Copy of Arabic by muqeetsomro

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									 Arabic Alphabet
 In the Arabic alphabet, we have 29 letters three of which are long vowels. The rest of the
 letters are consonants. Each letter is given a name which contains the letter itself.

 The names of the letters, what the letters sound like, and the order in which they appear in
 the Arabic alphabet must be memorized before proceeding through successive lessons.




     thaa                     taa                      baa                        alif
th                        t                       b                         ă




     khaa                            haa                             jeem
kh                             h``                           j




     zaa                       raa                     zaal                      daal
z`                        r                       dh                        th




      dhaad                   saad               sheen                 seen
dh``                 s`                    sh                    s
      ghein                  ein                 zaa              thaa
gh                     ---                 z``                th``




        kaaf                      qaaf                 faa
k                        q                        f




      haa                      noon                    meem                  laam
h`                       n                        m                      l




     yaa                           hamza                     waow
y                            a`                        w




    Introduction to Vowels

    Lesson two deals with the vowels of the Arabic language. You would have noticed
    that the alphabet is composed entirely of consonants. This type of alphabet is useless
    because we speak in syllables, and in order to create syllables, we require vowels
    between our consonants.
Syllables are the building blocks of speech and they come in three types; 1) consonant
vowel, 2) vowel consonant, and 3) consonant vowel consonant. That is to say, a
syllable may be formed by having a consonant followed by a vowel, such as in the
word 'TO', a vowel followed by consonant, such as in the word 'OF', or two vowels
with a consonant in between, such as in the word 'FOR'. In Arabic, we use only types
one and three.

Since the Arabic alphabet has no letters which are vowels, there are symbols that are
placed either above or beneath the consonants and these act as vowel sounds. They
are three.

Furthermore, towards the end of words, the vowels may be doubled. When a vowel is
doubled i.e. two of the symbols for that vowel are placed atop or underneath the letter,
the sound of the word ends with an 'N'. The long vowels will be discussed in chapters
to come.

Note that each vowel has a name, the vowels collectively have a name, the letters
which contain a vowel have a name, letters are named specifically depending on
which vowel they hold, and doubled vowels are also given names. The first row of the
charts contain the examples, the second rows show the individual names of the
vowels, the third rows show the adjective used to describe the letter which is
attributed with the given vowel, the fourth rows show the English equivalents, and the
columns to the right show the collective name for the group.

.

ِ
‫ء‬                      َ
                       ‫ء‬                   ‫ء‬
                                           ُ
    ‫وٍٓز‬kasra              ‫فطكس‬fathha          ‫ّٞس‬dhamma           harakaat‫قٍوحش‬
    ٌٛٓ‫ ِى‬maksoor          ‫ ِفطٛـ‬maftooh       َِّٟٛmadhmoom       mutaharrik‫ِطكٍن‬
    e, i                   a                   o, u

ٍ
‫ء‬                      ً
                       ‫ء‬                        ‫ء‬
                                                ٌ
    ٓ١‫ وٍٓض‬kasratein       ٓ١‫ فطكط‬fathhatein        ٓ١‫ ّٞط‬dhammatein   ٓ٠ٕٛ‫ ض‬tanween
    ٌٛٓ‫ ِى‬maksoor          ‫ ِفطٛـ‬maftooh            َِّٟٛmadhmoom      ِْٕٛmunawwan
    en, in                 an                       on, un
Rules for Writing Hamza
Ways in Which a Hamza can be Written

                                                    Hamza is written in one of four ways:




     by itself on the line, as in


      on a    , as in


      on a    , as in


      on an      , as in




 In order to learn the rules that govern which of these forms will be used, we consider
the Hamza as it appears in the beginning of a word, at the end, and in the middle. But
     note that these rules may have exceptions and this is merely a guideline or rule of
                                                                                thumb.


Word Initial
  1. The Hamza will always be written on an        . This is despite the vowel on it and
      despite any preceding particles (like the definite article, conjunctions, etc).
Examples
     Word Internal

         To facilitate the learning of these rules, consider the following hierarchy of vowels in
                                                                                    the language:



                     Priority Low              Priority Medium                     Priority High
                                                              or                            or



           1. If the Hamza is preceded and or followed by   or     , it’s written on a .




                     Examples




2.    If there is no or  in the vicinity, then if the Hamza is preceded and or followed
     by or , it‘s written on a .



                     Examples




3.    If there are none of those vowels in the vicinity, then if the Hamza is preceded and or
     followed by      or , it‘s written on an .



                         Examples




     ,      or    and is preceded by a long vowel      * When a Hamza has (is followed by) a
                                                                     it is written on the line:
                                      Examples




                                 There are plenty of exceptions. Consider, for example:




   . It is better to simply  for the Hamza, but it uses an The rules tell us to use a
 memorize the case for each new word one encounters. And this is how most students
                                                                      approach this.


Word Final
   1. The Hamza will be written on the line if it is preceded by a    (this includes long
       vowels and diphthongs).




     Examples




   2. The Hamza will be written according to the Word Internal Rules if it is not preceded
       by a     .




                     Examples




Cluster Reduction
What is this Tutorial About?

This tutorial deals with a topic in Arabic phonology that has major repercussions in
morphology. This topic is known as Cluster Reduction, and it is a set of rules
designed to alleviate the difficulty in pronunciation caused by successive stops in the
same syllable. In other words, pronouncing two successive letters, both of which are
, is difficult; Cluster Reduction implements rules to alter those two letters in order
                                                                to create proper syllables.



Cluster reduction has implications when reading texts without vowels. Even with
vowels, some texts do not implement the cluster reduction rules and the reader is left
to apply them himself. Moreover, these rules play an integral role in the morphology
                                                                        of weak verbs.


Introduction

Classical Arabic supports the following types of syllables, where the symbol C
represents a consonant, the symbol V represents a vowel, and VV represents a long
                                                                           vowel.



                            Syllable                         Example
                     1           CV

                     2         CVV

                     3         CVC

                     4       CVCC

                     5       CVVC

                     6     CVVCC




The first three types of syllables in the inventory are the primary syllables of the
 letters     language. The following three are quite rare because they result in two
. In              occurring in succession – this phenomenon is formally known as
) and there must       particular, syllable types 4 and 5 are only tolerated during stops (
be a set of rules implemented to transform these into proper syllables of type 1, 2, or 3
if they occur anywhere else. The rest of this tutorial deals with these rules. Syllable
type 6, albeit rare, is tolerated wherever it occurs. This is because it has a long vowel
                           followed by a geminated letter which eases the pronunciation.
    Definitions
                                      a succession of two letters, both of which have a




In summary, therefore, syllable types 4 and 5 occur in the language. The reasons for
their occurrences are numerous, including verb morphology. When their occurrence is
, rules must be applied to alter the letters and vowels in order to form    not due to
                                                                       proper syllables.


Cluster Reduction

                                                       Bi-consonantal Clusters
          Rule
                  if two non-vowelled consonants occur in succession, the first is
                                                                     .   given a



In the vast majority of cases, two non-vowelled consonants appear in succession only
 and the      across word boundaries. In other words, the last letter of a word will be
. This restriction is because the      first letter of the following word will also be
internal structure of Arabic patterns are typically already secure from bi-consonantal
                                                               clusters thanks to coinage.



When bi-consonantal clusters occur across word boundaries, the last letter of the first
), certain particles word is non-vowelled. This occurs with certain verbs (such as
). Moreover, it may occur if ), and certain non-declinable nouns (such as (such as
   the last letter of the first word has nunation, since nunation is nothing more than a
                                                                                    .



In addition, the first letter of the second word is also non-vowelled. This occurs with
). But the and ) as well as some rare nouns (such as             many verbs (such as
most common occurrence is when the second word is prefixed with the definite
                                                                             article, Al.
    The rule for bi-consonantal clusters is that the first non-vowelled letter will be given a
                                             . However, the following exceptions apply.




           the word    will use a

   plural masculine pronouns will use a



                                                  Consider the examples in the table below.



                                Resolved Case               Unresolved Case




                                                       Vowel-Consonant Clusters
              Rule
                       if a non-vowelled consonant follows a long vowel, the long vowel is
                                                                                  dropped.



    The phenomenon of a long vowel followed by a non-vowelled consonant is not
    restricted to word boundaries; it may be witnessed within a single word as well. When
    a vowel-consonant cluster occurs, the long vowel is simply dropped to alleviate the
                         difficulty in pronunciation. The table below gives some examples.



                                               Resolved Case           Unresolved Case
        if the cluster occurs across a
        word boundary, the long vowel
             drops only in pronunciation




                                                   Diphthong-Consonant Clusters
               Rule
                        if a non-vowelled consonant follows a diphthong, the diphthong is
                                                    given the short vowel appropriate to it.



     Just as with vowel-consonant clusters, diphthong-consonant clusters may also occur
     within a single word as well as across word boundaries. However, in the vast majority
                 of cases, they occur in verbs and are rarely realized in nouns and particles.



     To alleviate the pronunciation difficulty caused by diphthong-consonant clusters, the
     , and the vowel     is a diphthong is given a suitable vowel. The vowel suitable to a
                                                                   .    is a suitable to a



                                                       Consider the table of examples below.



                                   Resolved Case              Unresolved Case




     Exercise
        1.   Identify the instances in the following sentences where cluster reduction should be
             applied

2.   Identify the type of cluster

3.   Apply the appropriate rule by pronunciation
         1.




2.




3.




     Arabic Morphology


     Introduction to Arabic Morphology
     How we Study Morphology
     In order to study Arabic morphology both completely and effectively, we divide the science
     into the following set of topics.


         1. conjugation
               a. verb conjugation – the study of how verbs are derived from a set of
                    base letters and how they conjugate in the different tenses to reflect
                    gender, plurality, voice, and other aspects
               b. derived nouns – the study of nouns in the language that are also
                    derived from a set of base letters and how they conjugate
         2. verb paradigms – taking the basic verbal form and all its conjugations and
            adding certain extra letters in order to enhance its meaning and add certain
            connotations
         3. verb irregularities – the study of how verbs (basic and enhanced) and derived
            nouns conjugate when they contain certain ―weak‖ letters
               a. Hamza verbs – regulations associated to verbs with a Hamza in any
                    one of the three radicals (root letters)
               b. assimilated verbs – regulations associated to verbs with a glide ( or
                      ) as the first radical
           c. hollow verbs – regulations associated to verbs with a glide as the
              second radical
           d. deficient verbs – regulations associated to verbs with a glide as the
              third radical
           e. highly deficient verbs – regulations associated to verbs with multiple
              irregularities
           f. duplicated verbs – regulations associated to verbs in which the final
              two radicals have geminated
    4. paradigm connotations – the study of the specific connotations and enhanced
       meanings achieved by applying the paradigms studied in (2)
    5. more advanced topics such as advanced etymology and others



The rest of this tutorial goes into greater detail and gives introductory information about
each of the above topics.


For true proficiency in the language, however – beyond theory and simply reading basic and
advanced tutorials – one must learn Arabic through courses such as the Shariah Program.
The esteemed teachers in such courses employ time-tested techniques to activate a
student’s theory and provide vital feedback. Not only that, they understand students and
introduce appropriate material at very calculated points in time so as to maximize the
learning experience and not overwhelm the students.


These tutorials on Arabic morphology will provide basic and advanced theory, but practicing
the conjugations of regular and irregular verbs is very essential. This practice and its
feedback can only be achieved by learning Arabic through courses.


Overview of Arabic Words
We divide words in Arabic into three self-contained categories as follows.


             : (usually translated as “nouns”) includes nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs,
        etc
             : verbs
               : particles, articles, and conjunctions


Particles are completely unpredictable; they don’t fall into the templatic system (i.e. they
have no patterns) nor do they undergo any morphophonemic changes. They are what they
are and must be memorized. The up side is that there are relatively few of them in the
language – within one hundred.


Nouns and verbs do fall into the templatic system and have very systematic
morphophonemic rules that govern them. This includes the study of how verbs are
conjugated, how they move from pattern to pattern to enhance their meanings, how the
participles and other nouns are derived, how nouns pluralize, etc.


Noun & Verb Overview
Each declinable noun and each verb is made up of a certain set of base letters, called its        .
(Nouns that are always indeclinable (such as pronouns) usually don’t follow this system.)


Verbs can either have 3 base letters, or 4. Nouns can have 3, 4, or 5. Now these base letters
can be augmented with extra letters, and they can be dropped or changed due to
morphophonemic rules as well. Let’s look at some examples.


Added                 and
                          Base Letters                            Verb
Dropped/Changed Letters


 added

  changed

 and      dropped,    added

 and      added


Added                 and
                          Base Letters                            Noun
Dropped/Changed Letters


 and added,       changed

 added,     dropped

  added


Why are letters added? This is a result of taking a set of root letters and putting them into a
patter in the templatic system. We do this to add more meaning, depth, and connotation to
the basic meaning afforded by the root letters. This is one of the concepts covered by
morphology. For example, the base letters given in the chart below afford the basic meaning
of cutting. But ‘cutting’ is too abstract a meaning, so these letters are then inserted into
templates, thus giving them tangible and even advanced meanings. (We use the base letters
   to represent what a template looks like).


Template                                                                                Base




                          they     were      boycotted,       or
section    fragment                                                  fief     he cut    to cut
                          interrupted


And why are letters dropped or changed? This is based on morphophonemic rules of the
language which is the other major concept that morphology covers.


Introduction to the Templatic System
Each word in the language (noun or verb) is a combination of a set of base letters plus a
given template. For example, the word          is the base letters          on the pattern     .
The base letters give us a base meaning (cutting) and the pattern gives us a certain
connotation (to do something to someone or something). Hence we get the meaning of ‘to
cut something’. More specifically, the word means ‘fief’ which is a plot of land that has been
cut or divided.


So we can think of each word in the language as an instantiation of a template using a set of
base letters. But there are far too many templates in the language. So we have a layer of
abstraction above templates which we call ‘template sets’.


For example, the words


     ,        ,

are instantiations of the patterns
        ,           ,

using the base letters


                ,               ,

respectively. And all of the templates belong to a set called          (nouns of utilization).


                                                             Base            Base
Final Meaning                 Template Set     Template                                     Word
                                                             Meaning         Letters
spoon (that with which
                                                             to lick
you lick)
key (that with which
                                                             to open
you open)
world (that through           noun of usage
which you learn (about                                       to know
God))


Notes
           the meanings cannot be directly inferred; but this templatic system is extraordinarily
            useful in a) guessing meanings to words, and b) providing a framework for creating
            new words
           templates may be shared across several template sets


Introduction to the Morphophonemic Rules
There are a few letters in the language such that, if they are part of the base letters of a
word, the word is considered weak. If a verbs is considered weak, a set of rules must be
applied in order to change it so that it is no longer considered such. This discussion is mainly
focused on three-lettered words, and we begin with verbs and then extend our knowledge
to nouns later.


Below is a chart that gives these letters


Name of the Name Given to the Verb that has Week Letter (and where it Occurs in
Set of Rules this                           the Verb)
Applied   to
this Type of
Verb
---                                                        None of the below

                                                                 anywhere in the base

                                                                or        in the first position

             or                                                 or        in the second position

                                                                or        in the third position

                                                                or        in multiple positions
                                                           the second and third letters are the
                                                           same


There are at least 50 rules that govern what will happen when these letters occur in a word,
based on surrounding letters, vowels, etc. However, when we study basic morphology, we
only discuss at most 10 of these as they account for the vast majority of these occurrences.


The classification of words based on weak letters is parallel to their classification based on
templates. This means that a word will have both a template as well as a weak-letter
classification. For example, the verb       (he said) is on the pattern      and, in terms of its
weakness, it is among the               .


A Cute Story
The templatic system covers the study of letters that are extra in a given word (i.e., part of
the template and not the base letters). It is one of the most important skills for a student to
be able to differentiate between base and extra letters. Without this skill, one will not even
be able to look up words effectively in a dictionary.


Not every letter in the alphabet may act as extra. In fact, the letters that can are limited to
the following 10:




They can be memorized using the following phrases in which each of the above letters
appears exactly once:
                      you asked me about it

                      today you forget it



So a student once asked his teacher about which letters are capable of being extra in a word.
The teacher answered           (you’ve asked me already). The student denied previously
asking, so the teacher responded by saying,          (today you forget, eh?). When the
student insisted, the instructor said, “I have answered you twice but you still don’t
understand.”

Verb Conjugation
What is this Tutorial About?
This tutorial deals with basic verbs in the different tenses. We discuss past, present,
future, imperative or command, prohibition, and variations on these tenses. We also
discuss how to conjugate verbs in each of these in order to reflect voice, gender,
plurality, person, and other aspects.

For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology and an
introduction to basic concepts, consult the introduction to this section entitled
Introduction to Arabic Morphology.


A Cautionary Note
It is not appropriate for a beginner to study this topic, or any topic for that matter,
exclusively from a tutorial. A student requires live instruction, real-time answers to
questions, and practice with feedback. Therefore, one cannot read this tutorial and
expect to have a complete and vivid understanding of the material. These readings are
complements to extraordinary and time-tested Arabic courses taught by esteemed
scholars.


The Conjugation Table
When conjugating verbs, there are three aspects about the subject (i.e. the one doing
the verb) to keep in mind:

       person (third, second, and first): The third person is used when you are talking about
        the subject and the subject is not present, the second person is used when you are
        addressing the subject, and the first person is used when you yourself are the
        subject.
       gender (masculine and feminine)
       plurality (singular, dual, and plural)
Arabic uses all three persons and it uses the masculine and feminine genders with no
neutral. Furthermore, plurality in Arabic is of three types: singular, dual, and plural.
Dual indicates on two entities and plural indicates on three or more entities.

Multiplying 3 persons with 2 genders with 3 pluralities yields 18 conjugations. So we
would expect Arabic conjugation tables to look something like the following.

Conjugation                                                 English Pronoun
                                        Singular            He
                   Masculine            Dual                They (2 male)
                                        Plural              They (3+ male)
3rd person
                                        Singular            She
                   Feminine             Dual                They (2 female)
                                        Plural              They (3+ female)
                                        Singular            You (1 male)
                   Masculine            Dual                You (2 male)
                                        Plural              You (3+ male)
2nd person
                                        Singular            You (1 female)
                   Feminine             Dual                You (2 female)
                                        Plural              You (3 female)
                                        Singular            I (1 male)
                   Masculine            Dual                We (2 male)
                                        Plural              We (3+ male)
1st person
                                        Singular            I (1 female)
                   Feminine             Dual                We (2 female)
                                        Plural              We (3+ female)

However, not all of the conjugations for the first person exist. The actual template for
Arabic conjugation tables is as given below.

Conjugation                                                 English Pronoun
                                        Singular            He
                   Masculine            Dual                They (2 male)
3rd person
                                        Plural              They (3+ male)
                   Feminine             Singular            She
                                          Dual                  They (2 female)
                                          Plural                They (3+ female)
                                          Singular              You (1 male)
                    Masculine             Dual                  You (2 male)
                                          Plural                You (3+ male)
2nd person
                                          Singular              You (1 female)
                    Feminine              Dual                  You (2 female)
                                          Plural                You (3 female)
                    Masculine &           Singular              I
1st person
                    Feminine              Plural                We



The Canonical Verb
When we start talking about how verbs look and how they change, we‘re going to
need an actual example to work with. Since the beginning of Arabic grammar over 14
centuries ago, the root letters ‫ ف، ٨، ي‬have been used for this purpose.

So if we want to indicate, for example, that the letters ٌ ،٘ ،ْ should have a ‫ فطكس‬on
all three letters and there should be an aleph between the first and second letter, we
                                                      ً٪
simply say that the word needs to be on the pattern َ َ ‫ .فَح‬The canonical letters are
                                                             ٍ
replaced with the letters we‘re working with and we get َ َٚ‫.َٔح‬


The Past Tense Verb
The first conjugation of the past tense verb is achieved by placing a given set of base
                       ً٫‫ف٫ً ف‬            ً٫َ
letters on the pattern َ َ َ , َ ِ َ , or َ ُ ‫ .ف‬For the duration of this tutorial, we will not
concern ourselves with these three variations, how they work, and why they exist; that
will be discussed in a later tutorial. For now, we assume that taking a set of base
                                                   ً٫‫ف‬
letters and placing them on the pattern َ َ َ will give us the first conjugation of the verb
in the past tense.

Let‘s use the root letters ٌ ،٘ ،ْ which afford the meaning of ―helping‖. The word
ٍٛ ٔ
َ َ َ , then, means ―he helped‖.

Conjugation                                                     ‫ٌ، ص، ر‬
3rd person           Masculine            Singular              ٍٛٔ
                                                                َ َ َ (he helped)
The rest of the conjugations are achieved by adding suffices to this most basic form.
Read the table below, studying the endings in each conjugation.

                                                               Conjugation and
Conjugation
                                                               Translation
                                          Singular              ٍٛٔ
                                                                َ َ َ (he helped)
                    Masculine             Dual                     ٍٛٔ
                                                                ‫( َ َ َج‬they helped)
                                          Plural                      ٍٛٔ
                                                                ‫( َ َ ُْٚج‬they helped)
3rd person
                                          Singular                    ٍٛٔ
                                                                ْ‫( َ َ َش‬she helped)
                    Feminine              Dual                     ‫ٍٔٛض‬
                                                                 ‫( َ َ َ َح‬they helped)
                                          Plural                 ْ ٛٔ
                                                                 َ ٍَْ َ (they helped)
                                          Singular               ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                                 َ ٍَْ َ (you helped)
                    Masculine             Dual                     ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                 ‫( َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬you helped)
                                          Plural                    ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                 ُُْ ٍَْ َ (you helped)
2nd person
                                          Singular                ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                                  ِ ٍَْ َ (you helped)
                    Feminine              Dual                     ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                  ‫( َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬you helped)
                                          Plural                  َ ُ ٍَْ َ (you helped)
                                                                  ٓ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                    Masculine &           Singular                ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                                  ُ ٍَْ َ (I helped)
1st person
                    Feminine              Plural                   ٔ ٛٔ
                                                                  ‫( َ ٍَْ َح‬we helped)
Variation in the past tense verb happens in three aspects:

      voice (active and passive): when a verb is active, its subject is mentioned; when it is
       passive, its object takes the place of its subject. Compare, for example, “I helped”
       and “I was helped”. In the first instance “I” is the subject while in the second “I” is
       the object and the subject hasn’t been mentioned
      negation (affirmative and negative)
      distance (simple past, present perfect, past perfect): simple past is the past
       tense without any distance indicated, as in ―I helped‖; present perfect adds
       ―has/have‖ to give ―I have helped‖; and past perfect adds ―had‖ to give ―I had
       helped‖


Multiplying 2 voices with 2 parities of negation with 3 levels in distance, we get 12
conjugation tables. In reality, however, the active and passive tables for the negative
present perfect tense are not used. In other words, we do not use ―I have not helped‖
nor ―I have not been helped‖; these meanings are conveyed using other methods.


Active & Passive
An active past tense verb is rendered passive by using the following algorithm.

   1. the last letter is left alone
   2. the second last letter is given a ‫وٍٓز‬
   3. all other vowels are changed to ‫ّٞس‬
    ٍٛ ٔ                                ٍ ٔ
So َ َ َ , for example, would become َ ُِٛ . The resulting verb is conjugated in the
exact same way as studied above. A small point to note here is that, in the beginning
of this tutorial, mention was made of the fact that the past tense verb may be on one of
three patterns. It is important to note that, despite which of those three a verb will use,
the passive will always be constructed in the same way; the passive verbs from all
three of those patterns look exactly the same.

Conjugation                                                      Passive Conjugations
                                            Singular            ٍٛٔ
                                                                َ ِ ُ (he was helped)
                   Masculine                Dual                   ٍٛٔ
                                                                ‫( ُ ِ َج‬they were helped)
                                            Plural                    ٍٛٔ
                                                                ‫( ُ ِ ُْٚج‬they were helped)
3rd person
                                            Singular                  ٍٛٔ
                                                                ْ‫( ُ ِ َش‬she was helped)
                   Feminine                 Dual                   ‫ٍٔٛض‬
                                                                 ‫( ُ ِ َ َح‬they were helped)
                                            Plural               ْ ٛٔ
                                                                 َ ٍِْ ُ (they were helped)
                                            Singular             َ ٍِْ ُ (you were helped)
                                                                 ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                   Masculine                Dual                   ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                 ‫( ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬you were helped)
                                            Plural                  ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                 ُُْ ٍِْ ُ (you were helped)
2nd person
                                            Singular              ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                                  ِ ٍِْ ُ (you were helped)
                   Feminine                 Dual                   ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                  ‫( ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬you were helped)
                                            Plural                ٓ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                  َ ُ ٍِْ ُ (you were helped)
                   Masculine &              Singular              ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                                  ُ ٍِْ ُ (I was helped)
1st person
                   Feminine                 Plural                 ٔ ٛٔ
                                                                  ‫( ُ ٍِْ َح‬we were helped)

Affirmative & Negative
An affirmative past tense verb is negated simply by prefixing it with the particle ‫.ِح‬

         Negative Active                           Negative Passive
         ٍٛٔ
         َ َ َ ‫( ِح‬he did not help)                ٍٛٔ
                                                   َ ِ ُ ‫( ِح‬he was not helped)
           ٍٛٔ
         ‫( ِح َ َ َج‬they did not help)               ٍٛٔ
                                                   ‫( ِح ُ ِ َج‬they were not helped)
            ٍٛٔ
         ‫( ِح َ َ ُْٚج‬they did not help)              ٍٛٔ
                                                   ‫( ِح ُ ِ ُْٚج‬they were not
                                                   helped)
              ٍٛٔ
         ْ‫( ِح َ َ َش‬she did not help)                  ٍٛٔ
                                                   ْ‫( ِح ُ ِ َش‬she was not helped)
           ‫ٍٔٛض‬
          ‫( ِح َ َ َ َح‬they did not help)            ‫ٍٔٛض‬
                                                    ‫( ِح ُ ِ َ َح‬they were not
                                                   helped)
         ْ ٛٔ
         َ ٍَْ َ ‫( ِح‬they did not help)            ْ ٛٔ
                                                   َ ٍِْ ُ ‫( ِح‬they were not
                                                   helped)
         َ ٍَْ َ ‫( ِح‬you did not help)
         ‫ٔٛ ش‬                                      ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                   َ ٍِْ ُ ‫( ِح‬you were not
                                                   helped)
          ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
         ‫( ِح َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬you did not help)           ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                   ‫( ِح ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬you were not
                                                        helped)
                  ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                ُُْ ٍَْ َ ‫( ِح‬you did not help)           ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                        ُُْ ٍِْ ُ ‫( ِح‬you were not helped)
                ِ ٍَْ َ ‫( ِح‬you did not help)
                ‫ٔٛ ش‬                                    ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                        ِ ٍِْ ُ ‫( ِح‬you were not
                                                        helped)
                 ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                ‫( ِح َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬you did not help)         ّ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                        ‫( ِح ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬you were not
                                                        helped)
                َ ُ ٍَْ َ ‫( ِح‬you did not help)
                ٓ‫ٔٛ ض‬                                   ٓ‫ٔٛ ض‬
                                                        َ ُ ٍِْ ُ ‫( ِح‬you were not
                                                        helped)
                ُ ٍَْ َ ‫( ِح‬I did not help)
                ‫ٔٛ ش‬                                    ‫ٔٛ ش‬
                                                        ُ ٍِْ ُ ‫( ِح‬I was not helped)
                 ٔ ٛٔ
                ‫( ِح َ ٍَْ َح‬we did not help)            ٔ ٛٔ
                                                        ‫( ِح ُ ٍِْ َح‬we were not helped)

     Simple Past, Present Perfect & Past Perfect
     A simple past tense verb is rendered into the present perfect tense by prefixing it with
     the particle ْ‫.لَى‬

          Present Perfect Active                        Present Perfect Passive
          ٍٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
          َ َ َ ‫( َى‬he has helped)                      ٍٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
                                                        َ ِ ُ ‫( َى‬he has been helped)
             ٍٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
          ‫( َى َ َ َج‬they have helped)                     ٍٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
                                                        ‫( َى ُ ِ َج‬they have been helped)
                ٍٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
          ‫( َى َ َ ُْٚج‬they have helped)                      ٌ ٔ ْ‫ل‬
                                                                ٙ
                                                        ‫( َى ُ ِ ُْٚج‬they have been helped)
                ٍٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
          ْ‫( َى َ َ َش‬she has helped)                         ٍٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
                                                        ْ‫( َى ُ ِ َش‬she has been helped)
             ‫ل ْ ٍٔٛض‬
           ‫( َى َ َ َ َح‬they have helped)                  ‫ل ْ ٍٔٛض‬
                                                         ‫( َى ُ ِ َ َح‬they have been helped)
           ْ ٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
           َ ٍَْ َ ‫( َى‬they have helped)                 ْ ٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
                                                         َ ٍِْ ُ ‫( َى‬they have been helped)
           َ ٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
          ‫( َى َ ٍَْش‬you have helped)                    ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ش‬
                                                         َ ٍِْ ُ ‫( َى‬you have been helped)
             ّ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
           ‫( َى َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬you have helped)                 ّ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
                                                         ‫( َى ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬you have been helped)
              ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
           ُُْ ٍَْ َ ‫( َى‬you have helped)                   ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
                                                         ُُْ ٍِْ ُ ‫( َى‬you have been helped)
            ِ ٍَْ َ ‫( َى‬you have helped)
            ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ش‬                                      ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ش‬
                                                          ِ ٍِْ ُ ‫( َى‬you have been helped)
             ّ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
            ‫( َى َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬you have helped)                ّ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
                                                          ‫( َى ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬you have been helped)
            ٓ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
            َ ُ ٍَْ َ ‫( َى‬you have helped)                َ ُ ٍِْ ُ ‫( َى‬you have been helped)
                                                          ٓ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ض‬
            ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ش‬
            ُ ٍَْ َ ‫( َى‬I have helped)                    ُ ٍِْ ُ ‫( َى‬I have been helped)
                                                          ‫ل ْ ٔٛ ش‬
             ٔ ٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
            ‫( َى َ ٍَْ َح‬we have helped)                   ٔ ٛٔ ْ ‫ل‬
                                                          ‫( َى ُ ٍِْ َح‬we have been helped)
     Similarly, rendering a verb into the past perfect tense is done by prefixing it with the
          ْ‫و‬
     verb َ ‫ . َح‬There is an important point to note here. ‫ ,لى‬like ‫ ,ِح‬is simply a particle and it
     always looks the same. ْ‫ ,وح‬however, is a verb and it must therefore be conjugated
     alongside the main verb. ْ‫ وح‬is an advanced verb form and so its conjugation must
     simply be memorized for the time being.

Past Perfect Active   Past Perfect Passive        Past Perfect Active          Past Perfect Passive Negative

                                                  Negative

َ َ َ ْ‫َح‬
ٍٛٔ َ ‫و‬               ٍٛٔ َ ‫و‬
                      َ ِ ُ ْ‫َح‬                   ٍٛٔ َ ‫و‬
                                                  َ َ َ ْ‫ِح َح‬                 ٍٛٔ َ ‫و‬
                                                                               َ ِ ُ ْ‫ِح َح‬
(he had helped)       (he had been helped)     (he had not helped)        (he had not been helped)
 ٍٛٔ ‫و‬
‫َحَٔح َ َ َج‬           ٍٛٔ ‫و‬
                      ‫َحَٔح ُ ِ َج‬              ٍٛٔ ٔ ‫و‬
                                               ‫ِح َح َح َ َ َج‬             ٍٛٔ ‫و‬
                                                                          ‫ِح َحَٔح ُ ِ َج‬
(they had             (they had been           (they had not helped)      (they had not been
helped)               helped)                                             helped)
   ٍٛٔ ٔ ‫و‬
‫َح ُْٛج َ َ ُْٚج‬         ٍٛٔ ٔ ‫و‬
                      ‫َح ُْٛج ُ ِ ُْٚج‬            ٍٛٔ ٔ ‫و‬
                                               ‫ِح َح ُْٛج َ َ ُْٚج‬           ٍٛٔ ٔ ‫و‬
                                                                          ‫ِح َح ُْٛج ُ ِ ُْٚج‬
(they had             (they had been           (they had not helped)      (they had not been
helped)               helped)                                             helped)
  ٍٛٔ ٔ ‫و‬
ْ‫َح َصْ َ َ َش‬          ٍٛٔ ْ ٔ ‫و‬
                      ْ‫َح َص ُ ِ َش‬              ٍٛٔ ْ ٔ ‫و‬
                                               ْ‫ِح َح َص َ َ َش‬             ٍٛٔ ْ ٔ ‫و‬
                                                                          ْ‫ِح َح َص ُ ِ َش‬
(she had helped)      (she had been helped)    (she had not helped)       (she had not been helped)
 ‫و ٔ ٍٔٛض‬
‫َح َطَح َ َ َ َح‬       ‫و ٔ ٍٔٛض‬
                      ‫َح َطَح ُ ِ َ َح‬          ‫و ٔ ٍٔٛض‬
                                               ‫ِح َح َطَح َ َ َ َح‬         ‫و ٔ ٍٔٛض‬
                                                                          ‫ِح َح َطَح ُ ِ َ َح‬
(they had             (they had been           (they had not helped)      (they had not been
helped)               helped)                                             helped)
ْ ٛٔ َ ‫و‬
َ ٍَْ َ ُٓ            َ ٍِْ ُ ُٓ
                      ْ ٛٔ َ ‫و‬                 ْ ٛٔ َ ‫و‬
                                               َ ٍَْ َ ُٓ ‫ِح‬              ْ ٛٔ َ ‫و‬
                                                                          َ ٍِْ ُ ُٓ ‫ِح‬
(they had             (they had been           (they had not helped)      (they had not been
helped)               helped)                                             helped)
‫و َ ٔٛ ش‬
َ ٍَْ َ ‫ُْٕص‬          ‫و َ ٔٛ ش‬
                      َ ٍِْ ُ ‫ُْٕص‬             َ ٍَْ َ ‫ِح ُْٕص‬
                                               ‫و َ ٔٛ ش‬                   ‫و َ ٔٛ ش‬
                                                                          َ ٍِْ ُ ‫ِح ُْٕص‬
(you had helped)      (you had been helped) (you had not helped)          (you had not been helped)
 ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
‫ُْٕ َُّح َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬    ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
                      ‫ُْٕ َُّح ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬       ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
                                               ‫ِح ُْٕ َُّح َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬      ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                          ‫ِح ُْٕ َُّح ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬
(you had helped)      (you had been helped) (you had not helped)          (you had not been helped)
  ‫و ط ْ ٔٛ ض‬
ُُْ ٍَْ َ ُُ ُْٕ        ‫و ط ْ ٔٛ ض‬
                      ُُْ ٍِْ ُ ُُ ُْٕ           ‫و ط ْ ٔٛ ض‬
                                               ُُْ ٍَْ َ ُُ ُْٕ ‫ِح‬          ‫و ط ْ ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                          ُُْ ٍِْ ُ ُُ ُْٕ ‫ِح‬
(you had helped)      (you had been helped) (you had not helped)          (you had not been helped)
‫و ِ ٔٛ ش‬
ِ ٍَْ َ ‫ُْٕص‬          ‫و ِ ٔٛ ش‬
                      ِ ٍِْ ُ ‫ُْٕص‬             ِ ٍَْ َ ‫ِح ُْٕص‬
                                               ‫و ِ ٔٛ ش‬                   ‫و ِ ٔٛ ش‬
                                                                          ِ ٍِْ ُ ‫ِح ُْٕص‬
(you had helped)      (you had been helped) (you had not helped)          (you had not been helped)
 ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
‫ُْٕ َُّح َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬    ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
                      ‫ُْٕ َُّح ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬       ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
                                               ‫ِح ُْٕ َُّح َ ٍَْ ُ َح‬      ّ‫و ط ٔٛ ض‬
                                                                          ‫ِح ُْٕ َُّح ُ ٍِْ ُ َح‬
(you had helped)      (you had been helped) (you had not helped)          (you had not been helped)
ٓ‫و ط َ ٔٛ ض‬
َ ُ ٍَْ َ ُٓ ُْٕ      ٓ‫و ط َ ٔٛ ض‬
                      َ ُ ٍِْ ُ ُٓ ُْٕ         ٓ‫و ط َ ٔٛ ض‬
                                               َ ُ ٍَْ َ ُٓ ُْٕ ‫ِح‬        َ ُ ٍِْ ُ ُٓ ُْٕ ‫ِح‬
                                                                          ٓ‫و ط َ ٔٛ ض‬
(you had helped)      (you had been helped) (you had not helped)          (you had not been helped)
ُ ٍَْ َ ‫ُْٕص‬
‫و ُ ٔٛ ش‬              ‫و ُ ٔٛ ش‬
                      ُ ٍِْ ُ ‫ُْٕص‬             ‫و ُ ٔٛ ش‬
                                               ُ ٍَْ َ ‫ِح ُْٕص‬            ُ ٍِْ ُ ‫ِح ُْٕص‬
                                                                          ‫و ُ ٔٛ ش‬
(I had helped)        (I had been helped)      (I had not helped)         (I had not been helped)
 ٔ ٛٔ ٕ‫و‬
‫ُ َح َ ٍَْ َح‬          ٔ ٛٔ ٕ‫و‬
                      ‫ُ َح ُ ٍِْ َح‬             ٔ ٛٔ ٕ‫و‬
                                               ‫ِح ُ َح َ ٍَْ َح‬           َ‫ِح ُ َح ُ ٍِْ ج‬
                                                                          ْ ٛٔ ٕ‫و‬
(we had helped)       (we had been helped)     (we had not helped)        (we had not been helped)


       The Imperfect Verb
       The past tense verb is referred to as the perfect verb because the action has already
       taken place. The imperfect verb, on the other hand, is called such because the action
       has not yet completed. This tense alone is indicative of the present tense, the present
continuous, and the future tense. Context will determine which of the three is
intended.

Let‘s take the base letters ٨ ،َ ،ِ, which afford the sense of ―hearing‖. The imperfect
                                                            ً٫ ٠             ٩ّ َ
verb is constructed by placing these letters on the pattern ُ َ ْ‫ ; َف‬we get ُ َ ْٓ٠. This verb
can mean ―he is hearing‖, ―he hears‖, and ―he will hear‖.

Just as with the past tense verb, this pattern also has three variations. The pattern can
   ً٫ ٠ ً٫ ٠              ً٫ ٠                                                 ً٫ ٠
be ُ َ ْ‫ , َفْ ِ ُ , َف‬or ُ ُ ْ‫ . َف‬For our purposes, we will simply work with ُ َ ْ‫ َف‬and ignore the
other variations.

The conjugation table is given below. Notice that the imperfect verb has both a prefix
and a suffix. The prefix is one of ٞ, ‫ ,أ ,ش‬or ْ. Study the table below.

                                                                    Conjugation and
Conjugation
                                                                    Translation
                                             Singular               ُ َ َْٓ٠ (he hears)
                                                                    ٩ّ
                      Masculine              Dual                   ْ ٫ّ
                                                                    ِ ‫( ٠َْٓ َ َح‬they hear)
                                             Plural                 َ ُْٛ َ َْٓ٠ (they hear)
                                                                    ْ ٫ّ
3rd person
                                             Singular               ُ َ َْٓ‫( ض‬she hears)
                                                                    ٩ّ
                      Feminine               Dual                   ِ ‫( ضَْٓ َ َح‬they hear)
                                                                    ْ ٫ّ
                                             Plural                 ّٓ
                                                                    َ ْ٫َ َْٓ٠ (they hear)
                                             Singular               ٩ّ
                                                                    ُ َ َْٓ‫( ض‬you hear)
                      Masculine              Dual                   ْ ٫ّ
                                                                    ِ ‫( ضَْٓ َ َح‬you hear)
                                             Plural                 ْ ٫ّ
                                                                    َ ُْٛ َ َْٓ‫( ض‬you hear)
2nd person
                                             Singular               ٓ ٫ّ
                                                                    َ ْ١ِ َ َْٓ‫( ض‬you hear)
                      Feminine               Dual                   ْ ٫ّ
                                                                    ِ ‫( ضَْٓ َ َح‬you hear)
                                             Plural                 َ ْ٫َ َْٓ‫( ض‬you hear)
                                                                    ّٓ
                      Masculine &            Singular               ٩ّ
                                                                    ُ َ َْْ‫( أ‬I hear)
1st person
                      Feminine               Plural                 ٩ّ
                                                                    ُ َ َْٓٔ (we hear)
There are a plethora of variations that can occur for the imperfect verb. Some of these
include the following.

       voice (active and passive): compare “I am hearing”, “I hear”, and “I will hear” with “I
        am being heard”, “I am heard”, and “I will be heard”
       negation (positive and negative): compare ―I am hearing‖, ―I hear‖, and ―I will
        hear‖ with ―I am not hearing‖, ―I do not hear‖, and ―I will not hear‖
       limiting to the future (near future and distant future): the only meaning
        conveyed by the verb now is ―I will hear‖, or ―I will soon hear‖ in the case of
        near future
       emphatically negating the future: ―I will never hear‖
      emphatically negating the past: ―I have never heard‖
      forming the past continuous: ―I used to hear‖
      emphasizing the verb: ―I definitely hear‖ or ―I will definitely hear‖


Appropriately multiplying the above sets of tables gives us a total of 16 conjugation
tables.


Active & Passive
The active verb is rendered passive by applying the following algorithm.

      The prefix of the imperfect verb will be given a
      the very last letter will be left as is
      all the letters in between that have vowels will have their vowels changed to a
       ‫فطكس‬


   ٩ّ َ                              ٩ّ ُ
So ُ َ ْٓ٠, for example, will become ُ َ ْٓ٠. And this algorithm applies despite the
variation in the middle letter that was mentioned in the beginning of this tutorial.

                                                            Conjugation and
Conjugation
                                                            Translation
                                         Singular           ُ َ ُْٓ (he is heard)
                                                            ٩ّ ٠
                   Masculine             Dual               ْ ٫ّ ٠
                                                            ِ ‫( ُْٓ َ َح‬they are heard)
                                         Plural             ْ ٫ّ ٠
                                                            َ ُْٛ َ ُْٓ (they are heard)
3rd person
                                         Singular           ُ َ ُْٓ (she is heard)
                                                            ٩ّ ‫ض‬
                   Feminine              Dual               ْ ٫ّ ‫ض‬
                                                            ِ ‫( ُْٓ َ َح‬they are heard)
                                         Plural             َ ْ٫َ ُْٓ (they are heard)
                                                            ّٓ ٠
                                         Singular           ٩ّ ‫ض‬
                                                            ُ َ ُْٓ (you are heard)
                   Masculine             Dual               ْ ٫ّ ‫ض‬
                                                            ِ ‫( ُْٓ َ َح‬you are heard)
                                         Plural             ْ ٫ّ ‫ض‬
                                                            َ ُْٛ َ ُْٓ (you are heard)
2nd person
                                         Singular           َ ْ١ِ َ ُْٓ (you are heard)
                                                            ٓ ٫ّ ‫ض‬
                   Feminine              Dual               ِ ‫( ُْٓ َ َح‬you are heard)
                                                            ْ ٫ّ ‫ض‬
                                         Plural             ّٓ ‫ض‬
                                                            َ ْ٫َ ُْٓ (you are heard)
                   Masculine &           Singular           ُ َ ُْْ (I am heard)
                                                            ٩ّ ‫أ‬
1st person
                   Feminine              Plural             ُ َ ُْٓ (we are heard)
                                                            ٩ّ ٔ

Other Variations
This section briefly describes the method of forming the other variations without
going into too much detail and without giving the resulting tables. The reader is
   highly encouraged to learn the Arabic language through courses and use this tutorial
   only as a supplement.

   Both the active and passive tables are negated by simply adding the particle ‫ ال‬to the
   beginning of each verb. This results in an additional 2 tables for a total of 4.

      Imperfect Active                Imperfect Passive       Imperfect Active       Imperfect Passive
                                                              Negative               Negative
      ُ َ َْٓ٠
      ٩ّ                              ٩ّ ٠
                                      ُ َ ُْٓ                 ٩ّ
                                                              ُ َ َْٓ٠ ‫ال‬            ٩ّ ٠
                                                                                     ُ َ ُْٓ ‫ال‬
      (he hears)                      (he is heard)           (he does not hear)     (he is not heard)


   The imperfect verb‘s meaning can be limited to the future tense. Adding the prefix ‫ْـ‬
   (which is a particle that joins onto the verb) will limit the meaning to the near future,
                                                                      ‫َ ف‬
   giving the meaning ―I will soon hear‖, and adding the particle َ ْْٛ before the verb
   limits it to the distant future, giving the meaning ―I will hear‖. These particles are
   prefixed to both the active and passive verb, but they are not negated. This results in
   an additional 4 tables.

Near Future Active               Near Future Passive          Future Active             Future Passive
٩ّ ْ
ُ َ َْٓ١َ                        ُ َ ُْٓ َ
                                 ٩ّ ١ْ                        ٩ّ َ ْ
                                                              ُ َ َْٓ٠ ‫َْٛف‬             ٩ّ ٠ َ ْ
                                                                                        ُ َ ُْٓ ‫َْٛف‬
(he will soon hear)              (he will soon be             (he will hear)            (he will be heard)
                                 heard)

   Furthermore, the imperfect verb can be used to emphatically negate the future. This is
                                                                            ٌ
   achieved by prefixing the active and passive verbs with the particle َْٓ. This results in
   an additional 2 tables. This particle actually has an effect on the verb in the following
   manner.

                The conjugations without a           at the end (there are 5 of them) have a     on their
                 final letter. This      will change to a     .
                All the conjugations with a ْٛٔ at the end except conjugations 6 and 12 (there
                 are 7 of them) will lose their ْٛٔ
                Conjugations 6 and 12 will remain as they are


                                 Negative Future Active       Negative Future Passive
                                 ٩ّ ْ ٌ
                                 َ َ َْٓ٠ َٓ                  َ َ ُْٓ َٓ
                                                              ٩ّ ٠ ْ ٌ
                                 (he will not hear)           (he will not be
                                                              heard)

   Moreover, the imperfect verb can also be used to negate the past tense emphatically.
   This is achieved by adding the particle ٌَُْ before the active and passive verbs. This
   gives an additional 2 tables. Now ٌُ also affects the verb, just as ٌٓ did, in the
   following manner.

                The conjugations without a           at the end (there are 5 of them) have a     on their
                 final letter. This      will change to a         .
              All the conjugations with a ْٛٔ at the end except conjugations 6 and 12 (there
               are 7 of them) will lose their ْٛٔ
              Conjugations 6 and 12 will remain as they are




                              Negative Past Active    Negative Past Passive
                                ّ ٌْ
                              ْ٩َ َْٓ٠ َُ               ّ ٠ ٌْ
                                                      ْ٩َ ُْٓ َُ
                              (he did not hear)       (he was not heard)

   Moving forward, the imperfect verb can be used to create the past continuous verb.
   This is achieved by bringing the verb ْ‫( وح‬in its past tense form) before the active and
   passive imperfect verbs. Remember that, since ْ‫ وح‬is a verb, it will be conjugated
   alongside the main verb. This is actually tricky since ْ‫ وح‬will be conjugated in the
   perfect tense whereas the main verb will be conjugated in the imperfect. And both of
   these tables can be prefixed with ‫ ِح‬to achieve the negative versions. This gives us an
   additional 4 tables.

   Refer to the first conjugation of each table given below. Notice that the verb ْ‫ وح‬is
   conjugated in the active voice for both the active and passive tables.

Past Continuous Active        Past Continuous         Past Continuous Active   Past Continuous
                              Passive                 Negative                 Passive Negative
٩ َ ‫و‬
ُ ََّْٓ٠ ْ‫َح‬                  ٩ّ ٠ َ ‫و‬
                              ُ َ ُْٓ ْ‫َح‬             ٩ّ َ ‫و‬
                                                      ُ َ َْٓ٠ ْ‫ِح َح‬          ُ َ ُْٓ ْ‫ِح َح‬
                                                                               ٩ّ ٠ َ ‫و‬
(he used to hear)             (he used to be heard)   (he would not hear)      (he would not be
                                                                               heard)

   Finally, the imperfect verb can be emphasized in one of two ways. Both of these
   forms of emphasis are actually used most commonly to emphasize the future tense.
   The first type of emphasis is achieved in the following manner.

              Prefix the verb with the particle
              There are 5 conjugations without a ْٛٔ at their end. These have a ‫ ّٞس‬on their
                                                                          ٓ
               last letter; change that ‫ ّٞس‬to a ‫ .فطكس‬Now add the suffix َ ‫ـ‬
              There are 4 dual conjugations. Remove their ْٛٔ suffix and replace it with the
                       ٓ
               suffix ِ ‫ـ‬
              For conjugations 3, 9, and 10, remove their ْٛٔ suffix as well as the long
               vowel before it. Now add the suffix َ ‫ـ‬ ٓ
                                                               ْ‫ـ‬
               For conjugations 6 and 12, simply add the suffix ِ ‫َح‬


   This is done for both the active and passive tables, giving us an additional 2 tables.

                          Emphatic Active             Emphatic Passive
                          ٓ٫ّ ٌ
                          َ َ َ َْٓ١َ                 ٓ٫ّ ١ٌ
                                                      َ َ َ ُْٓ َ
                          (he will surely hear)       (he will surely be heard)
Similar is the case with the other form of emphasis. The difference here is that the
                                                  ْ
conjugations which have an aleph before the ّ will not be present, and the suffix is a
‫ .)ْْ( ْٔٛ ْحوٕس‬These also exist for the active and passive voices, giving us 2 additional
tables.



                     Emphatic Active               Emphatic Passive
                       ٫ّ ٌ
                     َْٓ َ َْٓ١َ                     ٫ّ ١ٌ
                                                   َْٓ َ ُْٓ َ
                     (he will surely hear)         (he will surely be heard)



The Imperative Verb
The imperative verb, also called the command verb, is constructed from the imperfect
conjugations. The table is divided into two sections, each with its own method of
construction. The first is the active second person conjugations and the other is the
third and first person conjugations as well as all the passives.

The method of constructing the first set is as follows.

