Freshmen A Fresh Approach

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					A “Fresh” Perspective on
   College Freshmen
Beloit College Mindset List – c/o 2011
 Members of the class of 2011, entering college fall 2007, were mostly born in 1989.

For these students:
 Fox has always been a major TV network.
 Russia has always had a multi-party political system.
 What Berlin Wall?
 They have never “rolled down” a car window.
 Wal-Mart has always been a larger retailer than Sears and has always
   employed more workers than GM.
 MTV has never featured music videos.
 "Google" has always been a verb. (taken from c/o 2010 list)
 Thanks to MySpace and Facebook, autobiography can happen in real time.
 The WWW has been an online tool since they were born.
 When else fails, the Prozac defense has always been a possibility.
 Rap music has always been mainstream.
 Women’s Studies has always been offered as a major on college campuses.
 They will encounter roughly equal numbers of female and male professors in the

National Norms for Fall 2007
Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP)
  Freshman Survey administered by the Higher Education Research
  Institute at UCLA.

   Conducted for 42 years; Over 13 million student participants
    Over 1900 schools
   Published each year in “The American Freshman”
   2007 data based on responses of 272,036 students at 356 4-year
    colleges and universities
   Examines characteristics and expectations of incoming students
    before starting college
Most Frequent Habits of Mind
Students were asked to identify how likely they were to
engage in each of the following over the last year:

 Support opinions with a logical argument -            58.2%
 Ask questions in class -                              54.4%
 Revise your papers to improve your writing -          46.8%
 Seek feedback on your academic work -                 43.9%
 Evaluate reliability of info you received -           35.0%
 Explore topics on your own -                          29.0%
  (even though it was not required for class)
 Look up scientific research articles and resources-   21.2%
Parental Involvement
Survey assessed students’ perceptions of parental
involvement with college-related activities.

Latino students were more likely to report “too little”
parental involvement.
   Activity                                             White                   Latino
   Choosing college activities                          16.1%                   43.3%
   Choosing college courses                             18.6%                   43.5%
   Dealings with officials at college                   12.1%                   32.2%
   Application to college                               11.9%                   27.3%
   Decision to go to college                            4.2%                    11.5%
   Note: Indicates percentage who reported “too little” parental involvement for each activity.
Social Networking Sites
According to the HERI website, 94% of first year college
students use them.

   49% reported spending 1-5 hours per week on sites
   32% reported spending none to less than 1 hour
   19% reported 6 hours or more
   Women were more likely than men to use them
   Doesn’t appear to take time away from studying
    (51% reported spending 1-5 hours per week on
   Those with high use do report less confidence in study
    skills and time management
Additional Findings
  Research indicated an increase in overall importance
   of diversity issues.
  Slight increase in the importance of environmental
   issues (although not as high as it was in early 90s).
  When asked about reasons for selecting a
   college/university, results indicated slight increases in
   the following factors:
      Academic Reputation
      Job Outlook for Graduates
      Graduate School Admissions
      National Rankings
      Cost/Affordability

In 2007 FIU participated in the CIRP survey

 2114 FIU first-year students participated
 The following data offers comparison between
  responses and perceptions of FIU students and
  their national counterparts.

           Ethnicity                                     FIU*       National
           White                                         20.7%      86.7%
           African Am./Black                             8.9%       6.8%
           Latino/Hispanic                               71.6%      5.3%
           Asian Am./Asian                               5.2%       3.8%
           Pacific Islander/Hawaii                       0.5%       0.8%
           Other                                         6.0%       2.5%

           English is Native Language                    61.9% 96.7%
*Note: This reflects data from only those students who completed the survey

High School Information
           HS Type                                       FIU*       National
           Public                                        60.1%      82.1%
           Public (charter/magnet)                       20.4%      3.3%
           Private religious                             15.6%      9.9%

           Mostly white                                  23.1% 59.3%
           Mostly non-white                              42.6% 7.4%

*Note: This reflects data from only those students who completed the survey

Parental Information/Background
           Income Info                       FIU*  National
           Income ≥ $100,000                 25.0% 38.5%

           College Degree                    FIU*  National
           Father                            45.1% 52.6%
           Mother                            44.7% 52.8%

*Note: This reflects data from only those students who completed the survey
FIU freshman spent more time than
their national counterparts:

      Socializing with someone of another
       racial/ethnic group
      Using the internet for research or homework
      Volunteering
      Working more than 20 hours per week
      Tutoring another student
      Studying with other students
      Reading for pleasure
FIU freshman spent less time than their
national counterparts:

        Smoking cigarettes
        Talking with teachers outside of class
        Discussing politics
        Being bored in class
        Drinking beer/wine/liquor
        Feeling depressed
        Feeling overwhelmed by all they had to do
Millennial Students/Helicopter Parents
  Born between approximately 1978 - 1995

  When these students were growing up, they were highly
   scheduled and highly sheltered by their parents.

