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Alternative Instruction - Standards-Based Instruction

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					 Alternative Instructional
        Strategies
                   August 31,2000
               In-service for Chicopee
               Middle and High Schools

Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
                  How do We Proceed?

                                                   How do we continue to
                                                    be effective teachers
                                                    in a time of high
                                                    content standards,
                                                    high-stakes testing,
                                                    career pathways,
                                                    inclusion, hetero-
                                                    geneous classrooms...
                                                    not to mention the
                                                    issues students face
                                                    outside the
                                                    classroom...


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
            What do We Know About
                 Intelligence?
 Intelligence is multi-faceted, not a single
  thing
 Our minds are fluid, not “fixed” -- a rich
  learning environment can amplify
  intelligence; the converse is also true
 Our minds literally grow with use ---
  neurons grow, develop, and become more
  efficient when used actively; the converse
  is also true


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
What do We Know About Learning?

 People have different styles and
  preferences for learning
 The brain hungers for meaning; conversely,
  it resists meaninglessness
 Humans learn best with moderate
  challenge; an overwhelmed learner down-
  shifts into self-protection mode while an
  under-challenged learner coasts into
  relaxation mode.


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
                      Levels of Learning

We can learn:
 Facts, or discrete bits of information
 Concepts, or categories of things with
  common elements that help us organize,
  retain, and use information
 Principles, or rules that govern concepts
 Attitudes, or degrees of commitment to
  ideas and spheres of learning
 Skills, or the capacity to put to work the
  understandings we have learned
Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
                               So What?

                                                Brainstorm:
                                                 What do these
                                                  facts about
                                                  intelligence and
                                                  learning suggest
                                                  about how to be
                                                  effective
                                                  teachers?


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
Characteristics of “Differentiated
           Classroom”
   Teachers begin where students are
   Teachers engage students in instruction through
    different learning modalities
   A student competes more against himself/herself
    than others
   All students are doing engaging and challenging
    work
   Teachers provide specific ways for each individual
    to learn
   Teachers use classroom time and space flexibly
   Teachers use data and are diagnosticians, deciding
    on the best possible instruction for each student
                        Carol Tomlinson, Differentiated Classroom, ASCD, 1999
Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
    What can we “differentiate” to
        meet varying needs?
 Content (what we teach; what we want
  students to learn -- the „input‟)
 Process (activities through which students
  process, or make sense of understandings
  and skills)
 Product (how students demonstrate and
  extend what they have learned -- the
  “output”)
 Learning Environment (the classroom
  conditions -- or use of the community -- to
  support the learning)
Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
         So How Do We Do This?
         Instructional Strategies
                                                We provide
                                                appropriate
                                                options in:
                                                 Content
                                                 Process
                                                 Product
                                                 Learning
                                                  Environment


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
       First, we have to know where
               students are
 Readiness -- what do students know and
  what do they need to know about an area
  of study?
 Interest -- what learning experiences will
  be engaging, relevant, and challenging (this
  differs among students)
 Learning Profile -- What do students bring
  to the task (intelligences, learning styles,
  etc.)


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
               Alternative Strategies

Compacting
 Assess and assign accordingly
 Students are challenged and aren‟t working
  on what they already know

Entry Points
 Based on Howard Gardner‟s work
 Utilizes student‟s strong area(s) to teach
  something new

Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
               Alternative Strategies

Project-Based Learning
 Solving real problems
 Producing a real product


Independent Study / Projects
   Students individually investigate a
    particular area of interest



Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
               Alternative Strategies

Interest Groups
   Students are grouped by interest for
    particular activities

Tiered Assignments
 Concepts and skills remain consistent
 Activities are varied to help students build
  on prior knowledge


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
               Alternative Strategies

Flexible Grouping
 Whole-class, small group or individual
 Based on readiness, interest or learning
  profile

Learning Centers
   Stations or collections of materials to
    explore topics or practice skills


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
               Alternative Strategies

Varying Questions
   Various types of questions posed to
    learners based on readiness, interests,
    learning style

Contracts
 Agreement between student and teacher
 Teacher grants certain freedoms/choices
 Student commits to completion time and
  certain specifications
Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
               Alternative Strategies

Mentorships / Internships /
 Apprenticeships in career interest
 area

 Student focuses on a particular area with
  resource teacher, employer, older student,
  etc.
 Extends learning beyond the classroom




Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
               Alternative Strategies

Other strategies for helping students
 make sense of material:

   Learning logs, journals, graphic organizers,
    lectures, creative problem solving, think-
    pair-share, two-sided debates, PMI (listing
    pluses, minuses, and interesting points
    about a topic), role-playing, model-making,
    labs….


Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
           Put the Ideas to Work:
              Think-Pair-Share
                                         Choose a topic/skill/lesson
                                              that you teach well
                                        For whom is it effective?
                                         For whom is it NOT
                                         effective?
                                        How might you add options to
                                         the CONTENT, PROCESS, or
                                         PRODUCT to make it
                                         effective for more of your
                                         students?
                                        How might you use the
                                         community as part of your
                                         learning environment?
Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2
REMEMBER:

 STANDARDS-BASED CURRICULUM
IS WHAT WE TEACH.

 DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION IS
HOW WE TEACH TO ENSURE THE
SUCCESS OF ALL STUDENTS.




 Bill Diehl, Center for Youth Development & Education, CBWL & Maureen Murray, Brockton CS2

				
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