       Start with the imperfect and remove the prefix. E.g.          becomes
       Add the eliding Hamza. The vowel on this Hamza will be determined as
        follows
            o If the second base letter has a ‫ ,ّٞس‬the Hamza will be given a ‫ّٞس‬
            o If the second base letter has either of the other two vowels, the Hamza
                                                                   ٩ّ ِ
                will be given a ‫ .وٍٓز‬So in our example, we have ُ َ ْْ‫ج‬
       The same procedure will be carried out to the end of the new verb as was
                                                                                ّ ِ
        carried out for the tables with ٌُ. E.g. our example verb will become ْ٩َ ْْ‫ج‬


The method of constructing the other conjugations is as follows.

       Prefix the conjugations with      . This   may have a       in certain situations
       This ‫ ٌـ‬will do to the verb what ٌُ did to it


    Imperative Active                              Imperative Passive
               ٌ
     ْ٩ََّْٓ١ِ (he should listen)                       ّ ١ٌ
                                                   ْ٩َ ُْٓ ِ (he should be heard)
        ٫ّ ٌ
      ‫( ِ١َْٓ َ َح‬they should listen)                  ٫ّ ١ٌ
                                                    ‫( ِ ُْٓ َ َح‬they should be heard)
          ٫ّ ٌ
      ‫( ِ١َْٓ َ ُْٛج‬they should listen)                 ٫ّ ١ٌ
                                                    ‫( ِ ُْٓ َ ُْٛج‬they should be heard)
               ٌ
      ْ٩ََّْٓ‫( ِط‬she should listen)                     ّ ‫ٌط‬
                                                    ْ٩َ ُْٓ ِ (she should be heard)
        ٫ّ ٌ
       ‫( ِطَْٓ َ َح‬they should listen)                 ٫ّ ‫ٌط‬
                                                     ‫( ِ ُْٓ َ َح‬they should be heard)
       َ ْ٫َ ْٓ‫( ي‬they should listen)
       ٓ ّ َِ٠                                       َ ْ٫َ ُْٓ ِ (they should be heard)
                                                     ٓ ّ ١ٌ
         ّ
    ْ٩َ ِْْ‫( ج‬listen)                                   ّ ‫ٌط‬
                                                     ْ٩َ ُْٓ ِ (you should be heard)
       ٫ّ
    ‫( جِْْ َ َح‬listen)                           ٫ّ ‫ٌط‬
                                             ‫( ِ ُْٓ َ َح‬you should be heard)
         ٫ّ
    ‫( جِْْ َ ُْٛج‬listen)                          ٫ّ ‫ٌط‬
                                             ‫( ِ ُْٓ َ ُْٛج‬you should be heard)
         ِّ
    ْٟ٫َ ِْْ‫( ج‬listen)                            ِ ُّ ٌ
                                                     ‫ص‬
                                             ْٟ٫َ ْْ ِ (you should be heard)
       ٫ّ
    ‫( جِْْ َ َح‬listen)                           ٫ّ ‫ٌط‬
                                              ‫( ِ ُْٓ َ َح‬you should be heard)
     َ ْ٫َ ِْْ‫( ج‬listen)
     ّٓ                                       ٓ ّ ‫ٌط‬
                                              َ ْ٫َ ُْٓ ِ (you should be heard)
             ‫أل‬
     ْ٩ََِّْْ (I should listen)                   ّ ِ‫أل‬
                                              ْ٩َ ُْْ (I should be heard)
              ٌ
      ْ٩ََِّْٕٓ (we should listen)                ّ ٌٕ
                                               ْ٩َ ُْٓ ِ (we should be heard)
Now the imperative can be emphasized using the same two methods of emphasis as in
the imperfect verb. The method of construction is the same, except that the ‫ ٌَـ‬prefix is
not added, and the meaning should be obvious. To gain a deep understanding of this,
to learn it correctly and see and practice the conjugation tables, one is highly
encouraged to learn Arabic through a course and use this tutorial only as a study
resource.


The Prohibitive Verb
The meaning of the prohibitive verb is opposite that of the imperative verb. Where the
imperative would mean ―listen‖, the prohibitive means ―don‘t listen.‖ And the other
conjugations are similar.

The method of constructing this verb is quite simple; again, it too is constructed from
the imperfect. The imperfect conjugations are prefixed with the particle ‫ ,ال‬and the
ending of the verb is the same as the ending given by ٌُ.

                    Prohibitive Active       Prohibitive Passive
                      ّ
                    ْ٩َ َْٓ٠ ‫ال‬                ّ ٠
                                             ْ٩َ ُْٓ ‫ال‬
                    (he should not listen)   (he should not be heard)

Like the imperative, the prohibition can also be emphasized using the two methods of
emphasis explained earlier.

The prohibitive verbs mark the end of simple verb conjugation in the language. This
tutorial has been a quick overview and introduction. To gain true understanding, one
is requested to look to Arabic language courses. And for practice, readers are
encouraged to visit the Practice Verbs page.


Derived Nouns
What is this Tutorial About?
This tutorial deals with an aspect of Arabic morphology that focuses on nouns instead
of verbs. Some nouns have morphology inasmuch as they are constructed by taking a
set of root letters and placing them on a particular pattern. The pattern renders the
letters into a word and gives the word a tangible meaning. Moreover, the word may
experience morphophonemic changes. This tutorial discusses such nouns.

For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology, consult
the introduction to this section entitled Introduction to Arabic Morphology.


Where these Nouns Fit in
Nouns in Arabic – we actually mean the broader part of speech known as ُْ‫ – ج‬can be
divided into categories based on many considerations such as gender, plurality,
grammatical inflection, and more. For example, if we want to divide nouns based on
gender, we get the two categories Masculine and Feminine; every noun is either
masculine or feminine, but not both and not neither.

Similarly, we can divide nouns based on derivation. When we do this, we get the
following three categories:

   1.        (static noun): those that are not derived from anything and nothing is derived
        from them
   2.    ‫ِ ى‬
        ٌَ َْٛ (gerund): those that are not derived from anything, but other words are
      derived from them
      ‫ِٗطك‬
   3. ّ َ ْ ُ (derived noun): those that are derived from a gerund

That is to say, any noun in Arabic is either not derived and nothing is derived from it,
it is a source of derivation, or it is derived. All nouns must fall into one, and only one,
of these categories.

The derived noun is a combination of a root meaning that we are given from its
gerund, plus a particular pattern that adds a fixed connotation to that meaning. For
example, the gerund ―helping‖, can be placed on a pattern for the active participle
(one of the derived nouns in Arabic). This derived noun will add the connotation of
the one who does an action. Hence we get ―the one who helps‖, or simply ―helper‖.

Technically, verbs are also derived since they are a combination of a root meaning
that we get from the gerund plus a particular pattern that adds a connotation. In the
case of verbs, the connotations added are tense (past, present, etc), voice (active,
passive), person (first, second, etc), plurality, gender, and perhaps others. But we do
not discuss verbs here. For conjugation of verbs, see the tutorial entitled Verb
Conjugation.


Introduction
There are seven types of derived nouns. Each one of these is a class of noun that
comes with a set of patterns (and perhaps some morphological rules) that tell us how
to construct it, as well as a connotation that it adds to the base meaning which helps us
understand its meaning.
We will discuss each of these seven nouns in turn by explaining how to take a set of
base letters and construct the noun, and we will precisely define the connotation the
noun adds to the base meaning. Here we give an overview and loose definitions as a
gentle introduction.

              (active participle): the one that enacts the base meaning
      ‫( جُْ جٌّرحٌغس‬hyperbolic participle): the one that enacts the base meaning
       exaggeratedly
      ‫( جُْ جٌّف٫ٛي‬passive participle): the one upon whom the base meaning is enacted
      ‫( جٌٛفس جٌّٗرٙس‬resembling participle): the one who enacts (or upon whom is
       enacted) the base meaning intrinsically
      ‫( جُْ ج٢ٌس‬utilitarian noun): the thing used to enact the base meaning
      ‫( جُْ جٌ٧ٍف‬locative noun): the time when or the place where the base meaning
       is enacted
      ً١ٟ‫( جُْ جٌطف‬comparative & superlative): the one who enacts (or upon whom is
       enacted) the base meaning the most


Below is a table of examples that will help bring these definitions into perspective.
For each type of noun, we have chosen a particular pattern from its inventory of
patterns as well as a sample gerund. We place the gerund on that pattern and explain
the meaning of the resulting word.

Example                                                                    Derived Noun
                         Resulting Sample                  One of the
Meaning
                         Word      Gerund                  Patterns
one who hits
                         ‫َح ِخ‬
                          ٌٞ          ‫ٍٞخ‬                  ًِ ‫َح‬
                                                            ٪‫ف‬              ‫فػ‬         ‫ا‬
                                                                           ‫ِسْى ان َا ِم‬
i.e. hitter                           hitting
one who travels a lot
                         ‫َ َحَس‬
                          ٌ ‫ٌق‬        ً١‫ٌق‬                 ‫َ َحَس‬
                                                            ٌ ٫‫ف‬            ‫ًث نغ‬          ‫ا‬
                                                                           ‫ِسْى ان ُ َا َ َة‬
i.e. globetrotter                     traveling
that which is
understood                  ِٙ
                         َُْٛ ْ‫َف‬     ُٙ‫ف‬                     ٫ِ
                                                           ‫َفْ ُْٛي‬           ‫َؼ‬         ‫ا‬
                                                                           ‫ِسْى انًفْ ُىْل‬
i.e. concept                          comprehension
one who knows ipso
                                      ٍُ٪                                   ‫ِف‬
                                                                           ‫انص َة‬
facto                       ٍ٪
                         ُْ١َِ                                ٫‫ف‬
                                                           ًْ١ِ َ
i.e. the all-knowing                  knowing                               ‫ًشثه‬
                                                                           ‫ان ُ َ َ َة‬
thing that is used to
open                       ‫ِط‬
                         ‫ِفْ َحـ‬      ‫فطف‬                        ِ
                                                           ‫ِفْ٫َحي‬          ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬
                                                                           ‫ِسْى اِ َة‬
i.e. key                              opening
place where people
play                      ٫ِ
                         ‫ٍَْ َد‬       ‫ٌ٫د‬                   ٫ِ
                                                           ًَ ْ‫َف‬             ‫ظ‬       ‫ا‬
                                                                           ‫ِسْى ان َزْف‬
i.e. playground                       playing
more/most far
                         ْٝٛ‫أَل‬       ٛٛ‫ل‬                   ٫
                                                           ًَ ْ‫أَف‬            ‫َض‬         ‫ا‬
                                                                           ‫ِسْى انتفْ ُِْم‬
i.e. further/furthest                 being far

Below is a very similar chart. Here, however, we use the same base letters to illustrate
all of the derived nouns. This gives a clear picture of the function of each of them.
Example                                                                       Derived Noun
                                        Resulting              One of
Meaning                                 Word      Gerund       the
                                                               Patterns
one who knows
(scholar, scientist)                     ٌ٪
                                        ُِ‫َح‬                    ٪‫ف‬
                                                               ًِ ‫َح‬           ‫فػ‬         ‫ا‬
                                                                              ‫ِسْى ان َا ِم‬
one who knows a lot
(erudite)                                ِ‫٪ّال‬
                                        ‫َ َ َس‬                  ٌ ٫‫ف‬
                                                               ‫َ َحَس‬          ‫ًث نغ‬          ‫ا‬
                                                                              ‫ِسْى ان ُ َا َ َة‬
that which is known
(known, fixed, determined)                 ٌِ
                                        َُْْٛ٩َ                   ٫ِ
                                                               ‫َفْ ُْٛي‬          ‫َؼ‬         ‫ا‬
                                                                              ‫ِسْى انًفْ ُىْل‬
one who knows intrinsically                                                    ‫ِف‬
                                                                              ‫انص َة‬
                                           ٍ٪
                                        ُْ١َِ     ٍُ٪             ٫‫ف‬
                                                               ًْ١ِ َ
(the all-knowing)
                                                  knowing                      ‫ًشثه‬
                                                                              ‫ان ُ َ َ َة‬
that through which we know
(God)                                    ٌ٪
                                        َُ‫َح‬                    ٪‫ف‬
                                                               ًَ ‫َح‬           ‫ن‬       ‫ا‬
                                                                              ‫ِسْى اِ َة‬
(the world)
where/when we know
(landmark)                               ٍِ
                                        َُْ٫َ                   ٫ِ
                                                               ًَ ْ‫َف‬            ‫ظ‬       ‫ا‬
                                                                              ‫ِسْى ان َزْف‬
one who knows the most
(most learned)                           ٍ ‫أ‬
                                        َُْ٪َ                   ٫
                                                               ًَ ْ‫أَف‬           ‫َض‬         ‫ا‬
                                                                              ‫ِسْى انتفْ ُِْم‬

It is important to note that these are nouns just like any other nouns. When used in a
sentence, they have the capacity to become the subject, the predicate, the object of a
verb, possessive, and anything else. For example, the active participle in the following
sentence is the object of the verb and the passive participle is the subject of that verb:

                                                              ‫ٍٞ َ ّ ٍ ُ ٟ ٌخ‬
                                                              َ ِ ‫َ َخ جٌ َْٟ ُْٚخ جٌ َح‬
the one who was hit .. hit the hitter

Similarly, the locative noun in the following sentence is the subject of the sentence
and it is not being used as a location, per se:

                                                           ‫ّ ؿُ ٌ ْ َ ذ َ ى ِ ط ٓ ـ‬
                                                           ِ ‫جٌ ٍَْ َأ َ١ّ َ١ْٓ أَْٖ َجق جٌ ِّْ َح‬
escape is not between the jaws of the crocodile

Another point to note is that many of these noun types can be used as adjectives just
as they can be used as nouns. For example, compare the two uses of the same word in
the following sentence:

                                                        ٍ‫طؿ ُ ٍ ُ َ ٫ ٌ َ ٪ ٌ ً ن‬
                                                        َ َ ‫جِْْ َ َرْص جٌ َؾً جٌ َحُِ ٚ َحِّح آ‬
I interrogated the knowledgeable man as well as another scholar



The Active Participle

Meaning
The active participle is that noun derived from a gerund which is used to indicate
upon the one who has, is, or will enact something. It is loosely referred to as the
‗doer‘. For example, the active participle for ―helping‖ is ―helper‖. Recall that the
word ―helper‖ can be used in any grammatical positioning in a sentence and its
function as the ‗doer‘ is at the word level, not the sentence level. We can say ―Zaid hit
his helper.‖ ―Helper‖ in this sentence is a ‗doer‘ (one who helps), but it is not the one
doing the verb of the sentence (the subject is Zaid).

When we take a set of base letters and place them on one of the active participle
patterns, the resulting meaning may not be immediately clear. We do know that this
noun adds the ‗doer‘ meaning, but for the final, correct translation of the word, a
dictionary is usually consulted. In the chart below, compare the base meaning of each
word with the active participle.


Some Popular
             Expected                  Active
Actual                                                  Base Meaning       Base Letters
             Meaning                   Participle
Meanings
clubhouse           one who calls      ٍ ‫َح‬
                                       ‫ٔو‬               to call, convene   ٚ ،‫ْ، و‬
pregnant            one who carries       ِ‫ق‬
                                       ًِ ‫َح‬            to carry           ‫ـ، َ، ي‬
                    that       which
eyebrow, hermetic
                    conceals               ‫قؾ‬
                                       ‫َح ِد‬            to veil, conceal   ‫ـ، ؼ، خ‬
Notice that the translation ―eyebrow‖ above is what we know in English as a noun,
whereas the word ―hermetic‖ is an adjective. Which of the two functions a given
derived noun uses is dependent on context. For example, we may say ―the capable
people can do it.‖ In this case, the word ―capable‖ is being used as an adjective. And
we may say ―the capable can do it.‖ It is now being used as a noun.

A final point to note is that not all gerunds may have an associated active participle.
Although most do. For example, ―one who is tall‖ will not be expressed using an
active participle because being tall is an attribute, not an act of doing something, so it
is better suited for the resembling participle.


Construction
If the gerund from which the active participle is derived is a trilateral verb with no
extra letters (see Verb Paradigms), then we simply place the base letters on the
pattern:

 ٪‫ف‬
ًِ ‫َح‬
If the gerund is that of any other verb, we employ the following algorithm:

    1. start with the imperfect verb
    2. replace the ٨ٌ‫ ٪ّالِس جٌّٟح‬with a ‫ِ١ُ ِِّٟٛس‬
    3. change the vowel on the second-last letter to a ‫ وٍٓز‬if it‘s not already such
    4. and of course the ending of the word will inflect like a noun, not a verb


Below are some sample transformations which illustrate the construction mechanism:
                     Active
                                         Verb
                     Participle
                       ٌ‫ل‬
                     ‫َح ِب‬                ٍ ٠ ٍَ‫ل‬
                                         ‫َ َأ - َمْ َأ‬
                     ٍ ‫َج‬
                     ٌٜ                            ٠ َِ ٌ
                                         ٍَْٝٞ – َٟٞ
                      ‫لت‬
                     ًِ ‫َح‬                    ‫َ ٠م‬
                                         ‫لَحي - َ ُْٛي‬
                     ّ ‫ُك‬
                     ِّ ِ                ّ ‫أ َ َ ٠ف‬
                                         ِِ ُ - ّ‫َق‬
                      ‫ِطر و‬
                     ‫ُ َ َح ِي‬             ‫ضر َ َ ٠طر و‬
                                         ‫َ َحوي - َ َ َح َي‬
                      ٣ ِٓ
                     ٍِ ْ١َ ُ              ٣ ٓ٠ َ ٣ ْ
                                         ٍِ ْ١َ ُ - ٍَ ْ١َ
                      ُ ُِ
                     ‫ُ ٌَْ ِي‬              ُ ُ٠ َ َ َ
                                         ‫ٌَُْي - ُ ٌَْ ِي‬
One will notice that, although the algorithm is simple, some morphophonemic rules
may apply that change how the word looks on the face of it. Such rules are far too
involved to treat here.

All of these resulting active participles are very well behaved nouns. That is to say,
they are rendered feminine by adding the Taa of femininity and many of them are
pluralized using the sound plural construction. The chart below makes this clear.

Some      Common
                 Sound Plural                      Pattern
Broken Plurals
 ٫‫ف٫ ف٫ٍ ف‬
ًَ ُ ،‫ُ َحي، َ ََس‬       ْ ٍ٪ ‫ف‬
                         َ ُِْٛ ‫َح‬                   ٪‫ف‬
                                                   ًِ ‫َح‬                   Masculine
 ٪ ٛ‫ف‬
ًِ ‫َ َج‬                     ‫ف ٪ّال‬
                         ‫َح ِ َش‬                    ٍ٪ ‫ف‬
                                                   ‫َح َِس‬                  Feminine
—                        َ ُِْٛ ‫ُـ...ـ‬
                         ْ ٍ٫ ِ                      ٫ ِ
                                                   ًِ ‫ُـ...ـ‬               Masculine
—                           ‫ِ ٫ّال‬
                         ‫ُـ...ـ ِ َش‬                ٍ٫ ِ
                                                   ‫ُـ...ـ َِس‬              Feminine



The Hyperbolic Participle

Meaning
The hyperbolic participle is that noun derived from a gerund which is used to indicate
upon the one who has/is/will enact the meaning expressed by the root letters to a very
high degree or to a very large extent. For example, we can create a hyperbolic
participle for ―traveling‖ which gives us the meaning ―one who travels a lot‖ or ―one
who travels by profession‖, in other words ―a globetrotter‖.

Some points to note about the exaggerated participle have already been detailed in our
discussion on the active participle:

       it can occupy any grammatical positioning in a sentence
       the meaning might not always be obvious
       it can be used as both an adjective and a noun
       not all gerunds have an associated hyperbolic participle; in fact, most don‘t
One of the patterns in the inventory of this participle is especially useful for
occupations. The list below gives some examples of this:

                                       Meaning      from Arabic
                  Translation
                                       Root Letters      Word
                  barber               to shave           ‫قّال‬
                                                         ‫َ َق‬
                  mason, builder       to build                  ٕ‫ذ‬
                                                              ‫ََحء‬
                  executioner          to whip, be tough       ‫ؾّال‬
                                                              ‫َ َو‬
                  lethal, pernicious   to kill                   ‫لط‬
                                                              ‫َ َحي‬
                                       also has to do with
                  winegrower
                                       vines                    ٍ‫و‬
                                                              َ‫َ َج‬
                  carpenter            to carve                  ‫ٔؿ‬
                                                              ٌ‫َ َح‬

Construction
The hyperbolic participle exists only for trilateral roots with no extra letters (see Verb
Paradigms). Constructing the participle is a simple matter of placing the root letters on
one of the following patterns. Given a set of three root letters, however, it is
unpredictable which one of these patterns will be used, or if the root letters even have
an associated hyperbolic participle at all.

   
          ٫‫ف‬
       ‫َ ُْٛي‬
         ٫‫ف‬
       ًْ١ِ َ
         ٫‫ف‬
       ‫َ َحي‬
         ٫‫ف‬
       ‫ُ َحي‬
          ٫‫ف‬
       ‫ُ ُْٛي‬
         ٫‫ف‬
       ًْ١ِ ِ
          ٫‫ف‬
       ‫َ١ْ ُٛي‬
      ‫ِفْ٫َحي‬ِ
         ٫ِ
       ًْ١ِ ْ‫ِف‬
       ٌ ٫‫ف‬
       ‫َ َحَس‬

These words conjugate regularly just as the active participle.


The Passive Participle

Meaning
The passive participle is that noun derived from a gerund designed to indicate upon
the thing upon which the root meaning has been, is, or will be enacted. For example,
using the passive participle for the gerund ―breaking‖ gives us ―that which is broken‖,
or simply ―broken‖. For contrasting purposes, notice that the active participle would
have been ―that which breaks‖, or simply ―breaker‖.

Some points to note about the passive participle have already been detailed in our
discussion on the active participle:

          it can occupy any grammatical positioning in a sentence
          the meaning might not always be obvious
          it can be used as both an adjective and a noun
          not all gerunds have an associated passive participle; e.g. intransitive gerunds


The following chart provides some passive participles. Notice how the word
―rational‖, for example, can be used as both an adjective or a noun; compare ―this
rational proof is good‖ and ―this rational (thing) is good.‖

Some Popular Expected                     Passive
                                                            Base Meaning        Base Letters
Meanings     Meaning                      Participle
                     that   which    is
rational, cogent
                     comprehended            ‫ِم‬
                                          ‫َ٫ْ ُْٛي‬          to comprehend       ‫٨، ق، ي‬
                     something
(tooth)paste
                     kneaded                 ‫ِؿ‬
                                          ُْْٛ ْ٫َ          to knead, to soak   ْ ،‫٨، ؼ‬

Construction
For trilateral roots with no extra letters (see Verb Paradigms), the passive participle is
constructed by placing the root letters on the following pattern:

   ٫ِ
‫َفْ ُْٛي‬
For all other cases, the following algorithm is used:

    1. construct the active participle
    2. change the vowel on the second last letter from a ‫ وٍٓز‬to a ‫فطكس‬


Below are some sample derivations. Notice that some morphophonemic rules may
apply, which we will not discuss here.

                      Passive Participle      Verb
                         ٍِ
                      ‫َمْ ُْٚء‬                 ٍ ٠ ٍَ‫ل‬
                                              ‫َ َأ - َمْ َأ‬
                      ِٟ ِ
                      ّ ٍَْٞ                            ٠ َِ ٌ
                                              ٍَْٝٞ – َٟٞ
                         ‫ِم‬
                      ‫َ ُْٛي‬                       ‫َ ٠م‬
                                              ‫لَحي - َ ُْٛي‬
                      َّ ِ
                      ّ ‫ُك‬                    ِّ ٠ َ َ ‫أ‬
                                              ّ ‫َقّ - ُك‬
                        ‫ِطر و‬
                      ‫ُ َ َح َي‬                 ‫ضر َ َ ٠طر و‬
                                              ‫َ َحوي - َ َ َح َي‬
                        ٣ ِٓ
                      ٍَ ْ١َ ُ                  ٣ ٓ٠ َ ٣ ْ
                                              ٍِ ْ١َ ُ - ٍَ ْ١َ
                        ُ ُِ
                      ‫ُ ٌَْ َي‬                  ُ ُ٠ َ َ َ
                                              ‫ٌَُْي - ُ ٌَْ ِي‬
These nouns are well behaved in terms of gender and plurality. The chart below gives
an overview of this.

Some Common
               Sound Plural                Singular
Broken Plurals
                    ْ ٌ ٫ِ
                    َ ُُْْٛٛ ْ‫َف‬               ٫ِ
                                           ‫َفْ ُْٛي‬                    Masculine
   ٪ ‫ِف‬
ًْ١ِ ‫َ َح‬
                       ‫ِ ٫ ْال‬
                    ‫َفْ ُٛ َش‬               ٌ ٫ِ
                                           ‫َفْ َُْٛس‬                   Feminine
—                   َ َُْٛ ‫ُـ...ـ‬
                    ْ ٍ٫ ِ                   ٫ ِ
                                           ًَ ‫ُـ...ـ‬                   Masculine
—                      ‫ِ ٫ّال‬
                    ‫ُـ...ـ َ َش‬             ٍ٫ ِ
                                           ‫ُـ...ـ ََس‬                  Feminine
The Resembling Participle

Meaning
The resembling participle is that noun derived from a gerund which indicates on the
root meaning being an attribute. And this attribute is usually perpetual or intrinsic. For
example, if we want to translate the word ―murdered one‖, we would not use the
passive participle for ―to kill‖. That is because death is an attribute, not an action. So
                                              ‫لط‬
we would use this resembling participle (ًْ١ِ َ ). An example of an intrinsic attribute is
―the all-knowing‖ when applied to God.

This participle is used to indicate on an attribute for both the active voice as well as
the passive. In other words, it is used in place of the active participle as well as the
                                    ‫َط‬
passive. For example, the word ًْ١ِ ‫ ل‬from the example above means ―murdered‖, but it
could theoretically have meant ―killer‖ as well. Below is a list of some examples
through which we can see that both active and passive voices are used. Which one is
used is dependent on the individual word and a dictionary will have to be consulted,
but it is more often the active voice that is intended.

                  Translation                 Resembling Participle
                  injured                        ٍ‫ؾ‬
                                              ‫َ ِ٠ْف‬
                  miser/miserly                  ‫ذه‬
                                              ًْ١ِ َ
                  strong                      ٞٛ‫ل‬
                                              ّ َِ
                  difficult                   ‫َ٫ْد‬ٚ
Some points to note about the resembling participle have already been detailed in our
discussion on the active participle:

      it can occupy any grammatical positioning in a sentence
      the meaning might not always be obvious
      it can be used as both an adjective and a noun
      not all gerunds have an associated resembling participle, but many do


Notice, from the chart above, that the word ―miser‖ is a noun and ―miserly‖ is an
adjective. This is a clear illustration of the resembling participle‘s capacity to function
as both.

Moreover, when a given set of root letters happens to have both an active/passive
participle as well as a resembling participle, there is typically a difference between the
two. Remember, active/passive participles indicate on an action or occurrence,
whereas the resembling participle indicates on an attribute. Compare the participles in
the following chart to identify whether there is a difference between the two or not.
Meaning          Resembling          Meaning               Active/Passive       Root
knower              ٍ٪
                 ُْ١َِ               scholar/scientist      ٌ٪
                                                           ُِ‫َح‬                 َ ،‫٨، ي‬
prisoner             ‫ْؿ‬
                 ْٓ١ِ َ              prisoner                  ‫ؿ‬
                                                           ُْْٛ َِْٓ            ْ ،‫ِ، ؼ‬
embryo               ٕ‫ؾ‬
                 ْٓ١ِ َ              possessed/insane          ٕ ِ
                                                           ُْْٛ ْ‫َؿ‬             ْ ،ْ ،‫ؼ‬

Construction
This participle only exists for trilateral roots with no extra letters (see Verb
Paradigms). It is constructed by placing the root letters on one of many patterns. The
patterns are so many, in fact, that we will only list the most common ones along with
some of their most popular plural forms:

               Example            Some      Common
                                                   Pattern
                                  Broken Plurals
                  ٍ‫و‬
               ُْ٠ِ َ                 ٫ ‫ف٫ّال أ‬
                                  ‫ُ َ َء، َفْ ِّالء‬             ٫‫ف‬
                                                             ًْ١ِ َ
               ‫َ٫ْد‬ ٚ             ‫ِ٫َحي‬‫ف‬                     ًْ٫َ‫ف‬
                  ٓ
               َٓ َ‫ق‬              ‫؟‬                           ٫‫ف‬
                                                             ًَ َ
                  ّ ‫أ‬
               ٍَ ْ‫َق‬                ‫ف‬
                                  ًْ٫ُ                        ٫
                                                             ًَ ْ‫أَف‬
                   ‫ضر‬
               ْ‫َ٫ْ َح‬                 ‫ف‬
                                  ٍْٝ٫َ ،ٌٝ‫ُ َح‬ ‫ف‬
                                               ٫َ              ‫ف ّال‬
                                                             َْ ْ٫َ
Unlike the participles we have seen thus far, these are typically not well-behaved.
Their feminine forms are not necessarily regular, most do not use sound pluralisation,
and a broken plural may be shared between both the masculine and feminine
singulars.

Another point to note is that those resembling participles that indicate on the passive
voice do not have a separate form for the singular masculine and singular feminine;
the same (masculine) word is used for both. The table below gives some examples of
this.

                                                                       Resembling
Feminine                 Masculine               Voice
                                                                       Participle
    ‫٪ى‬
‫َ ِ٠ٍْس‬                     ‫٪ى‬
                         ًْ٠ِ َ                  active                   ‫٪ى‬
                                                                       ًْ٠ِ َ
    ‫لط‬
ًْ١ِ َ                                           passive                  ‫لط‬
                                                                       ًْ١ِ َ
    ٍ‫ؾ‬
‫َ ِ٠ْف‬                                           passive                  ٍ‫ؾ‬
                                                                       ‫َ ِ٠ْف‬
Finally, there are a few roots out there that use more than one pattern of the
resembling participle. In such a situation, the two words will likely have different
meanings. For example:

                                     Resembling
                  Meaning                                      Root
                                     Participle
                  groom                 ٍ٪
                                     ّْ٠ِ َ
                                                               ِ ,ٌ ,٨
                  bride                  ٍ٪
                                     ُِْٚ َ
The Noun of Usage (The Utilitarian Noun)

Meaning
The noun of usage is a noun derived from a gerund used to indicate upon a thing used
to carry out an action.

The table below gives a few examples. When reading the table, notice that the
meaning is not immediately clear and a dictionary will often need to be consulted, and
that this noun can never be used as an adjective, clearly.

                                                          Noun        of
Actual Meaning          Expected Meaning                                   Root
                                                          Usage
key                     something used to open                ‫ِط‬
                                                          ‫ِفْ َحـ‬          ‫ف، ش، ـ‬
large basket            something used to gather           ‫ِط‬
                                                          ًَ ْ‫ِى‬           ‫ن، ش، ي‬
procedure               something used to give/award        ِٛ
                                                          ‫ِْٕ َجي‬          ‫ْ، ٚ، ي‬
road, curriculum        something used to pursue              ِٙ
                                                          ‫ِْٕ َحؼ‬          ‫ْ، ٖ، ؼ‬
This derived noun does not exist for every set of root letters. Whether a certain root
uses the noun of usage must be checked against a dictionary. Moreover, not every
word in the language that seems to be a tool is actually a noun of usage. For example,
                                          ٌ ٧َ
the word for eyeglasses or telescope is ―‫( ‖ٔ َح َز‬that which is used to see something).
But clearly this is not a noun of usage.


Construction
This derived noun exists only for trilateral roots with no extra letters (see Verb
Paradigms). One of the following four patterns will be used; we have also included
the plural forms since all nouns in this category will use only these plurals. Which of
the four patterns a given set of root letters uses, if any, is unpredictable. But we can
say that the last pattern in the list is extremely rare.

                    Broken Plural         Singular
                                            ٫ِ
                                          ًَ ْ‫ِف‬
                     ٪ ‫ِف‬
                    ًِ ‫َ َح‬
                                           ٍ٫ ِ
                                          ‫ِفْ ََس‬
                       ٪ ‫ِف‬
                    ًْ١ِ ‫َ َح‬             ‫ِفْ٫َحي‬ِ
                     ٪ ٛ‫ف‬
                    ًِ ‫َ َج‬                 ٪‫ف‬
                                          ًَ ‫َح‬
The Locative Noun

Meaning
The locative noun is one derived from a gerund used to indicate upon the time when
or the place where the root meaning occurs. For example, the place where ―playing‖
occurs is called a ―playground‖ and the time when ―sleeping‖ occurs is called
―bedtime‖.

Below is a list of examples in Arabic. While reading the table, notice that the end
meaning is highly unpredictable, this noun cannot be used as an adjective, and that the
location aspect is far more prevalent than the time aspect.

                                                         Locative
Actual Meaning         Expected Meaning                                    Root
                                                         Noun
playground             time/place of playing                ٫ِ
                                                         ‫ٍَْ َد‬            ‫ي، ٨، خ‬
mosque                 time/place of prostrating          ‫ؿ‬
                                                         ‫َِْٓ ِى‬           ‫ِ، ؼ، و‬
landmark               time/place of knowing              ٍِ
                                                         َُْ٫َ             َ ،‫٨، ي‬
battlefield           time/place of damaging              ‫ِ ٍو‬
                                                         ‫َ٫ْ َ َس‬          ‫٨، ٌ، ن‬
time/place         of
sunset,               time/place of (sun) setting         ٍِ
                                                         ‫َغْ ِخ‬            ‫٬، ٌ، خ‬
i.e. sunset and west

But not every set of root letters has an associated locative noun. Which do and which
don‘t needs to be checked against a dictionary. Moreover, some words that give the
meaning of time or place are not necessarily locative nouns, as is seen in the
following list.

                             Meaning       Word
                             lion‘s den         ٍ٪
                                           ّْ٠ِ ِ
                             morning           ‫ٚر‬
                                           ‫َ َحـ‬
                             morning        ٍ‫ذ‬
                                           ‫ُىْ َز‬

Construction
This noun exists only for trilateral roots with no extra letters (see Verb Paradigms).
One of two patterns will be used for the construction:

                   Broken Plural          Singular
                                           ٫ِ
                                          ًَ ْ‫َف‬
                    ٪ ‫ِف‬
                   ًِ ‫َ َح‬
                                           ٫ِ
                                          ًِ ْ‫َف‬
Which of these two will be used is actually quite predictable. Those roots whose
imperfect verb is realized with a ‫ وٍٓز‬on the middle letter will utilize the second
pattern, and those whose imperfect verb is realized with a ‫ ّٞس‬or ‫ فطكس‬on the middle
letter will use the first.
Now, unlike other derived nouns that are only realized for basic 3-lettered verbs, there
is concession (or a trick) to using it in the advanced verb paradigms. What one will do
is simply use the passive participle. For example, the word below is the passive
participle of an advanced verb, but it is being used as a locative noun.

 ‫ِ ط و‬
٨َ َْٛ ُْٓ
sojourn


The Comparative and Superlative (sometime called the Elative
Noun)

Meaning
In Arabic, there is only one word which is used to indicate on the root meaning being
carried out to both a greater extent as well as the greatest extent (comparative and
superlative). For example, ―being eloquent‖ can be made comparative by saying
―more eloquent‖ and superlative by saying ―most eloquent‖ and one word in Arabic
would be used for both of these. Another example is ―to be fast‖; the comparative
would be ―faster‖ and the superlative would be ―fastest‖.

This noun can occupy most grammatical positions in a sentence. Ones it cannot
occupy are easily identified based on the meaning and context and we do not need to
discuss this further. Another point to note is that, unlike the participles, the meaning
of this noun is usually quite transparent and can be induced without the use of a
dictionary.

Furthermore, like the participles, it can be used as both a noun and an adjective. For
example, the terms ―fastest‖ and ―most expensive‖ are used as adjectives in the
sentence ―the Bugatti Veyron is one of the fastest and most expensive cars.‖ And the
term ―most deserving‖ is used as a noun in the sentence ―she is the most deserving of
all people.‖

The chart below gives some examples of this entity‘s use as an adjective and a noun,
as well as some examples of its use in the comparative context and the superlative
context.

Gloss                                         Phrase
he is more eloquent than me                      ِِ ُ ٛ َ ٘
                                              ِْٟٕ ‫ُٛ أَفْ َف‬
he is the most eloquent of the eloquent
people                                        ‫٘ َ ٛ ُ فٛك ء‬
                                              ِ ‫ُٛ أَفْ َف جٌ ُ َ َح‬
the most eloquent man spoke to me              ‫وٍّ ِ ْ ٍ ُ ُ ٛف‬
                                               ُ َ ْ‫ََ َٕٟ جٌ َؾً جألَف‬
he is the most eloquent                       ‫٘ َ ٛف‬
                                              ُ َ ْ‫ُٛ جألَف‬
Now, this entity can be used in many grammatical ways, as can be seen from the chart
above:

1) as an indefinite noun
   a) followed by ِْٓ ِ
                                      ١‫ض‬
   b) followed by a clarification (ُْ١ِ َّْ )
2) as a definite noun
   a) in a possessive construction (‫) َُٟحف‬   ِ
                        ‫ٚف‬
   b) as an adjective (‫) ِ َس‬
   c) on its own


In (1), it is used as a comparative and in (2), it is used as a superlative. This is not
always the case, though. Given the examples below, try to determine which of the
constructions is being used, then translate the sentence.

    a.

    b.          ٫ َ ِ ِ َ ٍّ‫ئ َ و‬
         ٝ١ٍُْ ٌ‫ِْ َِ َس جهلل ٟ٘ ج‬
    c.   ‫َ ِ َ و كؿ ٌ ِ أ ْ ٖى ٛز‬
         ً َ َْٓ‫فٟٙ َحٌ ِ َح َز َٚ أَ َ ُ ل‬
    d.   ‫٘ َ ٛف ِِ ْ ٓ ح‬
         ً ٔ‫ُٛ أَفْ َ ُ ِٕٟ ٌِ َح‬
    e.   ِ ‫َجَ ِ٠ْٓ آ َ ُْٛج أَ َ ُ ُ ّح‬
         ‫ٚ ًٌ َ ِٕ ٖى قر ً هلل‬
    f.   ً ّ ِِ ‫ُُ َ َكْٓ َ٪َْ ُ ِحَ ِ٠ْٓ ُُ ٌَْٚٝ َِٙح‬
         ‫غ َ ٌٕ ُ أ ٍُ ذ ًٌ َ ٘ ْ أ ذ ٍٚ١ح‬
    g.   ‫أ ُ فٍ م ِ ن ٍ ِم ً ٚأ ٓٓ ٔى٠ح‬
         ً ّ ِ َ ُ َ ْ‫َٞ جٌ َ ِ٠ْ َ١ْٓ َ١ْ ٌ َ َحِح ََق‬

The comparative/superlative noun applies to the active voice in the vast majority of
cases and not the passive. For example, making the gerund ―to help‖ superlative
would result in the phrase ―the most helpful‖ as opposed to ―the one most helped‖.
Which of the two voices will be used depends on the individual word, but it is usually
safe to assume that the active voice is used. Compare the translations in the following
list for a few examples.

                  Meaning                    Voice        Superlative
                  strongest                  active       ْٜٛ‫أَل‬
                  most helpful               active        ٛ‫أ‬
                                                          ٍَ َْٔ
                  most famous



Verbal Paradigms
What is this Tutorial About?
A given set of base letters taken from a dictionary will have a specific meaning.
Wherever those base letters are found, so too will that meaning be found. For
example, the letters ٌ ،٘ ،ْ are associated with ―helping‖; wherever we find these
base letters in this order, the meaning of ―helping‖ will be present.

Now these letters themselves do not constitute a word. So in order to utilize them,
they need to be inaugurated into a pattern from the morphological system. One such
            ٪‫ف‬
pattern is ًِ ‫ َح‬which is used for the active participle. We replace the ‫ ف، ٨، ي‬of the
                                 ٚٔ
pattern with ٌ ،٘ ،ْ and get ٍِ ‫ , َح‬which then means ―helper‖.

When it comes to verbs, we also find a set of patterns which we call verb paradigms.
The basic verbal paradigm is ً٫‫ ;ف‬so ٍٛٔ is a verb which simply means ―he helped‖.
And from previous lessons we learn how to conjugate this verb to inflect for gender,
plurality, person, voice, tense, etc.

But there are more advanced paradigms. These are achieved by adding extra letters to
the basic paradigm. Each of these gives the base letters some extra connotation. For
example, ً٫‫ جْطف‬gives the sense of ―seeking‖ and so ٍٕٛ‫ جْط‬means ―he sought help‖. Of
course, each of these verbal paradigms conjugate in the same way the basic paradigm
conjugates, inflecting for gender, plurality, tense, etc in the same way and using the
same rules.

This tutorial deals with verbs that are enhanced by the addition of extra letters.
Although the purpose of these extra letters is to enhance the meaning, this tutorial
only discusses the effects they have on the word. The meanings and subtle
connotations afforded by these enhancements are discussed in the tutorial entitled
Paradigm Connotations.

This tutorial does not approach this topic in an introductory or explanatory fashion.
Instead, this is a summary and a reference for those who have already studied this
aspect of Arabic morphology. We summarize here all the verbal paradigms, giving the
perfect tense, imperfect tense, imperative, popular gerunds, some derived nouns, and
we also discuss the morphophonemic rules that are particular to a given paradigm.

For practice purposes, one is encouraged to visit the Practice Verbs page.



Division of the Paradigms
At the topmost level, verbal paradigms are divided into two groups

      those that work with 3-base-lettered verbs
      those that work with 4-base-lettered verbs


Each of these is then further divided into two categories

      those in which the base letters are the only letters
      those with extra letters apart from the base, used to enhance the verbs‘
       meanings


The paradigms that work on 3-lettered verbs that have extra letters are further divided
as follows.
                the general: those whose extra letters do not cause them to resemble 4-lettered
                 paradigms
                the resembling: those whose extra letters cause them to resemble 4-lettered
                 paradigms


The hierarchy looks something like this:

ٟ٪‫ٌذح‬                                                     ٟ‫غّالغ‬
works with 4-lettered verbs                               works with 3-lettered verbs
ٗ١‫ُِ٠ى ف‬                            ‫ِؿٍو‬                  ٗ١‫ُِ٠ى ف‬                       ‫ِؿٍو‬
extra letters added                 only base letters     extra letters added            only base letters
                                                          ‫ٍِكك‬           ‫ِ٣ٍك‬
                                                          resemb.        general


3-Lettered with no Extra
All of these fall under Form I in the Hans Wehr dictionary.