  There are strong bonds between these students and their
   parents and they tend to stay connected.

  They are expected to excel. If they do not excel and their
   parents have the financial means, they are provided tutors
   and coaches.

  Parents expect that individual attention, extra help, and other
   institutional resources will be provided. They expect us to
   protect and educate their students.

     Source: Muntz, P. (2004). “Millenials Go to College,” Journal of College Admission. Book Review.
The Millennials:
 Also called Generation Y, Net Generation, Digital Generation, Baby

 Techno-savvy; always connected

 Self-confident, optimistic, hopeful, goal-oriented, and success-driven
 They are diverse and inclusive

 More global, civic, and community-minded than Generation X

 Entrepreneurial

 Approach learning from a collaborative approach

 Believe that education is a good thing

 Thrive on flexibility and space to explore

 Value guidance and partner well with mentors

    Source: “Who Are the Millenials?” - Fact Sheet by Deloitte Consulting (2007).
High School Experience
 Their days were rigidly controlled

 They often had a personal relationship with a teacher which
  helped to motivate them

 Assigned reading was discussed thoroughly in class

 Students were tested frequently covering short spans of material

 Their view of learning was often memorizing a collection of facts

 Their view of teaching was transmission of knowledge from
  teacher to student

 Many had strong support systems of family and friends to turn to
  for advice, help or comfort
Their First Year
     sharing a room for the first time
     writing a check for the first time
     finding their way around a new place
     learning a new set of rules and procedures
     adapting to living away from home
     learning to manage their own time
     interacting with people with diverse backgrounds and values
     adapting to different classroom norms
     learning how to learn
     altering or developing study habits
     exploring their sexuality
     thinking about their future
     feeling like a small fish in a big pond
Student Development Theory
     Astin’s Involvement Theory
     Challenge and Support – Sanford
     Identity Development Theories (racial,
      ethnic, GLBT, gender)
     Schlossberg’s Transition Theory
     Kohlberg – Moral Development
     Chickering – Vectors of Identity
     Perry – Intellectual Development
Chickering’s 7 Vectors of
    Identity Development
                                                Moving Through
 Developing              Managing              Autonomy Toward
 Competence              Emotions               Interdependence

 “Vectors are major highways for journeying
 toward individualization”-Arthur Chickering

                                                Developing Mature
 Developing             Establishing
  Purpose                 Identity

                                       Emotional, Interpersonal,
                 Developing             Ethical & Intellectual
                  Integrity                 Development
           Facts; Black and
             White; Right                              Just as lost
             and Wrong

 What knowledge is to them…
                                                   How they view other students…

       Container to                                               Structure,
        be Filled          Intellectual                          interaction,
                          Development                            experience
How they view self…
                                 of new students
                                                          Ways they learn…

        Source of ALL                                        Memorizing
         Knowledge                                            the facts

 How they view the instructor…                       What learning means…
 What Can We Do?
 Realize that entering freshmen were high school students three months
 Be explicit about your expectations and the type of learning expected in
  your course.
 Communicate directly the importance of attending class.
 Teach students how to prepare for college assignments and exams.
 Provide assessment and feedback often.
 Ask students questions during class.
 Encourage students to ask questions or seek assistance as a normal part
  of the learning process
 Maximize active, experiential, problem-based learning; minimize lecturing.
 Use cooperative (team-based) learning extensively, both in and out of
 Highlight major points at the beginning of the lecture.
 Summarize periodically during each class and at the end of a lecture.
 Design course in terms of learning outcomes, instead of course objectives.
Our task as educators of freshmen
students involves far more than teaching
the content of our courses. We need to
teach these students how to become
effective life-long learners.
       Charlie Andrews
  Director, Academic Advising Center
Undergraduate Studies – University Park

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