued… Self-esteem ►Refers to a sense of self-respect or confidence ►Different from self-efficacy in that it refers to the “whole” individual, not simply task-related confidence Evaluation of oneself as worthwhile and cared about by others People with poor self-esteem do not like themselves and lack confidence Factors Influencing Psychosocial Health ► Personality Determined by heredity, environment, culture, and experiences ►Is not static and changes through life Traits of psychosocially healthy personalities: ► Extroversion ► Agreeableness ► Openness to experience ► Emotional stability ► Conscientiousness Enhancing Psychosocial Health ► Develop and Maintain Self-Efficacy and Self- Esteem Find a support group ►Maintain friendships and contact with family ►Get involved politically, join a club or recreational association Complete required tasks ►Create a history of success Form realistic expectations Enhancing Psychosocial Health ► Developand Maintain Self-Efficacy and Self- Esteem continued… Make time for you Maintain physical health Examine problems and seek help Self-Efficacy—Individual Activity ►Think of two different tasks or skills One in which you have a high level of self- efficacy One in which you have a low level of self- efficacy ►List several reasons why self-efficacy is more positive in the higher ranked task ►List several reasons how you can raise self-efficacy in the lower ranked task Enhancing Psychosocial Health ► Sleep Serves 2 biological purposes 1. Conservation of energy ► Feeling rested 2. Restoration ► Re-supply of neurotransmitters How much? ► 7-9 hours Enhancing Psychosocial Health ► Sleep continued… Establish a sleep schedule Establish a good sleep enviroment Exercise regularly Limit caffeine and alcohol Avoid heavy meals before bedtime Establish a nighttime ritual Nap only in the afternoon, if at all Get up if unable to fall asleep Mind-Body Connection ► Happiness Experts not entirely clear how to achieve subjective well-being (SWB) ► Otherwise know as happiness Composed of 3 central elements 1. Satisfaction with present life Sociable, outgoing, willing to share 2. Relative presence of positive emotions Generally see the world as a positive environment 3. Relative absence of negative emotions Experience less anger, depression, anxiety Mind-Body Connection ► Happiness myths debunked: Age doesn‟t matter Gender doesn‟t matter Race doesn‟t matter Money doesn‟t matter Mind-Body Connection ► Laughter is the best medicine Limits negative effects of stressors Positive coping mechanism Helps battle depression and anxiety Brings people together (especially with those having shared experiences) Psychosocial Disorders ► Depression Major depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders It is normal to feel down or depressed following traumatic loss ►Those with major depressive disorder experience extreme, persistent sadness, despair and hopelessness, feelings of intense guilt, and worthlessness ►Approximately 15% attempt suicide Psychosocial Disorders ► Depression continued… Women experience depression almost twice the rate of men It can strike at any age, but generally the first experience occurs before 40 Risks: ►Biology (genetic history) ►Poor learned behavioral responses ►Cognitive factors (the way one thinks) Psychosocial Disorders ► Facts about depression True depression is a categorized psychiatric disorder, not the normal reaction to life‟s low points Those with depression cannot simply stop being depressed Frequent crying does not signal a depressed person Depression is not an emotional reaction but a physiological one There is no “one-size-fits-all” therapy Psychosocial Disorders ► Anxiety disorders Number one mental health problem ►Strikes13% of all adults ►Costs nearly $50 billion per year in medical bills and lost worktime ►Include generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorder, and phobias Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ►A constant worrier who becomes debilitated by the worrry Psychosocial Disorders ► Generalized Anxiety Disorder cont‟d… Diagnosis from 3 of 6 symptoms 1. Restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge 2. Being easily fatigued 3. Difficulty concentrating or mind going blank 4. Irritability 5. Muscle tension 6. Sleep disturbances Psychosocial Disorders ► Panic Disorder Severe anxiety attack in which a particular situation, often for unknown reasons, causes terror Symptoms (pages 46-47) ► Specific Phobias Irrational fear of a specific object, activity or situation ► Social Phobias Characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations Psychosocial Disorders ► Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Strikes during winter months Sufferers experience irritability, apathy, carbohydrate craving, weight gain, increased sleep, and general sadness Those 20-40 are most at risk Light therapy, improved diet, exercise, stress management, and improved sleep habits can help Psychosocial Disorders ► Schizophrenia a mental illness with biological origin Characteristics ►Alterations of the sense ►Inability to sort incoming stimuli ►Altered sense of self ►Radical emotions, movements, behaviors Commonly appears in late adolescence Treatment includes medication and psychotherapy Suicide ► 35,000 to 100,000 cases per year ► Third leading cause of death ► Results from poor coping skills, lack of social support, self-esteem, and hope ► College students at high risk ► 75-80% give warning signs Best way to prevent suicide is to eliminate risk factors (page 50) Suicide ► Taking action to prevent suicide Monitor warning signals Take threats seriously Let the person know you care Listen Offer alternatives Tell the person‟s relatives and friends Seeking Psychosocial Help ► Seepages 51-52 for list ► Mental health professionals Psychiatrist Psychologist Psychoanalyst Social Worker Counselor Can offer individual and/or group therapy Psychosocial Health Small Group Activity ► 1. Why do you think the college environment may provide a real challenge to your psychosocial health? ► 2. Think of someone you know who has high self-esteem. What characteristics does this person have? Do you enjoy being with someone who has high self-esteem? ► 3. What role does laughter play in your daily life? ► 4. How have psychosocial disorders been portrayed in movies? What are some specific examples? ► 5. How do you react to bad news? Do you think about how your reactions affect your mental and emotional health? ► 6. What is spirituality to you? Can your group agree on three factors associated with spirituality?