                 Passive    Active Part. or Common
Cmd.                                                      Common Gerunds                   Imperfect     Perfect
                 Part.      Substitutes
                            Intransitive    Transitive    Intransitive      Transitive
   ُ ‫ج‬
ًْ٫ْ‫ُف‬                                                    ،‫ِ٫َحي‬‫ف‬                           ٫٠
                                                                                           ًُ ْ‫َف‬        َ ٫َ
                                                                                                         ًَ ‫ف‬
 ًْ٫ْ‫جِف‬
   ِ                                                         ‫ف٫ّال‬
                                                          ،َْ َ َ                           ٫٠
                                                                                           ًِ ْ‫َف‬        ًَ ‫ف‬
                                                                                                         َ ٫َ
                             ٪‫ف‬
                            ًِ ‫َح‬
                                                          ،‫ُ٫َحي‬‫ف‬
  َ        ٫ِ
ًْ٫ْ‫َفْ ُْٛي جِف‬                                ٪‫ف‬
                                               ًِ ‫َح‬                     ًْ٫َ
                                                                            ‫ف‬               ٫٠
                                                                                           ًَ ْ‫َف‬        َ ٫َ
                                                                                                         ًَ ‫ف‬
                                                             ٫‫ف٫ ف‬
                                                          ًْ١ِ َ ،‫ُ ُْٛي‬
   َ
ًْ٫ْ‫جِف‬                          ‫ف٫ ف ّال‬
                             ،َْ ْ٫َ ،ًِ َ                                                  ٫٠
                                                                                           ًَ ْ‫َف‬        َ ٫َ
                                                                                                         ًِ ‫ف‬
                                                           ٫‫ف‬
                                                          ًَ َ
 ًْ٫ْ‫جِف‬
   ِ                          ٫
                            ًَ ْ‫أَف‬                                                         ٫٠
                                                                                           ًِ ْ‫َف‬        َ ٫َ
                                                                                                         ًِ ‫ف‬
                                     ‫ف٫ ف‬
                               ،ًْ٫َ ،ًْ١ِ َ
  ُ ‫ج‬
ًْ٫ْ‫ُف‬                                                     ٌ ٫‫ف٫ ٌ ف‬
                                                          ‫ُ َُْٛس، َ َحَس‬                   ٫٠
                                                                                           ًُ ْ‫َف‬        ًُ ‫ف‬
                                                                                                         َ ٫َ
                              ٫       ٫‫ف‬
                            ًَ ْ‫َ ًَ، أَف‬

3-Lettered with General Extra
Cmd.                       Passive Part.   Active Part.   Gerunds                          Imperfect      Perfect      #
  ِ
ًْ٫ْ‫أَف‬                     ٫ِ
                           ًَ ْ‫ُف‬           ٫ِ
                                           ًِ ْ‫ُف‬         ‫ئِفْ٫َحي‬                          ٫٠
                                                                                           ًِ ْ‫ُف‬         ًَ
                                                                                                          َ ٫ْ‫أَف‬      IV
                                                                       ‫ض ٫ ف٫ ف‬
                                                                 ،‫َفْ ِ١ًْ، ِ َحي، ِ٫َحي‬
  ِ‫ف‬
ًْ٫َ                        ٫‫ِف‬
                           ًَ َ ُ          ًِ َ ُ
                                            ٫‫ِف‬                                             ٫‫٠ف‬
                                                                                           ًِ َ ُ         ًَ ‫ف‬
                                                                                                          َ ٫َ         II
                                                           ٍ٫ ‫ض‬
                                                          ‫َفْ َِس‬
ًْ٪‫َح‬ ِ ‫ف‬                   ٪ ‫ِف‬
                           ًَ ‫ُ َح‬          ٪ ‫ِف‬
                                           ًِ ‫ُ َح‬        ‫ُ َح ََس، ِ٫َحي‬
                                                                ‫ِف ٪ٍ ف‬                     ٪ ‫٠ف‬
                                                                                           ًِ ‫ُ َح‬        َ ٪‫َح‬
                                                                                                          ًَ ‫ف‬         III
      َ ‫ضف‬
    ًْ٫َ َ                  ٫‫ِطف‬
                           ًَ َ َ ُ         ٫‫ُ ضف‬
                                           ًِ َ َ َ       ‫َ َ ًُ، ِ ِ َحي‬
                                                             ٫‫ضف٫ ضف‬                        ٫‫٠طف‬
                                                                                           ًَ َ َ َ       َ ٫َ َ
                                                                                                          ًَ ‫ضف‬        V
      َ ‫ضف‬
 ًْ٪‫َ َح‬                    ٪ ‫ِطف‬
                           ًَ ‫ُ َ َح‬        ٪ ‫ِطف‬
                                           ًِ ‫ُ َ َح‬      ًُ ‫َ َح‬
                                                            ٪ ‫ضف‬                            ٪ ‫٠طف‬
                                                                                           ًَ ‫َ َ َح‬      َ ٪‫َ َح‬
                                                                                                          ًَ ‫ضف‬        VI
      ِ‫ط‬
  ًْ٫َ ْ‫جِف‬                 ٫‫ِ ط‬
                           ًَ َ ْ‫ُف‬         ٫‫ِ ط‬
                                           ًِ َ ْ‫ُف‬       ‫جِفْ ِ٫َحي‬
                                                                ‫ط‬                           ٫‫٠ ط‬
                                                                                           ًِ َ ْ‫َف‬       ًَ ‫ط‬
                                                                                                          َ ٫َ ْ‫جِف‬    VIII
      ِ ‫ط‬
   ًْ٫ْ‫جِْْ َف‬              ٫‫ِ ط‬
                           ًَ ْ‫ُْٓ َف‬       ٫‫ِ ط‬
                                           ًِ ْ‫ُْٓ َف‬     ‫جِْْ ِفْ٫َحي‬
                                                                  ‫ط‬                         ٫‫ط‬
                                                                                           ًِ ْ‫٠َْٓ َف‬    ًََ
                                                                                                            ‫ص‬
                                                                                                          َ ٫ْ‫جِْْ ف‬   X
      ‫جفِ‬
  ‫ِْٔ َ٫ًْ‬                                  ‫ِ ف٫‬
                                          ‫ُْٕ َ ًِ‬       ‫ِْٔ ِ٫َحي‬
                                                              ‫جف‬              ‫٠ ف٫‬
                                                                            ‫َْٕ َ ًِ‬        ‫ِْٔ َ٫ َ‬
                                                                                            ‫ج ف ًَ‬             ‫‪VII‬‬
‫ً‬
‫جِفْ٫ ِ‬
‫ََ‬                                        ‫ُفْ٫ ّ‬
                                          ‫ِ ًَ‬           ‫جِفْ ِ َي‬
                                                          ‫٫ّال‬              ‫َفْ٫ ّ‬
                                                                            ‫٠ ًَ‬            ‫ًَ‬
                                                                                            ‫جِفْ٫ َ‬            ‫‪IX‬‬
‫َ‬
‫جِفْ٫َح ِ‬
‫ي‬                                         ‫ِ ي‬
                                          ‫ُفْ٫َح ّ‬       ‫جِفْ ِ١ْ َي‬
                                                          ‫٫ ّال‬             ‫٠ ي‬
                                                                            ‫َفْ٫َح ّ‬        ‫جِفْ٫َح َ‬
                                                                                            ‫ي‬                  ‫‪XI‬‬
      ‫٫ ِ‬
   ‫جِفْ َْٛ٪ًْ‬                              ‫ِ٫ ٪‬
                                          ‫ُفْ َْٛ ًِ‬     ‫جِفْ ِ١ْ٫َي‬
                                                          ‫٫ ح‬                 ‫٠٫ ٪‬
                                                                            ‫َفْ َْٛ ًِ‬      ‫جِفْ َْٛ٪ َ‬
                                                                                            ‫٫ ًَ‬               ‫‪XII‬‬
      ‫٫ِ‬
    ‫جِفْ َٛيْ‬                               ‫ُ ٫ٛ‬
                                          ‫ِفْ َ ِي‬       ‫جِفْ ِ َجي‬
                                                           ‫٫ٛ‬                 ‫٠ ٫ٛ‬
                                                                            ‫َفْ َ ِي‬        ‫٫ َي‬
                                                                                            ‫جِفْ َٛ َ‬          ‫‪XIII‬‬
      ‫فَ‬
‫جِ َ٫ًْ‬                                     ‫ِف٫‬
                                          ‫ُ َ ًِ‬         ‫جِ َ ًُ‬
                                                          ‫ف٫‬                  ‫٠ف٫‬
                                                                            ‫َ َ ًَ‬          ‫جِ َ٫ َ‬
                                                                                            ‫ف ًَ‬               ‫‪XIV‬‬
      ‫ف َ‬
 ‫جِ َح٪ًْ‬                                   ‫ِف ٪‬
                                          ‫ُ َح ًِ‬        ‫جِ َح ًُ‬
                                                          ‫ف٪‬                  ‫٠ف ٪‬
                                                                            ‫َ َح ًَ‬         ‫جِ َح٪ َ‬
                                                                                            ‫ف ًَ‬               ‫‪XV‬‬


‫‪3-Lettered with Resembling Extra‬‬
‫.‪Verbs from these paradigms are to be looked up alphabetically in Hans Wehr‬‬

‫.‪Cmd‬‬                      ‫.‪Passive Part‬‬   ‫.‪Active Part‬‬   ‫‪Gerunds‬‬            ‫‪Imperfect‬‬            ‫‪Perfect‬‬
‫َ٫ًٍْْ‬           ‫فِ‬        ‫ِف ٍ‬
                          ‫ُ َ٫ًَْ‬            ‫ِف ٍ‬
                                          ‫ُ َ٫ًِْ‬        ‫َ٫ََْس‬
                                                           ‫ف ٍٍ‬                 ‫٠ف ٍ‬
                                                                            ‫ُ َ٫ًِْ‬              ‫َ٫ٍْ َ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ف ًَ‬
 ‫َ َ٫ًٍْْ‬        ‫ضف َ‬                        ‫ِطف ٍ‬
                                          ‫ُ َ َ٫ًِْ‬      ‫َ َ٫ًُْ‬
                                                            ‫ضف ٍ‬                ‫٠طف ٍ‬
                                                                             ‫َ َ َ٫ًَْ‬           ‫ضف ًَ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َ٫ٍْ َ‬
  ‫َ٫ْٛيْ‬         ‫ف ِ‬       ‫ِف ٛ‬
                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ َي‬           ‫ِف ٛ‬
                                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ ِي‬       ‫َ٫ْ ََس‬
                                                           ‫ف ٌٛ‬                 ‫٠فٛ‬
                                                                            ‫ُ َ ِي‬ ‫٪ْ‬            ‫ف َي‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ٫ْٛ َ‬
         ‫َ َ٫ْٛيْ‬‫ضف َ‬                        ‫ِطف ٛ‬
                                          ‫ُ َ َ٫ْ ِي‬     ‫َ َ٫ْ ُي‬
                                                            ‫ضف ٛ‬                ‫٠طف ٛ‬
                                                                               ‫َ َ َ٫ْ َي‬        ‫َ َ٫ْٛ َ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ضف َي‬
   ‫َْٛ٪ًْ‬        ‫ف ِ‬       ‫ِف ٪‬
                          ‫ُ َْٛ ًَ‬           ‫َِ ٪‬
                                          ‫ُفْٛ ًِ‬        ‫َْٛ ََس، ِ١ْ٫َحي‬
                                                                ‫ف ٪ٍ ف‬          ‫٠ف ٪‬
                                                                             ‫ُ َْٛ ًِ‬            ‫ف ًَ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َْٛ٪ َ‬
                 ‫ضف َ‬
          ‫َ َْٛ٪ًْ‬                           ‫ِط َ ٪‬
                                          ‫ُ َفْٛ ًِ‬      ‫َ َْٛ ًُ‬
                                                            ‫ضف ٪‬                ‫٠طف ٪‬
                                                                             ‫َ َ َْٛ ًَ‬          ‫ضف ًَ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َْٛ٪ َ‬
    ‫َ٫ْ١ًْ‬       ‫ف ِ‬       ‫ِف ١‬
                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ ًَ‬           ‫ِف ١‬
                                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ ًِ‬       ‫َ٫ْ ََس‬
                                                           ‫ف ١ٍ‬                 ‫٠ف ١‬
                                                                             ‫ُ َ٫ْ ًِ‬            ‫ف ْ ََ‬
                                                                                                  ‫ٟ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ٫ ي‬
                 ‫ضف َ‬
           ‫َ َ٫ْ١ًْ‬                          ‫ِطف ١‬
                                          ‫ُ َ َ٫ْ ًِ‬     ‫َ َ٫ًُْ‬
                                                            ‫ضف ١‬                ‫٠طف ١‬
                                                                               ‫َ َ َ٫ْ ًَ‬        ‫َ َ٫ْ١ َ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ضف ًَ‬
     ‫َ١ْ٫ًْ‬      ‫ف ِ‬       ‫ِف ٫‬
                          ‫ُ َ١ْ ًَ‬           ‫ِف ٫‬
                                          ‫ُ َ١ْ ًِ‬       ‫َ١ْ ََس‬
                                                           ‫ف ٫ٍ‬                 ‫٠ف ٫‬
                                                                             ‫ُ َ١ْ ًِ‬            ‫ف ًَ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ١ْ٫ َ‬
                 ‫ضف َ‬
            ‫َ َ١ْ٫ًْ‬                         ‫ِطف ٫‬
                                          ‫ُ َ َ١ْ ًِ‬     ‫َ َ١ْ ًُ‬
                                                            ‫ضف ٫‬                ‫٠طف ٫‬
                                                                               ‫َ َ َ١ْ ًَ‬        ‫َ َ١ْ٫ َ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ضف ًَ‬
      ‫َ٫ًْْٕ‬     ‫ف ِ‬       ‫ِف ٕ‬
                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ ًَ‬           ‫ِف ٕ‬
                                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ ًِ‬       ‫َ٫ْ ََس‬
                                                           ‫ف ٍٕ‬                 ‫٠ف ٕ‬
                                                                             ‫ُ َ٫ْ ًِ‬            ‫َ٫ْٕ َ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ف ًَ‬
                 ‫ضف َ‬
             ‫َ َ٫ًْْٕ‬                       ‫ِ َ َٕ‬
                                              ‫ف‬
                                          ‫ُط ٪ْ ًِ‬       ‫َ َ٫ًُْ‬
                                                            ‫ضف ٕ‬                ‫٠طف ٕ‬
                                                                               ‫َ َ َ٫ْ ًَ‬        ‫ضف ًَ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َ٫ْٕ َ‬
       ‫ف ًْ‬
       ‫َ٫ ِ‬               ‫ُ َ٫ٍْ ً‬
                          ‫ِف ٝ‬            ‫ُ َ٫ ٍ‬
                                          ‫ِف ًْ‬          ‫َ٫ْ َز‬
                                                          ‫ف ّال‬                 ‫٠ف ِ‬
                                                                            ‫ُ َ٫ٍْْٟ‬                ‫فٍ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ٫َْٝ‬
              ‫َ َ٫ َ‬
              ‫ضف ًْ‬                       ‫ِ َ َ٫ ٍ‬
                                          ‫ُطف ًْ‬         ‫ضف ًْ‬
                                                         ‫َ َ٫ ٍ‬                  ‫٠طف ٍ‬
                                                                             ‫َ َ َ٫َْٟ‬              ‫ضف ٍ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َ٫َْٝ‬
                 ‫ِ ِ‬
              ‫َفْ٫ًْ‬       ‫ِّ ٫‬
                          ‫ُ َفْ ًَ‬           ‫ِّ ٫‬
                                          ‫ُ َفْ ًِ‬       ‫َفْ ٍَس‬
                                                            ‫ِ٫‬                  ‫٠ّ ٫‬
                                                                             ‫ُ َفْ ًِ‬            ‫َفْ٫ َ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ِ ًَ‬
                 ‫ضّ َ‬
               ‫َ َفْ٫ًْ‬                      ‫ِطّ ٫‬
                                          ‫ُ َ َفْ ًِ‬     ‫َ َفْ ًُ‬
                                                            ‫ضّ ٫‬                ‫٠طّ ٫‬
                                                                               ‫َ َ َفْ ًَ‬        ‫ضُ ًَ‬
                                                                                                 ‫َ َ فْ٫ َ‬
       ‫َْٕ٫ًْ‬    ‫ف ِ‬       ‫ِف ٫‬
                          ‫ُ َْٕ ًَ‬           ‫ِف ٫‬
                                          ‫ُ َْٕ ًِ‬       ‫َْٕ ََس‬
                                                           ‫ف ٫ٍ‬                 ‫٠ف ٫‬
                                                                             ‫ُ َْٕ ًِ‬            ‫َْٕ٫ َ‬
                                                                                                 ‫ف ًَ‬
                 ‫٫ِ‬
        ‫جِفْ ًٍَْْٕ‬                          ‫ِ٫ٍ‬
                                          ‫ُفْ ًَِْٕ‬      ‫جِفْ ِْٕ َي‬
                                                            ‫٫ ّال‬               ‫٠٫ٍ‬
                                                                             ‫َفْ ًَِْٕ‬           ‫٫ ًَ‬
                                                                                                 ‫جِفْ ٍَْٕ َ‬
         ‫جِفْ َٕ ِ‬
         ‫٫ ًْ‬                             ‫ُ ٫ ًْ‬
                                          ‫ِفْ َٕ ٍ‬       ‫جِفْ ِْٕ َء‬
                                                           ‫٫ ّال‬                 ‫٠٫ِ‬
                                                                             ‫َفْ ٍَْْٕٟ‬             ‫٫ٍ‬
                                                                                                 ‫جِفْ ََْٕٝ‬
         ‫جِفْ َ٫ ِ‬
         ‫ط ًْ‬                             ‫ُ ط ًْ‬
                                          ‫ِفْ َ٫ ٍ‬       ‫جِفْ ِ٫ْ َء‬
                                                           ‫ط ّال‬                 ‫٠ط ِ‬
                                                                              ‫َفْ َ٫ٍْْٟ‬            ‫طٍ‬
                                                                                                 ‫جِفْ َ٫َْٝ‬

‫‪4-Lettered with no Extra‬‬
‫.‪Cmd‬‬                      ‫.‪Passive Part‬‬   ‫.‪Active Part‬‬   ‫‪Gerunds‬‬            ‫‪Imperfect‬‬        ‫‪Perfect‬‬           ‫#‬
  ‫ذػ‬
‫َ٫ْ ٍِْ‬                    ‫ِر ػ‬
                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ ٍَ‬         ‫ِر ػ‬
                                          ‫ُ َ٫ْ ٍِ‬       ‫َ٫ََْس، ِ٫ْ َي‬
                                                          ‫ف ٍٍ ف ّال‬         ‫٠ر ػ‬
                                                                            ‫ُ َ٫ْ ٍِ‬         ‫ذ ػٍ‬
                                                                                             ‫َ٫ْ َ َ‬           ‫‪I‬‬
4-Lettered with Extra
Cmd.               Passive Part.   Active Part.      Gerunds                           Imperfect        Perfect       #
   َ ‫ضف‬
ًٍْْ٫َ َ                             ٍ ‫ُ ضف‬
                                   ًِْ٫َ َ َ         ًُْ٫َ َ
                                                      ٍ ‫ضف‬                               ٍ ‫٠طف‬
                                                                                       ًَْ٫َ َ َ        ًَ ‫ضف‬
                                                                                                        َ ٍْ٫َ َ      II
   ِ٫
 ًٍَْْٕ ْ‫جِف‬                         ٍ٫ِ
                                   ًَِْٕ ْ‫ُف‬         ‫جِفْ ِْٕ َي‬
                                                      ‫٫ ّال‬                              ٍ٫٠
                                                                                       ًَِْٕ ْ‫َف‬        ًَ ٫
                                                                                                        َ ٍَْٕ ْ‫جِف‬   III
ً
ِ ٍَ ْ‫جِف‬
َ ِ٫                               ّ ٍَ ْ‫ُف‬
                                   ًِ٫ ِ             ‫جِفْ ٍِْ َي‬
                                                      ‫٫ ّال‬                            ّ ٍَ ْ‫َف‬
                                                                                       ًِ٫ ٠            ًَ٫
                                                                                                        َ ٍَ ْ‫جِف‬     IV



Paradigm Specific Rules
Now we take the interesting paradigms from above and analyze them a bit further.
Some of these paradigms necessarily elicit morphophonemic changes in their verbs.
Others have restrictions as to which verbs they may include. Yet others have other
interesting features. We will take a look at each of these idiosyncrasies.

 ٫ ٫
ًَ ‫ف ًَ/٠ف‬        Most verbs are such that either their first base letter or second base letter is
                   one of the six throat letters:                  .

 ٫      ‫ف‬
ًُ ‫ُ٫ً/٠ف‬         All verbs are intransitive and connote qualities (e.g. being happy).


 ٫ ٫
ًِ ‫ف ًِ/٠ف‬        This paradigm contains very few verbs; only a couple dozen or so.


‫ئف٫حي‬             If the verb which is being considered is            (e.g.   ) then the gerund of this
                   paradigm will be altered in the following way: The weak letter will change
                   to match the letter before it (      becomes         ). The changed letter then
                   drops ( ). The deletion is then mitigated by the addition of a            (     ).
                   Sometimes this      is omitted ( ).



                  The ‫ ُّ٘ز‬of the pattern drops in all places except the perfect tense and
                   the active second-person command. This is due to the fact that the ‫ُّ٘ز‬
                   would gather with the sign of the imperfect tense in conjugation #13.
                   So the ‫ ُّ٘ز‬of this verb paradigm was dropped. It was dropped from
                   almost every other conjugation as well due to the grammatical rule
                   which dictates that if one instance of something causes trouble, then
                   the solution will be applied to all instances, whether they cause trouble
                   or not.



                  This paradigm should be counted amongst those that resemble the
                   four-lettered verbs, but it isn‘t because the condition for those
             paradigms is that their gerunds must match the gerund of the verb
             which they resemble.




ً١٫‫ضف‬       The    pattern for the gerund is used mostly when the verb is         or     .
             Sometimes even a normal verb can adopt this pattern (       ).




            When the verb being considered is ٟ‫( جؾٛف ٠حت‬e.g. ُ١ِ) and the gerund is
             on the ً١٫‫ ضف‬pattern (ُ١١ّ‫ ,)ض‬then the following rule may be (and
             according to some, must be) applied: The base letter ‫ ٠حء‬will transfer its
             vowel to the preceding letter, ridding itself of the vowel. Now there is
             a gathering of ٓ‫ ْحو‬so the base letter ‫ ٠حء‬will drop and we end up with
                  ٞ
             one ‫.)ضّ١ُ( جء‬

‫ِفح٪ٍس‬      The verbs of this paradigm (like many others with multiple gerunds) will not
             adopt one of the gerunds but both of them simultaneously (e.g.         and
                ). The difference is that    , for example, indicates on a particular
             occurrence while      is abstract.




            The ‫ جٌف‬in the passive form of this paradigm for the imperfect tense
             will become a )ً‫.ٚجٚ (لٛض‬
 ٫
ًّ ‫ضف‬      Those conjugations of the imperfect tense that start with a           are such that
            they cause two same letters to follow; the sign of the imperfect tense and
            the         of the paradigm. In this case, it is permissible to drop one of the two
                (       becomes      ). Which   exactly is dropped is disputed.


           If the same situation as above occurs, it is also permissible (but highly rare)
            to merge the two , in which case there would be the need for a                    .
            For example            becomes       . This is the only instance in which there is an
            initiating         in the imperfect tense.




           If the first base letter of a verb from this paradigm is ,‫ضحء, غحء, ؾ١ُ, وجي, يجي‬
            ‫ ,َجٜ, ْ١ٓ, ٖ١ٓ, ٚحو, ٞحو, ٢حء‬or ‫ ٦حء‬then the ‫ ضحء‬of this paradigm may be
            changed to match that letter. The two would then gather and a joining
            ‫ ُّ٘ز‬would be needed. For example ٍٙ٣‫ ض‬may become ٍَ ٢‫.ج‬       َٙ


ً٪‫ضفح‬      The          in the passive form of this verb for the imperfect tense will become
            a       (      .


           If the first base letter of a verb from this paradigm is
                                    , or   then the      of this paradigm may be changed to
            match that letter. The two would then gather and a joining             would be
            needed. For example            may become         .
‫جفط٫حي‬       If the verb being considered is              (e.g.     ) then the weak letter will change
              into a      to match the        of the paradigm. The two will then join ( ). This
              weak letter must be original and not changed from a                          (e.g.          in this
              paradigm is           which becomes            which will not become                      ). This
              restriction has some counterexamples (e.g.                     ).


             If the first base letter of the verb is a               , or          then the        of the
              paradigm will become a              (e.g.      become               ). In the case where the first
              base letter is a        , the two     will of course mix (e.g.                becomes                ). In
              the case where the first base letter is a              , the         may change to match the
                  of the paradigm then the two will mix (e.g.                       must change to
              which may then become                 which necessarily becomes                      ).


             If the first base letter of the verb under consideration is one of the
              letters (                   ) then the       of the verb paradigm must change to a
              (e.g.        must become            , and        must become                  ).


             If the second base letter of the verb is a                 , or          then the          of the
              paradigm may change to match it (e.g.                    may become                   ). The two will
              then mix (          ). The first base letter and the new changed letter will both be
                      thus the first base letter (the        in our example) should be made
              (       ) but it is actually made           and there will thus be no need for the
              initiating        . The final product will be                         . Notice the resemblance
              between this altered verb and the                    paradigm.


             If the second base letter of the verb is one of the                       letters then the             of
                   may change to match (e.g.                 becomes                  which mixes to become
                   ). Similar to the previous rule, the first base letter will be given a                            and
              the initiating         will be removed resulting in                              .


             If the second base letter of the verb is a              then the two may mix and what
              happened in the two previous rules will take place here as well. So                                  , for
              example, becomes            .
‫جْطف٫حي‬      If the verb which is being considered is                 (e.g.           ) then the gerund of
              this paradigm will be in a manner similar to that of the gerund of                                  (e.g.
                      ). This    may not drop.
‫جٔف٫حي‬          If the first base letter of the word being considered is one of the letters of
                      then the verb may not be inaugurated into this paradigm; rather the
                 connotation of this paradigm will have to be reflected by       .

،‫جف٫ّالي‬        The verbs from these paradigms are either colours or bodily defects.
‫جف٫١ّالي‬

Hamza Verbs
What is this Tutorial About?
This tutorial deals with verbs with a Hamza in any of the three radicals. Such verbs
are termed ٌَّّٛٙ‫( جٌف٫ً ج‬pl. ‫ )جألف٫حي جٌَّّٙٛز‬and they experience some morphophonemic
changes that are important to know.

For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology, consult
the introduction to this section entitled Introduction to Arabic Morphology, and
specifically the section on morphophonemic rules and weak verbs.


Hamza Verbs Made Easy
Let‘s consider the three cases where the Hamza is the first root letter of a verb, the
second, and the third. For each of these three cases, consider an example as indicated
below.

                ٍ‫يهًىس الي‬            ٍُُ‫يهًىس ػ‬             ٍ‫يهًىس فائ‬
                 ٍ
                ‫لٍَأ ٠م َأ‬             ‫أ‬    ‫أ‬
                                      ‫ْ َي ٠َٓي‬               ‫و و‬
                                                             ًُ ‫أ ًَ ٠أ‬

Perfect & Imperfect Conjugations
With respect to the past tense verb, there will be absolutely no change in any of the
three cases. With respect to the imperfect verb, however, the following rule will take
effect.

Rule 1
                  if two Hamza occur side-by-side in the same lexical word and the
                  first has a vowel while the second does not, the second Hamza must
                  change to the long vowel appropriate to the short vowel on the first

The situation described in Rule 1 can be seen when the Hamza is the first radical and
the verb is in conjugation 13 (first person singular). Consider the original form of the
verb below.

 ‫أ و‬
ًُ ْ‫َء‬
Here is a case where there are two Hamza side-by-side in the same lexical word. The
first Hamza has a vowel and the second does not. This situation fits the case described
in the rule. The rule says that the second Hamza must change into a long vowel (either
ٚ, ‫ ,ج‬or ٞ). In other words, application of the rule must yield one of the three following
words.

 ‫ى‬      ‫و و‬
ًُ ٠‫أٚ ًُ، آ ًُ، ئ‬
Which of the three vowels will be chosen is dependent on the short vowel on the first
Hamza. In this case, the first Hamza has a ‫ ,فطكس‬so the appropriate choice would be to
use an ‫ .جٌف‬This yields the following.

 ‫و‬
ًُ ‫آ‬
This rule also takes effect in conjugation 13 of the passive table. The original form of
the verb was as follows.

 ‫أ و‬
ًَ ْ‫ُء‬
Here, too, is a case of two Hamza in the same lexical word, the first with a vowel and
the second without. The rule tells us that the second Hamza will change to a long
vowel appropriate to the ‫ ّٞس‬on the first Hamza. The long vowel appropriate to a ‫ّٞس‬
is, of course, ٚ‫ .ٚج‬Thus the final form of the verb is as shown below.

 ‫أ و‬
ًَ ُْٚ
                       Imperfect Passive           Imperfect Active
                         ‫و‬
                       ًَ ‫٠إ‬                         ‫و‬
                                                   ًُ ‫٠أ‬
                       ...                         ...
                         ‫أ و‬
                       ًَ ُْٚ                        ‫و‬
                                                   ًُ ‫آ‬
                         ‫و‬
                       ًَ ‫ٔإ‬                         ‫و‬
                                                   ًُ ‫ٔأ‬
Exercise:
       1. Where else does this rule take effect?
              a. give one derived noun
              b. give one advanced verb paradigm (consider perfect, imperfect, and
                   imperative conjugations)
              c. give one gerund
              d. give one broken plural pattern
       2. Practice the imperative conjugations (and variations of them, such as those
          with ٌٓ and ٌُ) using some of the Hamza verbs provided in the Practice Verbs
          vocabulary list.
       3. Provide a real-world example of a case where two Hamza occur side by side,
          the first with a vowel and the second without, but where the two Hamza are
          not in the same lexical word. What do you think happens in this situation?
Imperative Conjugations
There are two rules relating to imperative conjugations. The first is the following.

Rule 2
                  if in a basic 3-lettered verb the first radical is a Hamza, this Hamza
                  will drop in the second-person active imperative conjugations
Condition
                  this will typically only happen if the eliding Hamza is needed
                  (sometimes it will happen even if it isn‘t)

Given a verb with a Hamza as the first radical, the second person active imperative
conjugations would look as follows.

                            2nd    Person       Imperative
                            Active
                               ُ ‫ج‬
                            ًْ‫ُءْو‬
                               ‫ج و‬
                            ‫ُءْ ُّال‬
                                 ‫ج و‬
                            ‫ُءْ ٍُٛج‬
                                ‫ج و‬
                            ٍُٟ ْ‫ُء‬
                               ‫ج و‬
                            ‫ُءْ ُّال‬
                            َ ٍُْ ْ‫ُء‬
                            ٓ‫ج و‬
The six conjugations listed above match perfectly the situation described in Rule 1.
Hence one would expect Rule 1 to take effect; the Hamza would become a ٚ‫ .ٚج‬This,
however, is not the case. What is done instead is the base letter Hamza is dropped
based on Rule 2. For example:

  ُ‫ج‬
ًْ‫ُو‬
Once the Hamza is gone, the first letter of the word has a vowel. Therefore, there is no
longer any need for the eliding Hamza at the beginning and so it too is dropped.
Getting rid of the eliding Hamza was in fact the purpose of this rule. The resulting
conjugations look as follows.

                            2nd    Person       Imperative
                            Active
                            ًْ‫و‬ ُ
                                ‫و‬
                             ‫ُّال‬
                            ‫ٍُٛج‬  ‫و‬
                             ٍُٟ  ‫و‬
                                ‫و‬
                             ‫ُّال‬
                                 ٓ‫و‬
                                 َ ٍُْ
If the eliding Hamza is not needed in the first place – when, for example, the word
occurs in the middle of a sentence – this rule does not take effect. Consider the
conjugations above, only this time with a ٚ‫ ٚج‬preceding them.

                                 2nd    Person     Imperative
                                 Active
                                     ُ ٚ
                                 ًْ‫َجءْو‬
                                     ‫ٚ و‬
                                  ‫َجءْ ُّال‬
                                       ‫ٚ و‬
                                  ‫َجءْ ٍُٛج‬
                                      ‫ٚ و‬
                                  ٍُٟ ْ‫َجء‬
                                     ‫ٚ و‬
                                  ‫َجءْ ُّال‬
                                  َ ٍُْ ْ‫َجء‬
                                  ٓ‫ٚ و‬
As indicated in the rule, even when such verbs occur in the middle of a sentence, the
Hamza can be dropped. This is done when a particular word is extremely common. So
one may see the following, for example.

  ُٚ
ًْ‫َو‬
Exercise:
   1. Practice the imperative conjugations (the entire table for both active and passive)
         using the following verbs. Be cautious with the middle letter vowel when applying
         Rule 2. In how many of the 28 conjugations do rules 1 or 2 take effect?
             a.    ‫ن ن‬
                  ًُ ‫أ ًَ ٠أ‬
             b.       ْ
                  ‫أ ِف ٠أ َف‬ ْ
             c.    ‫ذ ذ‬
                  ‫أ َى ٠أ ِى‬
   2. Practice the same verbs again, this time with each conjugation preceded by the
         conjunction ‫.فَـ‬



The second rule applying to the imperative conjugations is as follows.

Rule 3
                     if a vowelled Hamza is preceded by a non-vowelled letter in the
                     same lexical word, the Hamza may optionally transfer its vowel to
                     the preceding letter and then drop
Condition
                     for the 2nd-person active imperative conjugations of basic 3-lettered
                     verbs, this rule is mandatory if the eliding Hamza is needed and
                   prohibited otherwise

Consider an imperfect verb whose second radical is a Hamza, as in ‫ .٠ٓأي‬Notice that
the Hamza is vowelled while the ٓ١ْ before it is not. Hence, according to Rule 3, we
may transfer the ‫ فطكس‬from the Hamza to the ٓ١ْ and then drop the Hamza. The result
is as follows.

 ٓ
ًَ َ٠
This rule is a concession which is almost never used because the above verb can be
confused with a hollow verb under certain circumstances. Where this rule does take
effect is in the imperative conjugations. The original forms are given below.

                             2nd    Person         Imperative
                             Active
                             ْ‫جِْْأي‬
                              ‫جِْْأال‬
                              ‫جِْْأٌٛج‬
                              ٌٟ‫جِْْأ‬
                              ‫جِْْأال‬
                              َ ٌْ‫جِْْأ‬
                              ٓ
Notice that in these six conjugations the Hamza is vowelled and the letter before it is
not. We thus transfer the vowel and drop the Hamza, yielding the following for
example.

  َ
ًِْْ‫ج‬
 Since the first letter is now vowelled, the eliding Hamza is no longer required and so
it is dropped. The resulting table is as follows.

                             2nd    Person         Imperative
                             Active
                             ًْْ َ
                                 ْ
                              ‫َّال‬
                              ‫ٍَٛج‬ ْ
                              ٍَْٟ
                                 ْ
                              ‫َّال‬
                              ْٓ
                              َ ٍَْ
Just as in Rule 2, if the eliding Hamza is not necessary in the first place, this rule will
not take effect and the original conjugations will be used. Consider the above
conjugations, only this time with a ٚ‫ ٚج‬conjunction before them.

                             2nd          Person   Imperative
                              Active
                              ْ‫َجْْأي‬ٚ
                                     ٚ
                               ‫َجْْأال‬
                              ‫َجْْأٌٛج‬ ٚ
                               ٌٟ‫َجْْأ‬ ٚ
                                     ٚ
                               ‫َجْْأال‬
                              ٓ ٚ
                              َ ٌْ‫َجْْأ‬
Exercise:
    1. Practice the imperative conjugations (the entire table for both active and passive)
        using the following verbs. Be cautious with the middle letter vowel when applying
        Rule 3. In how many of the 28 conjugations do rules 1, 2, or 3 take effect?
            a.    ‫ث أ‬
                 ََ ٓ٠ ُِ ْ
            b.   ُِ ‫ذ‬‫إ‬
            c.    ‫أ ث‬
                 ُِ ٕ٠ ََٔ
    2. Practice the same verbs again, this time with each conjugation preceded by the
        conjunction ‫.فَـ‬


More Complicated Rules for Enquiring Minds

#   Rule                                                        Example
4   if a vowelled Hamza is preceded by another (non-             ‫ْأ‬
                                                                ‫ ََي‬becomes ‫َْحي‬
    Hamza) vowelled letter in the same lexical word,
    the Hamza may optionally change to the long vowel
    appropriate to the vowel on the letter before
5   same as 4, except that the Hamza is non-vowelled               ‫ذ‬            ‫ذ‬
                                                                ٍْ‫ ِث‬becomes ٍْ١ِ




6   Rule 1 will cause a Hamza in the first base letter of       ًَ ‫ج ض‬           ًَ ‫ج ط‬
                                                                َ ‫ ِءْ َى‬becomes َ ‫ِ٠ْ َى‬
    a verb in paradigm ‫ جفط٫حي‬to become a ‫ .٠حء‬This ‫ ٠حء‬will    which does not become
    not change to a ‫ ضحء‬based on the rules for assimilated      ًَ ‫جض‬
                                                                َ ‫َِى‬
    verbs. Exceptions include ً‫جضه‬
7      if two Hamza occur together in a word, any one of              ٓ‫أت‬           ٓ٠‫أ‬
                                                                      ّ ِ َ becomes ّ ِ َ
       them being ٌٛٓ‫ ,ِى‬the second Hamza will become a
       ‫ ;٠حء‬this is optional in the word ‫ أتّس‬and when the first
       Hamza is ‫٪ّالِس جٌّٟحٌ٨ جٌّفطٛقس‬
8      if two Hamza occur together in the same lexical                ّ ُ َ becomes ّ ُ َ
                                                                      َ‫أؤ‬           َٚ‫أ‬
       word, the first vowelled (even ‫ )وٍٓز‬and the second
       َِّٟٛ, the second becomes a ٚ‫ ;ٚج‬this is optional
       when the first Hamza is ‫ ;٪ّالِس جٌّٟحٌ٨ جٌّفطٛقس‬if the
       second Hamza is the last letter of the word, it will
       become a ‫ ٠حء‬instead
9      if two Hamza occur together in the same lexical
       word, the first being َِّٟٛ or ‫ ِفطٛـ‬and the second
       being vowelled (not ‫ ,)وٍٓز‬the second becomes a ٚ‫ٚج‬




Assimilated Verbs
What is this Tutorial About?
This tutorial deals with verbs (as well as gerunds and derived nouns) whose first base letter
is a     or a . Such a verb is termed          and there are some morphophonemic rules that
need to be considered when conjugating it.


For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology, consult the
introduction to this section entitled Introduction to Arabic Morphology, and specifically the
section on morphophonemic rules and weak verbs.


Assimilated Verbs
There are a number of roots in the language that have            as the first base letter. There are
only a few, however, that have        as the first root letter – approximately half a dozen. Both
of these types of verbs follow the same rules for conjugation.


There will be no change in the past tense tables for basic 3-lettered verb paradigms.
                    Past Active                       Past Passive




In the imperfect active tense, the      or     will drop if the verb is from one of the following
paradigms.


    

    

    



                    Imperfect Active                  Imperfect Passive




There is only one exception to this rule: The verb             does not lose its    despite being
from one of the three mentioned paradigms. This is to avoid unnecessary complications in
the verb due to it having a double      .


Now because the imperative verb is formed using the imperfect, the changes in the
imperfect verb will carry over.


                                     Imperative Active




Up to this point, we have only discussed a single rule and it has only applied to 3-lettered
verbs with no extra letters. That is because most advanced verb paradigms do not
experience many changes by virtue of the first root letter being weak. The following chart
lists some examples. Notice that the conjugations are quite regular and well behaved.


                                     Perfect         Imperfect
There are only two rules to remember with regards to advanced verbs. The first is that when
a            is preceded by a letter with a    , the    will change to a   . This regulation is
realized in paradigm         for the imperfect tense as well as the active and passive
participles.. The chart below gives some examples.


                              Original Form            Changes To




Also, if a     or    is in the first root position of a verb in paradigm    , the     or   will be
changed to a . Based on other rules, this new           will geminate with the      from the
paradigm. Some examples follow.


                       Perfect        Imperfect        Gerund        Active Part.




One should be careful not to always associate this doubled          with assimilated verbs. In the
examples below, there is a doubling of         in this paradigm much like the doubling in the
above examples. In these instances, however, the causes are different.


                                       Non-Assimilated Verbs
Assimilated Nouns
The active, passive, and resembling participles, as well as the comparative/superlative noun
do not experience any changes by virtue of the first root letter being weak. The only fact to
note is that the active and passive participles for the      and     paradigms will have some
change, as already noted.


In the hyperbolic participle, the noun of usage, and certain gerunds, however, there are
instances when a          can be preceded by a letter with a        . In such a situation, the
will change to . Some examples follow.


                          Original Form           Changes To




Moreover, when a gerund is formed from an assimilated verb, the initial         or   is
sometimes dropped. The drop is then compensated with the           of femininity at the end of
the word.


                          Original Form           Changes To




Summary of Regulations for Assimilated Words
Below is a list of the rules mentioned through the course of this tutorial. Along with each
rule are the most common situations under which it will be applied. In order to practice and
apply these rules, one is encouraged to recite conjugation tables aloud. Several ideal verbs
for practice can be found from the Practice Verbs page.
#   Rule                                            Applications
1   If an imperfect active is from one of the            verbs from one of the three
    following paradigms                                   mentioned paradigms in the imperfect
                                                         active tense
                                                         or the 2nd-person active imperative
                                                         tense
        
    then the weak base letter at the front of
    the verb will drop




2   A        preceded by a letter with a             verbs from the       paradigm in the
    will change to                                    active imperfect tense
                                                     or the active and passive participles
                                                      derived from such verbs

3   A        preceded by a letter with a             the hyperbolic participle, specifically
    will change to                                    the pattern
                                                     the noun of usage
                                                     the gerund for the       paradigm


4   Certain gerunds for basic 3-lettered verb        certain gerunds for basic 3-lettered
    paradigms may optionally drop the weak            verb paradigms
    letter from the front of the verb. The drop
    must then be compensated by a      of
    femininity




Hollow Verbs
What is this Tutorial About?
This tutorial deals with irregular verbs (as well as gerunds and derived nouns) whose
second radical is a ٚ‫ ٚج‬or a ‫ .٠حء‬Such verbs are termed ‫( جألف٫حي جٌؿٛفحء‬sing. ‫)جٌف٫ً جألؾٛف‬
and there are some morphophonemic rules that need to be considered when
conjugating them. These rules are termed ً١ٍ٫‫ ض‬or ‫ ئ٪ّالي‬and the rest of this tutorial is
dedicated to their analysis.

For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology, consult
the introduction to this section entitled Introduction to Arabic Morphology, and
specifically the section on morphophonemic rules and weak verbs.
Introduction
Since the categorization of verbs based on their level of weakness is parallel to their
categorization based on verbal paradigms, hollow verbs can naturally be witnessed to
occur in basically all major paradigms. However, in this tutorial we will focus on only
the basic ones, using the examples given below. Analyzing the conjugation of these
specific verbs will sieve out all major regulations associated to hollow verbs, and
these canonical examples will be a sufficient analysis.

                      Specific Base Letters
                                                        Paradigm
                      Used as an Example
                                                        /       ٫
                                                              ًَ ‫ف‬
                      ‫ق، ٚ، ي‬
                                                          ٫
                                                        ًُ ‫٠ف‬
                                                        /      ٪
                                                              ًَ‫ف‬
                      ٨ ،ٞ ،‫خ‬
                                                          ٫
                                                        ًِ ‫٠ف‬
                                                        /       ٫
                                                              ًِ ‫ف‬
                      ‫ل، ٚ، ف‬
                                                          ٫
                                                        ًَ ‫٠ف‬
Hollow verbs can only occur in these three paradigms of the six basic paradigms.
Their occurrence in any of the other three is possible but quite rare. Hollow verbs can
occur in all of the advanced paradigms, but not all of those paradigms require
morphophonemic changes. At the end of this tutorial, we will briefly discuss hollow
verbs in paradigms other than the three mentioned above.



The Perfect Tense

Active
Rule 1
                  if a vowelled ٚ‫ ٚج‬or ‫ ٠حء‬is preceded by a ‫ فطكس‬in the same lexical word,
                  it will change to an ‫جٌف‬
Memory Aid
                  vowelled ٚ‫ ٚج‬or ‫ ٠حء‬preceded by ‫ فطكس‬becomes ‫جٌف‬

If we attempt to use the examples given above and place them on their respective
templates in order to form past tense verbs, the following will result.

َ َِ
‫نٛف‬                           ٩١‫ذ‬
                              َ ََ                           ‫ل َي‬
                                                             َ َٛ
Notice that in each of the three cases there is a weak letter (ٚ‫ ٚج‬or ‫ )٠حء‬which is
vowelled and that before it is a ‫ .فطكس‬Based on Rule 1, the weak letter must become an
‫ ,جٌف‬and the following conjugations result.

‫ف‬
َ ‫نح‬                          ٨
                              َ ‫ذح‬                           ‫ي‬
                                                             َ ‫لح‬
The conjugations yielded by Rule 1 look exactly the same irrespective of their
paradigm. That is until we reach conjugation 6 onwards of the past tense table. In
these 9 conjugations, the third radical of the verb loses its vowel, resulting in a vowel-
consonant cluster.

ٓ
َ ْ‫نحف‬                         َ ْ٪‫ذح‬
                               ٓ                               ٓ
                                                               َ ٌْ‫لح‬
Applying the rules of cluster reduction, we get the following.

ٓ‫ن‬
َ ْ‫َف‬                          ٓ‫ذ‬
                               َ ْ٫َ                           َ ٍَْ
                                                               ٓ‫ل‬
This, however, is not how it‘s done. The long vowel, ‫ ,جٌف‬is dropped based on the
rules of cluster reduction, but the ‫ فطكس‬on the letter before the ‫ جٌف‬is not necessarily
                                                     ٫     ٫
maintained. In the case of ‫( لحي‬verbs from the ًُ ‫ ف ًَ / ٠ف‬paradigm), the ‫ فطكس‬is changed
to a ‫ ّٞس‬in order to indicate that the long vowel that dropped was a ٚ‫ .ٚج‬Similarly, the
                                          ٫      ٫
‫ فطكس‬in the case of ٨‫( ذح‬verbs from the ًِ ‫ ف ًَ / ٠ف‬paradigm) is changed to a ‫ وٍٓز‬to show
that the letter that dropped was a ‫.٠حء‬

                                                                       ٫     ٫
Now, using a ‫ ّٞس‬to indicate that a ٚ‫ ٚج‬has dropped in paradigm ًُ ‫ ف ًَ / ٠ف‬is fine
because only those hollow verbs whose middle radical is a ٚ‫ ٚج‬may be realized in this
paradigm. Similarly, using a ‫ وٍٓز‬to indicate that a ‫ ٠حء‬has dropped in paradigm / ًَ ‫ف‬ ٫
 ٫
ًِ ‫ ٠ف‬is fine because only those hollow verbs whose middle radical is a ‫ ٠حء‬may be
                                                   ٫    ٫
realized in this paradigm. But as for paradigm ًَ ‫ ,ف ًِ / ٠ف‬it sees both types of hollow
verbs – those with ٚ‫ ٚج‬as well as those with ‫ .٠حء‬The logical thing to do in this case
would be to leave the ‫ فطكس‬in these 9 conjugations as is in order to differentiate it from
the other two paradigms. However, what is actually done is that the ‫ فطكس‬is changed to
a ‫ ,وٍٓز‬and the following conjugations result.

ٓ‫ن‬
َ ْ‫ِف‬                          ٓ‫ذ‬
                               َ ْ٫ِ                           ٓ‫ل‬
                                                               َ ٍُْ
Exercise: Conjugate these three verbs in the past tense.


Passive
Rule 2
                  in the passive prefect conjugations, the ‫ وٍٓز‬from the middle radical
                  will transfer to the first radical

If we attempt to construct the past passive verbs using our examples, the following
conjugations will result.

َ ُِ
‫نٛف‬                             ٩١‫ذ‬
                                َ ُِ                           ‫ل ِي‬
                                                               َ ُٛ
Rule 2 sees that these are passive perfect conjugations and it therefore dictates that the
‫ وٍٓز‬from the middle letters should be transferred to the right. Hence the conjugations
end up as follows.
‫ن ف‬
َ ِْٛ                          ٩‫ذ‬
                               َ ْ١ِ                          ‫ل ْي‬
                                                              َ ِٛ
However, there is another very important and very widely applicable rule that comes
into play at this point and further changes the above conjugations.

Rule 3
a)               if a non-vowelled ‫ ٠حء‬is preceded by a ‫ ,ّٞس‬the ‫ ّٞس‬will become a ‫وٍٓز‬
                 (occasionally, however, the ‫ ٠حء‬will become a ٚ‫ ٚج‬instead)
       ٍ‫ي‬
(the ٌ‫ سا‬rule)
                 if a non-vowelled ٚ‫ ٚج‬is preceded by a ‫ ,وٍٓز‬the ٚ‫ ٚج‬will become a ‫٠حء‬
b)

This rule is designed to take the two diphthongs that are not allowed in the phonology
                                     ِ    ‫ـ‬
of the Arabic language – namely ْٛ‫ ـ‬and ُْٟ – and transform them into one of the two
                            َ
that are allowed – namely ْٛ‫ ـ‬and َْٟ‫.ـ‬

Notice that Rule 3b applies to the case of ‫ لحي‬and ‫ ,نحف‬and not the case of ٨‫.ذح‬
Applying the rule yields the following conjugations.

‫نف‬
َ ْ١ِ                          َ ْ١ِ
                               ٩‫ذ‬                             ًْ ‫ل‬
                                                              َ ١ِ
Notice again that all three paradigms look the same, just as they do with regular verbs.
That is until we reach conjugation 6 and onwards. These 9 conjugations again
experience the same changes that were applied to them in the active tables. Recall
what occurred in the active tables; the following conjugations will result.

َ ْ‫ِف‬
ٓ‫ن‬                            ٓ‫ذ‬
                              َ ْ٫ِ                           ٓ‫ل‬
                                                              َ ٍُْ
This is interesting because both the active and passive tables now look exactly the
same from conjugation 6 onwards.

Exercise: Conjugate the three examples in the perfect passive. Juxtapose the active
and passive tables to compare where conjugations are similar and where they are not.




The Imperfect Tense
Rule 4
                 If a vowelled ٚ‫ ٚج‬or ‫ ٠حء‬is preceded by a non-vowelled letter in the
                 same lexical word, its vowel will transfer to that preceding letter. In
                 the case where the transferred vowel is a ‫ ,فطكس‬the ٚ‫ ٚج‬or ‫ ٠حء‬will
                 become an ‫ جٌف‬in addition.

Conjugating the three examples in the imperfect tense, we would expect the verbs to
look as follows based on regular verb conjugation.
‫٠ ٛف‬
ُ َ ْ‫َه‬                          ٩١ ٠
                                 ُ ِ ْ‫َر‬                          ُ ْٛ‫َف‬
                                                                  ‫٠ ُي‬
But in each of the three above cases, a vowelled weak letter is preceded by a non-
vowelled letter. Rule 4 then comes into play and dictates that the vowel from the weak
letter should shift right. We then see the following results.

‫٠ه ف‬
ُ َْٛ َ                          ُ ْ١ِ َ
                                 ٩ ‫٠ر‬                             ‫٠ف ْي‬
                                                                  ُ ُٛ َ
But Rule 4 also dictates that, in the case where the transferred vowel is a ‫ ,فطكس‬the
weak letter should become an ‫ .جٌف‬This is the case with ‫ ,٠هٛف‬ergo the final results
below



Deficient Verbs
What is this Tutorial About?
This tutorial deals with irregular verbs (as well as gerunds and derived nouns) whose
final radical is a ٚ‫ ٚج‬or a ‫ .٠حء‬Such verbs are termed ‫( جألف٫حي جٌٕحلٛس‬sing. ٙ‫ )جٌف٫ً جٌٕحل‬and
the rules that govern their conjugation are termed ً١ٍ٫‫ ض‬or ‫.ئ٪ّالي‬

For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology, consult
the introduction to this section entitled Introduction to Arabic Morphology, and
specifically the section on morphophonemic rules and weak verbs.


Introduction
In morphology, deficient verbs refers to those verbs whose final radical is a glide.
Such verbs are termed ‗deficient‘ because they instigate the application of very
advanced rules brought about by the profuse occurrence of long vowels and
diphthongs. These rules frequently result in the omission of letters from the verb; ergo
the term ‗deficient‘. Now the term ‗deficient verb‘ should not be confused with its
usage in grammar. In grammar, it refers to a class of sentential abrogators that are
termed ‗deficient‘ due to their inability to become the copula of a sentence.

In order to cover the chief rules associated with these verbs, we need only concern
ourselves with deficient verbs from three verbal paradigms, as listed below. The rules
given in the analysis of these examples will be sufficient in conjugating deficient
verbs from any paradigm.

                        Specific Base Letters
                                                            Paradigm
                        Used as an Example
                                                            /      ٫
                                                                  ًَ ‫ف‬
                        ٚ ،َ ،٬
                                                              ٫
                                                            ًُ ‫٠ف‬
                        ٞ ،َ ،ٌ                             /      ٫
                                                                  ًَ ‫ف‬
                                                          ٫
                                                        ًِ ‫٠ف‬
                                                        /      ٫
                                                              ًِ ‫ف‬
                       ٚ ،ٜ ،ٌ
                                                          ٫
                                                        ًَ ‫٠ف‬


The Perfect Conjugations
The first two paradigms given above are those in which the middle letter is vowelled
with a ‫ ,فطكس‬and the third paradigm as well as the passive forms of all three paradigms
are such that the middle letter is vowelled with a ‫ .وٍٓز‬Hence ُٚ‫ غ‬and ٌِٝ will be
dealt with separately and ٌٛٞ and perfect passives will be dealt with separately.


Group 1
Below is what we‘d expect of the perfect active conjugations for ُٚ‫ غ‬and ٌِٟ.

           َ َِ
           َٟ ٌ                              ُٚ‫غ‬
                                             َََ
               ٌِ
           ‫َ َ١ح‬                                 ُ‫غ‬
                                             ‫َ َٚج‬
                ١ٌِ
            ‫َ َ ُْٛج‬                             ُٚ‫غ‬
                                             ‫َ َ ُْٚج‬
                ١ٌِ
           ْ‫َ َ َص‬                               ُٚ‫غ‬
                                             ْ‫َ َ َش‬
               ١ٌِ
            ‫َ َ َطح‬                             ُٚ‫غ‬
                                              ‫َ َ َضح‬
            ...                               ...
Notice, however, that in each conjugation is a vowelled glide preceded by a ‫ .فطكس‬This
is exactly the situation described in Rule 1 of Hollow Verbs. Rule 1 says that the glide
should be changed to an ‫.جٌف‬

            َِٝ  ٌ                           ‫َُج‬ ‫غ‬
               ٌِ
            ‫َ َ١ح‬                                ُ‫غ‬
                                              ‫َ َٚج‬
                ٌِ
            ‫َ َحْٚج‬                               ُ‫غ‬
                                             ‫َ َجْٚج‬
           ْ‫َ َحش‬ٌِ                               ُ‫غ‬
                                             ْ‫َ َجش‬
                ٌِ
            ‫َ َحضح‬                               ُ‫غ‬
                                              ‫َ َجضح‬
            ...                               ...
There are four points to note now. The first is that Rule 1 only applies (potentially) to
these five conjugations; the rest of the tables are not affected by Rule 1 and are
therefore exactly as we would expect. Consult Hollow Verbs for a refresher if needed.

           ٓ ٌِ
           َ ْ١َ َ                           َ َْٚ َ
                                             ْ ُ‫غ‬
           ...
Duplicated Verbs
What is this Tutorial About?
Certain words in the Arabic language are such that their second and third radicals are the
same letter. Such words are deemed to be irregular and they have certain rules that govern
their conjugation. This type of irregularity is termed      (Duplication) and the rules
associated to it are termed The Rules of      (Gemination).


This tutorial covers the rules of gemination, especially as they relate to verbs. One should
not be confused by the title Duplicated Verbs; it is not the verb that is duplicated but the
letters within it.


For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology, consult
the introduction to this section entitled Introduction to Arabic Morphology, and
specifically the section on morphophonemic rules and weak verbs.


Types of Duplication
Theoretically speaking, a word in the language should be termed           (duplicated) when
one of the following is true


    1. the first and second radicals are the same (e.g.       )
    2. the first and third radicals are the same
    3. the second and third radicals are the same
    4. all three radicals are the same



However, options (1), (2), and (4) are either never realized in the language or are
extraordinarily rare and do not undergo change. Thus we need only concern ourselves with
option (3). There is a small caveat of interest, however. There is a small debate among
morphologists regarding 4-lettered verbs in which the first and third letters are the same as
well as the second and fourth. An example of such verbs is given below.




There are three opinions with respect to such verbs.
    1. All four of the letters are original and base, so there is no duplication
    2. Such verbs are actually 3-lettered and their form has been achieved by copying
       the first radical between the second and third radicals (the original was )
    3. Such verbs are actually 3-lettered and their form has been derived from the
            paradigm (the original was ). This means that         is a second-level
       derivation since     is itself derived from



In any event, these verbs do not experience morphophonemic change and they will not be
discussed further.


The Scope of Gemination Rules
The application of the gemination rules is not as wide as that of other rules. For example,
the rules of Hamza verbs (             ) which are known collectively as       , as well as the
rules of assimilated, hollow, and deficient verbs (          ) which are collectively known as
    or      apply to verbs, gerunds, derived nouns, and many other types of words in the
language. Gemination, however, applies to verbs and derived nouns, but many gerunds and
other types of nouns are not included. Consider the following as an example.




Here the second and third radicals are the same, thus we would expect them to geminate.
But this does not happen. The reason is because all the rules associated to irregular verbs –
whether they be           ,   , or   – are designed to ease pronunciation, yet the
pronunciation of the above word is already quite easy. For this reason gemination has a
slightly limited scope.


As a result of this, the rules that are given in the remainder of this tutorial should not be
thought of as universally applicable (they have many exceptions). There will be categories of
words for which the upcoming rules do not apply. There is no sense in listing these
categories of nouns at this point; one will discover them through exposure, and that is best.


Gemination Rules
There are two major rules for gemination. The first is as follows
Rule 1
                   if two identical, vowelled radicals occur side-by-side in the same lexical
                   word and the letter before them is vowelled, the two will geminate and
                   the resulting letter will be given the vowel of the second duplicate


One of the applications of this rule is in the perfect tense verbs (active and passive). Three
examples have been given below. The original forms were as follows




Notice that, in each case, the final two radicals of the verb are identical, they are both
vowelled, and the letter before them is also vowelled. As a result of this, the two identical
letters geminate and the vowel given to the resulting letter is the vowel on the third radical
(the second duplicate). Since the vowel on the third radical is the same for each of the three
cases above, the three examples end up looking the same:




This gemination, however, only occurs for the first five conjugations. This is because, beyond
that, it is no longer the case that the two identical letters are both vowelled. Below is a chart
with a few tangible examples that clarifies this.




Exercise:
    1. Duplicated verbs are not realized in paradigms              and           . But consider
         other (more advanced) popular paradigms. In how many of those do you expect
         Rule 1 to take effect?
    2. Consider the derived nouns for simple 3-lettered verb paradigms. In how many
       of those do you expect Rule 1 to take effect? Remember to consider different
       forms of each derived noun, as well as the plurals.
    3. Can you give examples of gerunds where Rule 1 applies and takes effect, and
       examples where it applies but does not take effect?



The second of the two major rules of gemination is the following. Notice the similarity
between the two rules.


Rule 2
                   if two identical, vowelled radicals occur side-by-side in the same lexical
                   word and the letter before is non-vowelled, the vowel from the first of the
                   duplicates will transfer to the letter before, then the duplicates will
                   geminate


Rule 2 applies to the imperfect verb (both active and passive) as well as the imperatives.
Consider the following original forms.




Here is an instance where there are duplicate letters, both of which are vowelled, and
before them is a non-vowelled letter. In such situations, the vowel from the first duplicate
will transfer to the previous letter. This results in the following.




Gemination is then applied, giving us the following conjugations.




This rule applies to all conjugations of the imperfect verb except 6 and 12 (the plural
feminine verbs), where the conditions for Rule 2 are not met.
Exercise:
    1. Consider the perfect tense for the advanced paradigms. Which one of the two rules
          will apply in each case?
    2. Consider the imperfect tense for the advanced verb paradigms. Which of the
       two rules will apply in each case?
    3. Consider the imperative verbs for paradigms       ,    ,   , , and     .
       Which of the two rules, if any, will apply in these cases?
    4. Form the active and passive participles for the advanced verb paradigms. You
       can use verbs from the list of practice verbs.



There is one more point to discuss which relates to the jussive form of the imperfect verbs.
Consider those conjugations (active and passive) which do not end in a (there are five of
these).


Imperative                                 Imperfect                                   Conj. #
                                                                                       1
                                                                                       ...

                                                                                       4
                                                                                       ...
                                                                                       7
                                                                                       ...
                                                                                       13

                                                                                       14


A problem occurs when we attempt to form the jussive conjugations, including the
imperatives. The final letter of these conjugations must be made        . This, however, poses
a problem since a geminated letter cannot be stripped of its vowel; this would result in two
successive       .


In order to alleviate this problem for jussive verbs (not the imperatives), the following
options are available.


    1. The final letter may be given a      because that is the lightest vowel and the closest
          to
    2. The final letter may be given a         because this is the vowel typically used to
        alleviate problems related to the gathering of two




    3. If the first radical has a    , the final letter may be give the same vowel in order to
        match




    4. The gemination may be undone




And in the case of the imperatives, if speech is begun with the verb, Rule 2 must be undone.
Notice that the eliding Hamza will then be required.




Otherwise, if the verb occurs in the middle of speech, the following options are available.


    1. The tribe of     give the final letter a




    2. The tribe of        give the final letter a     if the next letter in the sentence is
        vowelled, and a        otherwise




    3. The tribe of          give the final letter a




    4. Yet others match the vowel on the final letter with that of the first radical
Exercise:
    1. Conjugate the verb             using imperfect jussive once for each of the conjugation
          options
    2. Repeat question (1), only this time, do not recite a separate table for each
       option; recite a single table and repeat the conjugations for which different
       options are available


More Complicated Rules for Enquiring Minds

#   Rule                                                             Example
3
    if a duplicated verb is in paradigm          or it is passive,
    and we’re working with the perfect conjugations in
    which Rule 1 does not apply, it is permissible to drop the
    first of the two duplicated radicals; it is also possible to
    transfer its vowel to the first base letter before dropping
4
    in certain rare situations, it is permissible, instead of
    maintaining the duplicated letters in the perfect verb, to
    convert the second to a



5
    in conjugations 6 and 12 of the imperfect verb, it is                becomes
    permissible to drop the first of the two duplicate letters
    after transferring its vowel to the previous letter



6                                                                       and
    if a verb is both       and, moreover, the duplicated
    letter is a weak letter, Rule 1 may be used or it may be
    forgone; in practice, this only applies to two verbs:
    and
7
    it is obvious that when two duplicate letters occur side-
    by-side in the same lexical word where the first is non-
    vowelled and the second is vowelled, the two will
    geminate unconditionally




Highly Deficient Verbs
What is this Tutorial About?

Verbs in the Arabic language are considered irregular when one of five things
happens. Either they are Hamzated, they are assimilated, they are hollow, they are
deficient, or they are duplicated. Studying each of these types of irregularities is
crucial in being able to conjugate verbs correctly. And being able to recognize which
of the mentioned irregularities applies to a particular verb is a crucial component in
reading comprehension.



This is an advanced tutorial that deals with verbs in which two or more of the above
mentioned irregularities are found simultaneously. Such verbs are termed Highly
Deficient.


Introduction

Up to three of the five mentioned irregularities may be seen in a single verb. This,
however, is typically not a problem because the rules that govern irregular
conjugation are mutually exclusive. This means that if a verb has multiple
irregularities, the rules of each will be applied to the verb and they will not conflict.



There are two cases, though, that are worthy of separate mention and that have a few
caveats. These irregularities are known as    (Aggregated) and they are as follows.



Definitions
                   Dispersed Aggregation – when a verb is both         and
                   Contiguous Aggregation – when a verb is both           and     , and
                   perhaps
     Exercise:

        1. Identify the irregularities in each of the following verbs, then conjugate them in the
              perfect and imperfect tense.


                 a.

                 b.
                 c.
                 d.
                 e.
                 f.

2.    Fact 1: Theoretically speaking, a verb may fall into four of the five categories of
     irregularities
     Fact 2: In practice, the only verbs in which two base-letter , two base-letter , or
     two base-letter occur side-by-side are           and
     Task: Using facts (1) and (2), construct a syllogistic argument to show that Fact 1 can
     never be true in practice


     Aggregated Irregularities
     Rule 1
                        if a verb is reduced to a single letter, the       will be appended to
                        it



     Conjugate the verb            in the perfect, imperfect, and imperative tense. In doing
     this exercise, one will notice that the imperative conjugations start off with the verb
     – that is the entire verb, reduced to a single letter after having undergone the changes
     of both assimilated verbs as well as the changes of deficient verbs. This is the case for
     the second-person, active, masculine, singular conjugation for all verbs of the
     irregularity type           .



     When a verb is reduced to one letter like this, it is awkward to keep it in isolation. In
     order to avoid this, it becomes necessary to append a non-vowelled to the end of
     the verb. This is typically reserved for poetry and is used to complete prosodic
     metre or maintain rhythm and rhyme. It is employed in this particular conjugation of
these particularly irregular verbs in order to avoid single-lettered verbs. Hence the
imperative conjugations look as follows.



               Second-person active imperative active conjugations

               for verbs with Dispersed Aggregation




Thankfully, this is the only caveat with respect to the          irregularity. In all other
conjugation tables, the beginning of the verb will simply follow the rules of
assimilated verbs, while the end will follow the rules of deficient verbs.



Now conjugate the verb             in the perfect tense as a start. One would expect
both the rules of hollow verbs as well as the rules of deficient verbs to take effect.
However, this is not the case. Recall Rule 6 from Hollow Verbs; the rule gave several
exceptions regarding when       will not be applied. One of those restrictions expressed
that    will not apply to a glide when that glide is the middle radical of a      verb.
And that is exactly the case with the in       .



We can summarize this in a simple statement: when dealing with               verbs, the
Deficient aspect of the verb will be treated but the Hollow aspect will not. Below are
the conjugations for the perfect tense; as an exercise, continue conjugating the
imperfect and imperatives.



                       Perfect tense conjugations for verbs

                       with Contiguous Aggregation
     Exercise: Conjugate the following verbs in the perfect and imperfect tense.

        1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.



     A Special Verb

     Almost all verbs are accounted for now that verbal irregularities have been thoroughly
     discussed. But there remains a special verb which we still do not know how to
     conjugate quite yet. The verb is , which can mean ―to see‖ and it can also mean ―to
     have an opinion about something‖. It is a very, very common word used in many
     verbal paradigms for various purposes.



     The special thing about this verb is that it loses its middle radical – the   – in the
     imperfect conjugations. This loss can be attributed to certain morphological rules and
     regulations, but, in reality, it is merely a consequence of excessive usage which
     required the simplification of the verb. The same goes for both the perfect and
     imperfect conjugations in paradigm          . Partial tables are given below.
           Imperfect for          Perfect for           Imperfect for




Exercise: Construct the active and passive emphatic tables for       and    .


Paradigm Connotations
What is this Tutorial About?
In the tutorial entitled Verb Paradigms, we described very precisely the nature of
verbal paradigms, what they are, how they look, and the rules associated with them.
Briefly speaking, a verb can have extra letters added to its base letters that enhance its
meaning and add various connotations. In this tutorial, we discuss how exactly these
extra letters enhance the basic meaning of a verb. We will also discuss specialties of
verbal paradigms beyond their meanings.

For a more detailed picture of where this tutorial fits into Arabic morphology, consult
the introduction to this section entitled Introduction to Arabic Morphology.


Which Paradigms can a Verb Use?
For 3-lettered verbs, there are six basic paradigms and quite a few advanced ones.
And for 4-lettered verbs, there is only one basic paradigm and three advanced ones.

      3-lettered verbs
           o 6 basic paradigms
           o 34 advanced paradigms (the exact number is disputed)
      4-lettered verbs
           o 1 basic paradigm
           o 3 advanced paradigms
Theoretically, verbs must use one of the basic patterns and only then can they utilize
the advanced ones. Many verbs, however, are such that they use advanced paradigms,
circumventing the basic ones. Moreover, a verb will typically use only a handful of
the advanced paradigms – not more than a few.

Furthermore, which of the six paradigms a 3-lettered verb will use is, for the most
part, random. And, at the basic level, there is no extra meaning given to the verb. But
sometimes a verb may use more than one basic form and, in such a situation, there
will usually be a difference in connotation (but not always).

                 # of
# of Basic
                 Advanced          Rarity of
Paradigms                                         Example
                 Paradigms         Such Verbs
Used
                 Used
                                                   ٣٪                ٍ٣٫َ
                                                  ٍَ َ (to perfume), َ َ َ ‫( ض‬to perfume
0                at least one      common
                                                  oneself)
1                0                 rare           ًَّ
                                                  َ ِ ٔ (to be numb)
                                                  َ ٍَ (to knock someone‘s tooth out),
                                                  ََ ‫غ‬
more than 1      0                 very rare      َِ ‫غ‬
                                                  َ ٍَ (to have a lot of space between
                                                  the teeth)
                                   very           ُْ‫نُْ ن‬
                                                  َ َ َ /َ َ َ (to store), ُْ‫( جنط‬to hoard;
1                at least one
                                   common         accumulate)
                                                  ٗ‫َم‬                      ٗ‫َم‬
                                                  َ ِ ‫( ف‬to understand), َ ُ ‫( ف‬to be a
more than 1      at least one      rare           jurisprudent), ّٗ‫( أفمٗ/فم‬to instruct), ٗ‫ضفم‬
                                                  (to comprehend)



Connotations of the Basic Paradigms

                          ‫ع‬
Paradigms ‫ فعَل-يفعِل‬and ‫فعَل-يف ُل‬
Both of these paradigms do not normally add any extra meanings to the basic verb.
However, they are sometimes used to indicate on the victor of a fight/argument/etc.
For example, the verb ‫ ٞحٌخ‬means for people to contend. The verb ‫ ٍٞخ‬from the
 ٫ ٫
ًُ ‫ ف ًَ-٠ف‬paradigm would then be used to indicate who won the contention. So we
                     ٍ
would say ―ٍّٚ٪ ‫ ‖٠ٟحٌخ َ٠ى ٚ٪ٍّٚ فٓ١ٟ ُخ‬meaning ―Zaid and Amr are arguing, and
Amr is soon to win the argument.‖


Paradigm ‫فعِل-يفعَل‬
This pattern does not typically add extra meanings to the verb. However, some trends
have been noticed. For example, many verbs from this paradigm attribute qualities to
their subjects, as in ‫― يٌخ‬to be sharp‖. Many other verbs are used to express that
something negative has happened (especially to the body), as in ّٟ٪ ―to become
blind‖ and ُ‫― ذى‬to become dumb‖. But no generalizations should be made.
Paradigm ‫فعَل-يفعَل‬
Any verb inaugurated into this paradigm must have a throat letter (‫ )ء، ٖ، ٨، ـ، ٬، ل‬as
its second or third root letter. This rule has very few exceptions.


          ‫ع ع‬
Paradigm ‫ف ُل-يف ُل‬
These verbs are used to attribute qualities to their subjects. For example, ٌ‫ ؾى‬means
―to be appropriate‖. Being appropriate is a quality and not an action. Consequently,
these verbs will never be translated using phrases such as ―it became X‖; we will
simply say ―it was X‖. Another example is the verb ٍِ‫ ٚغٍَ-٠ػ‬which means ―to make
                               ‫غ‬
soft‖; in this paradigm it is ٍُ ٚ and it means ―to be soft‖.

Another connotation offered by this paradigm is that of a pleasant exclamation. For
                                                                                ٫
example, the verb ٍُِ٪ simply means ―to know‖, but the speaker may opt to use ًُ ‫ ف‬if
he wants to express ―wow, he really knew!‖ or ―wow, how well he knew!‖.

All verbs in this paradigm are actually limited to these two connotations. That is to
say, they will not be empty of one of these two meanings. Consequently, all verbs in
this paradigm are intransitive.


Paradigm ‫فعِل-يفعِل‬
Only 15 verbs (give or take) come from this paradigm, all of which are ٞٚ‫:ِػحي ٚج‬

، ٌٟٚ ،ُ‫ٚغك، ٚؾى، ٚقُ، ٌٚظ، ٌٚ٨ , ٌٚن، ٌَٚ، ٚ٪ك، ٚ٪ُ، ٚفك، ٚلٗ، ٚو‬
ُ٘ٚ ،‫ِٚك‬
There are a few others, like ‫.قٓد‬


Connotations of the Enhanced Paradigms

Paradigm ‫إفعال‬
This paradigm is very popularly used for transitivity. For example, the simple verb
ٍّ‫ ؾ‬means ―to sit‖, but the enhanced form ٍّ‫ أؾ‬means ―to make someone sit‖.
Similarly, ‫ ٍٖخ‬means ―to drink something‖, but ‫ أٍٖخ‬means ―to make someone drink
something‖. And finally, ٍُ٪ can mean ―to know someone is something‖, but ٍُ٪‫أ‬
means ―to inform someone that someone is something‖. Notice that this paradigm
increases the level of a verb‘s transitivity.

This paradigm is also used to express that the subject of the verb has achieved the
meaning of the verb. For example, the noun ٍّ‫ غ‬means ―fruits‖ and so ‫أغٍّش جٌٗؿٍز‬
would mean ―the tree has become fruit-bearing‖. Such verbs are typically not realized
in the basic paradigms; they bypass them.

Another connotation conveyed is that of entering the time or place indicated by the
verb‘s base meaning. For example, the noun ‫ ٔؿى‬refers to the Arabian highlands (it is a
proper noun), and so ‫ أٔؿى‬means ―to enter the Arabian highlands‖. Here, too, the verb
has no equivalent in the basic paradigms.

The final connotation of mention here is that of removal. That is to say, this paradigm
expresses the subject removing the root meaning of the verb from the object. For
                                                               ‫ط‬
example, the base letters ٚ ،‫ ٔ، ن‬mean ―to complain‖, and so ُٗ ١‫ أٖى‬would mean ―I
removed his complaint.‖

There are a plethora of other connotations expressed by this paradigm, but an
exhaustive list would not be appropriate. The above are by far the most productive in
the language and the rest are rare.


Paradigm ‫تفعيل‬
As in ‫ ,ئف٫حي‬this paradigm is also popularly used for transitivity. For example, ‫ٞكه‬
                               ‫ك‬
means ―to laugh‖, whereas ‫ ٞ ّه‬means ―to make someone laugh‖. Since both ‫ئف٫حي‬
and ً١٫‫ ضف‬increase a verb‘s transitivity, it is valid to ask which of the two will be used
for a given verb. This is random and must be looked up in a dictionary. Sometimes,
                                                      ‫ر‬
however, both paradigms are used, as in ‫ أٔرأ‬and ‫ .ٔ ّأ‬In such cases, either is fine. When
this situation occurs in modern Arabic, the ‫ ئف٫حي‬paradigm is considered more formal.

The ً١٫‫ ضف‬paradigm is also commonly used for expressing intensity. For example, the
                                                            ٣
simple verb ٩٣‫ ل‬means ―to cut‖, whereas the enhanced form ٩ّ ‫ ل‬means ―to chop up‖.

This paradigm is also used to indicate the subject‘s turning towards a direction which
comes from the verb‘s base letters. For example, the noun ‫ ٍٖق‬means east and the
      ٍ
verb ‫ ٖ ّق‬means ―to face east‖.

A very rhetorical usage of this pattern is its use for metaphor and simile. What
happens here is that a set of base letters is chosen whose meaning acts as a metaphor
for the subject‘s condition. For example, if Zaid‘s body is really bent and misshapen,
                    ٛ
we might say ‫― ل ِّ َ٠ى‬Zaid is bent‖, where the word ِٛ‫ ل‬actually means ―bow‖. So it
is as if we‘re saying that Zaid is bent like a bow.

Finally, another usage of this pattern is to abbreviate long words or phrases. The
Islamic creed, ‫ ,ال ئٌـٗ جال جهلل‬for example, is abbreviated using this paradigm. We take the
                                                  ٍ
three most significant letters and we get ًّ٘. This verb now means ―to recite this
creed‖.

Rarely but sometimes, this paradigm does not add any connotation whatsoever. And
there are, of course, many other connotations that we have not mentioned. The above,
however, are the majority and the most commonly used.


Paradigm ‫مفاعلة‬
Among the few connotations associated with this paradigm is its multi-partisan
nature. In other words, verbs in this paradigm are such that they involve multiple
parties. ً‫ لحض‬means ―to fight‖, ُ٘‫ ْح‬means ―to hold shares together‖, ‫ ٖحٌن‬means ―to
participate‖, and ‫ ٚحفف‬means ―to shake hands‖. All of these things involve multiple
groups interacting with each other at some level.
                         ‫ت‬
Paradigms Prefixed with ‫َـ‬
This group includes
   
      ً٪‫ضفح‬
      ًٍ٫‫ضف‬
      and many of the rare paradigms


These are the reflexive versions of the equivalent paradigms without the ‫ ش‬prefix. For
           ٠                               ٠
example, َّٓ means ―to adorn‖ whereas ُّٓ‫ ض‬means ―to adorn oneself‖, ‫ ْحءي‬means ―to
interrogate‖ whereas ‫ ضٓحءي‬means ―to interrogate one another‖, and so forth.

And these paradigms can also be used as consequences of their non-‫ ش‬equivalents.
             ‫ٍص‬         ٍ
For example, ُ ّّ٫‫― ٪ّّٕٟ فط‬he taught me, so I learned‖. Learning is a consequence of
someone teaching.

                          ٫
Furthermore, paradigms ًّ ‫ ضف‬and ً٪‫ ضفح‬in particular can be used to express that the
                                                                             ‫ؿ‬
subject has pretended to enact the root meaning of the verb. For example, ٩ّ ٗ‫ ض‬can
mean ―to pretend to be encouraged― and ً٘‫ ضؿح‬can mean ―to pretend to be ignorant;
i.e. to be coy‖.

                   ٫
And finally, the ًّ ‫ ضف‬and ً٪‫ ضفح‬paradigms are also used for diligent acquisition. This is
very similar to the previous connotation of pretending. With pretending the subject
has not acquired the root meaning of the verb but is pretending to have done so,
whereas with diligent acquisition the subject is trying to acquire the root meaning. For
example, ً٘‫ ضؿح‬in the pretending sense will mean ―to be coy‖ while in the acquisition
sense it will mean ―trying to be ignorant‖. A minor point to note about diligent
                     ٫
acquisition is that ًّ ‫ ضف‬can only be used for positive meanings and ً٪‫ ضفح‬only for
                                                                        ٙ
negative meanings. Since ignorance is negative, one would not say ًّ ‫ ضؿ‬with the
intention of conveying the acquisition connotation.


Paradigm ‫افتعال‬
This pattern has many associated connotations. Among them is for its verbs to be a
                                                                            ‫ّص‬
consequence of the same verb from a different paradigm. For example, ‫ؾ َ٫ ُ جٌىطد‬
‫― فحؾطّ٫ص‬I collected the books, thus they gathered (or became collected)‖.

There are several other meanings; however, they are often not helpful and a dictionary
is invariably required to ascertain a verb‘s meaning. Therefore, they will not be listed
here.


Paradigm ‫استفعال‬
In the vast majority of cases, this paradigm connotes the sense of seeking the meaning
of the verb. Whereas ٍٛٔ simply means ―to help‖, for example, ٍٕٛ‫ جْط‬means ―to seek
help‖. Similarly, ٍ‫ جْطغف‬means ―to seek forgiveness‖ and ‫ جْطهٍؼ‬means ―to want to take
out‖ or more accurately ―to derive; to extrapolate‖.
This paradigm also indicates the verb‘s subject deeming something. An example will
clarify this: ‫ ٞ٫ف‬means ―to be weak‖ and ‫ جْطٟ٫ف‬means ―to deem someone weak‖;
                                                        ً
in other words, to think of someone as weak. Similarly, ّ ‫ جْطم‬means ―to consider
something to be less or insufficient‖.

This paradigm does have other connotations which will not be listed here.


Paradigms with ‫ نْـ‬Near the Beginning
These include the following
           for 3-lettered verbs
      ‫ جف٫ّٕالي‬for 4-lettered verbs


These paradigms render the verb passive. A clear example of this is the word ٍٓ‫و‬
meaning ―to break‖, which when inaugurated into this pattern gives ٍٓ‫ جٔى‬meaning ―to
become broken; to shatter‖.

There is actually a rhetorical difference between expressing passiveness using a
verb‘s actual passive form and between using this paradigm. When we use a verb‘s
passive form, although the subject of the verb is not mentioned, there is an indication
                                                                                    ُ
and hint towards the fact that there is a subject. For example, the passive verb ٍِٓ‫و‬
means ―it was broken (by someone)‖. On the other hand, using the ‫ جٔف٫حي‬paradigm
gives no such indication. Hence ٍٓ‫ جٔى‬would simply mean ―it broke.‖

This is the only connotation conveyed by these patterns. As a consequence, all verbs
in these paradigms will be intransitive.


Paradigms ‫ افعالل‬and ‫افعيالل‬
These paradigms can be used only for verbs that carry the meaning of colours or
                             ٍ                                        َ
bodily defects. For example, ّ ّ‫ جق‬means ―to blush or become red‖ and ّ ‫ جو٘ح‬means ―to
become dark green/black‖.


          ‫ال‬
Paradigm ‫افع ّل‬
This paradigm is used to slightly exaggerate the meaning coming from the root letters.
             ٍ
For example, ّ ٫ٗ‫ جل‬means ―to tremble or quake‖.
Summary
This section explains what the reader should take away from this tutorial.

Basic Paradigm          Connotations
 ٫ ٫
ًُ ‫ف ًَ-٠ف‬
 ٫ ٫
ًِ ‫ف ًَ-٠ف‬
                           a quality is attributed to the subject
 ٫ ٫
ًَ ‫ف ًِ-٠ف‬                 a (bodily) defect has occurred


 ٫ ٫
ًَ ‫ف ًَ-٠ف‬                 the second or third base letter must be a throat letter

 ٫
ًُ ‫ف‬                       a quality is attributed to the subject

 ٫ ٫
ًِ ‫ف ًِ-٠ف‬                 only a handful of verbs use this paradigm

ًٍ٫‫ف‬

Enhanced
                        Connotations
Paradigm
                           transitivity
‫ئف٫حي‬                      entering into a time or place

                           transitivity

ً١٫‫ضف‬                      intensifying the meaning of the verb


‫ِفح٪ٍس‬                     participation of different groups/people
                           reflexive of
                           consequence of an action expressed using ً١٫‫ضف‬
 ٫
ًّ ‫ضف‬                      the subject pretends to do the meaning of the verb
                           diligent acquisition of a positive quality

                           reflexive of
                           consequence of an action expressed using ‫ِفح٪ٍس‬
ً٪‫ضفح‬                      the subject pretends to do the meaning of the verb
                           diligent acquisition of a negative quality


‫جفط٫حي‬                     consequence of an action
                           to seek or want the meaning of the verb
‫جْطف٫حي‬                    for the subject to deem/consider the object to be
                             something


‫جٔف٫حي‬                      passive

‫جف٫ّالي‬                     verbs are either colours or defects

‫جف٫١ّالي‬                    verbs are either colours or defects
                            reflexive of
ًٍ٫‫ضف‬                       consequence of an action expressed using ًٍ٫‫ف‬


‫جف٫ّٕالي‬                    passive

 ‫ّال‬
‫جف٫ ّي‬                      slightly intensive




Summary of Arabic Morphology
Introduction
The Arabic language sub-science known as ‫ – ٍٚف‬referring roughly to what we
know as Morphology as well as Etymology – is a subject through which one learns
the internal assembly of a word by way of patterns of vowelization and introduction
of extra letters—or what we call a template. Morphology differs from Lexicology in
the sense that the latter gives the root meaning associated to a set of base letters,
whereas the former gives all other meanings and connotations achieved by the
template.

In practice, the following topics are discussed in this science. Their purpose is to aid
students of the language, with the help of Lexicology, in forming and correctly
vowelling words.

    1. conjugating basic conjugable words
    2. conjugating enhanced conjugable words
    3. conjugating irregular conjugable words
    4. understanding the added meanings achieved by enhancing basic conjugable
       words


Simple Conjugation
Below are conjugation tables for a particular verb in the perfect and imperfect tenses.
Alongside the tables are methods of varying the meaning of a verb in each of the two
tenses. Notice that the tables also note the idiosyncrasies of certain conjugations.
Perfect Tense
Voice (rendering an active verb passive)                                     Perfect Tense
   1. starting with the first conjugation, the second-last letter is given   ‫فطف‬
                                                                             َ ََ
       a                                                                       ‫فطك‬
                                                                             ‫َ َ َح‬
   2. all preceding letters which are vowelled are given a ‫ّٞس‬
   3. conjugation then proceeds normally
                                                                                 ‫فطك‬
                                                                             ‫َ َ ُْٛج‬
                                                                                  ‫فطك‬
                                                                             ْ‫َ َ َص‬
                                                                                ‫فطك‬
                                                                              ‫َ َ َطح‬
Negation (negating an affirmative verb)
                                                                              َ ْ‫َ َك‬
                                                                              ٓ ‫فط‬
   1. the particle precedes the verb as a separate word
                                                                              ‫فط ص‬
                                                                              َ ْ‫َ َك‬
      this applies to both active and passive                                   ‫فط ط‬
                                                                              ‫َ َكْ ُّح‬
                                                                              /              ْ ‫فط ط‬
                                                                                             ُُ ْ‫َ َك‬
Distance (changing the meaning of ―opened‖ to ―has opened‖ or                    ِ ّ‫فط ط‬
                                                                              ُْْٟٔٛ ُ ْ‫َ َك‬
―had opened‖)                                                                 ِ ْ‫َ َك‬
                                                                              ‫فط ص‬
      present perfect (“has”) is achieved by the particle     preceding         ‫فط ط‬
                                                                              ‫َ َكْ ُّح‬
       the verb as a separate word                                            َ ُ ْ‫َ َك‬
                                                                              ٓ‫فط ط‬
      ‫ لى‬applies to affirmative active and affirmative passive only
                                                                              ‫فص‬
                                                                              ُ ْ‫َك‬َ‫ض‬
      past perfect (―had‖) is achieved by conjugating the verb ْ‫وح‬
       in tandem with the main verb (somewhere before it)
      ْ‫ وح‬applies to both voices and both affirmative and negative
      ْ‫ وح‬will be conjugated in the active despite the voice of the
                                                                                 ‫فط‬
                                                                             ‫َ َكْٕح‬
       main verb




Imperfect Tense
Voice (rendering an active verb passive)                                     Imperfect
   1. starting with the first conjugation, the second-last letter is given   Tense
       a                                                                     ُ َ ْ‫َف‬
                                                                             ‫٠ طف‬
   2. the imperfect prefix is given a ‫ّٞس‬                                    ْ ‫٠ط‬
                                                                             ِ ‫َفْ َكح‬
   3. conjugation then proceeds normally                                     َ ُْٛ َ ْ‫َف‬
                                                                             ْ ‫٠ طك‬
                                                                             ‫ض طف‬
                                                                             ُ َ ْ‫َف‬
Negation (negating an affirmative verb)                                      ْ ‫ضط‬
                                                                             ِ ‫َفْ َكح‬
   1. the particle precedes the verb as a separate word                      َ ْ‫َفْ َك‬
                                                                             ٓ ‫٠ط‬
      this applies to both active and passive
                                                                             ُ َ ْ‫َف‬
                                                                             ‫ض طف‬
                                                                             ِ ‫َفْ َكح‬
                                                                             ْ ‫ضط‬
                                                                             َ ُْٛ َ ْ‫َف‬
                                                                             ْ ‫ض طك‬
Limiting the Tense
                                                                             َ ْ١ِ َ ْ‫َف‬
                                                                             ٓ ‫ض طك‬
      the particle    is prefixed to the verb to limit it to the near
       future
                                                                             ْ ‫ضط‬
                                                                             ِ ‫َفْ َكح‬
                                                                             ٓ ‫ضط‬
                                                                             َ ْ‫َفْ َك‬
       the particle ‫ ْٛف‬precedes the verb as a separate word to               ‫ض‬
                                                                            ‫أ َف‬
                                                                            ُ ْ‫َف‬
        limit it to the somewhat distant future
       both particles apply to affirmative active and affirmative
        passive only


Building the Subjunctive
   1. the 5 conjugations without a       suffix will have their   change    ‫ٔ طف‬
                                                                            ُ َ ْ‫َف‬
        to a
                                                    ْ
   2. the rest of the conjugations will lose their ْٚ
   3. but conjugations 6 and 12 will retain their ْٛٔ (they do not
      change at all)

       the particle   is one of 4 reasons an imperfect verb is rendered subjunctive;
        emphatically negates the verb in the future (“will never”)

Building the Jussive
   1. the 5 conjugations without a       suffix will have their   change to a
   2. the rest of the conjugations will lose their ْٛٔ
   3. but conjugations 6 and 12 will retain their ْٛٔ (they do not change at all)

       the particle ٌُ is one of 5 reasons an imperfect verb is rendered jussive; ٌُ
        emphatically negates the verb in the past (―has never‖)


Distance (forming the past continuous ―used to‖ or ―would‖)
       conjugate the verb      in tandem with the main verb (somewhere before it)
       this applies to both active and passive and can be negated using the particle ‫ِح‬
       the verb ْ‫ وح‬will be conjugated in the active despite the voice of the main verb


Emphasizing the Verb
   1. render the imperfect verb subjunctive (this is just a shortcut and, grammatically
        speaking, the verb will not actually be in the subjunctive case); if the verb now ends
        in     or , drop that letter
   2.   prefix every conjugation with the particle ‫ٌَـ‬
   3.                                                               ٓ
        for every conjugation that ends in an Aleph, add the suffix ِ ‫ـ‬
   4.                                               ْ
        for conjugations 6 and 12, add the suffix ِ ‫ـح‬
   5.                                              ٓ
        for all other conjugations, add the suffix َ ‫ـ‬

       the emphasized verb has its tense limited to the future (―will certainly‖)
       this applies to affirmative active and affirmative passive only
       note that in every conjugation with an Aleph before the particle of emphasis
        (the ْٛٔ), the ْٛٔ is ٌٛٓ‫ ,ِى‬and that it is ‫ ِفطٛـ‬in all other conjugations
       it is possible, for prosodic reasons, to use a lighter particle of emphasis – the
        particle ْٓ‫ ـ‬with a ْٛ‫ – ْى‬but this can only be done with those conjugations
        where the other ْٛٔ is ‫ِفطٛـ‬
Command and Prohibition
Forming the Imperative
       for the second-person active conjugations
           o start with the imperfect and remove the prefix
           o Add an eliding Hamza if necessary. The vowel on this Hamza will be
               determined as follows
                     1. if the second base letter has a ‫ ,ّٞس‬the Hamza will be given a
                        ‫ّٞس‬
                     2. if the second base letter has either of the other two vowels, the
                        Hamza will be given a ‫وٍٓز‬
       for all other conjugations
           o Prefix the imperfect conjugations with ‫ .ٌِـ‬This َ‫ ال‬will have a ْٛ‫ْى‬
               when preceded by a conjunction
       all imperative conjugations will receive the same ending as the imperfect
        jussives

       all imperative conjugations can be emphasized using either of the two methods
        of emphasis mentioned above



Forming the Prohibitive
   1. using the imperfect conjugations, the particle will precede the verb as a separate
        word
   2. the conjugations will receive the same ending as the imperfect jussives

       all prohibitive conjugations can be emphasized using either of the two
        methods of emphasis mentioned above




Derived Nouns
                       Fem.       Masc.
Fem.       Masc.
                       Sound      Sound
Broken     Broken                           Feminine Masculine Group
                       Plural     Plural
Plurals    Plurals
                       Used       Used
ً٪‫فٛج‬         ٫‫ف‬
           ،‫ُ ّحي‬      Y          Y         ‫فح٪ٍس‬       ً٪‫فح‬          Active Participle
           ٫
         ‫ف ٍَس‬
ً١٪‫ِفح٪ً، ِفح‬                Y        Y           ‫ِف٫ٌٛس‬           ‫ِف٫ٛي‬              Passive Participle
                                                            ٫‫ف٫ ف٫ ف‬
                                                        ،ًْ١ِ َ ،‫َ ًِ، َ ُْٛي‬
various                      often
                                                            ٫‫ف٫ ف٫ ف‬
                                                       ،‫َ َحي، ُ َحي، ُ ُْٛي‬          Hyperbolic
                                                           ِ ٫ ‫ف٫ ف‬
                                                    ،‫ِ ِ١ًْ، َ١ْ ُٛي، ِفْ٫َحي‬         Participle
                                                   ٌ ٫‫ِ ٫ ف‬
                                                  ‫ِفْ ِ١ًْ، َ َحَس‬
                                                                                      Resembling
various                      very rarely          various
                                                                                      Participle
                                                                    ٫ِ
                                                                   ًَ ْ‫ِف‬
 ٪ ‫ِف‬
ًِ ‫َ َح‬
                                                   ٍ٫ ِ
                                                  ‫ِفْ ََس‬
                             N                                                        Utilitarian Noun
                 ٪ ‫ِف‬
              ًْ١ِ ‫َ َح‬                                            ‫ِفْ٫َحي‬ِ
               ٪ ٛ‫ف‬
              ًِ ‫َ َج‬                                               ٪‫ف‬
                                                                   ًَ ‫َح‬
                                                                    ٫ِ
                                                                   ًَ ْ‫َف‬             Locative/Temporal
               ٪ ‫ِف‬
              ًِ ‫َ َح‬        N
                                                                    ٫ِ
                                                                   ًِ ْ‫َف‬             Noun
                                                                                      Comparative            /
 ٫‫ف‬
ًَ ُ           ٪‫ف‬
              ًِ ‫أَ َح‬       Y        Y               ‫ف‬
                                                  ٍْٝ٫ُ            ًَ ْ‫أَف‬
                                                                    ٫                 Superlative


Verb Paradigms and Paradigm Connotations
Verbal paradigms are variations that come about in the stem of basic verbs, and they
result from one of two things. The first is a result of the combination of middle letter
vowel in the perfect conjugations and the middle letter vowel in the imperfect
conjugations. For a given verb, the middle letter vowel for both tenses is basically
random and is determined by looking in a dictionary. There is basically no meaning
significance to these vowels and this is just a phenomenon of the language. The
combination of what vowel a verb‘s middle radical is given in the two tenses gives the
following paradigms.

           Passive   Active Part. or Common
Cmd.                                                Common Gerunds                      Imperfect   Perfect
           Part.     Substitutes
                     Intransitive    Transitive     Intransitive         Transitive
   ُ ‫ج‬
ًْ٫ْ‫ُف‬                                              ،‫ِ٫َحي‬‫ف‬                              ‫ؼ‬
                                                                                        ‫َفْ ُم‬      ‫فؼم‬
                                                                                                    َ ََ
 ًْ٫ْ‫جِف‬
   ِ                                                   ‫ف٫ّال‬
                                                    ،َْ َ َ                              ‫ؼ‬
                                                                                        ‫َفْ ِم‬      ‫فؼم‬
                                                                                                    َ ََ
                      ٪‫ف‬
                     ًِ ‫َح‬
                                                    ،‫ُ٫َحي‬‫ف‬
  َ        ٫ِ
ًْ٫ْ‫َفْ ُْٛي جِف‬                        ٪‫ف‬
                                       ًِ ‫َح‬        ًْ١ِ َ ،‫َ٫ًْ ُ ُْٛي‬
                                                       ٫‫ف٫ ف‬          ‫ف‬                  ‫ؼ‬
                                                                                        ‫َفْ َم‬      ‫فؼم‬
                                                                                                    َ ََ
   َ
ًْ٫ْ‫جِف‬             ‫ف٫ ف ّال‬
                ،َْ ْ٫َ ،ًِ َ                                                            ‫ؼ‬
                                                                                        ‫َفْ َم‬      َ َِ
                                                                                                    ‫فؼم‬
                                                     ٫‫ف‬
                                                    ًَ َ
 ًْ٫ْ‫جِف‬
   ِ             ٫
               ًَ ْ‫أَف‬                                                                   ‫ؼ‬
                                                                                        ‫َفْ ِم‬      ‫فؼم‬
                                                                                                    َ َِ
                        ‫ف٫ ف‬
                  ،ًْ٫َ ،ًْ١ِ َ
  ُ ‫ج‬
ًْ٫ْ‫ُف‬                                               ٌ ٫‫ف٫ ٌ ف‬
                                                    ‫ُ َُْٛس، َ َحَس‬                      ‫ؼ‬
                                                                                        ‫َفْ ُم‬      َ َُ
                                                                                                    ‫فؼم‬
                 ٫       ٫‫ف‬
               ًَ ْ‫َ ًَ، أَف‬
  ٍ ‫ِف ٍ ِف ٍ ف‬
 ًِْ٫َ ًَْ٫َ ُ ًِْ٫َ ُ                                ٍ‫ف‬
                                                    ‫َ٫ٍَْس‬                               ‫ُف ْه‬
                                                                                        ‫َ َؼ ِم‬     ‫ف ْهم‬
                                                                                                    َ َ ‫َؼ‬
The other reason why verbal paradigms exist is because of extra letters that are added
to the stem in order to enhance the meaning of the verb. The following are by far the
most popular methods of enhancement.

Popular Connotations Achieved
                                               Gerunds                        Perfect
by the Enhancement
transitivity                                   ‫ئِفْ٫َحي‬                         ٫٠ ََ
                                                                              )ًِ ْ‫أَفْ٫ً ( ُف‬
                                                         ‫ض ٫ ف٫ ف‬
                                                    ،‫َفْ ِ١ًْ، ِ َحي، ِ٫َحي‬
transitivity, intensity                                                        ‫ف‬
                                                                              ًَ
                                                                              َ٪
                                                ٍ٫ ‫ض‬
                                               ‫َفْ َِس‬
mutuality                                            ‫ِف ٪ٍ ف‬
                                               ‫ُ َح ََس، ِ٫َحي‬                َ ٪‫َح‬
                                                                              ًَ ‫ف‬
reflexive of ً١٫‫ ,ضف‬consequence to ً١٫‫,ضف‬
pretending to do the verb                         ٫‫ضف٫ ضف‬
                                               ‫َ َ ًُ، ِ ِ َحي‬                َ ٫َ َ
                                                                              ًَ ‫ضف‬
reflexive of ‫ ,ِفح٪ٍس‬consequence to ‫,ِفح٪ٍس‬
pretending to do the verb                       ٪ ‫ضف‬
                                               ًُ ‫َ َح‬                        ًَ ‫ضف‬
                                                                              َ ٪‫َ َح‬
reflexivity, consequence of an action, etc          ‫ط‬
                                               ‫جِفْ ِ٫َحي‬                     َ ٫َ ْ‫جِف‬
                                                                              ًَ ‫ط‬
seeking the verb, to deem/consider
something X                                           ‫ط‬
                                               ‫جِْْ ِفْ٫َحي‬                   ًَ ‫ط‬
                                                                              َ ٫ْ‫جِْْ َف‬
passivity                                           ‫جف‬
                                               ‫ِْٔ ِ٫َحي‬                      َ ٫َ ِْٔ
                                                                              ًَ ‫ج ف‬
Forming the imperfect conjugations
    1. append the imperfect prefix
    2. if the first conjugation of the perfect tense has exactly 4 letters (including
       eliding Hamzas), the prefix will be َِّٟٛ, and it will be ‫ ِفطٛـ‬otherwise
    3. if the perfect conjugations have an extra ‫ ضحء‬prefixed to them, the second last
       letter will be ‫ ,ِفطٛـ‬otherwise it will be ٌٛٓ‫ِى‬

       all variations of the perfect verb, all variations of the imperfect verb, and
        forming the imperative and prohibitive all use the same formulas as the simple
        verb
       derived nouns, however, are treated differently


Forming the active and passive participles
    1. starting with the first conjugation from the imperfect table, replace the imperfect
        prefix with a
    2. for the active participle, ensure the second last letter is ٌٛٓ‫ ,ِى‬and for the
       passive, ensure it is ‫ِفطٛـ‬

       enhanced paradigms do not have other derived nouns; although they may use
        the two participles as a substitute if necessary
Irregularity Rules

Hamza Verbs
Rule 1
                 if two Hamza occur side-by-side in the same lexical word and the
                 first has a vowel while the second does not, the second Hamza must
                 change to the long vowel appropriate to the short vowel on the first



Greater Etymology
What is this Tutorial About?

  A set of base letters (in a particular order) gives us an abstract meaning, and nothing
   more. Morphology will tell us which patterns we can apply to these letters, what the
       result of applying those patterns will be, how to conjugate the resulting word (if
 possible), and what tangible meaning the new word conveys. Each pattern will give a
slightly different meaning, but the underlying concept afforded by the base letters will
                   ).           always be present. This is known as Lesser Etymology (



       Lesser Etymology works at the level of a set of base letters and it recognizes the
      common meanings that different words with the same root letters share. There is
      ) that         another type of etymology, however, called Greater Etymology (
  recognizes the common meanings words with different base letters share. It looks at
   the common thread that runs through different words that Lesser Etymology would
         consider completely unrelated. And it gives strong attention to the relationship
                                    between letters and the meanings that they convey.



                                            This tutorial discusses Greater Etymology.


A Note on this Topic

     This is by no means a mature science. It has been recorded to some degree in the
books of Abu l-Fath cUthmān b. Jinnī (Cf. al-Khasā’is), Abu cAli al-Fārisī, and Abu l-
     Fadl cAbd l-Rahmān b. Abi Bakr Jalāl l-Dīn al-Suyūti. Other revered saints have
  commented on this science in passing, but it remains largely undiscovered territory.
       Therefore, what we present here is based on the observation of scholars such as Ibn
           Jinnī. There are no rules, no systematic methodologies except those we impose
       ourselves, and no observations are to be taken as universally applicable regulations.




    Subject Landscape

        Even after well over a millennium, this science is still experiencing its birth pangs.
         Here we attempt to categorize the sub-topics that it covers in order to get a better
                                 understanding of the definition and extent of this science.



                                                                            This science asks:

           What is the relationship between (base) letters and the meanings they convey?

   How are different permutations of the same base letters related in meaning?

    Is the occurrence of a specific letter in the same position of different bases
    significant?

               o And what if more than one letter is shared?

   What is the significance of the form and position of extra letters?


    Relationship Between Letters and Meanings

                                                                          Onomatopoeia
       Often times, the letters that make up words – in terms of their sounds, their weight,
       and other qualities – give an indication towards the meaning they convey. In other
        words, they are onomatopoeias. And this was something done intentionally by the
                                                Arabs when they were coining new words.



           For example, the croaking of frogs to an Anglo-Saxon would sound like ―ribbit,
        ribbit‖. But to Arabs it sounds more like ―dafda, dafda‖. Consequently, the Arabic
                                                                     .   word for frog is
    Furthermore, the sound of someone loudly munching on food such as dates (or peanut
      butter) sounds like ―smack, smack‖. Early Arabs recognized this sound as ―khadam,
                           .       khadam‖. Therefore, the Arabic word for munching is



         And similar to this is the sound of munching on something hard, as in an animal
      munching on pellets or its bridle. To us this may sound like ―cachunk, cachunk‖, but
         to the Arabs this sounded like ―qadam, qadam‖. As a result, the Arabic word for
                                        .        or        munching on something hard is




                                    Quality in Letters vs. Quality in Meaning
    The letters of the Arabic alphabet have several associated qualities such as being light
            or heavy, being easy to pronounce or being difficult, and so forth. Most of the
                                                          qualities have been listed below.




           the letters in              are pronounced weakly and with a flowing breath,
            whereas the other letters are pronounced with more vigour and do not flow as well

   the letters in           are hard when pronounced, while the other letters are softer

    the letters in           are the heaviest letters of the language; they are heavy, fat,
    thick, full-mouth letters, while the other letters are not as intense

   the letters         are especially full letters and the tongue rises to the top of the
    mouth and embraces the palate during their pronunciation

    the letters in       are articulated very easily, quickly, swiftly, and with minimal
    effort, whereas the other letters are not quite as easily pronounced

    the letters in      , when without vowels, will be pronounced with somewhat of an
    echo

   the letters         create a slight whistle when articulated

   the letter    vibrates in the mouth when pronounced

   the letter causes a vibration and shiver of the tongue
    the letters and    flow very nicely and they have the capacity to be extended to
    several morae



           Often the letters of a word have qualities that reflect the meaning that the word
        conveys. If the letters are intense, for example, the meaning may have an aspect of
                                                                              intensity to it.



         – a letter which is weak, . It has two An example of this is found in the word
         flowing, easy to pronounce, and so forth. And interestingly, this word means to be
        contain letters that are hard, thick,  and light or nimble. Similarly, the words
       and have other such qualities. And they both mean to squeeze, constrict, or envelop.
     , whose letters are very intense, means to be rugged, tough,     And finally, the word
                                                                                    or thick.



        Furthermore, a letter in a given word that has a particular quality may be replaced
        with a counterpart letter that has the opposite quality. On their own, the two words
        might mean roughly the same thing, but often – and especially when juxtaposed –
              their meanings contrast in a manner similar to the contrast of the two letters.



      has the means to flow or splash (as in a river). The letter         For example, the word
             quality of being weak and it flows in the mouth easily. Consequently, this word
           , however, is much thicker and indicates on a gently moving stream. The letter
    . This new word,       harder. Therefore, we can make a switch in this word resulting in
        although it may or may not be found in a dictionary, indicates on a gushing stream.
     has a means to cut something lengthwise. Notice that the letter Similarly, the word
        also has an echo, but it is relatively shorter and this letters is long echo. The letter
         , we end up with with pronounced much more quickly. Hence, if we switch the
                                                                which means to cut width-wise.



                                            .    and not      This sort of thing is, of course,



      Making these switches is at the height of eloquence, it is the ne plus ultra of literary
      perfection and it represents the pith of lexicological proficiency. It is no wonder that
       this sort of thing is well found in the Qur‘an. The example of the gushing stream is
                                       used by His Ultimate Majesty in the following verse.
                                              Therein will be two springs gushing forth



   Yet another example of this is found in the following verse that speaks of the people
  as opposed to a has been employed using a           of Thamud. In the verse, the word
. Both are allowed, but the former is a stronger letter and it does not glide as well as
 version of the word is more intense, indicating on the extreme the latter. Hence the
                                        severity of the insolence of the Thamud people.




          The people of Thamud denied (the truth) out of their insolent rebelliousness




Base Letter Permutations

  Although every set of base letters has a unique meaning, it has been noticed that the
same set with different permutations has an underlying connotation that is common to
      ), (       ), (      ), (     ), (      all permutations. For example, the roots (
       ) all have different meanings, but they share a common abstract          ), and (
                       connotation by virtue of the fact that they share the same letters.



 This is not universal, of course, but it is far too common to ignore. Every set of three
 letters has six permutations. Now all of these might be actual roots (as in the case of
                     ) or it may be that not all the permutations are meaningful.



  as a quintessential example. These letters (not in any , and , Let‘s take the letters
particular order) give the abstract connotation of nimbleness and haste. Now consider
 the chart below which considers all six permutations of these letters (all of which are
              meaningful) and analyzes how this abstract connotation comes into play.
Permutation
                       Some Associated
 (i.e. a set of                                        Connection with the abstract meaning
                             Meanings
base letters)
                                                  because it is the thing to which the      speech is called
                                  : speech              mouth and tongue hasten and for which they are
                                                                                                      nimble
                                                    because this type of donkey is observed to be quick
                             : wild donkey
                                                                                                 and nimble
                                                   because baking causes the food to become dry, light,
                              : to bake/fry
                                                                                and it hastens to break apart
                    : to climb (mount.              due to the goat‘s quick and nimble movements up a
                                          goat)                                                    mountain
                              : to rush                                                          this is clear

                                                   as in to knead something and move it quickly within
                  : to work with the hands
                                                                                                   the hands
                                  : cream          because it‘s light and moves easily      cream is called
                                                             due to its swift      an eagle has been called
                                   : eagle
                                                                         movements and nimble strides.




   We can thus make the conclusion that base letters such as these have two levels of
  meanings: the first is the one from the letters themselves, and the other is from their
                                                                            permutation.



 which , and , Below is a similar table with a different set of letters. The letters are
                    hold the abstract connotation of strength and intensity/severity.



                       Some Associated
Permutation                                            Connection with the abstract meaning
                             Meanings
                                 : wound            called such because it is serious and life threatening
                                 : speech                because it causes the most intense form of pain
                                                   when something is complete, it is stronger and more
                         : to be complete
                                                                    intense than when it was incomplete
                                                  a strong and severe blow to the cheek causing intense
                         : to punch or box
                                                                                                         pain

                                                                                            Does Not Exist
                                                   called such due to the serious and intense impact a
                        : a dried up well
                                                            dried up well has on a desert community
                             : to own or rule            due to the strength the ruler has on the ruled




            carry the abstract meaning of collecting (e.g. , and , Similarly, the letters
     means market, a place where merchandise is collected). And likewise there are many
                                                                        other examples.




    Common Letters

    The previous section dealt with roots that share all three of their base letters. Here we
        discuss the case where one or two letters are common between different roots and
    occurs in the second they occur in a common position. For example, when the letter
    position (whatever the first and third positions may hold), the meaning is often that of
                                                                        cutting or spreading.



               Notice that the difference between this section and the previous is twofold:

          previously, all three letters were the same, while here one or two are different

   previously, the positions of the letters didn‘t matter so long as they were the same,
    while here the position is important



    as the second base letter, consider the following words Taking our example with the
                                                                     and their meanings.




             : to come (i.e. sever yourself from where you were)

     : to sever; achieve; terminate; decide once and for all

     : to sever; amputate

       to sever
     : to sever; make final

         : to scrape off

         : death (i.e. severance from life)

      : to circumcise

   etc



        Notice also from the above list the even stronger resemblance between words that
     both share the first     and share more than just one letter. For example, the words
        two letters while the former means to betray and the latter means to double-cross.
     share their first two letters while the former       and         Similarly, the words
         means to be on the verge of death and the latter means to cure someone from the
                                                                            verge of death.



    Sometimes the meanings of such words are not related on a literal level. Instead, they
           means      are often related on the basis of causality. For example, the word
     means grief; when oppressions prevails, grief follows.      oppression and the word
      means to be eager or     means to withhold and the word         Similarly, the word
         zealous; when something is withheld, people become eager for it. And finally,
          means to buzz; when something (as in a means to sway back and forth while
                     mosquito‘s wing) sways intensely and repeatedly, it starts to buzz.



          One should not object at this point, exclaiming that these meaning associations are
                                           farfetched. In fact this was the intent of the Arabs.


    Extra Letters

    Extra letters that are added to words are often indicative of the types of meanings they
                                                                                    convey.

                                                              Base Letter Duplication

     is achieved by doubling the middle base letter and one of its The verbal paradigm
       most prominent connotations is to indicate that an action has been done repeatedly.
    means to cut     means to cut, but the enhanced verb For example, the simple verb
 repeatedly (i.e. to chop). Notice that the multiplicity in the word has indicated on the
                                                              multiplicity in the meaning.



  also have a doubling of a base letter and they      and Moreover, the paradigms
    afford the connotation of something happening a lot or repeatedly. For example,
 means to become dark green or black.       means to become very red or to blush and
 Notice how the duplication of the base letters has indicated on the intensity and even
                                                       the multiplicity of the meaning.



Similarly, the hyperbolic participle has many patterns. If we pry deep enough, we will
 notice that not all of these patterns give exactly the same sense of exaggeration to the
         ) give the sense of doing something       (as well as root letters. The pattern
repeatedly to the extent that it becomes a habit, a profession, or the like. For example,
    means globetrotter (someone who travels repeatedly). Notice that here too the
       duplication of the base letter has indicated upon the duplication in the meaning.



   This duplication doesn‘t, in fact, have to be extra. 4-lettered words with letters one
and three the same and two and four the same also connote repetition and duplication.
      means to be agitated; a state during which one moves For example, the word
means to jingle, rattle, ring, or chink;     means to convulse.       around repeatedly.
      all of these things are done repeatedly. Notice how the multiplicity in letters has
                            indicated on the multiplicity in the action afforded by them.



                                                        Extra Letter Positioning

           Not only does duplication play a role in the meaning, but its placement is also
, it is the middle letter that has been       and significant. Notice from above that with
                                   , it is the last letter. and duplicated, whereas with



    In the case of the first two patterns, the connotation of repetition is specific in the
   sense that the repetition happens quickly; no sooner does one instance of the action
     stop that the next one begins. Moreover, the action itself is choppy; it happens in
      (chopping) is something which is done        small, quick instances. For example,
 quickly and one instance of the action is not entirely complete before the next starts.
So notice how the speed and choppiness of the meaning is reflected in the fact that the
       duplication happens in the middle of the word; the word doesn‘t end before the
                                                                 duplication is indicated.
          coming at the end indicates that the     and Conversely, the duplication in
repetitions of the action are well spaced (relatively speaking) and that the action is not
  (blushing) is something that happens saliently       choppy but smooth. For example,
 and it is not choppy; ergo the connotation of intensity. And this has been indicated by
            the duplication happening at the end of the word; the action completes, then
                                                                    duplication happens.



   . The former means to hum or         and Something similar happens in the case of
 buzz (as in a grasshopper) and the latter means to hum with pauses in between (e.g. to
       whip, as in the wings of an eagle). Notice how the compactness of the letters in
indicates on the proximity of noises in a hum, and how the capaciousness of the letters
                       indicates on the sparseness of the noises when whipping.      in



 Thus far, our examples have been limited to base letter duplication. But the meanings
   afforded by extra letters as well as their positions is by no means limited to this. For
 . Notice that the extra letters that offer the      example, consider the verb paradigm
―seeking‖ meaning (which is by far the most productive connotation of this paradigm)
  are brought before the base letters at the front of the word. This is because when you
  want something, you do not yet have it. First comes the seeking, and then comes the
    have accordingly been and action afforded by the base letters. Hence the extra
                                                            brought before the base letters.
Arabic Grammar

Introduction to Arabic Grammar
How we Study Grammar
Arabic grammar is centered around a single topic; grammatical inflection. Anything studied
in the language is studied only because it relates to this issue. It is a feat of staggering genius
on the part of medieval grammarians that almost all aspects of the language are covered just
by concentrating on the issue of grammatical inflection. We start with this topic, and it
branches out to cover the entire language.


The following is a breakdown of how we approach and study grammar. This approach allows
us to cover all the core issues.


    1. some basics
           a. words – a look at the different types of words in the language and how
               they‘re divided and categorized
           b. phrases – a close look at some of the more common phrasal structures,
               serving to introduce some key concepts and terminology
           c. sentences – a look at the different types of sentences as preparation for
               more advanced topics
    2. grammatical inflection – the study of what grammatical inflection is, how it
       works, and the different grammatical states
    3. inflection – a deep look at those words in the language that inflect and those
       that do not
    4. reflection – the study of how grammatical states are represented on different
       types of words that do inflect
    5. the grammatical states – the study of each grammatical state and when it is
       used
           a. nominal sentences – this topic covers about 30% of the grammatical
               states
           b. verbal sentences and adverbs – this topic covers about 20% of the
               grammatical states
           c. other verbal associates – this topic covers about 10% of the
               grammatical states
           d. the genitival states – this topic covers about 5% of the grammatical
               states
           e. grammatical states of verbs – this topic covers about 30% of the
               grammatical states
           f. grammatical extension – this topic concludes the discussion on
               grammatical states
    6. other, more advanced topics including the following
           a. Arabic numbers
           b. pluralisation and broken plurals
           c. types of


The rest of this tutorial gives some introductory data dealing with the different types of
words, phrases, and sentences in the language. This paves the way for the study of further
topics and helps put further tutorials into perspective. But one must realize that an essential
part of learning the grammar of any language is practicing through reading. In order to learn
Arabic grammar correctly, theory must be supplemented by reading texts with and without
vowels in front of a teacher. This can only be achieved through Arabic courses such as the
Shariah Program.


Map of the Language

utterance


unpointed          coined


                   group of words                                 word


                   phrase                 sentence


Any sound released from the mouth of a human is termed by the Arabs as ‘utterance’ (         ).
Now utterance may be sensible or it may not be. Sensible utterance is that which makes
sense to the Arabs, and it is termed ‘coined utterance’ (     ). Non-sensible utterance is
that which does not carry any meaning for the Arabs. This includes things like foreign
speech, awkward sounds, and so forth, and it is termed ‘unpointed utterance’ (         ).


Coined utterance is then either realized as single words (   ), or as multiple words (      ). If
these multiple words have a copula (a link between the subject and predicate) then the
speech is termed a ‘sentence’ (    ). Otherwise, the speech is known as a phrase (                  ).
Examples of sentences are “he is back” and “I ate the apple”, where “is” is the copula in the
first sentence and the copula in the second sentence is abstract. Examples of phrases include
“the old woman across the street”. Within these words there is no copula, hence the speech
is a phrase.


Words

word
conjunctions
particles (such as most interjections)


Practice: Under which of the three categories in Arabic would the following English words
fits?
       boy
       cheap
       within
       an
       lifted
       brownies
       silently
       Oh no!
       our


Phrases
There are many types of phrases in the language. Most of them are introduced at calculated
points in time, but two are of very special interest due to their productiveness and
pedagogical benefits. These can be studied in the tutorial entitled Arabic Phrases.
    Sentences

    sentence


    verbal                                          nominal


    There are two main types of sentences; nominal and verbal. The former is that sentence
    which effectively begins with a noun, and the latter is that which effectively begins with a
    verb. There are actually other ways in which we can categorize different types of sentences,
    but this method is by far the most productive and by far the most relevant. Other methods
    of categorization will be introduced in subsequent tutorials as needed.




    Arabic Words
    Overview of Words

    As mentioned in the introduction to the grammar section, words in Arabic are divided
    into three categories. The following is a more detailed treatment of this.




               pl.    (noun): This category is defined as those words that impart a single
             meaning on their own and do not afford a tense. Roughly speaking, this is
             equivalent to what we know in English as nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

      pl.   (verb): This category is defined as those words that impart a single
    meaning on their own and afford a tense. This is exactly what we in English know as
    verbs.

        pl.      (particle): This category is defined as those words that do not impart a
    meaning on their own . Roughly speaking, this is equivalent to what we know in
    English as prepositions, conjunctions, articles, and other particles.



    Particles don‘t impart a meaning on their own. This means that they are only
    understood when other words are mentioned along with them. In fact, their very
    purpose is to expose certain attributes in the words around them. For example, the
    word ―and‖ cannot be understood fully unless it has something to its right and left, as
    in ―you and I‖. The purpose of ―and‖ in this example is to expose the attribute of
    conjunction in the words ―you‖ and ―I‖. Another example is the word ―from‖. On its
    own, it doesn‘t give a clear meaning and it needs to have something after it, as in
    ―from Basra‖. In the example, the word ―from‖ exposes the attribute within Basra of
    being an origin. Without ―from‖, this attribute would not have otherwise been
    apparent.



    Hence any word that does not impart a meaning of its own accord, rather it helps
    expose attributes of other words, is a particle. If this is not the case, then the word is
    either a noun or a verb.



    Now, nouns do not afford a tense whereas verbs do. Consider the word ―yesterday‖.
    This is either a noun or a verb since it imparts a single meaning on its own. But which
    of the two is it? The word ―yesterday‖, although its meaning has something to do with
    time, does not afford a tense. Hence it is a noun. On the other hand, a word such as
    ―go‖ does afford a tense (the future in this case). Hence it is a verb.



    These three categories cover all of the words in the Arabic language and they are
    mutually exclusive. That is to say, any given word must fit into one, and only one, of
    the above.


    Nouns

    Nouns are categorized in many ways. The following is a list of all the useful ways in
    which a noun can be classified. Each one has its own place in grammar and this
    tutorial will give only a brief introduction to each plus a link to more dedicated
    tutorials as they are made available.




           gender: all nouns are either

                o masculine or

                o feminine

   plurality: all nouns are either

                o singular,

                o dual, or
                o plural

    derivation: all nouns are either

                o not derived and nothing is derived from them,

                o a source of derivation (also known as a gerund), or

                o derived from a gerund

    definiteness: all nouns are either

                o indefinite or

                o definite

    grammatical reflection

                o many sub-categories



     Gender
     Nouns in Arabic are either masculine or feminine; there is no neutral gender. By
     default, a noun is masculine unless it has one of the four signs of femininity on it. The
     signs of femininity are as follows.




        1. the explicit round Taa, called         if it is attached to the letter before it ( ) or
                 if it is detached ( )

2.   the assumed round Taa

3.   the             ( ) that comes at the end of nouns and is beyond the base letters

4.   the         (     ) that comes at the end of nouns and is beyond the base letters



             Method of Feminization                 Example
             Round Taa                                     (female Muslim)
             Assumed round Taa                          (eye)
                                                         (most high)
                                                     (erudite people)




There is quite a bit more to be said about gender, but that will be discussed in a
dedicated tutorial.



Plurality
In Arabic, nouns are either singular (there‘s one of them), dual (there are two of
them), or plural (there are three or more of them). A singular noun is typically made
dual by adding either the suffix      or the suffix   , depending on the grammatical
case of the noun.



        Singular                              Dual
                   (dragon)




This is seemingly quite simple, and most of the time this is all there is to it. However,
there are some rules to noun duality which will be discussed in a dedicated tutorial.



A singular noun may be made plural in one of two ways. One method of pluralisation
is to add the suffix  or      (depending on the grammatical case) for masculine
nouns, and the suffix    for feminine nouns. These are called sound plurals. Another
method for forming plurals is to use certain patterns. These are called broken plurals.



        Singular                              Plural
                                                              (sound masculine)

                                                       (sound feminine)
                                                     (broken)




There is a lot to be discussed with respect to plurals in Arabic. The tutorial entitled
Pluralisation gives a detailed account of plurals, and the tutorial entitled Broken
Plurals is an advanced discussion about forming broken plurals.
     Derivation
     With respect to whether a noun has been derived using morphology or not, nouns fall
     into exactly one of three categories. A noun could be such that it has not been derived
     and nothing has been derived from it. These are called frozen nouns and an example
     of this is the word      (tree). A noun could be such that other words are derived from
     it using the rules of morphology. This type of noun is called a gerund and an example
     is the word      (to play / playing). Finally, a noun could be derived from a gerund.
     Such nouns are called derived nouns and examples include the active participle, the
     passive participle, the superlative, and others.



     There is nothing to be said about frozen nouns; they are simply looked up in the
     dictionary. Very deep Arabic etymology does, however, give some attention to these
     types of nouns. For a detailed account of this, refer to the advanced tutorial entitled
     Greater Etymology. Gerunds are not thoroughly studied because there is little to be
     said about them beyond their patterns. For a brief look at gerunds, refer to the tutorial
     entitled Verb Paradigms, where the most common gerunds are given. And finally,
     derived nouns are discussed thoroughly in the Derived Nouns tutorial.



     Definiteness
     By default, a noun is indefinite. There is no article, sign, or any mechanism that
     indicates this. In order to make a noun definite, one of seven things must be done. In
     other words, there are seven ways in which a noun is made definite; if none of those
     have been used, the noun is indefinite.



     The methods of definiteness are as follow

        1. the noun is a personal pronoun (“ ”)

2.   the noun is a demonstrative pronoun (― ‖)

3.   the noun is a relative pronoun (―     ‖)

4.   the noun is a proper noun (―Saudi Arabia‖)

5.   it is prefixed with the definite article

6.   it is a non-final noun in a possessive structure and the final noun is definite
7.   the noun comes after a particle of vocation (―      ‖)



     Most of the above are topics with their own place in grammar and it is not appropriate
     to give their details here. Dedicated tutorials will be made available for each of them.



     Grammatical Reflection
     Most nouns in the language experience grammatical inflection. This results in nouns
     entering different grammatical cases depending on how they‘re being used in a
     sentence. But not all nouns reflect their case in the same manner. So when we divide
     nouns based on how grammatical cases are represented on them, we get 16 categories.
     For a full treatment of this topic and this list of 16 categories, refer to the Reflection
     of Grammatical Case tutorial.



     Summary
     The above ways of classifying a noun are separate from one another. Thus a given
     noun will have a particular gender, a plurality, a derivation class, a type of
     definiteness, and a method of grammatical inflection. All of these methods of
     classification will apply to a given noun.



     For example, the word        (tree) is

            in terms of gender: feminine

    in terms of plurality: singular

    in terms of derivation: frozen

    in terms of definiteness: indefinite

    in terms of its method of grammatical inflection: Reflection Type I
     Verbs

     Arabic morphology has its own way of classifying and dealing with verbs. The main
     topic of grammar, however, is grammatical inflection. In light of this concept,
     grammar divides verbs into the following categories.




                  (perfect): the past tense verb

            (imperfect): this includes the present, future, prohibition and all variations

                (imperative): this includes only the active, second-person conjugations
     of the command verb



     The Grammatical Inflection tutorial discusses which of the above types of verbs
     inflect for grammatical case, and the Grammatical Reflection tutorial discusses how
     that inflection is reflected on the verb.


     Particles

     There are less than 80 particles in the entire language. Due to the number being so
     small, it is possible to categorize them based on their meanings and their effects,
     explaining the meaning of each particle one by one.



     Particles are divided into the following 15 categories.

        1.            : genitival particles

2.                    : the particles that resemble verbs

3.                : conjunctions (e.g. ―and‖)

4.              : particles used for alerting (e.g. ―Hey!‖)

5.              : vocative particles (e.g. ―O‖)

6.                : particles for affirmative answers (e.g. ―yes‖)

7.              : particles used for negative answers (e.g. ―never‖)
8.              : extra

9.              : particles that introduce an explanatory sentence (e.g. ―i.e.‖)

10.             : gerundival particles

11.               : particles use for prodding

12.             : particles used to indicate nearness in time or certainty (e.g. ―has/had‖)

13.               : interrogative particles

14.             : conditional particles

15. Miscellaneous



      Since there are so many categories, they will not be discussed at this point.




      Arabic Phrases
      What is This Tutorial About?
      When we talk about speech in Arabic, we typically divide it into three categories:

            words
            phrases
            sentences


      There are many types of phrases in the language – over a dozen, in fact. Each of these
      are introduced slowly and gradually as a student studies sentences and grammatical
      structures. They are studied as needed and as encountered.

      Two types of phrases, however, are of fundamental importance and they are very
      productive in the language. These are:

            the adjectival phrase (a noun and an adjective describing it)
            the possessive phrase (two nouns, one ―belonging‖ to the other)
The Adjectival Phrase

What is the English Equivalent?
Examples of this type of phrase in English include ―the ferocious lion‖, ―the slow
children‖, ―an unfortunate accident‖.

Notice that we have two words – the first is an adjective and the second is the noun
that it describes or qualifies. And needless to say, the adjective will always stay the
same while the noun that it describes can be of any gender, plurality, or definiteness.
For example, we can say

        Gender: “the ferocious lion” and “the ferocious lioness”
        Plurality: ―the ferocious lion‖ and ―the ferocious lions‖
        Definiteness: ―the ferocious lion‖ and ―a ferocious lion‖



How is this Done in Arabic?
So let‘s take a look at how this adjectival phrase works in Arabic. In order to do this,
consider the example below.

                                                                             ٌ ٟ ُْ
                                                                           ِْٞ ‫جألَ َى جٌ َح‬
the ferocious lion

The first thing to notice is that, in Arabic, the noun comes first and the adjective
follows it (reading from right to left, of course). In the example, the word ―‫ ‖جألْى‬is the
                         ُ َ
noun and it is called ‫( ِْْٛٚٛف‬one being described) and ―ٌٞ‫ ‖جٌٟح‬is the adjective and it
            ‫ٚف‬
is termed ‫( ِ َس‬description).

Definitions
     ٚ ِ
‫َْٛ ُْٛف‬              the one being described; must come first
   ٚ
‫ِفَس‬                  the description; must come second

A single noun may have many successive adjectives, as in the following example.

ْ ّٓ ُ ٣‫أل ُ ر‬
ُ ‫ج َ٢ْفَحي جٌ ِ َحء جٌ ِ َح‬
the slow, fat children

Grammatical Rulings
Unlike in English, where the adjective stays the same and the noun inflects for gender,
plurality, and definiteness, both parts in Arabic must match. And the aspects in which
they match are four:

    1. gender – masculine or feminine
    2. plurality – singular, dual, or plural
    3. definiteness – definite or indefinite
    4. grammatical case – nominative, accusative, or genitive


That is to say, if the noun being described is masculine, then the adjective(s) will also
be masculine. If it is feminine, then the adjective(s) will also be feminine. And
similarly, the adjective(s) will follow the noun in being singular, dual, plural, definite,
indefinite, nominative, accusative, and genitive. The grammatical case of the noun
will be based on the circumstances of the sentence. But the case of the adjective will
have to match.

Ruling
                    the form of all adjectives of a noun must be chosen to match the
                    noun in gender, plurality, definiteness, and grammatical case

Below are a few examples. Confirm that the noun and its adjective(s) are matching in
gender. There are 4 ways in which a noun could be feminine but, usually, words in
Arabic are feminine if they end in the round ‫ ,ز‬and they are masculine otherwise.

                 Arabic                            English
                 ٌ َ ِ َ ‫َ ِ َس‬
                 ‫ٚر١ ٌ َو١س‬                        a pure (female) baby
                 ً َ ُْٛ ْ‫َح َِس َى‬
                 ‫٢ ٌٚ ً ِ ٓ ٌز‬                     a broken table
                 ًْ ‫َ ٌ ره‬
                 ُ ١ِ َ ٌ‫َ٠ْى ج‬                    Zaid the miserly
                 ِ ِ ََٛ ُ ٌ‫جٌ َكٍْ ج َذْ َٝ ج‬
                 ١ْ ‫ر ِ أل ١ ِ ّط‬                  the Mediterranean Sea

Below are a few more illustrations of the noun and adjective. Confirm that they match
                                                           ْ           ٓ
in plurality. If a noun is dual, it will end in either the ِ ‫ ـح‬or the ِ ْ١‫ ـ‬suffix. Plurality is
more complicated.

              Arabic                             English
                                                 two knowledgeable
              ْ ٌّ ٪ ِ ١ٌ‫ٚ ى‬
              ِ ‫َ١ْ َِ َحْ َحِ َح‬                pharmacists
               ُ َ َِ َ ٌ‫جٌ ِؾْ َز ج‬
               ‫ٛ ٗ ُ ٫ٍّ١س‬                       the practical aspect
              ٌ ‫أل ُ ٛغ‬
              ُ ‫ج َ٢ْفَحي جٌ ِ َح‬                the small children

Confirm that the words below match in definiteness. A word can be definite in 7
ways. Some of these include having the ‫ جٌـ‬prefix, being a proper noun, and being
possessive.

              Arabic                             English
              ‫وط ذ ُ ّ٣ َي‬
              ُ َٛ ُ ٌ‫ِ َح ُٗ ج‬                  his long book
              ‫َ ٌ ٓ ٌق‬
              ُ ِ ‫َ٠ْى جٌ َح‬                     Zaid the thief
              ‫ق٥ ْ٫ ى‬
              ٌ ْ١ِ َ ٌ َ                        good luck
Finally, confirm that the words below match in grammatical case. Grammatical case
can be reflected in 9 ways but, usually, a word is said to be nominative if it‘s last
letter has a ‫ ,ّٞس‬accusative if it has a ‫ ,فطكس‬and genitive if it has a ‫.وٍٓز‬

             Arabic                       English
             ‫ٌ د ٖى ى‬
             ٌ ْ٠ِ َ ٌ ْ٪ُ                an extreme fear
             ًِ ِ ٍ ِ ٔ ‫ذ‬
             ٍ ُّ ‫ٍَْ َح ِؽ‬               a boring show
             ‫ٛؾ َ ٛ د‬
             َ ْ٫َ ٌ‫جٌ َج ِد ج‬            the difficult homework

But it is important to understand that all of gender, plurality, definiteness, and
grammatical case are non-trivial issues. They have their rulings and their place in
grammar. To get an idea of this, below is a noun-adjective phrase which does not
seemingly match in three of the four mentioned aspects. In reality, the words do
match, but this will only become apparent after studying more grammar.

             Arabic                       English
             ٍ َ ِ َ ُُْ ٨ٌ‫َ َج‬
             ‫ٖٛ ِ َ ِ وّ٘س‬                congested streets


The Possessive Phrase

What is the English Equivalent?
The English equivalent of a possessive phrase is, for example, ―the pelican‘s bill‖ or
one can say ―the bill of the pelican‖.

Notice that two nouns are used here. With the adjectival phrase, one noun and one
adjective was used. Moreover, both nouns will inflect for gender, plurality, and
definiteness and each worries about its own inflection. In the adjectival phrase, it was
only the noun that inflected for these things and the adjective simply followed suit.

Consider the phrases below for tangible examples of gender, plurality, and
definiteness. Read these examples, but do not spend too much effort analyzing them;
they are here simply to illustrate a point and are not meant to be the topic of
discussion.

      Gender:
          o both masculine: a man‘s son
          o 1st masculine and 2nd feminine: a man‘s daughter
          o 1st feminine and 2nd masculine: a woman‘s son
          o both feminine: a woman‘s daughter
      Plurality
          o both singular: the pelican‘s bill
          o 1st singular and 2nd plural: the pelican‘s eyes
          o 1st plural and 2nd singular: the pelicans‘ home
          o both plural: the pelicans‘ bills
      Definiteness
          o definite: the pelican‘s bill
          o indefinite: a pelican‘s bill
How is this Done in Arabic?
Consider the example below.

‫رؿ٫س‬             ِ
ِ َ َ َ ٌ‫ِْٕمَحٌ ج‬
the pelican‘s bill

Notice that in Arabic, we follow the ―X of Y‖ structure, where the thing being
possessed comes first and the one possessing it comes second. In the example, the
                                                                       ِ
first noun – the thing possessed – is ―ٌ‫ ‖ِٕمح‬and it is termed the ‫ . َُٟحف‬The second
                                                           ٌ      ِ
noun – the possessor – is ―‫ ‖جٌرؿ٫س‬and it is termed the ْٗ١َ‫. َُٟحف ئ‬

Definitions
‫ُ َحف‬ِٟ                the thing possessed; must come first
   ٌ      ِ
ْٗ١َ‫َُٟحف ئ‬            the possessor; must come second

A point worth noting here is that this phrase doesn‘t always denote possession; it
merely establishes a form of association between the two nouns that‘s a lot like
possession. Compare the translations in the examples below for an idea of what this
really means. Sometimes the second noun genuinely doesn‘t ―possess‖ the first, and
sometimes it‘s the translation that distorts the ―possession‖.

                Arabic                       English
                ‫ن ض ف ٟس‬
                ٍ َ ِ َُ ‫َح‬                  a ring (made) of silver
                                             the house‘s door
                ِ ْ١َ ٌ‫َحخ ج‬
                ‫رص‬         ‫ذ‬                 (the house doesn‘t ―own‖ the
                                             door)
                ِ ١ٌَ‫ٍَٰٚٛز ج‬
                ًْ ٍ                         night prayer (prayer of the night)
                ٓ ٔ‫ٖ ّ َ ِ ألي‬
                ِ ْ١َ ُ ُ ‫َكْ َطٟ ج‬          earlobes (lobes of the ears)


Grammatical Rulings
When speaking about the adjectival phrase, recall that we considered four aspects:

         gender
         plurality
         definiteness
         grammatical case



Gender & Plurality
Both the first and second noun in a possessive phrase worry about their own gender
and plurality, just as in English. Consider the examples below.
                     Arabic                   English
                     ٍ ‫ِذْٓ َؾ‬
                     ًُ ٌ ‫ج‬                   a man‘s son
                     ٍ َ ٍَْ ْٓ‫ِذ‬
                     ‫ج ِ ءز‬                   a woman‘s son
                     ًُ ٌ ‫ذ‬
                     ٍ ‫ِْٕص َؾ‬                a man‘s daughter
                     ٍ َ ٍَْ ‫ِْٕص‬
                     ‫ذ ِ ءز‬                   a woman‘s daughter

                     Arabic                   English
                     ِ َ َ َ ٌ‫ِْٕمَحٌ ج‬
                     ‫رؿ٫س‬             ِ       the pelican‘s bill
                     ِ َ َ َ ٌ‫ُ ُْْٛ ج‬
                     ‫رؿ٫س‬           ١٪        the pelican‘s eyes
                     ٩‫ِك ّ رؿ‬
                     ِ َ َ ٌ‫َ َ١ ج‬            the pelicans‘ resting-place
                     ِ َ َ ٌ‫َ َح ِ١ٍْ ج‬
                     ٩‫ِٕ ل رؿ‬                 the pelicans‘ bills
                     And etc. for duals


Definiteness
As for definiteness, however, the first noun derives its definiteness from the second. If
the second is definite, so too will the first be definite. And if the second is indefinite,
then the first will be indefinite also. This is the same in English. Consider the
following.




Summary
  ٌ ٟ ُْ
ِْٞ ‫جألَ َى جٌ َح‬
the ferocious lion

Adjectival Phrase
         the noun comes first and the adjective(s) follow
         the adjectives must match the noun in
              o gender
              o plurality
              o definiteness
              o the grammatical case of the noun will be determined by external
                  factors; the case of the adjectives will be determined by the noun (they
                  will match it)


‫رؿ٫س‬             ِ
ِ َ َ َ ٌ‫ِْٕمَحٌ ج‬
the pelican‘s bill

Possessive Phrase
         the thing possessed (a noun) comes first and the owner (also a noun) comes second
         the meaning of this structure is not always that of possession as it‘s generally
          understood
         the two nouns worry about their own gender and plurality
         the definiteness of the first noun is determined by that of the second noun
         the first noun will never have ‫ ,ضٕٛ٠ٓ ,جٌـ‬nor the ْٛٔ suffix of the dual or sound
          masculine plural
         the grammatical case of the first noun will be determined by external factors;
          the case of the second noun will always be genitive




Exercises

Below is a list of very common phrases – both adjectival and possessive. Read each
one carefully and try your best to verify that the associated rulings are being applied.

Notice that some of the adjectival phrases have multiple adjectives, some of the
possessive phrases are compound, and some phrases are a combination of the two
types. See if you can confirm that the rules you‘ve learned apply in each of these
complex cases.

                                                Translation (not necessarily indicative of
Phrase
                                                the Arabic structure)

‫ألِ ُ ّط ىز‬
ُ َ ِ‫ج ُ َُ جٌ َُك‬                              the United Nations

                                                the American Unites States
‫ِال٠ ُ ّطكى ُ أل ٍو١س‬
ُ َ ِ ِ َِْ ‫جٌٛ َ َحش جٌ ُ َ ِ َز ج‬             (i.e. the United States of America)


ٍّ ‫ٍٛ ُ أل‬
ُ َ ْ‫جٌ َِ١ْد ج َق‬                              the Red Cross

                                                the Saudi Arabian kingdom
‫ّ ٍى ُ ٫ٍذ١ ُ ٓ٫ و٠س‬
ُ َ ِ ُْٛ َ ٌ‫جٌ ََّْ َس جٌ َ َ ِ َس ج‬           (i.e. the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)


    ‫ك ُ ٫ ٌّ١ ُ أل‬
ٌُْٝٚ ‫جٌ ٍَْخ جٌ َحَ ِ َس ج‬                     the first World War

                                                the white, middle sea
ُ ِ ََٛ ُ ٌ‫جٌ َكٍْ ج َذْ َٝ ج‬
١ْ ‫ر ُ أل ١ ُ ّط‬                                (i.e. the Mediterranean Sea)

                                                morning of good
ِ ْ١َ ٌ‫َ َحـ ج‬
ٍ ‫ٚر َ ه‬                                        (i.e. good morning)


ِ ُْٛ ٌ‫َ َحـ ج‬
ٌ ٕ َ ‫ٚر‬                                        response to good morning


‫ق٥ ْ٫ ى‬
ٌ ْ١ِ َ ٌ َ                                     good luck
                                                mountain of Sinai
َ ‫ُٛ ُ َ١ْ َح‬
‫٢ ٌْٕء‬                                          (i.e. Mount Sinai)


ٓ ‫و ُ أل‬
ِ َِْ ‫َجٌ ج‬                                     place of safety

                                                wide of range
‫ٚ ْ ُ ٕ٣ ق‬
ِ ‫َج ِ٩ جٌ ِ َح‬                                 (i.e. wide-ranging)


ْ ‫لى ُ إل ى‬
ِ ‫َ ٌَ ج ِِْ َح‬                                 as much as possible


ِ ‫َح ِ٩ جٌ َ َج‬
ٌ ٍ‫ٚ ٔ ُ م‬                                      decision-maker (bourgeoisie)

                                                deserver of first praise (i.e. most
ِ َٚ ‫َح ِد جٌ ًَٟ ج‬
‫ٚ ق ُ ف ْ ِ أل َي‬                               deserving, also first one to do something)


ِ ِ٣ٌ‫ُِ َس ج‬
‫وٍ١ ُ د‬                                         faculty of medicine

                                                sound plural of the masculine
ُ ِ‫َّْ٩ جٌ ُ َ ٍَ جٌ َح‬
ٌُ ٓ ِ ‫ؾ ُ ًّو‬                                  (i.e. sound masculine plural)

                                                the website for the learning of the Arabic
ِ َ ِ َ َ ٌ‫َ َ ز َ َُُ جٌُ َس ج‬
‫ٖر َُ ض٫ٍ ِ ٍغ ِ ٫ٍذ١س‬    ‫ه‬                     language




Arabic Sentences
What is this Tutorial About?
Arabic words have already been discussed in the Arabic Words tutorial. Words can come
together in meaningful ways to form phrases. And phrases have also been discussed in the
Arabic Phrases tutorial. Separate words as well as phrases can come together to form a
sentence. This tutorial discusses the different types of sentences in Arabic in preparation for
more advanced topics related to grammatical inflection.


Informative & Non-Informative Sentences
A sentence is a group of words divided into two piles. One of the piles of words is the thing
about which something is being claimed. And the other pile is the claim itself. For example,
“my youngest son is sleeping quietly” is a sentence. The first pile of words is “my youngest
son” and the second is “sleeping quietly”, because “my youngest son” is the thing about
which something is being claimed and “sleeping quietly” is the actual claim. This type of
sentence is called          (informative sentence).


There is one other type of sentence. It also has two piles of words, but the second is not
really a claim about the first. For example, “can I play, too?” is a sentence and the two piles
of words are “can I” and “play, too”. However, nothing is being claimed. This is called
        (non-informative sentence).


A non-informative sentence is actually just an informative one with one of the following
things done to it.
         it is turned into a question; compare “I also play” and “can I also play?”
         it is turned into a command; compare ―you will play with us‖ and ―play with
          us‖
         it is turned into a request; compare ―it won‘t rain‖ and ―I hope it doesn‘t rain‖
         about half a dozen others



There’s a simple rule of thumb that can differentiate between the two types. Given a
sentence, we call the speaker a liar. If this makes sense, then the sentence was an
informative one, and if it doesn’t, then it was non-informative. For example, when someone
says “I went for a walk today”, we can say “you‘re lying” and this makes perfect sense. On
the other hand, when someone says “can I play?”, we cannot say “you’re lying.”


Exercise: determine which of the two types of sentences each of the following is.
    1. what time is it?
    2. the time is a quarter past eight
    3. I can‘t believe that
    4. oh my goodness
    5. take this to the car
    6. don‘t eat that
    7. I think that Arabic is the most superior language
    8. would you please dispose of this
    9. I‘m not sure
    10. I could be wrong
    11. that‘s not the way we do things
    12. I was going to do that
Nominal & Verbal Sentences
Another way in which we can categorize sentences is with respect to the first word. If the
first word is a noun, the sentences is termed         (nominal sentence). And if it is a verb, it
is termed         (verbal sentence). If the first word is neither of these two, in other words
it’s a particle, then we simply ignore it and consider the first non-particle word.
This concept is not actually as simple as meets the eye and one should not brush off this
concept prima facia. A sentence may in fact be verbal where the initial verb is hidden.
Consider the following examples.


                                 Example




Both of the above sentences are verbal even though the first non-particle word in each is a
noun. This is because the sentence begins with a hidden verb in each case. This is not a wide
spread phenomenon at all; students will become aware of the few cases when verbs are
hidden through exposure and through studying grammar.


Exercise: determine whether the following sentences are nominal or verbal and informative
or non-informative.
    1.

    2.

    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.

    7.
    8.



Parts of a Sentence
As mentioned earlier, the words in a sentence can be separated into two piles. That is to say,
all sentences have two parts; the subject and the predicate.
Definitions
                          subject of a sentence

                          predicate



The term         refers to the subject and the term       refers to the predicate, whether the
sentence is nominal or verbal. But figuring out where the subject of a sentence ends and
where the predicate starts is going to become vital and a mistake in this could mean the
difference between heaven and earth. Since this topic is going to be treated so rigorously,
we need more specific terminology.


Consequently, if the sentence is nominal then the           is termed      and the       is
termed     .


Definitions
                          subject of a nominal sentence (called the “topic”)

                          predicate of a nominal sentence (called the “comment”)



Similarly, if the sentence is verbal then the       is termed      and the      is termed     .


Definitions
                          subject of a verbal sentence (i.e. the subject of the verb)

                          predicate of a verbal sentence (i.e. the verb)



Nominal sentence are thus made up of a          and a   and it is between these two parts that
we place the word “is”/”was”/etc when translating. Verbal sentences are made up of a verb,
the subject of that verb, and there may also be some auxiliary material such as objects,
adverbs, and other such entities.




                           (nominal sentence)              (verbal sentence)


         (subject)         (topic)                         (verbal subject)


         (predicate)       (comment)                       (verb + auxiliary entities)
The Heart of Arabic Grammar
In Arabic grammar, we have this concept called grammatical inflection. It is the core of
grammar and everything else revolves around it. Any discussion that the grammarians have
is always rooted in grammatical inflection. Anything the grammarians talk about, they talk
about only because it is related to grammatical inflection. Understand this concept is
understanding the Arabic language and failing to understand it is failing to understand the
language. Arabic grammar IS grammatical inflection.


Having emphasized this concept so much, it begs the question: what is grammatical
inflection? To answer this, we give two analogies. The first is inflection in the English
language. This gives the reader some common ground from which to work and helps the
reader relate to the topic. The second analogy is of human emotions. It is designed to move
away from English inflection and focus more on Arabic’s version of it.


The English Analogy
In English, we have the word “he”, “him”, and “his”. All three of these are in fact the same
word, but that word changes depending on how it’s used in a sentence. For example, you
will say “I hit him”, but you will never say “I hit he” nor “I hit his”.


If “he” is becoming subject, you will say “He ate.” If it is becoming object, you will say “I hit
him.” And if it is becoming possessive, you will say “His son.” The word being used is the
same, but its form changes based on how you use it in a sentence, and this is called
grammatical inflection.


The word HE in different grammatical cases
          He ate
          I hit him
          His son


Can you think of some other English words that inflect like this or similar to this?
Now, in English, very few words experience inflection. For example, nouns such as “Nick” do
not change based on how they’re used in a sentence. You will say “Nick ate”, “I hit Nick”,
and “Nick’s son” (or “the son of Nick”). You will say “Nick” in all three cases.


The word NICK in different grammatical cases
           Nick ate
           I hit Nick
           Nick’s son


In Arabic, the same thing happens except that most nouns (and even some verbs)
experience grammatical inflection.


The Emotions Analogy
Now inflection in the two languages is not the same. So let’s work with a more suitable
analogy.
Human beings experience emotions such as happiness, sadness, and anger. These emotions
are reflected on a person’s face. For example, happiness is reflect through a smile, sadness
through a glum look, and anger through a frown.


So when a person is happy, we will know this because we will see a smile on their face.
Conversely, if we see a smile on a person’s face, we know that they are happy.


Not everyone shows their happiness in the same way; some people smile, others start
laughing, and others might reflect their emotions in slightly different ways.


Now why would a person become happy or sad or mad? It is because there are certain types
of people that influence their mood. Family and friends, for example, have the capacity to
influence a person’s mood, making them feel happy, sad, or mad. Other individuals, such as
people they do not know, do not have such an influence on them.


So let’s say Zaid is not really feeling anything. Then along comes his friend Nick and makes
him happy. Zaid will become happy, this happiness will be reflect on his face by a smile, and
we say that it is Nick who caused the happiness in Zaid.
Humans can change their mood depending on whom they meet. But some encounters are
strange; sometimes people can change their mood simply by seeing someone else’s mood. If
Zaid is not really feeling anything and he sees Nick smiling, it is quite likely that he too will
start smiling. Not always, but this is the case for certain people.




Now, before we overdo this analogy and end up drawing incorrect conclusions, let’s bring
this all back and talk about grammatical inflection in Arabic.


Arabic words do not really have states on their own. But when you put them in a sentence
(like people in a community) , they start having grammatical states. Many words experience
states (like “he” in English), some do not (like “Nick”), and some experience states but they
don’t reflect it (like a person wearing a poker face).


Types of words based on whether they inflect or not
1         Words that inflect and show it
2         Words that inflect but do not show it
3         Words that do not inflect


Words experience grammatical states because other words start influencing them (like
friends influence a human’s mood). Certain types of words can influence others (like family
and friends), while others cannot (like acquaintances).


Types of words based on whether they influence inflection or not
1         Words that influence other words to inflect
2         Words that do NOT influence others to inflect


Another way words can be grammatically influenced is by seeing the state of another word
and mimicking it (like when Zaid becomes happy after seeing Nick smile).


Ways in which a word can be influenced by other words
1         Word 1 directly influences word 2
2         Word 1 influences word 2, then that influence carries over to word 3
When a word is influenced in one of the two mentioned ways, its state changes (like
human’s moods change) and this is reflected at the end of the word (like emotions are
reflected on our faces).


What is the Purpose of All This?
When we use language, we need a way to tell us which part of a sentence is the subject and
which is the predicate, which word is the subject of a verb and which is the object, etc.
Without such a mechanism, sentences would just be a bunch of words slapped together that
really make no sense.


In English, the mechanism is word order and extra words. For example, if we have three
words – hit, Nick, and Zaid – and we say “Nick hit Zaid”, how do you know who did the
hitting and who was hit? The order of the words tells you. The fact that Nick is before the
verb tells you that he did the hitting, and the fact that Zaid is after tells you that he was the
one hit. If you switch the order, “Zaid hit Nick”, the meaning is changed.


Another example: “Nick is crazy”. Who are we talking about and what are we saying about
him? We are talking about Nick and we are saying that he is crazy. But how do we know
this? We know this because there is a special word, “is”, that comes in the sentence;
everything before the word is the subject (what we’re talking about), and everything
following is the predicate (what we’re saying about it).


In Arabic, no such mechanisms are used. Words can be arranged in many permutations and
no extra words are introduced to support understanding the sentence. But we still need to
know what the subject is, what the object is, where the predicate starts, etc. We do this by
grammatical inflection. It is the grammatical case of a word that tells us what role it’s playing
in a sentence and hence helps us understand the meaning.


More Formally
Grammatical inflection is known in Arabic as        . If a word experiences       it is called      ,
and if it does not experience      , or experiences it but does not show it (like a poker face),
it is called   .
The types of words that cause grammatical states are known as                  and those that do not
are called          . When a word is influenced indirectly (like when Zaid becomes happy after
seeing Nick smile), it is called the         and the word it mimics is called the       .


Unlike human emotions, the grammatical states in Arabic are just four:


        1. the state of
        2. the state of
        3. the state of
        4. the state of



There are 8 roles a noun can play in a sentence that would make it                  (in the state of       ),
there are 12 roles a noun can play in a sentence that would make it                   (in the state of
        ), there are 2 roles a noun can play in a sentence that would make it               (in the state of
   ). For example, one of the 8 roles a noun can play is to be the subject of a verb. Arabic
grammar talks about each of these 22 roles and carries the discussion over to verbs as well.


When a word enters one of these four states, that state must be reflected somehow.
Depending on the type of word we’re talking about, this reflection might be done
differently. There are a total of 9 ways in which a state can be reflected and grammar talks
about this.


Example



The example means “Zaid hit Amr.” Here the verb                   does not experience           and hence
it is     . The nouns     and       , on the other hand, do experience           and are thus          .


The verb          is an agent (     ) and it is influencing both      and     . It is causing     to be
         and      to be      . So      is         by means of this verb because it is its subject (which
is one of the 8 roles of      ). And         is        also by means of the verb because it is its object
(which is one of the 12 roles of            ).
Finally, how do we know that            is      and        is       ? Is it because   is first? No; we
could’ve swapped the two nouns while still maintaining the same meaning. For these
particular words, we know the grammatical states by the vowels on the last letters. The
on       tells us that its     and the         on       tells us that its     . The fact that the vowels
are doubled and that           has an        at the end is not important for our purposes.




Grammatical Inflection
Grammatical Inflection
In a sentence, words can play many roles. They can be the subject of the sentence, the
object of a verb, possessive, etc. So how do we know what role a word is playing? If we can’t
figure this out, the meaning will be ambiguous.


In English, we solve this ambiguity by using word order. For example, “Zaid sat on the bus” is
clearly different from “The bus sat on Zaid.” How do we know it’s different? It’s the order
that tells us.


Arabic doesn’t use order to achieve disambiguation; it uses the vowels (long or short) near
the end of words. For example, “                      ” is different from “           ”. Why is it
different; the order of words didn’t change? It’s because of the vowels at the end of the
words. This concept has been thoroughly introduced in the tutorial entitled The Heart of
Arabic Grammar.


What is this Tutorial About?
inflection / declension /           is the process of disambiguating the grammatical roles of
words by slightly changing their endings. This tutorial discusses which types of words in
Arabic inflect, and which do not.


How Will we Approach this Topic?
In classical Arabic grammar, words are divided into three categories:


                 pl.        : particles

              pl.       : verbs
              pl.          : everything else (nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, etc)


For each of the above three categories, we will present a section to explain the             of
words in that category. We will explain which words decline (are              ) and which do not (are
  ).




Particles
There are relatively few particles in the language (less than a hundred) and all of them are
  . These particles do not experience grammatical roles; they don’t become subjects,
objects, or any such thing. Therefore, there is no need for them to decline and so they don’t.


Be careful not to confuse meaning with grammatical role. A particle may have several
meanings (e.g.           can mean ‘with’ or ‘by means of’), but that does not mean it experiences
roles.


                                                :
                                            :
                                            :

Verbs
We can make a similar argument for verbs. They do not become subjects, or objects, or
anything like that. Hence they should all be            . Most of them are, but some groups of verbs
are actually         .


To understand which verbs are              , we divide them into three categories:


    1.          : the perfect tense (e.g.           )

    2.           : the imperfect tense (e.g.              )
    3.                          : the second person, active imperative (e.g.          )
Both the perfect and imperative verbs are              . Furthermore, the emphatic conjugations (e.g.
    ) of the      as well as conjugations 6 and 12 (               and      ) from every
conjugation table are     . The rest of           is      .




                                   emphatic
                                   tables
                                                              conjugations 6 & 12
                                   other tables
                                                              other conjugations




Nouns
Nouns, unlike the other parts of speech, do experience grammatical roles and thus need a
system of disambiguation. So we would expect all nouns to be                   . Most of them are, but
there are categories of nouns that are        .


We will simply list the types of nouns that are            here because there are too many miniscule
categories to get into.


       personal pronouns (e.g.           )
       non-dual demonstrative pronouns (e.g.                          )
       non-dual relative pronouns (e.g.                       )
       conditionals (e.g.            )
       interrogatives (e.g.       )
       verbal nouns (e.g.        )
       others




                                   emphatic
                                   tables
                                                              conjugations 6 & 12
                                   other tables
                                                              other conjugations
                            the categories listed above

                            all other nouns




Why the Discrepancy?
A valid question to ask is: if nouns are generally supposed to be           , why are some     , and
if verbs are supposed to be      , why are some           ? (particles seem to be the only well-
behaved entities.)


The answer to both of these questions has to do with resemblance:


       Verbs become          as they resemble nouns
       Nouns becomes           as they resemble particles



An active       verb resembles its active participle (            ), and a passive resembles its
passive participle (         ). This resemblance is in terms of where the vowels and non-
vowels fall on the letters of the words. Take, for instance, the verb           and its participle
     . Both words share a lot in common inasmuch as which letters have vowels, which do
not, and which vowels there are. Not only that, but the active participle may even resemble
the verb in meaning inasmuch as it takes on tense from time to time. For example, in the
phrase “             ”, the participle connotes the present or future tense and the translation is
“I am (or will be) seeking forgiveness from God.” And there are four other ways in which
these verbs resemble nouns.


Now, as for nouns, they become          as they resemble particles. This resemblance can be in
one of four ways:


       Nouns are supposed to have at least three base letters, whereas particles have
        fewer. So when a noun has fewer than three letters, it resembles particles. E.g.
       Nouns may resemble particles in meaning. E.g. is used for interrogation,
        which is a meaning associated with particles. Thus it resembles particles.
       Particles are often governing agents (they act on other parts of speech), but
        they themselves are not governed. So nouns that act as regents but are not
       themselves governed resemble particles. E.g. the verbal noun        acts on the
       following word but is itself unaffected by agents.
      Particles are always in need of something following them, otherwise, they
       have no purpose. When a noun also requires something as such, it is said to
       resemble particles. E.g. the relative pronouns are in need of relative clauses
       ( ) and are incomplete without them.


Critical Thinking
   1. We said that verbs may resemble nouns. Can verbs resemble particles? If so, what
       happens in such cases?
   2. The imperfect verbs are mostly declinable, but some are not. Why?

      Hint: think reverse resemblance. What do the       imperfect verbs resemble?
   3. We said that nouns resemble particles. Can nouns resemble verbs? If so, what
      do you make of that situation?
   4. Particles can resemble verbs. Consider the sisters of . What should happen in
      such cases in terms of grammatical inflection?
   5. Particles can also resemble nouns. Just as nouns decrease in number of letters,
      so too can particles increase in number of letters. Consider . Shouldn‘t such
      particles become       ?


Reflection of Grammatical Case
What is this Tutorial About?
When we talk about grammatical declension (also known as inflection or ‫ ,)ئ٪ٍجخ‬we want to have
the following discussions:

   1. Which words in the language are declinable (    ) and which are indeclinable (   )? And why?
   2. Of those that decline, what are the different grammatical cases? And under what
      circumstances does the case of a word change?
   3. Once we know what the case of a word is, how do we represent that on the word? This is
      what this tutorial deals with.
   4. What are the regents (ًِ‫ ٪ح‬pl. ًِ‫ )٪ٛج‬that bring about this change of case?


An overview of grammatical declension has been given in the tutorial entitled The Heart of
Arabic Grammar. Point (1) regarding which words inflect and which do not has been thoroughly
discussed in the tutorial entitled Grammatical Inflection. Point (2) is a complicated question with
a very long answer. There are many tutorials that explain when words enter which grammatical
state. Such tutorials include Arabic Adverbs. Now this tutorial deals with point (3).
How are we Going to Approach this Topic?
Note that when we say noun (ُْ‫ ج‬pl. ‫ ,)أّْحء‬we mean anything other than a particle or a verb. This
includes adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, etc.

There are 9 possible ways in which grammatical case can be represented on an Arabic noun. For
the purposes of this subject matter, we divide Arabic nouns into 16 categories. So for the rest of
this tutorial, we will be:

   1. explaining how these 9 grammatical representations work,
   2. what the 16 different types of nouns are, and
   3. assigning each of the 16 noun types one of the 9 methods of inflection


As you may note, one inflection type may be used for many noun types. But one noun type will
only have one inflection type.


                                   Noun 1
                                   Noun 2              Inflection 1
                                   Noun 3


                                   Noun 4              Inflection 2

                                   Noun 5              Inflection 3

                                   Noun 6              Inflection 4


                                   Noun 7
                                   Noun 8              Inflection 5
                                   Noun 9



                                   Noun 10
                                   Noun 11             Inflection 6
                                   Noun 12


                                   Noun 13
                                                       Inflection 7
                                   Noun 14

                                   Noun 15             Inflection 8

                                   Noun 16             Inflection 9




Inflection Type I

How it’s Represented
The first method of inflecting nouns in Arabic is to use the three short vowels on the last letter of
the noun. In particular, the nominative case (٩‫ )ٌف‬is reflected with ‫ ,ّٞس‬the accusative (‫ )ٔٛد‬with
‫ فطكس‬and the genitive (ٍ‫ )ؾ‬with ‫ .وٍٓز‬And note that nunation (ٓ٠ٕٛ‫ )ض‬is not an issue; the noun may or
may not have nunation depending on external factors.
 Example
 ‫س‬        ‫ج‬    ‫ى‬
 ِ ‫ٍٞخ َ٠ ٌ ٪ًٍّ ذحٌهٗر‬

Which Nouns Use this Representation
‫ :انًفزد انًُصزف انصحثح‬a singular, first-declension noun whose final letter is not a glide. By
singular, of course, we mean that the noun is neither dual nor any type of plural. Furthermore, the
concept of first- and second-declension is a discussion which will not be covered here; the reader
is assumed to have adequate knowledge on the topic. And finally, the last letter may not be a
glide. Arabic has two glides; the ٚ‫ ٚج‬and ‫ ٠حء‬letters.

 Example
 ‫ى‬
 ٍ ٠َ                                 ً‫َ٠ى‬
                                      ‫ج‬                                 ‫ى‬
                                                                        ٌ ٠َ
‫ :انًفزد انجارٌ و جزي انصحُح‬a singular noun which is equivalent to the above noun type. By
equivalent, we mean that it is the same in every way, but that the final letter may be a glide
provided that glide is preceded by ْٛ‫.ْى‬

 Example
 ٍ ٌْ‫و‬
 ٛ                                    ًٌْٛ‫و‬
                                      ‫ج‬                             ٌ ٌْ‫و‬
                                                                    ٛ
 ْٟ
 ٍ ‫٦ر‬                                 ‫ح‬
                                      ً١ْ‫٦ر‬                         ٌْ‫د‬
                                                                    ٞ٦
‫ :انجًغ انًكسز انًُصزف‬a first-declension noun which is a broken plural. We will assume that the
reader is familiar with broken plurals.

 Example
 ٍ ‫ٌؾح‬
 ‫ي‬                                    ‫ال‬
                                      ً ‫ٌؾح‬                             ‫ي‬
                                                                        ٌ ‫ٌؾح‬


Summary
                                                     ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
          ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                              ٍ‫ؾ‬             ‫ٔٛد‬              ٩‫ٌف‬
          Visible change using all three (short) vowels
          1 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌٍّٕٛف جٌٛك١ف‬
 Type 1




          2 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌؿحٌٞ ِؿٍٜ جٌٛك١ف‬
          3 ‫جٌؿّ٩ جٌّى ٍّ جٌٍّٕٛف‬
                     ٓ
                                                     ٍ
                                                     ‫ـ‬              ً
                                                                    ‫ـ‬                ‫ـ‬
                                                                                     ٌ



Critical Thinking
          1. For noun type 2, why don’t we bother saying that the noun must be first-declension, like we do
             for types 1 and 3?
                                   ‫ز‬       ‫ي‬
          2. Consider the phrase ―َ ٛ‫ .‖ال قٛ َ ٚال ل‬Do the words ‫ قٛي‬and ‫ لٛز‬fall into one of these three
             types of nouns – notice that there is no nunation on either word? Why or why not?
          3. Does the name ٍّٚ٪ fall into one of the three noun types? If so, which one?




Inflection Type II

How it’s Represented
The second method of inflecting nouns in Arabic is to use the ‫ ّٞس‬to reflect the nominative case,
and the ‫ وٍٓز‬to reflect the accusative and the genitive cases. Again note that nunation is not an
issue.

 Example
  ٍ ‫٪ ّفص جٌ٣حٌرح ُ ِٓ١ك١ح ٍ ٪ٍٝ ٍِّٓح‬
  ‫ش‬           ‫ش‬        ‫ش‬           ٍ

Which Nouns Use this Representation
‫ :انجًغ انًؤَث انسانى‬a sound feminine plural. For the purpose of this discussion, this includes any and
all nouns that are suffixed with an extra ‫ ,ـحش‬whether or not it is actually a feminine plural in
meaning or not.

 Example
 ‫ش‬
 ٍ ‫ٍِّٓح‬                                 ‫ش‬
                                         ٍ ‫ٍِّٓح‬                             ‫ش‬
                                                                             ٌ ‫ٍِّٓح‬

Summary
                                                       ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
            ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                              ٍ‫ؾ‬                ‫ٔٛد‬                ٩‫ٌف‬
            Visible change using all three (short) vowels
            1 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌٍّٕٛف جٌٛك١ف‬
 Type 1




            2 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌؿحٌٞ ِؿٍٜ جٌٛك١ف‬                ٍ
                                                       ‫ـ‬                 ً
                                                                         ‫ـ‬                  ٌ
                                                                                            ‫ـ‬
                       ٓ
            3 ‫جٌؿّ٩ جٌّى ٍّ جٌٍّٕٛف‬
            Visible change using some (short) vowels
 Type 2




              ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جٌّإٔع جٌٓح‬
                              ‫جي‬                           ٍ
                                                           ‫ـ‬                 ٍ
                                                                             ‫ـ‬                  ٌ
                                                                                                ‫ـ‬



Critical Thinking
          1. Why do you think the sound feminine plural needed to use a different method of inflection in the
             language; why doesn’t it simply use the same scheme as the first three noun types?


             Hint: the nunation on the sound feminine plural is considered to be a different type of nunation
             from that of all other declinable nouns. This is because the grammarians want to contrast it to
             the letter   in the sound masculine plural.




Inflection Type III

How it’s Represented
The third method of inflecting nouns is to use the ‫ ّٞس‬to reflect the nominative case, and the ‫فطكس‬
to reflect the accusative and the genitive cases. But this method of inflection only utilizes these
short vowels in non-nunation.

 Example
        ً                  ‫س‬
 ‫ٌأش فح٢ّ ُ جذٕس ٪ٍّجَْ لٛجف َ ُِوٍ٘ز‬

Which Nouns Use this Representation
‫ :غُز انًُصزف‬a second-declension noun. Note that such nouns revert back to first-declension when
prefixed by the definite article, or when they are a non-final word in a genitival construction
(‫ .)ِٟحف‬So words such as ―ً‫ ‖جٌمٛجف‬or ―َٛ‫ ,‖لٛجفً جٌم‬for example, are not included in this category.

 Example
 ً
 َ ‫لٛجف‬                                    َ ‫لٛجف‬
                                           ً                                  ً
                                                                              ُ ‫لٛجف‬

Summary
                                                           ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
            ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                                  ٍ‫ؾ‬             ‫ٔٛد‬                ٩‫ٌف‬
            Visible change using all three (short) vowels
            1 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌٍّٕٛف جٌٛك١ف‬
 Type 1




            2 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌؿحٌٞ ِؿٍٜ جٌٛك١ف‬                    ٍ
                                                           ‫ـ‬              ً
                                                                          ‫ـ‬                  ٌ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
                       ٓ
            3 ‫جٌؿّ٩ جٌّى ٍّ جٌٍّٕٛف‬
            Visible change using some (short) vowels
 Type 2




              ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جٌّإٔع جٌٓح‬
                              ‫جي‬                               ٍ
                                                               ‫ـ‬              ٍ
                                                                              ‫ـ‬              ٌ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
 Type 3




            5 ٗ١ٌ‫غ١ٍ جٌٍّٕٛف، ال ٠٫ٍف ذحٌّالَ ٚال ٠ٟحف ج‬       َ
                                                               ‫ـ‬              َ
                                                                              ‫ـ‬              ُ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
Critical Thinking
         1. Why do you think it is that second-declension nouns don’t experience nunation?


            Hint: in classical Arabic grammar, a word is said to be in second-declension when it has two of the
            nine qualities that are taken up in the study of such nouns. And each of those qualities expresses
            the noun becoming heavy, long, or in some way awkward.
         2. In the following sentence, try and pick out as many nouns as possible, assigning to them
            one of the five noun types we‘ve discussed so far, as applicable.


 ٓ١‫فٕكٓ – ٪ٍخ جٌ١َٛ – ذ١ٓ ٌغس فٛكٝ، ٠طفحُ٘ ذٙح ذ٫ٝ جٌٕحِ فٟ ؾّ١٩ ذّالو جٌ٫ٍذ١س، ٚذ‬
 ‫ٌغحش ٪حِ١س ٪ى٠ىز، ٠طفحُ٘ ذىً ِٕٙح ؾّ١٩ جٌٕحِ، فٟ ذ٫ٝ جٌّٕح٢ك جٌّكىٚوز ِٓ ذ٫ٝ جٌرّالو‬
.ٔ۹۸۵ ،‫جٌ٫ٍذ١س. — ِٓ "وطحخ فٟ جالوخ ٚجٌٍغس ٚ٪ّاللحضّٙح ذحٌمِٛ١س" جذٛ نٍىْٚ ْح٢٩ جٌكٍٛٞ؛ ٍِوُ وٌجْحش جٌٛقىز جٌ٫ٍذ١س: ذ١ٍٚش‬




Inflection Type IV

How it’s Represented
The fourth type of inflection stops dealing with short vowels and looks at using long vowels to
represent grammatical case on a noun. In particular, the nominative case is reflected with ٚ‫ ,ٚج‬the
accusative with ‫ ,جٌف‬and the genitive with ‫.٠حء‬

9.0pt;mso-element-wrap:around;mso-element-anchor-vertical:paragraph; mso-element-anchor-
horizontal:column;mso-element-top:.05pt;mso-height-rule: exactly'>Visible change using all three
long vowels

          ٌٝ‫جٌّىرٍز جٌّٛقىز جٌّٟحفس ج‬    ُ‫أخ أل ق‬
Type 4




            ٍُ‫غ١ٍ ٠حء جٌّطى‬              ٚ‫٘ٓ فُ ي‬      ٞ                  ‫ج‬                  ٚ


Critical Thinking
         1. Can you find a case where it is ambiguous whether           is the word      or the genitival
            particle, ? If not, can you prove there will never be ambiguity?
         2. What difference do you notice in the inflection process of ُ‫ ف‬and ٚ‫ ي‬as
            compared to the rest?
Inflection Type V

How it’s Represented
The fifth type of inflection uses ‫ جٌف‬to represent the nominative case, and ‫ ٠حء‬to
represent the accusative and genitive cases.


Example
‫ٌأٜ ٌؾّالْ َٚؾط١ّٙح ِ٩ ٚى٠م١ّٙح‬

Which Nouns Use this Representation
                                                             ْ
ًُ‫ :يث‬dual nouns. This includes nouns that are suffixed with ِ ‫ ـح‬indicating duality.

Example
ٓ١ٍ‫ٌؾ‬                                 ٓ١ٍ‫ٌؾ‬                     ْ‫ٌؾّال‬
‫ :كال وكهتا‬these are two particular words in the Arabic lexicon. They must be ‫ ِٟحف‬to a
pronoun, in which case they mean ‗both of ....‘ If this condition is not met, these
words are reflected with ‫ جٌف‬in all three grammatical cases.

Example
ٍٟ‫و‬                                   ٍٟ‫و‬                       ‫وّال‬
ٟ‫وٍط‬                                  ٟ‫وٍط‬                      ‫وٍطح‬
ٌ‫ :اثُاٌ واثُتا‬these are two particular words in the Arabic lexicon. Both words mean
‗two‘ and have been included here, although they could simply have been grouped
with the category of dual nouns, to be explicit.

Example
ٓ١ٕ‫جغ‬                                 ٓ١ٕ‫جغ‬                     ْ‫جغٕح‬
ٓ١‫جغٕط‬                                ٓ١‫جغٕط‬                    ْ‫جغٕطح‬

Summary
                                                      ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
         ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                                ٍ‫ؾ‬               ‫ٔٛد‬              ٩‫ٌف‬
         Visible change using all three long vowels
         ٍ١‫جٌّىرٍز جٌّٛقىز جٌّٟحفس جٌٝ غ‬   ُ‫أخ أل ق‬
Type 4




           ٍُ‫٠حء جٌّطى‬                     ٚ‫٘ٓ فُ ي‬   ٞ                ‫ج‬                ٚ
         Visible change using some long vowels
            ٕٝ‫ِػ‬
Type 5      ٍ١ّٞ ٌٝ‫وّال ٚوٍطح جٌّٟحفطحْ ج‬            ٞ                 ٞ                 ‫ج‬
            ْ‫جغٕحْ ٚجغٕطح‬




Critical Thinking
         1. Why do we bother separating noun types 7, 8 and 9; why not group them into one
            category?


Inflection Type VI

How it’s Represented
The sixth method of inflecting nouns is to represent the nominative case with ٚ‫ ,ٚج‬and
the accusative and genitive with ‫.٠حء‬

Example
                                     ٍ
ُْٙٚ‫ّٚٝ جٌّٕٙىْْٛ ِ٩ جٌرٕحت١ـٓ ِمٕ٫ٟ ٌؤ‬

Which Nouns Use this Representation
‫ :انجًغ انًذكز انسانى‬the sound masculine plural.

Example
ٓ١ٍِ‫٪ح‬                                 ٓ١ٍِ‫٪ح‬                   ٍِْٛ‫٪ح‬
ٌ‫ :ػشزوٌ انً تسؼى‬the multiples of ten between twenty and ninety.
Example
ٓ٠ٍٗ٪                                  ٓ٠ٍٗ٪                    ٍْٚٗ٪
‫ :أونى‬this is a particular word from the Arabic lexicon. It is one of the plurals of the
word ٚ‫ ,ي‬which we have seen before. As such, it is always ‫ .ِٟحف‬A noteworthy point
in the phonology of this word is that the first ٚ‫ ٚج‬is silent.


Example
ٌٟٚ‫أ‬                                   ٌٟٚ‫أ‬                     ٌٛٚ‫أ‬

Summary
                                                   ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
          ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                            ٍ‫ؾ‬                ‫ٔٛد‬               ٩‫ٌف‬
          Visible change using all three long vowels
Type 4
          ٍ١‫جٌّىرٍز جٌّٛقىز جٌّٟحفس جٌٝ غ‬   ُ‫أخ أل ق‬
            ٍُ‫٠حء جٌّطى‬                     ٚ‫٘ٓ فُ ي‬   ٞ               ‫ج‬                   ٚ
          Visible change using some long vowels
           ٕٝ‫ِػ‬
Type 5




           ٍ١ّٞ ٌٝ‫وّال ٚوٍطح جٌّٟحفطحْ ج‬               ٞ                   ٞ                   ‫ج‬
           ْ‫جغٕحْ ٚجغٕطح‬
                             ‫جي‬
             ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓح‬
Type 6




             ْٛ٫ٓ‫٪ٍْٗٚ جٌٝ ض‬                           ٞ                   ٞ                   ٚ
             ٌٛٚ‫ج‬




Critical Thinking
         1. What are we trying to indicate by noun type 11; why do we differentiate it from type
             10?
         2. Reflection types 5 and 6 both represent the accusative and genitive cases using
            a ‫ .٠حء‬Can this result in any confusion? How or why not?
         3. In tandem with the previous question, are the ‫ فطكس‬that precede the ‫ ٠حء‬of duality
            and the ‫ وٍٓز‬that precede the ‫ ٠حء‬of masculine plurality part of the grammatical
            reflection?

             Hint: think of the word ―ْٛ‫( ‖ِٛ٣ف‬many chosen ones); how is it vocalized?


Inflection Type VII

How it’s Represented
This method of inflection utilizes an assumed ‫ ّٞس‬to reflect the nominative case, an
assumed ‫ فطكس‬for the accusative, and an assumed ‫ وٍٓز‬for the genitive. Due to certain
morphophonemic properties, words that utilize this method of reflection cannot
explicitly show the vowels on their final letters. Had they been able to do as such,
they would have fallen under reflection type 1.

Example
   ِ              َ              ‫ـ‬
ٟ‫ِىٌْطـ(ُ)ـٟ وحٔص ألٛـ(ـ)ـٝ ِٓ ؾحِ٫طـ(ـ)ـ‬

Which Nouns Use this Representation
‫ :انًضاف انً َاء انًتكهى‬a noun which is ‫ ِٟحف‬towards the first person personal pronoun.
However, note that this class of nouns does not include sound masculine plurals
which are ‫ ِٟحف‬to the ‫ .٠حء‬There is a separate category altogether for such nouns.

Example
ٌٞٛ‫و‬                                ٌٞٛ‫و‬                            ٌٞٛ‫و‬
‫ :االسى انًقصىر‬a noun that ends in a ‫.٠حء ِمٌٛٛز‬

Example
ٝ‫ِٛ٣ف‬                               ٝ‫ِٛ٣ف‬                           ٝ‫ِٛ٣ف‬

Summary
                                                     ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
          ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                              ٍ‫ؾ‬                  ‫ٔٛد‬               ٩‫ٌف‬
          Completely invisible change of short vowels
          ٍُ‫غ١ٍ جٌؿّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ، جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء جٌّطى‬
Type 7




                                                       ٍ
                                                       ‫ـ‬                   ً
                                                                           ‫ـ‬                ٌ
                                                                                            ‫ـ‬
             ٌٛٛ‫جالُْ جٌّم‬




Critical Thinking
         1. We’ve indicated in noun type 13 that the noun cannot be a sound masculine plural
            in order for it to be included in this category. What conditions have we not
            mentioned?
         2. How do we make an ٌٛٛ‫ جُْ ِم‬possessor (‫ )ِٟحف‬towards the ‫ ٠حء‬of first
            person?


Inflection Type VIII

How it’s Represented
This type of reflection is very similar to the previous in that the nominative and
genitive cases are reflected using assumed ‫ ّٞس‬and ‫ ,وٍٓز‬respectively. But the
accusative case is represented with a clearly visible ‫.فطكس‬

Example
   ِ             ٞ                   ‫ـ‬
ٟ‫جٌمحٞـ(ُ)ـٟ لى ٠ٌُٚ جٌٕٛجو َ ذ٫ى جٌّمح٘ـ(ـ)ـ‬

Which Nouns Use this Representation
‫ :االسى انًُقىص‬those nouns that end in a long vowel ‫ .٠حء‬Note that this long vowel ‫٠حء‬
does not include the personal pronoun, nor suffixes like it.

Example
ٟٞ‫لح‬                                ‫ح‬
                                    ً١ٞ‫لح‬                           ٟٞ‫لح‬
Summary
                                               ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
          ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                        ٍ‫ؾ‬                ‫ٔٛد‬               ٩‫ٌف‬
          Completely invisible change of short vowels
          ‫غ١ٍ جٌؿّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ، جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء‬
                                               ٍ
                                               ‫ـ‬                 ً
                                                                 ‫ـ‬                 ٌ
                                                                                   ‫ـ‬
Type 7




              ٍُ‫جٌّطى‬
              ٌٛٛ‫جالُْ جٌّم‬
          Partially invisible change of short vowels
Type 8




          15 ٘ٛ‫جالُْ جٌّٕم‬                         ٍ
                                                   ‫ـ‬                 ً
                                                                     ‫ـ‬                 ٌ
                                                                                       ‫ـ‬



Critical Thinking
         1. Grammarians have tried hard to make all of these noun types mutually exclusive.
            That way, a given noun will fall into one, and only one, of them. And hence there will
            be no confusion as to how grammatical case is reflected on it. But some nouns can
            fall under type 15 and another type simultaneously. What is that other type? Can
            you find an example of such a noun?
         2. Continuing form question 1, what do we do in this case; how are the two types
            of reflection reconciled? Use a case-analysis approach to answer this.


Inflection Type IX

How it’s Represented
Finally, the ninth method of representing grammatical inflection in Arabic is as
follows. We use an assumed ٚ‫ ٚج‬to represent the nominative case, and an explicit ‫٠حء‬
for the accusative and genitive cases.

Example
ٟ             ٟ               ٟ
َ ٍِ‫ٌأ٠ص ٪حٍِـ(ـٛ)ـ َ غُ ؼجتٕٟ ٪حٍِ َ فٌٍّش ذ٫ح‬

Which Nouns Use this Representation
‫ :انجًغ انًذكز انسانى انًضاف انً َاء انًتكهى‬the sound masculine plural which is ‫ِٟحف‬
towards the ‫ ٠حء‬personal pronoun. This is the type of noun which was excluded in noun
type 13.

Example
ٟ
ّ ٍِّٓ                                ٟ
                                      ّ ٍِّٓ                                 ٟ
                                                                             ّ ٍِّٓ

Summary
                                                             ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
          ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                                      ٍ‫ؾ‬                  ‫ٔٛد‬              ٩‫ٌف‬
          Completely invisible change of short vowels
          ‫غ١ٍ جٌؿّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ، جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء‬
                                                             ٍ
                                                             ‫ـ‬                   ً
                                                                                 ‫ـ‬                ٌ
                                                                                                  ‫ـ‬
Type 7




              ٍُ‫جٌّطى‬
              ٌٛٛ‫جالُْ جٌّم‬
          Partially invisible change of short vowels

                                                             ٍ
                                                             ‫ـ‬                   ً
                                                                                 ‫ـ‬                ٌ
                                                                                                  ‫ـ‬
Type 8




          15 ٘ٛ‫جالُْ جٌّٕم‬

          Partially invisible change of long vowels
Type 9




             ٍُ‫ؾّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء جٌّطى‬
                                                    ‫جي‬           ٞ                   ٞ                  ٚ



Critical Thinking
         1. Does this final noun type apply to words like              ? Explain.


Extend your Knowledge
Below is a summary of what we have learned:

                                                         ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
          ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                                  ٍ‫ؾ‬              ‫ٔٛد‬             ٩‫ٌف‬
                                                         (genitive)      (accusative)    (nominative)
          Visible change using all three short vowels
          1 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌٍّٕٛف جٌٛك١ف‬
Type 1




          2 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌؿحٌٞ ِؿٍٜ جٌٛك١ف‬                    ٍ
                                                         ‫ـ‬               ً
                                                                         ‫ـ‬               ٌ
                                                                                         ‫ـ‬
                     ٓ
          3 ‫جٌؿّ٩ جٌّى ٍّ جٌٍّٕٛف‬
          Visible change using some short vowels
Type 2




            ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جٌّإٔع جٌٓح‬
                            ‫جي‬                               ٍ
                                                             ‫ـ‬               ٍ
                                                                             ‫ـ‬               ٌ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
          ٗ١ٌ‫غ١ٍ جٌٍّٕٛف، ال ٠٫ٍف ذحٌّالَ ٚال ٠ٟحف ج‬
Type 3




          5                                                  َ
                                                             ‫ـ‬               َ
                                                                             ‫ـ‬               ُ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
          Visible change using all three long vowels
         ٌٝ‫جٌّىرٍز جٌّٛقىز جٌّٟحفس ج‬      ُ‫أخ أل ق‬
Type 4                                                  ٞ                ‫ج‬                   ٚ
           ٍُ‫غ١ٍ ٠حء جٌّطى‬                ٚ‫٘ٓ فُ ي‬
         Visible change using some long vowels
            ٕٝ‫ِػ‬
Type 5




            ٍ١ّٞ ٌٝ‫وّال ٚوٍطح جٌّٟحفطحْ ج‬               ٞ                ٞ                   ‫ج‬
            ْ‫جغٕحْ ٚجغٕطح‬
                             ‫جي‬
             ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓح‬
Type 6




             ْٛ٫ٓ‫٪ٍْٗٚ جٌٝ ض‬                            ٞ                ٞ                   ٚ
             ٌٛٚ‫ج‬
         Completely invisible change of short vowels
         ‫غ١ٍ جٌؿّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ، جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء‬
Type 7




             ٍُ‫جٌّطى‬                                    ٍ
                                                        ‫ـ‬                ً
                                                                         ‫ـ‬                   ٌ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
             ٌٛٛ‫جالُْ جٌّم‬
         Partially invisible change of short vowels
Type 8




         15 ٘ٛ‫جالُْ جٌّٕم‬                               ٍ
                                                        ‫ـ‬                ً
                                                                         ‫ـ‬                   ٌ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
         Partially invisible change of long vowels
Type 9




            ٍُ‫ؾّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء جٌّطى‬
                                                   ‫جي‬   ٞ                ٞ                   ٚ

Now you can use what you know about how this type of discussion works to extend
your knowledge. Read and understand the table below that replicates this topic of
grammar for verbs.

                                                            ‫جال٪ٍجخ‬
         ٨ٌ‫جٌف٫ً جٌّٟح‬                                      َُ‫ؾ‬              ‫ٔٛد‬             ٩‫ٌف‬
                                                            (jussive)        (subjunctive)   (indicative)
Type 1




         1 ٩‫جٌّفٍو جٌٛك١ف ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬                     ْ
                                                            ‫ـ‬                َ
                                                                             ‫ـ‬               ُ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
                          ٞ          ‫جي‬
           ٩‫ِ٫طً جٌٛجٚ ّ ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬
Type 2




           ٩‫جٌّ٫طً جٌ١حتٟ ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬                     َ‫قًف جٌّال‬       َ
                                                                             ‫ـ‬               ُ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
Type 3




                          ٟ          ‫جي‬
           ٩‫ِ٫طً جالٌف ّ ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬                      َ‫قًف جٌّال‬       َ
                                                                             ‫ـ‬               ُ
                                                                                             ‫ـ‬
                                                            ‫قًف‬
Type 4




                            ‫جي‬
           ٩‫ِٟحٌ٨ ِ٩ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬
                                                            ٌْٕٛ‫ج‬
                                                                             ٌْٕٛ‫قًف ج‬       ْ
Nominal Sentences
What is this Tutorial About?
In the Introduction to Arabic Grammar tutorial, an outline of topics in grammar was
given. It specified that, after studying the basics of words, phrases, and sentences, one
may begin to study the core of the grammar which revolves around the topic of
grammatical inflection.

In the Introduction to Grammatical Inflection tutorial, the four grammatical states –
nominative, accusative, genitive, and jussive – were explained. After gaining a grasp
of this introductory material, the first step is to understand which words experience
these states and which do not. And the next step is to understand how these states are
represented on the various types of words that experience them.

Once these two topics have been covered, the primary focus of the rest of grammar is
on isolating and discussing those structures in the language that fall into the four
grammatical states. In other words, we want to know what grammatical processes
cause words/phrases/sentences to become nominative, what grammatical processes
cause them to become accusative, and so forth. For example, we will learn that for a
word or phrase to be the subject of a nominal sentence is a grammatical process and
any word or phrase that experiences this will be in the nominative state. In doing this,
we exhaust all concepts in grammar.

The grammatical processes – or call them grammatical positions – are broken down as
follows.

      grammatical states experienced by nouns, phrases, and, in some cases, entire
       sentences
          o 8 grammatical structures enter the nominative state
          o 12 grammatical structures enter the accusative state
          o 2 grammatical structures enter the genitive state
      grammatical states experienced by verbs
          o 1 type of verb enters the indicative state
          o 4 types of verbs enter the subjunctive state
          o 5 types of verbs enter the jussive state
      grammatical state through extension occurs in 4 ways


This tutorial focuses on nominal sentences from the perspective of grammatical states.
In discussing this topic, we cover 6 of the eight nominative structures and 4 of the
twelve accusative structures.


For Whom is this Tutorial?
The tutorial on Arabic Sentences served as an overview and provided some
terminology for the study of sentence structure.
In this tutorial, we further explain the components of nominal sentences. In doing this,
we also discuss issues such as when to switch the order of words, when to omit parts
of a sentence, and when to render the parts definite and indefinite. After having
discussed these issues, we will discuss those parts of speech that are brought before
nominal sentences in order to abrogate its structure. These parts of speech have their
own rules and the resulting sentence has its own discussions.

Consequently, this tutorial is quite dense and is primarily designed for intermediate
level students. Intermediate-level sections of this tutorial are marked with an asterisk
(*) and they should be skipped by beginners. Advanced-level sections are marked
with a double asterisk (**) and should be skipped by both beginners and intermediate
students.



Types of Sentences
A sentence is either nominal or it is verbal. A nominal sentence is one in which the
subject is the topic, and a verbal sentence is one in which the subject is the subject of
a verb. Consider the following.

          ‫جي‬
‫ٌْٛ ًٖ٘ َذٍؾىز ٌَلس‬
The colour of this corundum is blue

In this example, the subject is ―the colour of this corundum‖ and it is not the subject
of any verb. Hence the sentence is nominal. And the comment happens to be the word
―blue‖. Consider another example below.

‫جٌّحِ ٠ٍّ٩ ذٍْلح‬
The diamond sparkles like lightning

Here, too, ―the diamond‖ is the subject and it is not the subject of any verb. Hence this
sentence is also nominal. And the comment happens to be the embedded verbal
sentence ―sparkles like lightning‖. One should not confuse the subject of this sentence
as being the subject of the verb in the embedded sentence. The subject of that verb is
the pronoun within it referring to ―the diamond‖ – remember that the subject of a verb
does not precede the verb.

Now consider an example of a verbal sentence, as in the one below.

         ّ
‫ضكٍّ جٌ١ٛجل١ص‬
The rubies are turning a deep red

Here the subject is the word ―rubies‖ and it is the subject of the verb ―turning red‖.
Hence the sentence is verbal. In fact, we can generalize this to say that any sentence
that begins with a verb will definitely be verbal. And finally, consider another
example of a verbal sentence.

    َ ٍُِ
‫جٌ ُ ُ ُو أقد‬
   I only like emeralds

   Notice that the subject of this sentence is the word ―I‖ and that it is the subject of the
   verb ―like‖. Hence this sentence is verbal. The fact that the word ―emeralds‖ precedes
   the verb is irrelevant because it is not the subject of the sentence.

   Exercise: determine whether each of the following sentences is nominal or verbal.
         1.

         2.   ٙ         ْ ٛ
              َ ٛ‫فحلْ ُٙ جٌم‬
         3.   ‫ف‬       ُ
              ِ ٍْ٣ٌ‫٪ٕىُ٘ لحٍٚجش ج‬
         4.       ٠
              ‫٘ٛ ٠ك١ٟ ٚ ُّ١ص‬
         5.         ‫أ‬      ٛ َ
              ٍُّٞ ً٫‫فحٌٓحذك جٔ ِرْٗ ذف‬



   Nominal Sentences
   Definitions
   ‫ِرطىأ‬                 topic (the subject of a nominal sentence)

   ٍ‫نر‬                   comment (the predicate of a nominal sentence)

   Both the topic and comment are nominative. The agent that renders the topic
   nominative is not explicit; rather, it is the very fact that it is the topic. And the agent
   that renders the comment nominative is the topic.


   The Topic
   The topic of a sentence may be a single word, or it may be a phrase of undetermined
   length. But it cannot be a complete sentence. It is true, however, that when the topic
   of a sentence is a phrase, that phrase may itself contain embedded sentences. Consider
   the examples below.

Topic Type                     Translation                             Example
word                           The pearl is a type of gem              ‫جٌٍإٌإ ؾٍٛ٘ز‬
phrase                         Polishing the diamond is mandatory      ‫ٚمحي جٌّحِ ٚجؾد‬
phrase with an embedded The sapphire which I lost yesterday                ِّ‫جٌٛف١ٍ جًٌٞ فمىضٗ أ‬
sentence                       is valuable                              ١
                                                                       ُّ‫ل‬
   Moreover, the topic of a sentence cannot be one of the following two things.

             a prepositional phrase
             an adverbial phrase
When these entities appear to be the topic of a sentence, they are in fact the comment
and the order of the sentence has been inverted. Consider the following.

َ‫٪ٕىٞ جٌطٛذح‬
I have topaz

In the example above, the phrase ―I have‖ must be considered the comment of the
sentence even though it is lexically first. This is simply because it is an adverbial
phrase.


The Comment
The comment of a sentence may be a single word, a phrase, or an entire sentence.
When it is an entire sentence, that sentence will have its own structure and all the
rules currently under discussion will apply to it as well. The embedded sentence must
be treated as a brand new sentence with its own internal rules, grammatical positions,
and so forth. Consider the examples below.

 Comment Type         Translation                              Example
 word                 Coral is red                             ‫جٌٍّؾحْ قٍّز‬
                      Amethyst is the most dazzling
 phrase                                                                          ‫ؿ‬
                                                               ٍ٘‫جٌ ََّْٗص أذٍٙ جٌؿٛج‬
                      precious metal
 verbal sentence      The necklace was studded with gold               ٌٚ ٫
                                                               ‫جٌ ِمى ُ ّ٩ ذحًٌ٘د‬
 nominal sentence     The necklace, its gems are precious      ‫جٌ٫مى ؾٛجٍٖ٘ ضف١ٓس‬
There are two special cases.

       the comment is a prepositional phrase
       or it is an adverbial phrase


If one of these two things is ready to become the comment, we will need to assume a
hidden verb to which these phrases will connect. That hidden verb, along with these
phrases, would then become an entire (embedded) sentence and then the comment for
the greater sentence. Consider the topaz example from the previous section:

َ‫٪ٕىٞ جٌطٛذح‬
I have topaz

The phrase ٞ‫ ٪ٕى‬is an adverbial phrase. As such, it will need to connect to an
appropriate verb before it can be considered the comment. The verb of choice is
usually the generic ―ٍ‫ .‖جْطم‬The grammatical interpretation of the above sentence
would then be as follows.

ٞ‫جٌطٛذحَ [٠ٓطمٍ] ٪ٕى‬
Topaz is [situated] with me

Notice that these types of phrases – prepositional and adverbial – can neither be the
topic of a sentence, nor can they directly be the comment.

Exercise: determine the type of construction (whether word, phrase, or sentence) for
the topic and comment in each of the following. If the sentence contains embedded
nominal sentences, analyze those as well (you may ignore verbal sentences).
   1.

   2.      ‫و‬          ُ    ‫و‬
        ‫ِ١ّال ُٔح ألىَ ِٓ ِ١ّال ِن‬
   3.   ٌ               ّ            ‫ف‬      ُ
        ْ‫ف١ٙٓ لحٍٚجش جٌ٣ٍ ِ ٌُ ٠٣ّػٙٓ ئٔ ٌ لرٍُٙ ٚال ؾح‬
   4.   ‫ى‬           ٌ
        ِ ٍ‫أٔص قً ذًٙج جٌر‬
   5.   ُ        ِ ٕ
        ِ ١٫ٌٕ‫جٌٚثه فٟ ؾ ّحش ج‬
   6.   ٌ ٍ                        ٔ َِ      ِ  ُ
        ٍُ٦ ‫ٚٞ٩ جٌٟٗء نحٌؼ َ٧حّٗ ذك١ع ال ٠ٛؾى ذٍٓٙس‬


*Gender and Plurality Correspondence
If the comment of a sentence is a description of the topic, it will have to correspond in
gender and plurality. The comment describes the topic when it is, for example, an
adjective or an embedded verbal sentence. Gender and plurality correspondence is a
complicated issue which cannot be taken up here. But it is important to remember that
the rules for these two grammar concepts will apply to the topic and comment
relationship. Consider the following, paying attention to correspondence.

        Translation                                   Example
        ―Unique‖ and ―special‖ are synonyms           ْ‫فٍ٠ىز ٚٔف١ٓس ِطٍجوفطح‬
        We are waiting/expecting                         ‫ذ‬
                                                      ٍّٙ‫ٔكٓ ٔط‬
If, however, the comment is not describing the topic, it will match in plurality but not
necessarily in gender. The comment does not describe the topic when, for example, it
is a gerund or static noun. Consider the following examples.

        Translation                                   Example
        The she-camel is an animal                    ْ‫جٌٕحلس ق١ٛج‬
        Famine and drought are problems               ً‫جٌّؿح٪س ٚجٌؿفحف ِٗحو‬
        The gobbling (of a turkey) is a funny
                                                      ‫جٌؿ٫ؿ٫س ٚٛش ِٟكه‬
        sound
        This religion is thee advice                  ‫جٌى٠ٓ جٌٕٛ١كس‬
Notice how the topics and comments in the above examples match in plurality, but
not necessarily in gender. Where they do match in gender, it is simply out of
coincidence.
There is one blip, however, in gender/plurality correspondence. Arabs have been
known to bring a participle as the topic of a sentence, and a comment which
mismatches that participle in plurality. An example is below.

   ٌ‫ى‬
ْ‫أالِ٫س جٌ ُ ّضح‬
Are the two pearls shinning?

The topic, ‫ ,الِ٫س‬is an active participle and the comment, ْ‫ ,وٌضح‬does not match it in
plurality. In this rare situation, the topic of the sentence is considered both the topic as
well as a participle which takes a subject. And the comment is considered both the
comment as well as the subject of the participle. This is done in order to justify the
mismatch in plurality; topic and comment must match in plurality, but participles and
their subjects do not.

Definitions
           ً
   ‫ٖرٗ ف٫ ٍ ْى ِٓى‬
                       a verb-like agent which stands in the place of the topic
‫جٌّرطىأ‬
       ‫فح٪ً ْى ِٓى‬     the subject of such an agent which stands in the place of the
ٍ‫جٌهر‬                  comment


*Multiple Comments
A single topic may have multiple comments. Consider the example below.

‫جٌؿٛجٍ٘ ِ٫ىٚوز ِىطًّ ض٫ىجو٘ح ال ٠ٍؾ٩ ئٌ١ٙح‬
The gems are enumerated, their enumeration complete, not to be revisited


**Definiteness
The topic of a sentence is typically definite. This is because using indefinite words or
phrases does not usually convey useful information. Consider the sentence ―a man is
standing.‖ The speaker has conveyed no benefit to the listener by saying this – so
what if a man is standing? Hence the topic will usually be definite. Some examples of
sentences with definite topics follow.

              Translation                               Example
              The orphan is in the orphanage            ُ‫جٌ١ط١ُ فٟ جٌّ١ط‬
              This mule is hardworking                  ًّ٫٠ ً‫ً٘ج جٌرغ‬
                                                           ٩١‫نٍٟجٚجش جٌٍذ‬
              The vegetables of Spring are ripe
                                                        ٩١ٕ٠
              It is the embellishment of the promise    ٓ١ّ١ٌ‫٘ٛ ضكٓ١ٓ ج‬
There are certain situations, however, in which it does make sense to render the topic
indefinite. These situations do not need to be listed since one‘s judgement will be
sufficient to decide when the time comes. But some of the more popular situations
have been mentioned below as a helpful guide.

    Situation when the topic may be indefinite       Example
1
    the comment is a prepositional phrase or         ٌ ٛ‫فٟ جٌر١ص ذٍغ‬
                                                     ‫ظ‬      ِ
    adverbial phrase appearing before the topic      (There‘s a bug in the house)
2   the sentence is interrogative                         ‫ؾ ؾى‬
                                                     ‫ًٚ٘ ُىْ ُ ٌ ف١ٗ؟‬
                                                     (And is there a grasshopper in it?)
3   the sentence is negative                             ٌ    ٚ
                                                     ٗ١‫ِح ٌٍُْٚٛ ف‬
                                                     (There‘s no cockroach in it)
    the topic is indefinite, yet somewhat specific
4   (either by adjectives, being possessive, or            ٌ ٌ
                                                     ٟٕ٪‫٪ٕىرٛش ور١ٍ ٌج‬
    etc)                                             (A big spider scared me)

5   it is a supplication or prayer                        ٌ
                                                     ‫ّْالَ ٪ٍ١ه‬
                                                     (Peace be with you)
6
    the indefiniteness is used for rhetorical        ‫خ‬       ٍ ٌ
                                                     ٍ ‫ٍٖ أ٘ ّ يج ٔح‬
    benefit                                          (A great evil made the K9 bark)
                                                         ٌ    َ
                                                     ٗ١‫ونٍص جٌر١ص ٚق١س ف‬
7   the topic has the ‫ ٚجٚ جٌكحي‬before it            (I entered the house while there
                                                     was a serpent within it)
                                                     ٟ           ٌٚ ‫ط‬
                                                     ّ ‫ٌ ِّْٓحـ ُؾِى فٟ جٌك‬
8   the َ‫ ال‬of emphasis is attached to the topic     (A crocodile was discovered in
                                                     the neighbourhood)

There is no restriction of definiteness or indefiniteness with respect to the comment of
a sentence. However, comments are usually indefinite in practice. When they do
become definite, a pronoun is optionally placed between the two parts of the sentence.

Definitions
                   an unattached pronoun optionally placed between the subject and
ًٛ‫ّٞ١ٍ جٌف‬
                   predicate of a sentence when both are definite

Consider the example below where both topic and comment are definite.

ْٛ‫جٌٓحذمْٛ جٌٓحذم‬
The foremost will be the foremost

In such cases, we have the option of leaving the sentence as is. However, we may opt
to add a pronoun between the topic and comment to separate the two. The pronoun
will be unattached and its gender and plurality will depend on the sentential topic. The
benefit of using this pronoun is twofold: firstly, it helps separate the major
components of the sentence thereby allowing for better understanding and less
confusion. And secondly, it puts emphasis on the topic. Consider the examples below.

              Translation                            Example
             They are the truly fearful               ْٛ‫جٌٚثه ُ٘ جٌّطم‬
             This is the very assured truth                  ّ
                                                      ٓ١‫ً٘ج ٌٙٛ قك جٌ١م‬
             It was the boat itself that became the             ُ
                                                           ٟ٘ ‫وحٔص جٌٓف١ٕس‬
             anchor                                   ‫ز‬
                                                      َ ‫جٌٍِّْح‬

**Ordering of the Topic and Comment
The natural ordering in a nominal sentence is for the topic to be first and the comment
to be second. But this structure may be inverted to achieve rhetorical benefit. There
are a few situations in which inverting the structure is prohibited, and there are others
in which inverting the structure actually becomes mandatory.

    Situations when the structure cannot be
                                                      Example
    inverted
    inverting the structure would cause confusion     ‫أذ٣أ جٌّٓالقف أغمً جٌّٓالقف‬
1   as to which is the topic and which is the         (The slowest tortoise is the
    comment                                           heaviest one)
2   the topic is prefixed with the ‫الَ جالذطىجء‬       ٍ١‫ٌّػٛذس ِٓ ٪ٕى جهلل ن‬
                                                      (The reward from God is better)
3
    the topic requires the head of the sentence, as   ‫ِٓ ٘ٛ؟‬
    is the case with interrogative nouns              (Who is he?)

    Situations when the structure must be
                                                   Example
    inverted
    the topic is purely indefinite and the comment ‫٪ٕىٞ أٚكحخ‬
1
    is a prepositional or adverbial phrase         (I have friends with me)
2
    the topic has a pronoun that refers to the                  ‫َ ر‬
                                                   ‫قٛي جٌ ٍِوس ٌلٛلٙح‬
    comment (or part of it)                        (Around the pond are its frogs)
3
    the predicate requires the head of the              ‫هف‬
                                                   ‫أ٠ٓ جٌ ُ ّحٔ؟‬
    sentence                                       (Where are the bats?)


**Omitting Parts of a Sentence
The topic and comment of a sentence may be omitted when the intended meaning is
clear without them. Omitting parts of a sentence like this is considered quite eloquent.
For example, when one asks ―What is the sign of a good day?‖ an apt reply would be:

        ٞ
ٌّّٗ‫ُكٝ ج‬
The (presence of) the sun‘s rays [is a sign of a good day]

Here the comment was completely omitted. Similarly, in the following sentence, the
topic is completely omitted. When one asks ―What is this a picture of?‖ an apt reply
may be:

                                         ّ
‫ٚد ٌّ٫حْ جٌّّٗ ذ١ٓ ٖ٫د جألو ٚجـ ذغحذس نٍٟجء‬
[This is] the sun‘s sheen pouring through the branches of gigantic trees in a green
forest

And finally, entire sentences may be omitted from speech. For example, when
children are playing hide-and-seek on a boat, the seeker may eloquently say:

                                         ‫ف‬
ً‫جٌّطه َْٛ ذحٌؿإؾإ فحٔح ٚجؾىُ٘، ٚجٌّطهفْٛ ذحٌىٛغ‬
Those of you that hide near the bow, I will find you.
And those of you that hide near the stern, [I will find you.]

There are, in fact, instances where omitting either the topic or comment is mandatory.
However, those situations are very advanced and their practical applications are
highly limited. Hence they will not be discussed here.


Abrogation by ٌ‫ كا‬and its Sisters
Definitions
‫ٔٛجْم جإلذطىجء‬      sentential abrogators
‫جألف٫حي‬             ْ‫ وح‬and its sisters, which together form one of the groups of
‫جٌٕحلٛس‬             sentential abrogators
ْ‫جُْ وح‬             the topic of a sentence abrogated by ْ‫( وح‬or one of its sisters)

ْ‫نرٍ وح‬             the comment of a sentence abrogated by ْ‫( وح‬or one of its sisters)

The sentential structure, as we have discussed it, may be slightly modified by
prefixing the sentence with one of the sentential abrogators (‫ .)ٔٛجْم جإلذطىجء‬These are
groups of words that do the following.

   1. change the meaning or nature of the predication between topic and comment
   2. change the grammatical state of the topic and/or the comment
   3. change the terminology we use to refer to the topic and comment


ْ‫ وح‬and its sisters are a group of about a dozen verbs which enter on nominal
sentences and alter them in the above three ways. This group is called the ‫أف٫حي ٔحلٛس‬
(deficient verbs) and they are one of the groups of sentential abrogators. The exact
alterations they afford are as follows.

   1. each of the      sisters changes the meaning or nature of the sentence; their
       meanings will be discussed soon
   2. the ْ‫ وح‬sisters render the topic nominative (as it was before), and the comment
      accusative
   3. what was previously called the ‫ ِرطىأ‬is now called the ―ُْ‫ ج‬of ْ‫( وح‬or whichever
      of its sisters is being used)‖, and what was previously called the ٍ‫ نر‬is now
      called the ―ٍ‫ نر‬of ْ‫( وح‬or whichever of its sisters is being used)‖
Consider the following nominal sentence as an example.

         ٌ ‫ط‬        ُ
‫وً قحؾُ ِ ًّٛ ذحٌ٫حٌٞس‬
Every bulkhead is connected to the keel

We may use ّ١ٌ – one of the ْ‫ وح‬sisters – to abrogate this sentence. Notice the
differences caused by this verb in both the text and translation.

         ً ‫ط‬          ُ
‫ٌ١ّ وً قحؾُ ِ ّّٛال ذحٌ٫حٌٞس‬
Not every bulkhead is connected to the keel

The phrase ُ‫ وً قحؾ‬is called the subject of ّ١ٌ and ‫ ِطّٛال ذحٌ٫حٌٞس‬its predicate.

Exercise: Translate the following into Arabic. The point of this exercise is to practice
recognizing the grammatical changes brought about by these abrogators. Start by
forming regular nominal sentences for each of the sentences below. Then introduce an
abrogator to complete the meaning.
   1. You have no alibi (    )
   2. It is not the case that I like whatever I see
   3. I didn‘t used to cry
                                         ٖ                   ٗ ٌ َ
   4. We haven‘t spent the lading (‫ ) َكْٕس‬of our argosy (ْٓ‫)َْٚ َق جٌ َك‬



*The Sisters of ‫كان‬
The list of sentence abrogators in the ‫ أف٫حي ٔحلٛس‬group is not consistent; different
sources give slightly different lists. What is important to remember with respect to
this group is their underpinning nature.

Recall the difference between nominal and verbal sentences. In a verbal sentence, the
word which links the components of the sentence is the main verb. And in a nominal
sentence, the word which links the components is the understood word ―is‖.

Now the underpinning commonality between the ‫ أف٫حي ٔحلٛس‬verbs is that, although
they are verbs and should therefore be the main link for the components of their
sentence, their meaning does not serve as the copulative link. They do impose a
certain change in meaning on the sentence, but that meaning does not become the
copula. And this is why they have been termed ‗deficient verbs‘.

Aside: The sentence to which these verbs are prefixed will be verbal by virtue of the
fact that these abrogators are verbs. In fact, the fact that their ُْ‫ ج‬is nominative and
their ٌ‫ أنرح‬are accusative bears a striking resemblance to the verb-subject-object
relationship. However, because these verbs do not actually become sentential copulas,
some consider sentences abrogated by these verbs to be neither nominal nor verbal.
Others would argue that, in spite of these abrogators being verbs, the sentence is
nominal.

                   Meaning                           Sister of ٌ‫كا‬
                   to be                             ْ‫وح‬
                   to become                         ٌ‫ٚح‬
                   to become (in the morning)        ‫أٚرف‬
                   to become (during midday)         ٝ‫أٞك‬
                   to become (in the evening)        ِٝٓ‫أ‬
                   to spend the day (doing
                   something)                        ّ٦
                                                     ً
                   to spend the night (doing
                   something)                        ‫ذحش‬
                   as long as                        َ‫ِح وج‬
                   to continue (not deviate)
                                                     ‫(ال‬      ‫ِح َجي‬
                                                     )‫٠ُجي‬
                   to remain (not leave)               ٍ
                                                     ‫ِح ذ ِـ‬
                   to continue (not stop)            ‫ه‬
                                                     ّ ‫ِح جٔف‬
                   to continue (not cease)           ٝ‫ِح فط‬
                   to not be                         ّ١ٌ
The first seven of the listed verbs may have other meanings as well. They may be ‫,ضحِس‬
and they may be in synonymous with ٌ‫ ٚح‬as well.

The type of ‫ ِح‬that precedes the verb َ‫ وج‬is the adverbial-gerundival version. And the ‫ِح‬
that precedes the other four verbs is simply negative. Notice that the verbs themselves
are negative and so their ‫ ِح‬reverts their polarity to positive. This ‫ ِح‬is often hidden
when the sentence is spoken out of oath. For example:

‫ضحهلل ضفطإ ضًوٍ ٠ْٛف‬
By God, you will continue to remember Joseph

Notice that the verb ‫ ضفطإ‬is intrinsically negative and only by introducing the ‫ ِح‬can we
revert it to being positive. Yet in the above example it has been translated as a
positive verb. This is because the sentence is spoken out of oath and thus the ‫ ِح‬is
assumed present.

And finally, the verb ّ١ٌ is special in the sense that it conjugates only in the perfect
tense; it has no other tense, no gerund, nor any derived participles.

Aside: When one of the following five conjugations of ْٛ‫ ٠ى‬is in the jussive state, its
ْٛٔ may be omitted. The conjugations are ْٛ‫( ضىْٛ ,٠ى‬both second and third person),
ْٛ‫ .ٔىْٛ ,أو‬This is quite common; for example:

     ُ
‫ٌُٚ أن ذغ١ح‬
And I am not unchaste

This is only permissible when the there is no pronoun attached to the verb. And some
grammarians disallow this when the following letter is unvowlled.
**The Types of ‫كان‬
The verb ْ‫ وح‬in particular has a complicated story. At the outset, ْ‫ وح‬can either be
extra or not. An example of its usage as an extra word is in the following couplet of
poetry.

ِ ‫٪ٍٝ وحْ جٌّ ّٛ َس جٌ ٍِج‬
‫ٓ ِِ ٫ خ‬                                    ٍ ‫ذ‬          ُ ‫ؾ‬
                                     ِٝ‫ِ١حو ذٕٟ أذٟ َىٍْ ضَٓح‬
The stallions of B. Abi Bakr claim superiority
over the branded Arabian-horses

When it is not extra, it comes in two capacities. The first is as a regular, intransitive
verb and the second is as a sentential abrogator as we have seen. In the first capacity,
it simply takes a subject and affords the meaning ―to exist‖. Consider the example
below.

ٍ ‫وحْ َ ِٞ ِِىف‬
٩ ُ ٚ‫و‬
There was a noise of a canon (firing)

In the above example, ٩‫ وٚٞ ِىف‬is simply the subject of the ordinary verb ْ‫.وح‬

Definitions
‫وحْ جٌُجتىز‬        the ْ‫ وح‬which is extra
                   the ْ‫ وح‬which is a regular verb and means ―to exist‖; it takes a
‫وحْ جٌطحِس‬
                   subject
‫وحْ جٌٕحلٛس‬        the ْ‫ وح‬which is a sentence abrogator; it takes an ُْ‫ ج‬and a ٍ‫نر‬

In its second capacity – as a sentential abrogator – ْ‫ وح‬can be interpreted in two ways.
The first is for it to have the same meaning as ٌ‫ ٚحٌ .ٚح‬is, in fact, one of the sisters of
ْ‫ وح‬whose meaning is ―to become‖. An example of ْ‫ وح‬being used in the meaning of
ٌ‫ ٚح‬is as follows.

 ٣          ً ُٔ
ُّ ‫وحْ جٌٙ١ىً ُمٟح ٪ٕى جٌطك‬
The hull became rubble during the shipwreck

And the second way in which ْ‫ وح‬can be interpreted is by far the most popular usage
of this word. In this usage, it affords the meaning ―was‖ as in the following example.

‫وحٔص جٌ٫ٛحف١ٍ ضٍلٙ ٪ٍٝ جألٌٛجـ‬
The sparrows were dancing on the planks

The sense of ―was‖ here is somewhat different than the English understanding. It is
not necessarily the case that something was, but no longer is. It may very well be that
ْ‫ وح‬is used to afford the meaning ―was‖, but the predication of the sentence still holds
true and may continue to hold true. Consider the example below.
‫وحْ جهلل ٪ٍ١ّح قى١ّح‬
God is all-knowing, all-wise

Extra Non-extra
      Regular Verb
                              Sentential Abrogator
      (means ―to
                              (abrogates nominal sentences)
      be/exist‖)
                              Synonymous
                                                   Means ―was‖
                              with ٌ‫ٚح‬
                                                                        predicate was
                                                   predicate is
                                                                        true for the
                                                   always true for
                                                                        subject
                                                   the subject
                                                                        (was but no
                                                   (was and still is)
                                                                        longer is)


**The Rules of ‫ كان‬and its Sisters
The rules mentioned in regards to the order of the topic and comment, the omission of
portions of a sentence, and other such regulations all apply to nominal sentences
abrogated by the ‫ .جف٫حي ٔحلٛس‬But because ْ‫ وح‬and its sisters are newly introduced
components of the sentence, there are a few minor rules regarding order and omission
that, although not vital, are nevertheless handy to know.

Firstly, the predicate of any of these verbs may precede the subject, as was the case
with regular nominal sentences. But furthermore, the predicate may in fact precede
the verb as well. And if the verb is negated by ‫ ,ِح‬the predicate may come between the
‫ ِح‬and the verb, but not before both. The following is a list of examples that
demonstrate the correct possibilities in terms of the order of words.

                       Examples
                       ‫ى ح‬
                       ً ّ‫وحْ َ٠ ٌ لحت‬                        
                       ‫ح ى‬
                       ٌ ٠َ ً ّ‫وحْ لحت‬                        
                       ‫ى‬
                       ٌ ٠َ ْ‫لحتّح وح‬
                                  ً                           
                       ٌ ٠َ ْ‫ِح لحتّح وح‬
                       ‫ى‬          ً                           
                       ‫ى‬             ً
                       ٌ ٠َ ْ‫لحتّح ِح وح‬                      
                       ‫ى‬
                       ٌ ٠َ ٓ‫لحتّ ً ٌُ ٠ى‬
                                    ‫ح‬                         
                       ‫ى‬          ً
                       ٌ ٠َ ٓ‫ٌُ لحتّح ٠ى‬                      
Aside: Any structure governed by the predicate of one of these verbs must be close to
it – either immediately after it or immediately before it – unless it is a prepositional or
adverbial phrase.

Aside: With respect to omission, the rules are quite similar to those of regular
nominal sentences. However, the verb ْ‫ وح‬in particular, along with its subject, has
been known to become omitted after certain conditional words such as ‫ ٌٛال‬and ْ‫ .ئ‬In
these cases, the verb and its subject drop, but the predicate remains.
Abrogation by the Particles that Resemble ‫نُس‬
Definitions
  ‫جٌكٍٚف جٌّٗرٙس‬          the particles that resemble ّ١ٌ, which form a group of
"ّ١ٌ"‫ذـ‬                   sentential abrogators
                          the topic of a sentence abrogated by the ‫ ِح‬or ‫ ال‬which resemble
‫جُْ ِح‬
                          ّ١ٌ
                          the comment of a sentence abrogated by the ‫ ِح‬or ‫ ال‬which
‫نرٍ ِح‬
                          resemble ّ١ٌ

Like the ‫ ,أف٫حي ٔحلٛس‬this is a group of sentential abrogators (‫ )ٔٛجْم جإلذطىجء‬known as the
particles which resemble ّ١ٌ (ّ١ٍ‫ .)جٌكٍٚف جٌّٗرٙس ذ‬However, whereas the ْ‫ وح‬sisters
were verbs, these are particles. And whereas the ْ‫ وح‬sisters were about a dozen in
number, these are numbered at only two; they are ‫ ِح‬and ‫ .ال‬These particles enter on
nominal sentences having the following effects.

      1. in terms of meaning, they negate the sentence just as     did
      2. in terms of grammatical state, they have the same effect as the ْ‫ وح‬sisters
      3. what was previously known as the ‫ ِرطىأ‬will now be called the ―ُْ‫ ج‬of ‫( ِح‬or ‫,‖)ال‬
         and what was previously the ٍ‫ نر‬will now be the ―ٍ١‫ ن‬of ‫( ِح‬or ‫‖)ال‬


Consider the following sentences.

  ‫ّ ِ ض‬
ُِٙ ‫ِح ٘ٓ أ ّٙح‬
They are not their mothers

and

‫ُ لح‬               ِ ٌ َٚ
ً ١ِ ‫ٚال َ ٌَ ِّح لٟٝ جهلل ٚج‬            ‫ِ لح‬              ٌ        َ ٫‫ض‬
                                         ً ١ِ ‫َ َُ فّال ٖٟء ٪ٍٝ جألٌٜ ذح‬
Forebear (hardships), for not a thing on the earth will remain
nor any asylum will protect from what God has decreed


**Rules of ‫ما‬
In order for the ‫ ِح‬to govern the topic and comment by rendering the former
nominative and the latter accusative, it must not fall under one of the following
situations. This means that the following situations may occur, but that the
governance of ‫ ِح‬in such cases will be lost.

      1. the extra particle   which is used to emphasize negation is brought after the

‫ُ نُف‬           ٌ ٚ
ُ َ َ ُ‫ٚال ٍَ٠ف ٌٚىٓ أٔط‬                  ‫ي٘د‬              َٔ ‫غ‬
                                          ٌ َ َ ُ‫ذٕٟ ُىج َس ِح ئْ أٔط‬
O B. Ghudāna, you are surely not gold
nor are you silver. Nay, you are clay
    2. the negation is reverted by the use of

ٍ ‫ال‬
ٌ ٠ًٔ ّ ‫ِح أٔح ئ‬
I am not but a cautioner
    3. the negation is inverted by repeating the

    ً
‫ِح ِح أٔح لحت ٌ ً٘ج‬
I am not .. not saying this (I am surely saying this)
    4. the topic and comment order is inverted

    ‫د‬
‫ِح يج٘ ٌ أٔص‬
You‘re not leaving!

Furthermore, ‫ ِح‬gives information in the negative. For example, ―I am not happy.‖
And so the predicate may conceivably be qualified by something that clarifies this
negation with something non-negative. For example, ―I am not happy; rather, sad.‖
Here the non-negative word ―sad‖ has been used to clarify the lack of happiness. In
such cases, the extra qualification will not match the qualified portion as we would
expect; instead, it will be fixed nominative as in the following example.

    ‫ْى ص‬           ً
ٕٗ٪ ٌ ١ّ ِ ً‫ِح أٔح ذمحت ٍ ً٘ج، ذ‬
I am not saying this; rather, I‘m being absolutely silent about it

The reason this happens is because the negation afforded by the ‫ ِح‬is not applying to
the qualification. In fact, the qualification is completely opposite in polarity. Consider
the ―I am not happy; rather, sad‖ example. The negation is applying to ―happy‖ but it
is certainly not applying to ―sad‖. And since the meaning of ‫ ِح‬is not applying to this
word, neither is its governance. Although, it is true that the qualification may
optionally be made nominative even if it doesn‘t differ in polarity.


**Rules of ‫ال‬
In order for ‫ ال‬to maintain its governance, it must not fall into one of the situations
below.

    1. the         of , the   of , or both are definite
                                                     ‫ال‬
    2. the negation has been reverted by the use of ّ ‫ئ‬
    3. the order of the ُْ‫ ج‬and ٍ‫ نر‬has been inverted


                                                                            ‫ش‬       ‫ش‬
Furthermore, this particle may be supplemented by appending the letter َ to get َ ‫.ال‬
When this is done, it is usually the case that only the ٍ‫ نر‬of ‫ ال‬is mentioned and not the
ُْ‫ .ج‬Other times only the ُْ‫ ج‬is mentioned and not the ٍ‫ .نر‬And the meaning of the ٍ١‫ن‬
must be that of time. Consider the example below.

٘ َ َ
ٍ ‫فّالش ق١ٓ ِٕح‬
There was no time for refuge



Abrogation by ّ ‫ إ‬and its Sisters
              ٌ
Definitions
   ‫جٌكٍٚف جٌّٗرٙس‬     the particles that resemble verbs, which form a group of
ً٫‫ف‬ ‫ذحي‬               sentential abrogators
ْ
ّ ‫جُْ ئ‬               the topic of a sentence abrogated by ْ‫( ئ‬or one of its sisters)

ْ
ّ ‫نرٍ ئ‬               the comment of a sentence abrogated by ْ‫( ئ‬or one of its sisters)

This is a group of sentential abrogators (‫ )ٔٛجْم جإلذطىجء‬known as the particles that
resemble verbs (ً٫‫ .)جٌكٍٚف جٌّٗرٙس ذحٌف‬They are six in number. The reason they are said
to resemble verbs is because each of these particles shares its templatic pattern with
the pattern of some verb, and they govern in a manner similar to verbs as well. The
effects these abrogators have on a nominal sentence are as follows.

   1. each particle has a different meaning that will be discussed soon
   2. these particles render the topic accusative and the comment nominative
   3. what was previously known as the ‫ ِرطىأ‬will now be called the ―ُْ‫ ج‬of ْ‫( ئ‬or
      whichever of its sisters is being used)‖, and what was previously the ٍ‫ نر‬will
      now be the ―ٍ١‫ ن‬of ْ‫( ئ‬or whichever of its sisters is being used)‖


Notice that the grammatical effect afforded by this group of sentential abrogators is
opposite that of the previous two groups. Consider the following (which is not
authentic poetry).

ِ ٍ‫ٚ َرْ َ٘ح ن١ٍ ِٓ َ َ٠حْ جألذ‬
‫ٌ ٌو ِ ك‬                ٍٞ               ‫ِ ّ ؿس‬            َ ٍ ّ٘
                                         ِ ٍَ ‫ئْ ََّْؿس جٌؿ١حو جٌ ُك‬
Indeed the ambling of white-hoofed stallions and their cantering
is better than the stomping of the piebald horse

Try to determine which portion of the above example is part of the subject, and which
is the comment.


               ‫ن‬
The Sisters of ّ ‫إ‬
Example                                                                   Sister of ٌ‫إ‬
      ِ       َ       ‫د‬       ّ
ً١‫ئْ جألٖٙ َ ٚجألذٍك ِٓ ؾ١حو جٌه‬                                          ْ
                                                                          ّ‫ئ‬
Verily the grey and piebald horses are among the stallions                indeed
                                 ٌ ‫٪ ُ ٔ ْى‬
‫َ َّص أ ّٗ ِ ِ١ْص ٌىٓ أضٝ ٪ٍٝ جألنٍٟ ٚجٌ١حذّ ْحذمح‬                        ْ
                                                                          ّ‫أ‬
I thought it was a last-place horse, but it wreaked havoc as a
                                                                          that ...
thoroughbred
              ٪َ     ِّ     ‫ؿً ُ ف‬
ٟٕ‫وحْ جٌ َ َ٨ ألر َ ٌٚىٓ ٍِْْحل ُْٛفٌِٖٛ أ٪ؿر‬                                 ٓ‫ى‬
                                                                              ّ ِ ٌٰ
The two-year foal was ugly, but its whiteness of blaze pleased me             but

ِ ُْٙ ٌ‫ّْ٫ص ٚٛضح ٚوأّٗ َٙ١ً ج‬
ٍّ ُ ٚ ٔ ً               ُ                                                    ْ
                                                                              ّ ‫وأ‬
I heard a voice, and it‘s as if it was the neighing of a foal                 like / as if

     َ
ٍ١٣‫ٌ١ص جألفٍجِ ض‬                                                              َ ْ١َ
                                                                              ‫ٌص‬
If only horses flew                                                           wish / hope

  ٓ ُ ِ َ‫ْر َ ف‬
ِ‫ٌ٫ً ُْٕ ُه جٌ ٍَِ غ١ٍ ق ّح‬                                                   ّ ٫ٌ
                                                                              ً
Would that the horse‘s toe not be so sensitive                                hope

The sister ْ‫ أ‬deserves special mention. There are some grammatical positions in the
language that cannot be occupied by entire sentences. We‘ve seen an example of this
in the topic of nominal sentences (whether abrogated or not); they cannot be an entire
sentence. Yet the need often arises to use a complete idea – in other words, a full
                                                      ْ
sentence – as the topic. In order to facilitate this, ّ ‫ ج‬is used. The job of this particle is
to reduce the sentence that follows it to the rank of a single word. The sentence
                               ْ
conveys its full meaning, but ّ ‫ أ‬allows it to be grammatically interpreted as a single
idea thereby allowing it to occupy such positions as the topic of a sentence.
                ْ
Consequently, ّ ‫ أ‬is often translated as ―the fact that....‖

                                                                         ً٪
Aside: The word ً٫ٌ has been related in a variety of dialects, including ّ َ and others.

Exercise: Place grammatical endings in the following sentences.
    1.

    2.   ٍٞ٠ٍْ ‫ٌ٫ً جٌرٍجغ١ع ضطٍن‬ ّ
    3.                      ‫ّ و‬              ً              ٕ
         ٍٚ‫و ّح ٍٔجلٙ ٪ٕى و ّ فٍٚس ٌٚىٓ جٌّٛ ّز ذ١ٕٕح ذىأش ضطمح‬
    4.                              ٠         ّ ّ ّ
         ٍِٛ ٟ‫ئْ وٚٞ جٌ ِىف٩ ال ٠ُجي ُف١ى ٚلص جإلف٣حٌ ف‬


           ‫ن‬
**Rules of ّ ‫ إ‬and its Sisters
There is a type of ‫ ِح‬which is appended to these particles. According to the majority of
grammarians, it stops these particles from rendering their grammatical influence. This
‫ ِح‬has been discussed in the Types of ‫ ِح‬tutorial.

 Aside from being appended with this ‫ ,ِح‬another possibility is for the first three
                                       ْ                           ْ
 particles mentioned to be shortened. ّ ‫ ئ‬may be shortened to ْْ‫ أ ّ ,ئ‬may be shortened to
         ْ
ْْ‫ ,أ‬and ّ ‫ وأ‬may be shortened to ْ‫ .وأ‬When this happens, the subject of the particle will
 also be omitted, leaving only the shortened particle and its predicate. This is one of
 very few instances when parts of a sentence abrogated by these particles can be
 omitted.

Definitions
  ‫م‬           ‫ف‬
‫جٌّه ّفس ِٓ جٌّػ ٍّس‬    one of the three mentioned particles when they are shortened
Furthermore, it is a condition of these particles that the order of the topic and
comment not be inverted. Whereas this was a concession with other abrogators, these
particles do not allow this save in the case of prepositional and adverbial phrases.
When the comment is prepositional or adverbial, its rules will follow those of regular
nominal sentences and other abrogators.

Aside: When one of these abrogators is shortened, there are rules regarding its
predicate. However, such rules can easily be picked up through exposure and practice.

Aside: With respect to the first three mentioned particles – ْ‫ ,أْ ,ئ‬and ٓ‫ – ٌى‬a
conjunction may be brought for their topic lexically after both the topic and comment.
Consider the following example.

  ٣ ٣‫ّ ٛ ٍٛ َ ّ َ جي ِ قر‬
ْ‫ئْ جٌ َْٙ َِمس ٌ ِٓ ن١ً ٚ َ َ ِمْ ِك‬
The sound of loud-whinnying comes from the horse,
as well as the sound of the hooves hitting the pavement

In this case, the noun after the conjunction may be either nominative or accusative.



Abrogation by the ‫ ال‬of Class Negation
Definitions
ّٕ‫ال جٌطٟ ٌٕفٟ جٌؿ‬        the ‫ ال‬that negates an entire genus; it is a sentential abrogator

‫جُْ ال‬                    the topic of a sentence abrogated by ‫ال‬

‫نرٍ ال‬                    the comment of a sentence abrogated by ‫ال‬

The ‫ ال‬of class negation (ّٕ‫ )ال جٌطٟ ٌٕفٟ جٌك‬is a particle which is the only member of this
group of sentential abrogators (‫ .)ٔٛجْم جإلذطىجء‬It effects nominal sentences in the
following ways.

    1. it negates the entire genus represented by its subject
    2. this particle renders the topic accusative and the comment nominative, just as
           ْ
       the ّ ‫ ج‬sisters
    3. what was previously known as the ‫ ِرطىأ‬will now be called the ―ُْ‫ ج‬of ‫ ,‖ال‬and
       what was previously the ٍ‫ نر‬will now be the ―ٍ١‫ ن‬of ‫‖ال‬


Consider, for example, the following statement.

‫ُ ر ىل١ ء‬
ٌ ‫ٖٛجٌ٨ جٌ ُْٕ ُ ِّس ِح‬
The streets of Venice are water

There are a plethora of methods which can be used to negate this statement. Some
options include usage of the verb ّ١ٌ, the particles ‫ ِح‬or ‫ ال‬which resemble ّ١ٌ, and so
forth. If one of these methods of negation were to be used, the sentence would be
translated simply as ―the streets of Venice are not water.‖

If we wish to add emphasis to the negation, there are a number of rhetorical devices
that can be used to achieve this. One such device is the use of an extra ‫ ذحء‬pre-pended
to the predicate. The translation would then be ―the streets of Venice are surely not
water.‖

However, the above methods negate the application of the predicate to the subject. In
other words, it‘s the copula which is being negated. What if, on the other hand, we
wish to negate the subject inasmuch as its being qualified by the predicate? In other
words, we wish to negate the entire class/group represented by the subject and
qualified by the predicate.

Compare

    1. “the streets of Venice are not (or do not have) water” with
    2. ―there is no water on the streets of Venice.‖


The two forms of negation above are fundamentally very different. In (1), the
negation applies to the predication. The streets of Venice simply do not have water. In
(2), however, the negation applies to the combination of the subject and predicate.
There is no water; the entire category/class known as water has been negated.

But not all water in the world is being targeted for negation; it is the water which is
qualified by being ―on the streets of Venice‖.

In order to achieve such a class negation, the ‫ ال‬of class negation is used. Consider its
usage below.

 ١‫ِ ر ىل‬               ‫ء‬
‫ال ِح َ فٟ ٖٛجٌ٨ جٌ ُْٕ ُ ِ ّس‬
There is no water on the streets of Venice

Exercise: In which of the following statements would it be appropriate to use the ‫ ال‬of
class negation?
    1. I don’t have change
    2.   I really don‘t have change
    3.   I never have change
    4.   There is no change with me right now
    5.   There isn‘t any change in my pocket



*Rules of ‫ال‬
In order for this ‫ ال‬to govern, it must not fall into one of the following situations. If
any of the following do occur, the sentence will be valid but the ‫ ال‬of class negation
will lose its regency in tandem with some of its emphasis.
     1. either its subject, its predicate, or both are definite
     2. the order of the subject and predicate has been inverted (whether optionally or
        necessarily)


Furthermore, the predicate of ‫ ال‬is often omitted when it is understood. Consider the
following sentence.

   ٌ      ‫ِ ال‬       َ
‫ال ِٙى جٌٕٟٙس ئ ّ وفٍٛ َٔٓح‬
There is no cradle of renaissance like Florence [that exists]

Finally, it is not always the case that the subject of ‫ ال‬is completely accusative. If the
first word in the subject is governing, then it will be accusative. However, if it is not
governing, it will be indeclinable and only its reflection will be that of the accusative
case. Review the cases below.

Subject         Type of
                           Grammatical State of the Subject                    Example
Governs?        Governance
                           indeclinable, reflection of accusative case,
No              None
                           no nunation                                         ً
                                                                               َ ‫ال لحت‬
               ‫جٞحفس‬                                                                ً
                                                                               ‫ال لحت َ ً٘ج‬
Yes
               ً٫‫ٖرٗ جٌف‬
                                 accusative
                                                                                    ‫ّال‬
                                                                               ‫ال لحت ً ً٘ج‬
               ً٫‫ٖرٗ جٌف‬
                                                                                    ً
                                                                                    ‫ال لحتّال‬
                                                                               ‫ًٌٙج‬

**More on the Grammatical Case of the Subject
It is possible for a sentence abrogated by ‫ ال‬to be followed by another by way of
conjunction. Consider a situation where there are two sentences, both abrogated by ‫,ال‬
                                          ّ
connected with a conjunction as in ―‫ .‖ال قٛي ٚال لٛز ئال ذحهلل‬The following chart outlines
the permissible combinations of the grammatical case for the subjects of both
sentences.

                             Examples
                             َ ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚال ل‬
                             ‫ز‬        َ                       
                             ‫ز‬        َ
                             ً ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚال ل‬                  
                             ٌ ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚال ل‬
                             ‫ز‬        َ                       
                             ‫ز‬        ً
                             َ ٛ‫ال قٛال ٚال ل‬                 
                             ‫ز‬        ً
                             ً ٛ‫ال قٛال ٚال ل‬                 
                             ‫ز‬        ً
                             ٌ ٛ‫ال قٛال ٚال ل‬                 
                             َ ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚال ل‬
                             ‫ز‬        ٌ                       
                             ً ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚال ل‬
                             ‫ز‬        ٌ                       
                             ٌ ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚال ل‬
                             ‫ز‬        ٌ                       
And if the ‫ ال‬is not repeated – rather the subject is directly extended by conjunction –
then the following possibilities will apply.

                          Examples
                          ‫َ ز‬
                          َ ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚل‬                  
                          ً ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚل‬
                          ‫َ ز‬                           
                          ٌ ٛ‫ال قٛي ٚل‬
                          ‫َ ز‬                           
If the extension is not done by means of conjunction, instead it is through the use of
an adjective, then the following cases are permissible.

                          Examples
                          ُ     َ
                          َ ١٧٪ ‫ال قٛي‬                  
                          ‫ح‬       َ
                          ً ّ١٧٪ ‫ال قٛي‬                 
                          ٌ ١٧٪ ‫ال قٛي‬
                          ُ     َ                       
Notice that, in the first example in the above chart, non-declension is being extended.
This is quite anomalous and only occurs when the noun and adjective are single words
and there is no gap between them.


Summary
This tutorial has presented 10 grammatical positions out of a possible 22 that relate to
nouns, phrases, and sentences. The chart below summarizes these positions and puts
them into perspective.

Nominative                     Accusative                      Genitive
1.

2.   ‫انخثز‬
3.   ‫اسى أفؼال انُاقصة‬         1.
4.    ٍُ‫اسى يا وال انًشثهت‬     2.   ٍُ‫خثز يا وال انًشثهت‬
     "‫تـ"نُس‬                       "‫تـ"نُس‬
5.    ‫خثز انحزوف انًشثهة‬       3. ‫اسى انحزوف انًشثهة‬
     ‫تانفؼم‬                        ‫تانفؼم‬
6.    ٍ‫خثز ال انتٍ نُف‬         4. ٍ‫اسى ال انتٍ نُف‬
     ‫انجُس‬                         ‫انجُس‬
7.   ً٪‫جٌفح‬                    5. ٗ‫جٌّف٫ٛي ذ‬
8.   ً٪‫جٌٕحتد ٪ٓ جٌفح‬          6. ٗ١‫جٌّف٫ٛي ف‬
                               7. ‫جٌّف٫ٛي جٌّ٣ٍك‬
                               8. ٗ٫ِ ‫جٌّف٫ٛي‬
                               9. ٌٗ ‫جٌّف٫ٛي‬
                               10. ‫جٌكحي‬
                               11. ٕٝ‫جٌّٓطػ‬
                               12. ُ١١ّ‫جٌط‬




Verbal Sentences
What is this Tutorial About?
The tutorial entitled Introduction to Arabic Grammar gives a basic outline of the parts
of speech in Arabic and one of the ideal ways in which to approach the topics in
grammar. The Heart of Arabic Grammar then deals with the core concepts in the
language and introduces the idea of grammatical states. Subsequently, Arabic
Inflection talks about those parts of speech in the language that experience these states
and those that do not, while Arabic Reflection talks about how this inflection is
represented on words. And finally, in the introduction to Nominal Sentences is a brief
overture to the 22 types of grammatical processes that bring about change in
grammatical state and the 4 types of processes that extend grammatical state from one
word to another.

Nominal Sentences also deals with 10 of the 22 grammatical processes by giving a
detailed account of one of the two types of sentences in the Arabic language. This
tutorial now gives a detailed account of the other type – namely, verbal sentences. In
discussing verbal sentences, another 7 of the 22 processes will be dealt with.

A very significant chunk of the discussion on verbal sentences has to do with direct
objects and adverbs. These concepts have been discussed quite thoroughly in Arabic
Adverbs and that discussion will be supplemented in this tutorial with more advanced
concepts.


Verbal Sentences
Recall that nominal sentences must have at least two components; they must contain a
topic and a comment. Either of the two components may be hidden, but they are
always assumed to be there in some shape or form. Similarly, verbal sentences must
also have two components at the very least; they must have the verb itself as well as
the verb‘s subject. And, just as with nominal sentences, it is possible for either of
these two to be hidden, but they will both be present in some capacity.

Verbs may have other associates apart from their subjects, all of which are optional.
They include the verb‘s objects, adverbs, and prepositional links. All of these are
considered to be the details of the verb and are not part of the subject nor the predicate
of the sentence.

Definitions
ً٫‫ف‬                 the verb (which is the predicate of the sentence)
ً٪‫فح‬                the subject of the verb (which is the subject of the sentence)
‫ِف٫ٛي‬               a detail of the verb (refers to objects and adverbs)
ٗ‫ِف٫ٛي ذ‬                 a direct or indirect object
‫ِف٫ٛي ِ٣ٍك‬
ٗ١‫ِف٫ٛي ف‬                these are the types of adverbs; they are discussed in Arabic
ٌٗ ‫ِف٫ٛي‬                 Adverbs

ٗ٫ِ ‫ِف٫ٛي‬
 ً
 ِ
‫ِط٫ ق‬               a detail of the verb (refers to prepositional links)


Verbs & Verbal Objects
As for a verb‘s objects, a verb is said to be at one of four levels of transitivity. Either
the verb has no direct object, in which case it is called intransitive, or it may have up
to three objects, in which case it is termed transitive.

Definitions
ََ‫ف٫ً ال‬            an intransitive verb
‫ى‬
ٍ ٫‫ف٫ً ِط‬           a transitive verb

The concept of transitivity towards objects is not at a per-verb basis. The same verb,
depending on how it is used, has the possibility of being at different levels of
transitivity. Refer to the table below where a single verb is being used in various ways
resulting in various levels of transitivity.

                                                               Level             of
        Translation                     Example
                                                               transitivity
        I knew                          ُ ِّ٪
                                        ‫ٍص‬                     intransitive
        I knew that                            ُ
                                        ‫٪ٍّص يجن‬               mono-transitive
        I knew that         was
        important                       ‫ِّٙح‬        ُ
                                        ً ّ ِ ُ ‫٪ٍّص يجن‬       ditransitive
        I informed you that that
        was important                   ‫ح‬          ‫ط‬
                                        ً ِّٙ ‫أ٪ٍّ ُه يجن‬      tri-transitive

Caution should be exercised with multi-transitive verbs. The first thing to note is that,
in rare cases, a verb‘s object may be extended (as in conjunction, for example)
without the use of any conjoining word. This would make it seem that the verb is
transitive to more objects than it really is. An example follows.

              ٫
‫ؾ ٍَٕٟ لٛ٠ح أِ١ٕح‬
In the example above, the verb ً٫‫ ؾ‬is transitive to two objects. The first is the direct
object which is the first-person pronoun after it. And the second is the combination of
the other two words. The sentence thus means ―he made me strong [and]
trustworthy.‖ However, it would seem, based on an initial glance, that the verb ً٫‫ ؾ‬is
transitive to three objects – the first being the pronoun, the second being the word ‫,لٛ٠ح‬
and the third being ‫ .أِ١ٕح‬Such is not the case; the structure above can be interpreted in
many ways, but it is quite obvious that the words ‫ لٛ٠ح‬and ‫ أِ١ٕح‬are part of a single
structure which is the second object of ً٫‫.ؾ‬

The second thing to note is that multi-transitive verbs are of two types; those in which
two of the objects were originally topic and comment, and those in which no two
objects were originally such. An example of the former is as follows.

‫ٌ َ ِّٙس‬       ُ
ً ّ ِ ُ ‫ٚؾَىش جٌٟحّس‬
I found (i.e., it turned out that) the missing item was of importance

If we remove the verb from the above example, the two nouns which were previously
the objects of the verb would revert to becoming topic and comment. They would
constitute an entire (nominal) sentence. This fact is clear from their very meaning. If
we remove the verb ―I found‖ from ―I found the missing item was of importance‖, we
are left with ―the missing item was of importance,‖ and this is a complete, nominal
sentence.

Verbs in which two objects were originally topic and comment are known as Verbs of
the Heart. The following seven verbs have the potential to be used as Verbs of the
Heart.

     Example Usage                                           Verb of the Heart
     I mistook it to be worthwhile                              ٓ
                                                             ‫ق ِد‬
     I (wrongly) thought that it would be worthwhile         ٓ
                                                             ّ٦
     I (wrongly) perceived it to be worthwhile               ‫نحي‬
     I knew that it would be worthwhile                       ٌ
                                                             ُِ٨
     I (rightfully) thought it would be worthwhile           ٜ‫ٌأ‬
     I (rightfully) found it to be worthwhile                 ‫ؾ‬
                                                             ‫ٚ َى‬
     I (rightfully/wrongly) thought it would            be
     worthwhile                                               ٪
                                                             َُ َ

Definitions
‫أف٫حي جٌمٍٛخ‬      verbs of the heart – those multi-transitive verbs, two of whose
                  objects were originally topic and comment

The main rule regarding verbs of the heart is that the two objects which were
originally components of a nominal sentence must either be mentioned together or
omitted together; one cannot be mentioned without the other.
Now if a verb is transitive in any of the above ways, it can be made passive. When a
verb is made passive, that necessarily means that its subject is not mentioned. For
example, ―I ate the cherry‖ is a sentence in which the verb is transitive to a direct
object. Rendering the verb passive would result in ―the cherry was eaten.‖ Notice that
the subject (the one doing the eating) is not mentioned. When this happens, the
objects of the verb undergo what is called Object Promotion. This is a processes
where the direct object takes the place of the subject, and other objects move up one
level in rank. Because the direct object takes the place of the subject, it is treated like
it, having the same grammatical rulings, imposing the same gender and plurality
rulings on the verb, and so forth.

Definitions
       ٟٕ‫جٌف٫ً جٌّر‬
                        an active verb
‫ٌٍّ٫ٍٚف‬
       ٟٕ‫جٌف٫ً جٌّر‬
                        a passive verb
‫ٌٍّؿٙٛي‬
ً٪‫جٌٕحتد ٪ٓ جٌفح‬        the direct object which takes the place of the subject for a
                        passive verb; an approximate translation is the Ergative Subject

Consider an example. Notice that what was previously the direct object of the verb
has now become what looks like the subject. Consequently, it influences the verb and
causes it to become feminine and it itself adopts the grammatical positioning of the
subject.

‫ٌس‬      ْ ٚ
ُ ّ‫ُؾِىش جٌٟح‬
the lost item was found

There is actually another mechanism of rendering verbs passive. It isn‘t as universally
applicable as the above mentioned, standard method, but it has its place. This method
involves placing the base letters of the verb on the ‫ جٔف٫حي‬paradigm. The connotation
afforded by this paradigm then renders the verb passive at a meaning level. Because
the passivity of the verb is only at a meaning level, the business of Object Promotion
will not take place. For example:

        ْ
َ‫جٔىٍٓش جألٕٚح‬
the idols shattered

Compare this to the standard mechanism of passivity.

        ْ ٓ‫و‬
َ‫ُ ٍِش جألٕٚح‬
the idols were broken

There is a huge difference between this mechanism of passivity and the standard
mechanism, beyond the grammatical aspect. When a verb is made passive in the
standard way, the implication is that, although the one who broke the idols is not
mentioned, there is a strong indication towards the fact that someone did break them.
In other words, blame is soon to ensue. On the other hand, the ‫ جٔف٫حي‬mechanism gives
no such indication; the fact that the idols broke is mentioned, but there is no hint
towards the fact that someone did the breaking. In other words, what is more
important is the very fact that they broke.


Verbal Subjects
The subject of a verb can be a pronoun (hidden in the verb or attached to it) referring
to an antecedent, or it can be a noun or phrase explicitly mentioned somewhere after
the verb. A verb will not, however, have both types of subjects simultaneously. That
is to say, if the subject is mentioned explicitly after the verb, the verb will be empty of
hidden or attached pronouns. The chart below gives explicit examples.

     Translation                    Example                   Subject Location
     the sacrificial alters were
                                       ٓ‫ُ و‬
                                    ْ‫جٌٙ١حوً ُ ٍِش‬            hidden in the verb
     broken
                                                              a pronoun attached to the
     I broke the alters             ً        ُ ٓ
                                    َ ‫و ٍَش جٌٙ١حو‬            verb
     the alters broke               ً        ْ
                                    ُ ‫جٔىٍٓش جٌٙ١حو‬           an explicit noun/phrase

When it comes to the verb‘s plurality, it is based on the subject. If the subject is a
pronoun referring to an antecedent, the plurality of the verb will correspond to the
antecedent. And if the subject is explicitly mentioned after the verb, the verb will be
empty of pronominal suffixes, meaning that it will be singular.

Ruling
                   If the subject is a pronoun referring to an antecedent, the verb will
                   match the antecedent in plurality. If the subject is mentioned after
                   the verb, the verb will be singular masculine or singular feminine
                   despite the plurality of the subject.

When it comes to the verb‘s gender, it will also be based on the gender of the subject.
Unlike plurality, gender is slightly complicated. The ruling below summarizes the
discussion.

 Ruling
 Example                         Gender of Verb            Type of Subject
 ْ‫جٌّّٗ ٢ٍ٫ص‬                     sing. fem.                a pronoun referring to
                                                           any singular feminine
              ْ
 ٍٓ‫جٌٕٓحء لحٌص / جٌٕٓحء ل‬        sing. fem. OR pl. a pronoun referring to
                                 fem.              any plural feminine

 ‫/ جٌٍؾحي‬       ْ
                ‫جٌٍؾحي لحِص‬      sing. fem. OR pl. a pronoun referring to a
                                 masc.             masculine broken plural
 ‫لحِٛج‬
 َ‫جٌٍؾً لح‬                      masc.                 a pronoun referring to
                                                      anything else

     ْ
 ‫لحِص ٕ٘ى‬                       fem.                  a word which is feminine and
                                                      has a live, masculine
                                                      counterpart
                       ْ
 َٛ١ٌ‫لحِص جٌ١َٛ ٕ٘ى / لحَ ج‬     masc. OR fem.         same as above, except there is a
                                                      gap
 ‫ٕ٘ى‬                                                  between the verb and the
                                                      subject
 ٩ٍ٢ /             ْ
            ٌّّٗ‫٢ٍ٫ص ج‬          masc. OR fem.         a word which is feminine and
                                                      does not have a live, masculine
 ٌّّٗ‫ج‬                                                counterpart
        ِ
 ‫لحَ جٌٍؾحي / لحِص جٌٍؾحي‬       masc. OR fem.         a broken plural


Ruling
                 The only cases where a verb must be feminine is when
                     1. the subject is a pronoun referring to something feminine
                     2. a feminine noun (with no gap between it and the verb) that
                        has a live, masculine counterpart


The concept of having a live, masculine counterpart is a topic discussed in Arabic
Gender and is too involved to explain here. Moreover, one may wonder as to the
difference between choosing one gender/plurality over another when there is a choice.
The answer to this concern is that opting to conjugate a verb singular feminine always
gives the impression that the multiplicity of the subject is greater than if the verb was
brought in any other conjugation. For example:

‫لحِص جٌٍؾحي‬
the men stood

leaves the listener with the impression that the amount of men is very large, whereas

‫لحَ جٌٍؾحي‬
the men stood

leaves the impression that the amount of men is not as large. This difference, of
course, is very subtle and is really only called upon in very eloquent speech.


Adverbs
For a light introduction to the four types of verbal adverbs in the language and some
grammatical rulings related to them, the reader is encouraged to refer to Arabic
Adverbs. That tutorial is closely tied to this one and only together do they complete
the discussion on verbal sentences. The rest of this tutorial mentions only those things
not mentioned in Arabic Adverbs.
The Cognate Adverb
The cognate adverb (‫ )جٌّف٫ٛي جٌّ٣ٍك‬is a gerund that carries the same meaning as the
verb and is used to either emphasize the verb, clarify the quantity to which the verb
applies, or qualify the verb with some descriptions.

The original purpose of the cognate adverb was the third of the three mentioned
purposes – to qualify the verb with descriptions. A verb is nothing more than a set of
three or four base letters that afford a certain meaning. The letters are then placed on a
template that adds only gender, plurality, person, tense, and voice to the base
meaning. So in order to convey anything worthwhile, all we really have to work with
is these three or four base letters. And how much meaning can three or four letters
really convey?

There is the verb ٕ‫ ٔف‬in the language. It means for sheep, goat, or like livestock to
roam off into an open field by night and start grazing without the supervision of their
master. The three base letters ٔ ،‫ ْ، ف‬hold a great deal of meaning. However, this is
very rare. Most verbs do not have the capability of conveying sentence-sized
meanings like this.

Therefore, the cognate adverb was created. Its job is to inject meaning into the verb
while still making it seem as though all the meaning is coming from the verb. In other
words, it replaces the verb with a juicier version, one augmented with meanings the
original could not convey. There are other ways in which verbs can be qualified, but
this method makes it seem as though the very verb itself has been beefed up as
opposed to qualified using external words.

Below is an example of this process.

                ‫و‬                ‫و‬
‫أٚ ٌّٖ ضٛو٠ٍج ٌُ ٠ٛ ٌّٖ أقى ٌٚٛ ٌٚ٠ىج‬
I will put him in such peril that no one has ever put him in
even [if they did so by threatening his] jugular vein

The majority of the sentence above is nothing more than injecting connotations and
qualifications into the verb at the beginning. It is as if the verb at the beginning carries
the meaning that the entire sentence conveys. The cognate adverb does this by first
stripping the verb of most of its meaning. The verb then takes on a very generic
meaning such as ―to do‖, ―to feel‖, etc. The cognate noun then takes over the stripped
meaning and adds to it through conventional grammatical means.

Definitions
‫ضؿٍ٠ى‬           the process whereby a cognate adverb strips its verb of meaning

Often the cognate adverb may be omitted and the speech which describes it is
maintained. Other times the verb of a cognate adverb may be omitted and the adverb
itself remains. Below is a chart with different types of cognate adverbs categorized
based partly on their rhetorical benefit and partly on omission.

Example                                      Name
‫ج‬       ‫ج‬           ‫ج‬
‫ِح أٔص ئال ْ١ًٍ؛ َ٠ى ْ١ًٍ ْ١ًٍ‬                 ‫ِػرطح ذ٫ى ٔفٟ أٚ ِىٌٍج‬
‫ف ُ ّٚج جٌٛغحق فاِح ِ ّح ذ٫ى ٚئِح فِىج ً‬
‫ء‬           ‫ًٕ ُ‬                   ‫ٗى‬          ‫ضفٓ١ٍج الغٍ ِّْٟٛ ؾٍّس ِطمىِس‬
                                                    ‫ٌٍطٗر١ٗ ٪ّال ؾح ٌؿٍّس ِٗطٍّس ٪ٍٝ جُْ‬
     ‫َ‬
‫ٌٍِش ذٗ فايج ٌٗ ٚٛش ٚٛش قّحٌ‬
                                               ‫ذّ٫ٕحٖ‬
‫ح‬                 ‫َ‬
‫٪ٍٟ أٌف وٌُ٘ ج٪طٍجف ً‬                          ‫ضأو١ىج ٌٕفٓٗ‬
‫َ٠ى لحتُ قم ً‬
‫ح‬                                              ‫ضأو١ىج ٌغ١ٍٖ‬
‫ٌ ّ١ه؛ ْ٫ى٠ه‬ ‫ر‬                                 ‫ٚجل٫ح ِػٕٝ‬


‫‪Summary‬‬
‫‪This tutorial, together with Arabic Adverbs, has presented 7 grammatical positions‬‬
‫‪out of a possible 22 that relate to nouns, phrases, and sentences. The chart below puts‬‬
‫.‪them into perspective‬‬

‫‪Nominative‬‬                        ‫‪Accusative‬‬                   ‫‪Genitive‬‬
‫.9‬

‫.01‬ ‫جٌهرٍ‬
‫جُْ أف٫حي جٌٕحلٛس .11‬             ‫.31‬
‫جُْ ِح ٚال جٌّٗرٙط١ٓ .21‬          ‫.41‬  ‫نرٍ ِح ٚال جٌّٗرٙط١ٓ‬
    ‫ذـ"ٌ١ّ"‬                           ‫ذـ"ٌ١ّ"‬
‫نرٍ جٌكٍٚف جٌّٗرٙس .31‬            ‫جُْ جٌكٍٚف جٌّٗرٙس .51‬
    ‫ذحٌف٫ً‬                            ‫ذحٌف٫ً‬
‫نرٍ ال جٌطٟ ٌٕفٟ .41‬              ‫جُْ ال جٌطٟ ٌٕفٟ جٌؿّٕ .61‬
    ‫جٌؿّٕ‬                         ‫انًفؼىل ته .71‬
‫انفاػم .51‬                        ‫انًفؼىل فُه .81‬
‫انُائة ػٍ انفاػم .61‬              ‫انًفؼىل انًطهق .91‬
                                  ‫انًفؼىل يؼه .02‬
                                  ‫انًفؼىل نه .12‬
                                  ‫جٌكحي .22‬
                                  ‫جٌّٓطػٕٝ .32‬
                                  ‫جٌطّ١١ُ .42‬


‫‪Some Accusatives‬‬
Direct Object: ‫انًفؼىل ته‬

Definition & How to Recognize it
A direct object is that thing upon which an action is enacted. For example, when
Zaid hits Amr, Zaid is the one doing the hitting and Amr is the one upon whom the
hitting is done. Thus Amr is the object.

The following things can become direct objects:
      a single noun, whether declinable or indeclinable
      many types of phrases (but not all; e.g. not ٌٍٚ‫ ؾحٌ-ِؿ‬directly)
                                                ْ
       a sentence (but it must be introduced by ّ ‫ ,أ‬for example)


And the entities that can have direct objects are:
      verbs
      gerunds
      active participles
      active participles on the exaggeration patterns
      passive participles (exercise: how?)


The entities that can have direct objects may have one, two or three of them. In the
                                                                          ْ
following example, there is one object and it is a sentence introduced by ّ ‫:ج‬

I heard that you failed your test                               ٔ
                                               ‫ّْ٫ص أ ّه ٌْرص فٟ جِطكحٔه‬
In the following, there are two objects, one of which is a phrase:

I gave you some of my money                    ٌٟ‫أ٪٣١طه ذ٫ٝ ِح‬
And in the following there are three objects, all of which are single nouns:

I made you privy of the fact that Amr is
virtuous                                       ‫أ٪ٍّطه ٪ٍّج فحّٞال‬

Position in the Sentence
   1. The standard position for the direct object is after both the verb and its subject.



   2. It‘s not always grammatically possible, but the object can usually be brought
      before the verb. This has a rhetorical effect; it emphasizes the object in one of
      many ways. Compare the following examples to see in what ways the object is
      being emphasized:
It was Zaid that I hit (as opposed to someone else)        ‫َ٠ىج ٍٞذص‬
It is only you we worship (as opposed to you and
others)                                                    ‫ئ٠حن ٔ٫رى‬
   3. The third and final major position that the object can occupy (if possible) is between
       the verb and its subject. This is for rhetorical effect. But the effect is not on the
       object; the subject is what’s being emphasized by virtue of being brought last. It
       keeps the reader in suspense as to who enacted the verb and thus draws attention
       to it.


Can you believe it, it was the professor             ٌٕٙ‫جٌضىد ن٣أ فٟ لٍجءز ج‬
who erred in reading the text!
                                                 ‫جألْطحي‬

Dropping
A direct object may be dropped if the grammar and the meaning allow it. If this is the
case, it is often considered more eloquent to drop since concise speech is eloquent
speech. For example:

Your Lord did not forsake you, nor does
he hate (you).                                   ٍٝ‫ِح ٚو٪ه ٌذه ِٚح ل‬
The object‘s governor (e.g. the verb) also has the capacity to drop if there is
something to indicate on its implicit presence. For example, when someone asks
―Whom did Zaid hit,‖ the answer will simply be ―Amr.‖




Cognate Adverb: ‫انًفؼىل انًطهق‬

Definition & How to Recognize it
A cognate adverb is a gerund with a meaning very similar to a mentioned action.
For example:

I sat cross-legged                               ٩‫ل٫ىش ؾٍٓس جٌطٍذ‬
Cognate adverbs don‘t have to be from the same root as the mentioned action but
must have a similar meaning, as the above example illustrates. And they can be in one
of the following forms:

      gerunds on their own, often indefinite
      gerunds in certain phrases ( ‫ ,ٚفس ,جٞحفس‬etc). For example:
I sat cross-legged                               ٩‫ل٫ىش ؾٍٓس جٌطٍذ‬
Don‘t turn away altogether                       ً١ٌّ‫فّال ضُ ٠ٍٛج وً ج‬
And the following entities are capable of governing these adverbs:
         verbs
         gerunds (can you think of an example?)
         active participles
         active participles on the exaggeration patterns
         passive participles



Usage
This adverb is used for one of three purposes

         to explain the manner in which the action takes place. For example:


I‘m sitting in a manner such that I will be         َ‫جٔح ؾحٌّ ؾٍِٓس جْط٣١٩ جٌم١ح‬
able to get up quickly
                                                 ‫ِٕٙح ذٍٓ٪س‬
         to provide the multitude in which the action takes place. For example:


I hit Zaid twice                                ٓ١‫ٍٞذص َ٠ىج ٍٞذط‬

         to place emphasis on the action. For example:


I really rebelled                                ‫ضٍّوش ضٍّوج‬
The emphasis expressed through cognate adverbs is usually one of the most intense
forms. For example, saying

‫جْطفىش جْطفحوز‬
is more emphatic than saying any of the following

                                                                        ‫جْطفىش وػ١ٍج‬
                                                                  ٍ١‫جْطفىش ئٌٝ قى ور‬
...
Position in the Sentence
The cognate adverb must lexically follow its governor. How far it is from the
governor is another matter; the following examples illustrate some positions:

                                             ‫ٍٞذص ٍٞذس ٚجقىز‬
                                        ‫ٚئيج ووص جألٌٜ ووح ووح‬
    ‫٠كطفً جٌ٣ّالخ جٌؿحِ٫١ْٛ ِ٩ َِّالءُ٘ فٟ ذىج٠س جٌٍذ١٩ جقطفحال‬
"‫٠ّٓٝ "ْرٍٔؽ ذٍ٠ه‬
In general, we can say that if we want to extensively qualify the cognate adverb with
adjectives/etc, it should be delayed.


Dropping
It doesn‘t make sense to drop cognate adverbs (without leaving a trace).

But their governing words are often dropped (provided the purpose of the adverb is
not emphasis). In fact, sometimes the grammar necessitates this. Other times, not only
is the governing word dropped, but the cognate adverb is dropped as well, leaving an
adjective behind to compensate for it.

For example, when someone asks

How did you fight                           ‫و١ف وحفكص؟‬
an adequate response would be

Effectively                                     ٫
                                             ‫ف ّحال‬
meaning

I fought an effective battle                ‫وحفكص وفحقح ف٫حال‬

Locative Adverb: ‫انًفؼىل فُه‬

Definition & How to Recognize it
The locative adverb gives the time or place of occurrence for an action. This
adverb, however, cannot be used to give the place of action if such a place has well-
defined, physical limits. The following sentences, for example, contain valid locative
adverbs:

Today you forget, eh!                       ٖ‫جٌ١َٛ ضٕٓح‬
I worked for the ministry of foreign
affairs for a time                           ‫٪ٍّص فٟ َٚجٌز جٌهحٌؾ١س وٍ٘ج‬
The following sentence, however, does not contain a locative adverb; the place of
action must be indicated using a particle since its borders are physically well-defined:

There are no windows in the building                      ‫ر‬
                                             ‫ال ٖ ّحن فٟ جٌرٕح٠س‬
The following things have the capacity to be locative adverbs
      single nouns
      many phrases like ‫ جٞحفس‬and ‫ٚفس‬


And the following entities can govern these adverbs
      verbs
      gerunds
      active participles
      active participles on the exaggeration patterns
      passive participles



Dropping
It doesn‘t make sense to drop locative adverbs; either they‘re intended or not.
Their governing words may, however, be omitted. In fact this omission is often
mandatory as in the following sentences:

You have my homework (predicate)             ‫ٚجؾرحضٟ ٪ٕىن‬
The one behind you stepped forward
(relative clause)                                   ‫جي‬
                                             ‫لىَ يٞ نٍفه‬
I passed by a man beside you (adjective)     ‫ٌٍِش ذٍؾً ٪ٕىن‬
I passed by Zaid when/while he was with
you (‫)قحي‬                                    ‫ٌٍِش ذُ٠ى ٪ٕىن‬


Causative Adverb: ‫انًفؼىل نه‬

Definition & How to Recognize it
The causative adverb gives the reason for which an action came to be. An
example follows:

I prayed out of obedience                    ‫ٍٚ١ص ٢ٛ٪ح‬
The following things have the capacity to be causative adverbs
        gerunds, almost always indefinite
        sometimes, gerunds in phrases such as ‫ جٞحفس‬or ‫ٚفس‬


And the following entities have the capacity to govern these adverbs
        verbs
        gerunds
        active participles
        active participles on the exaggeration patterns
        passive participles



Position in the Sentence
Like cognate adverbs, these adverbs must follow their governing word. How close
they are to that word is a different matter, but typically they follow closely.


Dropping
It doesn‘t make sense to drop these adverbs; either they‘re intended or not. Neither are
their governing words usually dropped, but a few rare situations include the
following:
When someone asks

‫ٌّحيج ٍٞذص جذٕه؟‬
one may answer

‫ضأو٠رح‬

The Adverb of Accompaniment: ‫انًفؼىل يؼه‬

Definition & How to Recognize it
This adverb is simply defined as that which follows the ‫ واو‬in the meaning of ‫ .يغ‬It
exists in the language to be used when normal conjunction is impermissible or non-
preferable. If normal conjunction is impermissible, this adverb must be used instead.
If conjunction is permissible but disliked, then this adverb should be used. And
finally, if conjunction is permissible and preferable, this adverb should not be used.
(Notice that, whether appropriate or not, this adverb can always be used, theoretically
speaking.)

For example, conjunction in the following sentence is not permissible, thus this
adverbial structure must be used:

I read my (habitual) prayer, and so did
Zaid. (Not: I read my prayer and I read       ‫لٍأش ٌٚوٞ َٚ٠ىج‬
Zaid!)

In the following, conjunction can be used (according to many grammarians), but it is
disliked and so this adverb will be used:

Zaid and I read (something)                    ‫لٍأش َٚ٠ىج‬
And finally in the following sentence, conjunction can be used and it should be used:

Zaid and I read (something)                    ‫لٍأش جٔح َٚ٠ى‬
This adverb itself can be one of the following things
        a single noun
        a phrase like ‫ جٞحفس‬and ‫ٚفس‬
                                                  ْ
         sometimes, even a sentence (introduced by ّ ‫ ,أ‬for example)


And the following entities can govern it
        verbs
        gerunds
        active participles
        active participles on the exaggeration patterns
        passive participles



Position in the Sentence
This adverb must follow its governing word and the thing to which it is conjoined. It
typically follows these two things very closely.


Dropping
Omitting this adverb does not make sense; it is either intended or not. As for dropping
its governing word, this phenomenon has a very limited application.


Adverb Cache
The following are a few commonly occurring nouns/phrases/sentences that fall into
one of the five ً١٪‫ ِفح‬along with a brief explanation of their structure.



‫ح‬
ًٟ٠‫أ‬                ―Also‖: it is typically accepted to be a cognate adverb from the
                          ٞ‫٠أ‬
                    verb ٜ /ٜ‫.آ‬

‫ج‬
ً‫ؾى‬                 ―Very‖: in most cases, it is an adjective for a cognate adverb
                    which, along with its governing verb, has been dropped.

  ٕ
ً‫ق١ َث‬              ―Thereupon‖: this includes all nouns that end in ًِ‫ .ـث‬The ٓ١‫ ق‬part is a
                    locative adverb which is ‫ ِٟحف‬towards the ‫ ,ئي‬which in turn is ‫ِٟحف‬
                    towards the nunation.

‫ج‬
ً‫أذى‬                ―Ever/never‖: this is a temporally locative adverb.



‫ح‬
ًّ‫قط‬                ―Necessarily‖: this is not an adverb; it usually acts as ‫.قحي‬



‫ج‬
ًٍ‫ٖى‬                ―Thanks‖: this includes many nouns like ‫ .٪فٛج‬They are cognate
                    adverbs for hidden verbs.

ً ْٙٚ ً‫أّ٘ال‬
‫ّال‬                 ―Welcome‖: both these words are direct objects for hidden verbs.




Genitival States
What is this Tutorial About?
Here are discussed the two grammatical processes in the Arabic language that cause words,
phrases, and sometimes even sentences to enter the genitive state. The genitive state is one
of the four grammatical states in the Arabic language and one of the three which nouns
experience. Reflection of this state on nouns and phrases happens according to the rules of
grammatical reflection, and on sentences is always an assumed reflection.


The two processes are 1) being a non-final noun in a possessive structure, and 2) being the
object of a preposition. Possessive structures have already been discussed in an introductory
manner, and here that introduction will be supplemented. Prepositional phrases, on the
other hand, have not yet been discussed and will be dealt with in this tutorial.


Possessive Phrase
The grammatical rules for possessive phrases – inasmuch as gender, plurality, grammatical
state, as well as other issues – have been thoroughly analyzed in Arabic Phrases. That
tutorial, however, implied that the genitival structure is always used to express possession
or meanings very closely associated to possession (ergo the term “possessive phrase”). The
reality of the matter is that there are two purposes for the genitival phrase.


The first type is that which affords the sense of possession as is commonly understood. But
even this possession is not always clear. Consider the examples in the table below.


              Translation                        Example
              son of Adam

              cherry tree

              non-twinned

              diamond necklace

              today’s sun



It is not always a matter of ownership, as is clear from some of the above examples. “Son of
Adam” is an example of possession. “Cherry tree”, however, is not so clear; the underlying
assumption would have to be “tree of cherries”. But “non-twinned” is even less clear than
“cherry tree”. There seems to be no connotation of possession in that example.
Consequently, the grammarians have explained that one of three particles is assumed to be
between the        and the           depending on the type of possession-related meaning
being afforded.


       Translation                      Particle Assumed           Example
       the son for (i.e., belonging to)
       Adam
       necklace (made) from diamond

       the sun in (i.e., during) today



If a genitival phrase gives the impression of one of these meanings – or something closely
related – then it is termed          .


Definitions
                    that genitival structure which affords a meaning similar to possession as
                    explained above
The other type of meaning afforded by genitival phrases, on the other hand, has nothing to
do with possession. It occurs when a gerund or participle is made     to either its subject
or its direct object, and this is termed      .


Definitions

                    that genitival




Summary of Arabic Grammar
Introduction
The science of the Arabic language known as ٛ‫ – ٔك‬basically translated as grammar
and syntax – is a topic through which we learn to correctly convey meaning in Arabic,
form coherent sentences, and protect ourselves from verbal error. This also helps in
reading texts without the aid of diacritic vowelling and in understanding such texts as
well. Where Lexicology and Morphology are concerned with being able to work with
the internals of words, grammar is concerned with being able to work with the
endings of words in order to read and comprehend in a sentential milieu.

 In order to satisfy both goals of reading and comprehension, grammar treats one, and
only one, topic; grammatical inflection. Grammar discusses which words in the
language inflect and which do not. Of those that do not inflect, what are they and why
don‘t they inflect? Of those that do inflect, what are they and how do they inflect?
Moreover, what situations cause this inflection?

Answering the questions above partly entails the analysis of nominal and verbal
sentences. In analysing these, all occasions under which words change inflection are
discussed. Discussing these occasions involves further scrutiny into phrasal structures
and like topics. Once these questions above have been answered, a student is now able
to correctly vowel and comprehend texts and thus both goals of grammar have been
satisfied. Moreover and consequently, all of grammar has been exhausted.

Finally, there are two techniques used to parse sentences. Both of these are used to
firmly, effectively, and expediently realize the two goals of grammar with students in
practice..


Which Words Inflect and Which do not, and Why?
                  ‫قٍف‬                                                ٟٕ‫ِر‬
                  ً٫‫ف‬       ٟٞ‫ِح‬                                     ٟٕ‫ِر‬
                                    all emphatics                          ٟٕ‫ِر‬
                          ٨ٌ‫ِٟح‬                       conjugations 6 &
                                                                           ٟٕ‫ِر‬
                                    other tables      12
                                                      other conjugations   ‫ِ٫ٍخ‬
                          ٍِ‫ج‬                                              ٟٕ‫ِر‬
                          certain categories (e.g. pronouns)               ٟٕ‫ِر‬
                 ُْ‫ج‬
                          all other nouns                                  ‫ِ٫ٍخ‬

Why don’t some words inflect?
Some words do not inflect because the purpose of inflection is to be able to
differentiate the many uses of a single word (e.g. as a subject, as an object, etc). If a
word is not used in these ways, then it does not need to be differentiated and it is
called truly indeclinable. This includes:
      the imperative verb (active second-person conjugations only)
      the perfect verb
      all particles


There are some words that do need a method of differentiation between their many
uses. However, not all of these may inflect. This is because they resemble truly
indeclinable words. For example:
      nouns may resemble particles by virtue of number of letters, meaning, governing
       and not being governed, or not affording a complete meaning on their own
           o thus the nouns that are indeclinable are: all pronouns, nouns with verb
              meanings, onomatopoeias, and some others
      the imperfect verb conjugations 6 and 12 resemble conjugation 6 of the perfect
       table
      emphatic tables resemble imperative emphatics, and they in turn resemble
       second-person active imperatives in meaning


Why do some words inflect?
Words that need a method of differentiation between their many usages are
declinable. But some words that do not need this also become declinable as a result of
reverse resemblance.
      the declinable imperfect verb is declinable because it resembles the active or
       passive participles in about 6 ways
      moreover, the imperfect verb sometimes falls into cases where the
       interpretation of the sentence can be grossly divergent without the aid of
       declension


Of the Words that Inflect, How do They Inflect?
                                                ‫جإل٪ٍجخ‬
         ٓ‫جالُْ جٌّطّى‬                                  ٍ‫ؾ‬                  ‫ٔٛد‬                     ٩‫ٌف‬
                                                        (genitive)          (accusative)            (nominative)
         Visible change using all three short vowels
         1 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌٍّٕٛف جٌٛك١ف‬
Type 1



         2 ‫جٌّفٍو جٌؿحٌٞ ِؿٍٜ جٌٛك١ف‬                    ٍ
                                                        ‫ـ‬                   ً
                                                                            ‫ـ‬                       ٌ
                                                                                                    ‫ـ‬
                    ٓ
         3 ‫جٌؿّ٩ جٌّى ٍّ جٌٍّٕٛف‬
         Visible change using some short vowels
Type 2




           ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جٌّإٔع جٌٓح‬
                           ‫جي‬                               ٍ
                                                            ‫ـ‬                   ٍ
                                                                                ‫ـ‬                       ٌ
                                                                                                        ‫ـ‬
         ٗ١ٌ‫غ١ٍ جٌٍّٕٛف، ال ٠٫ٍف ذحٌّالَ ٚال ٠ٟحف ج‬
Type 3




         5                                                  َ
                                                            ‫ـ‬                   َ
                                                                                ‫ـ‬                       ُ
                                                                                                        ‫ـ‬
         Visible change using all three long vowels
         ٌٝ‫جٌّىرٍز جٌّٛقىز جٌّٟحفس ج‬      ُ‫أخ أل ق‬
Type 4




           ٍُ‫غ١ٍ ٠حء جٌّطى‬                ٚ‫٘ٓ فُ ي‬          ٞ                   ‫ج‬                       ٚ
         Visible change using some long vowels
            ٕٝ‫ِػ‬
Type 5




            ٍ١ّٞ ٌٝ‫وّال ٚوٍطح جٌّٟحفطحْ ج‬                   ٞ                   ٞ                       ‫ج‬
            ْ‫جغٕحْ ٚجغٕطح‬
                             ‫جي‬
             ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓح‬
Type 6




             ْٛ٫ٓ‫٪ٍْٗٚ جٌٝ ض‬                                ٞ                   ٞ                       ٚ
             ٌٛٚ‫ج‬
         Completely invisible change of short vowels
         ‫غ١ٍ جٌؿّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ، جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء‬
Type 7




             ٍُ‫جٌّطى‬                                        ٍ
                                                            ‫ـ‬                   ً
                                                                                ‫ـ‬                       ٌ
                                                                                                        ‫ـ‬
             ٌٛٛ‫جالُْ جٌّم‬
         Partially invisible change of short vowels
Type 8




         15 ٘ٛ‫جالُْ جٌّٕم‬                                   ٍ
                                                            ‫ـ‬                   ً
                                                                                ‫ـ‬                       ٌ
                                                                                                        ‫ـ‬
         Partially invisible change of long vowels
Type 9




            ٍُ‫ؾّ٩ جًٌّوٍ جٌٓحٌُ جٌّٟحف جٌٝ ٠حء جٌّطى‬
                                                   ‫جي‬       ٞ                   ٞ                       ٚ

                                                                ‫جال٪ٍجخ‬
         ٨ٌ‫جٌف٫ً جٌّٟح‬                                          َُ‫ؾ‬                 ‫ٔٛد‬                 ٩‫ٌف‬
                                                                (jussive)           (subjunctive)       (indicative)
Type 1




         1 ٩‫جٌّفٍو جٌٛك١ف ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬                         ْ
                                                                ‫ـ‬                   َ
                                                                                    ‫ـ‬                   ُ
                                                                                                        ‫ـ‬
                            ٞ          ‫جي‬
             ٩‫ِ٫طً جٌٛجٚ ّ ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬
Type 2                                                  َ‫قًف جٌّال‬    َ
                                                                      ‫ـ‬           ُ
                                                                                  ‫ـ‬
                             ‫جٌ١حب‬
             ٩‫جٌّ٫طً ٞ ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬
Type 3



                            ٟ          ‫جي‬
             ٩‫ِ٫طً جالٌف ّ ذغ١ٍ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬                َ‫قًف جٌّال‬    َ
                                                                      ‫ـ‬           ُ
                                                                                  ‫ـ‬
                                                        ‫قًف‬
Type 4




                              ‫جي‬
             ٩‫ِٟحٌ٨ ِ٩ ْٔٛ جٌٍف‬
                                                        ٌْٕٛ‫ج‬
                                                                      ٌْٕٛ‫قًف ج‬   ْ

The reason why a noun would fall into noun-type 5 is that one of the following
characteristics applies to it
            it is a name or adjective with a deviated construction
            it is a name which is feminine by means of an explicit ‫ ز‬or an assumed ‫ ,ز‬or it
             is feminine by means of an ‫ جٌف ِمٌٛٛز‬or an ‫جٌف ِّىٚوز‬

            it is a foreign name
            it is pluralized using a ٨ّٛ‫ ِٕطٙٝ جٌؿ‬pattern
            it is a hyphenated name
            it is a name or adjective with an extra ْ‫ ـح‬at the end
            it is a name or adjective on the pattern of a verb


What Grammatical Positions Cause Inflection?
This is where we discuss nominal and verbal sentence as well as types of phrases.
Because it is the manner in which a word occurs in a phrasal or sentential milieu –
e.g. as the subject, as the object, etc – that causes change in inflection which is then
somehow reflected at the end of the word.

Reasons why a word, phrase, or embedded sentence becomes nominative
            in nominal sentences
                 o it is the topic
                 o it is a comment
                 o it is the topic of a sentence abrogated by ْ‫ وح‬or one of its sisters
                 o it is the topic of a sentence abrogated by the ‫ ِح‬or ‫ ال‬which resemble ّ١ٌ
                                                                ْ
                 o it is a comment of a sentence abrogated by ّ ‫ ئ‬or one of its sisters
                 o it is a comment of a sentence abrogated by the ‫ ال‬of class negation
            in verbal or verb-like sentences
                 o it is the subject
                 o it is the ergative subject

Reasons why a word, phrase, or embedded sentence becomes accusative
            in nominal sentences
                  o it is a comment of a sentence abrogated by ْ‫ وح‬or one of its sisters
                  o it is a comment of a sentence abrogated by the ‫ ِح‬or ‫ ال‬which resemble
                    ّ١ٌ
                                                               ْ
                  o it is the topic of a sentence abrogated by ّ ‫ ئ‬or one of its sisters
           o it is the topic of a sentence abrogated by the ‫ ال‬of class negation
      in verbal or verb-like sentences
           o it is an object
           o it is a cognate adverb
           o it is a temporal or locative adverb
           o it is a causative adverb
           o it is the adverb of accompaniment
      in phrases
           o it is a circumstantial adverb
           o it is an exceptive
           o it is a elucidatory adverb

Reasons why a word, phrase, or embedded sentence becomes genitive
      in phrases
           o it is the second part of a genitival phrase
           o it is the object of a preposition

Reasons why a verb becomes indicative
      it is neither subjunctive nor jussive

Reasons why a verb becomes subjunctive
      it is preceded by , either explicitly or hidden after   ,   , and certain other
       particles
      it is preceded by ٌٓ
      it is preceded by ٟ‫و‬
      it is preceded by ْ‫ئي‬


Reasons why a verb becomes jussive
      it is preceded by
      it is preceded by ‫ٌّح‬
      it is preceded by the ‫ ٌـ‬of imperative
      it is preceded by ‫ ال‬of prohibitive
      it is preceded by the conditional ْْ‫ ,ئ‬whether it be explicit o implicit


Grammatical case may also be extended from one noun or verb to another in the
following ways
      through the use of adjectives, which must match their noun in grammatical case
      through the use of demonstrative pronouns, whose words must match the
       pronoun in case
      through conjunction
      through apposition
      through clarifying apposition
Phrases
Phrases usually consist of two or three parts.

Second Part                        Link         First Part

‫ٚفس‬                                           ‫ِٛٚٛف‬                       Adjectival
matches the noun                              subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
noun or sentence,        rarely               usually a noun, can be a
                                                                          Nesting Capabilities
phrase                                        phrase


ٗ١ٌ‫ِٟحف ئ‬                                     ‫ِٟحف‬                        Genitival
always genitive                               subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
noun, phrase, or sentence                     noun                        Nesting Capabilities


ٗ١ٌ‫ِٗحٌ ئ‬                                     ‫جُْ ئٖحٌز‬                   Demonstrative
matches the pronoun                           subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
noun or phrase                                fixed set of nouns          Nesting Capabilities


                                                                          Relative-
‫ٍٚس‬                                           ‫ِٛٚٛي‬
                                                                          Pronominal
                                              subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
sentence                                      fixed set of nouns          Nesting Capabilities


‫ِ٫٣ٛف‬                             ‫ِ٫٣ٛف ٪ٍ١ٗ ٚ، ف، ئٌم‬                    Conjunctive
matches the first part                        subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
usually the same as the first     fixed
                                              word, phrase, or sentence   Nesting Capabilities
part                              particles


‫ذىي‬                                           ِٕٗ ‫ِرىي‬                    Appositional
matches the first part                        subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
usually the same as the first
                                              word, phrase or sentence    Nesting Capabilities
part


ْ‫ِ٫٣ٛف ذ٫٣ف جٌر١ح‬                             ٗ١ٍ٪ ‫ِ٫٣ٛف‬                  App.-Conjunctive
matches the first part                        subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
word or phrase                                word or phrase              Nesting Capabilities


‫ضأو١ى‬                                         ‫ِإوى‬                        Emphatic
matches the first part                        subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
word or matches the first part                word or phrase              Nesting Capabilities


ٕٝ‫ِٓطػ‬                            ‫ئال‬         ِٕٗ ٕٝ‫ِٓطػ‬                  Exceptive
usually accusative                            subject to the milieu       Grammatical Case
noun or phrase                                noun or phrase, or hidden   Nesting Capabilities


ُ١١ّ‫ض‬                                         ُ١ِّ                        Elucidatory
accusative                            subject to the milieu          Grammatical Case
usually a noun                        word or phrase                 Nesting Capabilities


‫قحي‬                                  ‫يٚ جٌكحي‬                        Circumstantial
usually accusative                   subject to the milieu           Grammatical Case
word, sentence, rarely      a
                                     noun or phrase                  Nesting Capabilities
phrase


ٟ‫ٍٚس جٌّٛٚٛي جٌكٍف‬                   ٌٞ‫قٍف ِٛى‬                       Gerundival
subject to the milieu                                                Grammatical Case
sentence                             fixed particles                 Nesting Capabilities


ٌٍٚ‫ِؿ‬                                ٌ‫ؾح‬                             Prepositional
always genitive                                                      Grammatical Case
nouns, phrases, nominal sent.        fixed particles                 Nesting Capabilities


ٜ‫ِٕحو‬                                 ‫قٍف جٌٕىجء‬                     Vocative
usually accusative                                                   Grammatical Case
noun or phrase                        fixed particles                Nesting Capabilities


ٗ‫ِمُٓ ذ‬                              ُٓ‫قٍف جٌم‬                       Testimonial
genitive                                                             Grammatical Case
noun or phrase                       fixed particles                 Nesting Capabilities


‫ِ٫ّٛي‬                                ً٫‫ٖرٗ جٌف‬                       Verb-Like
depends on its position              subject to the milieu           Grammatical Case
                                     certain nouns acting like
noun or phrase                                                       Nesting Capabilities
                                     verbs



Sentences

Predicate                 Link      Subject                   Abrogator

                           ٍ١ّٞ[                                          Nominative
ٍ‫نر‬                                 ‫ِرطىأ‬
                           ]ًٚ‫جٌف‬
nominative                          nominative




Sentence Parsing
What is this Tutorial About?
Parse diagrams are a pedagogical tool used in linguistics to analyze sentences and
sentence structures. The underlying concepts are applicable to Arabic and serve as
incredibly didactic exercises that help solidify a student‘s understanding of the
concepts covered in the grammar‘s pith. Students can start using this tool, applying it
to everyday sentences in order to analyze their structure, at any stage; it is not just for
those who have completely studied the grammar core. Not only does this method of
analysis help solidify grammatical concepts, but it places them at interesting angles
that help gain insight into how the language works.


Overview
This parsing strategy is one among many pedagogical strategies. The task in this
particular method is to start with a sentence and group words that belong together
based on what the grammar dictates. Once the task is done, the result is a set of
groups and subgroups that make up the logical structure of the sentence and its
compound parts.

For example, consider this sentence.

ُ ‫ضٙ ِّص جٌمٕ٣ٍز جٌ٫ط١م‬
‫س‬        ُ       ْ ‫ى‬
The ancient archway became dilapidated

We start with the above, and end up with what is below.


                              ‫جٌ٫ط١مس‬     ‫ز‬
                                          ُ ٍ٣ٕ‫جٌم‬       ‫ى‬
                                                      ْ‫ضٙ ِّص‬
                              Adjective Noun
                            Subject                   Verb

The task of grouping is applied to the entire sentence. Each group is then isolated and
we recursively apply the parsing method on each group. Notice that this results in a
hierarchy. We can then take that hierarchy and represent it as a two dimensional tree
if we so choose. Operations on these trees result in a deep understanding of how the
language works. It is slightly more complex than that, but this is essentially what is
known as X-Bar Theory. This tutorial does not discuss X-Bar Theory.


Purpose
The primary goal of parsing a sentence using this strategy is to understand its meaning
and sieve out any ambiguities. Once a person has analyzed a sentence using this
method, it is nearly impossible to misunderstand the meaning, provided the parsing
was done correctly.


Procedure
The parsing is traditionally done by starting at the most abstract layer of the sentence.
We identify the major portions of the sentence and group them. We then visit each
 group from right to left and recursively apply the same procedure until the most
 granular layer has been parsed. The most granular layer is the one in which each word
 is its own group. This process can be summarized as follows.

     1. if the portion currently under analysis is a single word, then stop
     2. otherwise, count the number of words in the portion
     3. identify the type of phrase/sentence and, consequently, how many major
        portions it can have
     4. group the words into these major portions
     5. for each portion from right to left, repeat from step 1


 Let‘s take another example.

        ْ ٣ ٣‫قر‬
 ‫َ َ ِمْ ِك قر٣م٣ك‬                    ً ْ
                               ْ‫ؾٍش جٌه١ ُ فمحٌص‬
 The horse galloped and made the noise
 Habatiqtiq, Habatiqtiq

 The above is actually a conjunction of two sentences where the conjoining particle is
 the ‫ .ف‬So we start by grouping the above into three groups – the first sentence, the
 conjunction, and the second sentence.

                                                                    ْ
                                                                    ‫ؾٍش‬
                        ْ ٣ ٣‫ْ قر‬
                 ‫ـمحٌص َ َ ِمْ ِك قر٣م٣ك‬           ‫فـ‬
                                                                    ُ ١‫جٌه‬
                                                                    ً
                Clause 2                           Conjunction Clause 1

 Now that that‘s done, we find that the first group is not a single word. Therefore, we
 need to recursively apply the procedure to it. It is made up of a verb and the subject of
 that verb.


                 ْ ٣ ٣‫ْ قر‬
          ‫فـ ـمحٌص َ َ ِمْ ِك قر٣م٣ك‬                      ُ ١‫جٌه‬
                                                          ً              ْ‫ؾٍش‬
                                                          Subject        Verb
          Clause 2                          Conjunction Clause 1

 If the subject was compound, we would have analyzed that further. But since it is not,
 we can safely leave Clause 1. The conjunction is, of course a single word so we will
 leave it. Clause 2, on the other hand, is made of the verb ―to say‖ followed by the
 speech which is quoted.

                                                        lang=AR-SA
 ْ ٣ ٣‫قر‬
 ‫َ َ ِمْ ِك‬    ]ٟ٘[         ْ
                            ‫ـمحٌص‬                       dir=RTL style='font-
                                                        size:16.0pt;font-
 ‫قر٣م٣ك‬                                ‫فـ‬               family:"Traditional
 Quote         Subject     Verb                         Arabic"'>‫جإلذطىجء ٔحْم‬
                                                        abrogator
Mandatory                              Optional         Mandatory                Optional
Multiple Allowed
     A nominal sentence must have a topic and at least one comment. In this minimal
     situation, the topic will be grouped as one group and the comment will be grouped as
     another, resulting in only two groups. If there are multiple comments, each will be
     treated as its own group. Consider the example below.


                               ‫و‬
                               ٌ ‫ٖىج‬            ٤
                                                ٌ ‫غّال‬       ُ٘
                               Comment          Comment
                                                             Topic
                               2                1

     In rare situations, there is a separating pronoun between the topic and comment of the
     sentence. When this happens, there is typically only one comment (except in very rare
     occurrences). And so the sentence results in three sections – the topic, the separating
     pronoun, and the comment. An example follows.


                               ُْٚ‫جٌفحت‬         ُ٘           ‫جٌٚثه‬
                               Comment          Separator    Topic

     In addition, nominal sentences can be abrogated by sentential abrogators. These
     abrogators may be either verbs or particles, but regardless of their affinity, the
     sentence is still parsed as a nominal sentence. The difference is that there is one extra
     component – namely the abrogator – and the major parts are given different names.
     Consider the examples below.


     ‫س‬
     َ ١ٞ‫جٌمح‬                          ]ٟ٘[                              ‫وحٔص‬
     Predicate of ‫وحٔص‬                 Subject of ‫( وحٔص‬hidden)          Abrogator




                ‫س‬
                ٌ ٗ١٪                     ‫ـٙح‬                       ٔ
                                                                   ‫ئّـ‬
                Predicate of ْ‫ج‬           Subject of ْ‫ج‬            Abrogator

Verbal Sentences
‫ِط٫ٍمحش‬             ً١٪‫ِفح‬                  ُٙ‫ِف٫ٛي ذ‬             ً٪‫[ٔحتد] فح‬          ً٫‫ف‬
prepositional
                    adverbs                direct objects         [ergative] subject   verb
links
Optional            Optional               Optional
                                                                  Mandatory            Mandatory
Multiple            Multiple               Multiple
Allowed             Allowed                Allowed

     A verbal sentence must also have at least two components – the verb itself and the
     subject. If the verb is passive, then it must have an ergative subject in place of the
     subject. Consider the short example below.
                             ]ٓ‫[ٔك‬                   ‫ذ‬
                                                    ٍّٙ‫ٔط‬
                             Subject (hidden)       Verb

    Optionally, a verb may have up to three direct objects depending on its level of
    transitivity. In the example below, the verb is passive, which means that what would
    have been the first direct object has taken the place of the subject. And since the verb
    is transitive to two objects, the second direct object is still visible.


           َ ٍ٘‫جٌمح‬
           ‫ز‬                         ]ٟ٘[                           ّْ
                                                                 ْ‫ُ ّ١ص‬
                                     Ergative         Subject
           2nd Direct Object                                     Verb
                                     (hidden)

    In addition to potentially three direct objects, a verb may also have adverbs, each of
    which will form its own group in parsing the sentence. There are four types of adverbs
    in the language and a verb may have more than one of each (although this is rare). In
    the example below, the verb has a direct object as well as one of each adverb type.


‫ج‬     ‫ج‬
ً‫وًٍ٘ ِى٠ى‬            ٗ‫ٖىٍـ ـ‬    ‫س‬
                                 َ ٠‫ٌ٪ح‬         ً ‫ٚ قّ١ى‬
                                                ‫ز‬               ً‫قحِى‬
                                                                ‫ج‬         ‫ج‬
                                                                          ً‫قّى‬        ‫ص‬
                                                                                      ُ ‫قّىـ ـ‬
Temporal         Causative                Accompaniment Cognate            Object Subject Verb

    And finally, a verb may have any number of adverbial and prepositional phrases
    linking to it. This will be discussed later in detail.

    The Difference Between Hidden and Omitted
    Words in Arabic sentences may be hidden as well as omitted. These two concepts
    seem identical prima facia, but they are wildly different. Hidden implies that the word
    is completely present in the sentence but it is simply not visible in script and
    pronunciation. As a result, it must absolutely be mentioned when parsing the
    sentence. An example of this is subjects of verbs; when a verb‘s subject is not
    mentioned as an explicit noun or pronoun following the verb, the verb will be
    assumed to carry the subject within itself.

    Omitted, on the other hand, implies that the word is no longer part of the sentence.
    For example, the verb ―to hit‖ may or may not take a direct object – we can say ―he
    hit‖ or ―he hit his brother‖. In the former case, the object of ―hit‖ has been omitted.
    One of the rhetorical purposes of omitting the object in this case is to keep the verb
    general. If we say that the direct object is hidden as opposed to omitted, that implies
    that the object is still present and the rhetorical benefit has not been achieved.


    Multilevel Parsing
    Thus far we have focused largely on grouping the major portions of nominal and
    verbal sentences, and even conjoined sentences. Now, if a major portion is a single
    word, then our task is complete. If it is an entire sentence, we simply apply recursion.
    The hard part is when it is a phrase. There are a plethora of phrase types in Arabic,
each with their own major portions and terminology. Furthermore, their major
portions are highly susceptible to themselves being compound. An example of an
embedded phrase and sentence follows.

ْ
ُ ‫ٚال ٠ٍطحَ ِح ؾٍـ جٌٍٓح‬
But that which the tongue injures does not mend

The above sentence is verbal; its major portions are the verb and the subject. The
subject happens to be a phrase with an embedded sentence which is also verbal, and
it, too, is comprised of a verb and its subject. Below is the parse diagram for the
sentence, ignoring minor details.


        ْ
        ُ ‫جٌٍٓح‬              ‫ؾٍـ‬                  ‫ِح‬
        Subject              Verb                                      َ‫ال ٠ٍطح‬
                                                  Relative
       Relative Clause
                                                  Pronoun
     Subject                                                           Verb

Only the predicate of a nominal sentence can be an entire sentence on its own. Other
major portions of a sentence must either be single words or phrases. But most phrases
have the potential of being comprised of embedded sentences, as seen in the example
above. Part of mastering sentence parsing has to do with developing a keen
understanding of these different phrases and how they work. For this purpose, one
needs to learn Arabic through the medium of regular classes taught by esteemed
professionals.


Prepositional Phrases
One of the most notorious elements in a sentence as far as parsing is concerned is the
prepositional phrase. It is often quite difficult to determine how it will be grouped and
a mistake in this can result in vastly divergent meanings. It is the sign of a powerful
grammarian that he can seamlessly group prepositional phrases in parsing.

Consider this sentence, and try to determine its translation before moving forward.

        ً     ُ ٟ
ٕٗ٪ ٗ١‫غ ِرص ٌجغرح ف‬
This is a perfectly valid and harmonious sentence, but its translation is not so clear.
Logically speaking, there are four options with respect to the two prepositional
phrases. Either they can both be connected to the verb ‫ ,غٟرص‬they can both be
connected to the participle ‫ ,ٌجغرح‬or one of them can be connected to one and the other
to the other. In fact, it is also possible that they are connected to hidden words.

Based on common sense and what we know of Arabic lexicology and grammar, only
two cases are likely here; either ٗ١‫ ف‬is grouped with ‫ غٟرص‬and ٕٗ٪ with ‫ ,ٌجغد‬or vice
versa. In the former case, the translation of the sentence would be ―I became angry
regarding it, inclining away from it.‖ And in the latter case, the meaning afforded
would be ―I became angry [distancing myself] from him, while inclining towards it.‖
One can clearly see the possibilities with respect to the perversion of meanings. But
once we have determined to which word a prepositional is associated and with which
it is grouped, there stands the question of how exactly to do the grouping.

   1. If the word to which the prepositional phrase is trying to link accepts such links, we
       can group them together immediately. Types of words that accept these links are:
           a. verbs
           b. gerunds
           c. active, passive, hyperbolic, and resembling participles (which are
              derived nouns)
           d. occasionally superlatives as well (which is also a derived noun)
   2. If the word does not fall into one of the mentioned categories, then
           a. if the word precedes the prepositional phrase, the phrase will link to a
              hidden word which it is able to link to and that hidden word will then
              become an adjective
           b. if the word follows the prepositional phrase, the phrase will link to a
              hidden word which it is able to link to and that hidden word will then
              become ‫( قحي‬circumstantial adverb)




Grammar Sub-Topics
Definiteness
Introduction
Definitions
‫ِ٫ٍفس‬              definiteness

‫ٔىٍز‬               indefiniteness

A word is considered definite when it refers to something specific in the world, and
indefinite when it does not. For example, ―a car‖ or ―cars‖ do not refer to anything
specific in the world and thus both examples are indefinite. Conversely, ―my car‖ or
―my cars‖ both refer to actual objects in the world and thus both examples are
definite.

Some forms of definiteness, however, are stronger than others. Take, for example, a
situation where two people are enquiring about the whereabouts of a third in a parking
lot. Both conversers have cars parked in the lot. Now, if one says to the other, ―Zaid is
in the car,‖ Zaid may be in the car of either converser and thus the phrase ―the car‖,
although definite, is slightly ambiguous. On the other hand, if one were to say, ―Zaid
is in my car,‖ then there is no ambiguity whatsoever. Hence, although both ―the car‖
and ―my car‖ are definite, the latter is more granular and specific than the former, and
thus more definite (not only in this context, but more generally as well).

Notice that the concept of definiteness applies only to nouns, phrases, and sentences.
This is because verbs and particles don‘t have entities in the external world to begin
with. Nouns, phrases, and sentences are the only forms of speech that correspond to
objects/concepts in the real world.

In Arabic, words, phrases, and sentences are indefinite by default. In order to become
definite, they must fall into one of the following categories. These categories are
listed in the order of their granularity with the ones at the top being the weakest forms
of definiteness.

   1. a word made definite by means of the definite article   (Al)
        compare “a car” with “the car”
   2. a sentence made definite by means of a relative pronoun
      compare ―the car was driven‖ with ―the car that was driven‖
   3. demonstrative pronouns
      ―this‖, ―that‖
   4. proper nouns
      ―Zaid‖
   5. personal pronouns
      ―he‖, ―I‖, ―you‖
   6. objects of vocation
      ―O car!‖
    7. a noun which is possessive to any of the above
       compare ―a car‖ with ―Zaid‘s car‖
    8. a special category
       ―Allah‖


If a part of speech does not fall into one of these categories, it is indefinite.


The Definite Article
Definitions
‫أوجز جٌط٫ٍ٠ف‬       the definite article

َ‫ِ٫ٍف ذحٌّال‬       a word made definite by the definite article

Al (‫ )جي‬is a particle (‫ )قٍف‬in the Arabic language which is prefixed to nouns in order
to render them definite. For example, the word ―‫( ‖وٌجؾس‬a bicycle) is indefinite by
default but may be rendered definite by prefixing it with Al; ―‫( ‖جٌىٌجؾس‬the bicycle).

Although Al is a particle, it is typically treated as a prefix. Therefore, it is not
considered when listing words in alphabetical order, it is not counted among the
number of words in a phrase or sentence, and some dictionaries may not even reserve
an entry for it.


Pronunciation
Al is actually only one letter; the َ‫ .ال‬Since this َ‫ ال‬is without vowel, an eliding Hamza
is required if speech is initiated with this particle. This is the only eliding Hamza in
the language that is given a ‫.فطكس‬

The letters of the Arabic alphabet are divided into two groups with respect to this
particle; the sun letters and the moon letters. If Al is prefixed to a noun which starts
with a moon letter, the َ‫ ال‬is pronounced as expected (as in al-Qamar). And if it is
prefixed to a noun which begins with a sun letter, the َ‫ ال‬will geminate with that letter
(as in ash-Shams).

                                                                              Moon
َٖٞٚ‫ءخؼـل٨٬فقن‬                                                                Letters
ْ‫شظوئٌَِٜ٘٠٤ي‬                                                                Sun Letters


Meanings
In its capacity as the definite article, Al has two major functions. The first is to cause
its noun to refer to something that has been mentioned. For example, ― ْٛ٪ٍ‫إٌٍْٔح ئٌٝ ف‬
‫( ‖ٌْٛال. ف٫ٛٝ فٍ٪ْٛ جٌٍْٛي‬We sent to Pharaoh a messenger. But Pharaoh disobeyed
the messenger.) In this statement, ―the messenger‖ in the second sentence refers to the
messenger that was spoken of in the first. And the second function of Al is to cause its
noun to refer to something that, although not mentioned, is understood between the
speaker and the listener. For example, when one says ―‫( ‖جٌّى٠ٕس‬the city), it is clear that
the city being referred to is Medina of the Prophet (PBUH). Although nowhere in the
speech has this been stated, yet it is agreed upon between the conversing parties.

Another function of Al is to refer to an entire class of things. For example, we may
say that ―the lion is a ferocious animal.‖ There is no particular lion to which we are
referring; thus the purpose of the word ―the‖ is to refer to the entire genus known as
‗lion‘. Similarly, in Arabic, ―ٍٓ‫( ‖ئْ جإلٔٓحْ ٌفٟ ن‬verily Man is in loss); here the ‫ جي‬on
ْ‫ ئٔٓح‬is not used to reference a particular human being, rather the entire class of
humans. In this capacity, Al does not render the noun to which it is prefixed definite
for obvious reasons; why?

Finally, another relatively common function of Al is to encompass all the individuals
of the class which the noun to which it is prefixed represents. For example, ―‫‖جٌكّى هلل‬
(all praise is for Allah.) Here the Al is not referring to a particular praise, or a
particular type of praise. Rather, it means all praise.


Further Reading
For what is perhaps one of the most detailed treatments on the Arabic definite article
in history, refer to the reliable article .


Relative Pronouns
Definitions
ُْ‫جال‬
                   a relative pronoun
‫جٌّٛٚٛي‬
‫ٍٚس جٌّٛٚٛي‬        a relative clause

Recall that nouns, phrases, and sentences are indefinite by default. There are certain
groups of nouns, however, that are definite; these are personal pronouns,
demonstrative pronouns, proper nouns, and the word ―Allah‖. But this is a very
exclusive list.

So, even if a noun does not fall into one of these categories, it can still be rendered
definite using certain mechanisms such as becoming the object of vocation or become
‫ ِٟحف‬to something that it definite. But, again, these mechanisms are very specific and
one may wish to render a noun definite without resorting to one of these structures.
Therefore, Arabic facilitates a very generic form of definiteness which is the definite
article, Al. Any noun prefixed with this article automatically becomes definite and
one can then satisfy the conditions of the noun-adjective structure, for example.
Notice that the definite article is not only used to render nouns definite, but phrases as
well. This is because the definiteness of a phrase usually depends on the definiteness
of some or all of its components. For example, the noun-adjective phrase is definite
when both of its components are definite, the ‫ ئٞحفس‬phrase is definite when the ‫جف‬    ِٝ
ٗ١ٌ‫ ئ‬is definite, and so on.
But what about sentences? They, too, are indefinite by default and they, too, require a
very generic mechanism of being rendered definite. But we cannot prefix the definite
article to an entire sentence and so we need some other mechanism. The solution is to
use relative pronouns. Relative pronouns, then, act like the definite article for
sentences and render them definite when, for example, they need to become an
adjective for a definite noun.

A relative pronoun is one that introduces a relative clause – an entire sentence – in
order to relate it to the larger sentence in which it is embedded. In English, these are
words like ―who‖, ―what‖, ―which‖, ―that‖, and so forth. For example, ―ّّ٢ ُ‫‖جٌٕؿ‬
(the star dimmed) is an entire sentence, but ―ّّ٢ ًٌٞ‫( ‖جٌٕؿُ ج‬the star which dimmed) is
a phrase in which the embedded sentence ―dimmed‖ is related to ―the star‖ through
the medium of the relative pronoun ―which‖.


Relative Pronouns in Arabic
The following charts display the most common relative pronouns in the language
along with their genders and pluralities. The singulars and plurals of Group 1 are
indeclinable, as are the pronouns in Group 2, and the endings are fixed as displayed.

           Group 1 (pronouns used for humans only)
           Plural             Dual              Singular
           ٓ٠ًٌٍ‫ج‬           ٓ٠ًٌٍ‫جًٌٞ جًٌٍجْ / ج‬                  Masculine
           ،ٟ‫جٌّالض‬
                            ٓ١‫جٌطٟ جٌٍطحْ / جٌٍط‬                  Feminine
           ٟ‫جٌٍٛجضٟ، جٌّالت‬

                  Group 2
                  Masculine & Feminine
                  Singular, Dual & Plural
                    ِ
                  َْٓ                                For Humans
                                                     For      Non-
                  ‫ِح‬                                 Humans

Relative pronouns are followed by an entire sentence known as the relative clause.
This sentence contains a personal pronoun that refers back to the relative pronoun and
is appropriate to the meaning in gender, plurality, and person. This is not the case in
English. In English, we would say ―the star that dimmed‖, whereas in Arabic we
would say ―the star that it dimmed‖, where ―it‖ is a personal pronoun that refers to the
relative pronoun ―that‖ and is appropriate to the meaning in gender, plurality, and
person.

Definitions
                    the personal pronoun in a relative clause that refers back to the
‫٪حتى‬
                    relative pronoun
A few examples follow. For each example, try to identify the ‫ .٪حتى‬It may sometimes
be omitted – especially when it‘s the object of a verb – but that does not happen in
any of the following examples.

                         Example
                         ‫جٌؿٕس جٌطٟ أٌٚغطّٛ٘ح‬
                         َ ‫جًٌٍ٠ٓ آض١ٕحُ٘ جٌىطح‬
                         ‫خ‬
                         ُ‫ٚجًٌٍجْ ٠أض١حٔٙح ِٕى‬
                           ‫ً ِ ّال‬
                         ‫جٌٍ َ٠ْٓ أٞ ّٔح‬
                         ٓٓ‫ٚجٌّالتٟ ٌُ ٠ث‬
                         ٓٙ‫ٔٓحتىُ جٌّالضٟ ونٍطُ ذ‬
                         ٗ١ٍ٪ ُ‫ِح أٔط‬
                         ٓ١ِٕ‫ِح ٘ٛ ٖفحء ٌٚقّس ٌٍّإ‬
                                                ‫ط‬
                         ‫ِٓ ِّ٫ٕحٖ ِطح٨ جٌك١حز جٌىٔ١ح‬
                         ٗ٠ُ‫ِٓ ٠أض١ٗ ٪ًجخ ٠ه‬
                         ٗ‫ِٚٓ ؾٍٙ ذ‬
It is a skill to be able to translate relative pronouns and their clauses correctly.
Usually, one needs to translate a combination of the ‫ ,٪حتى‬its governing word, and the
relative pronoun together before starting to translate the relative clause. This comes
with practice and, although there are a few examples below, real command of this
comes through studying Arabic in a classroom environment.

      Translation                            Example
      he whose speech regarding this
      worldly life will captivate you                          ٌ       ٠
                                             ‫ِٓ ُ٫ؿره لُٛٗ فٟ جٌك١حز جٌىٔ١ح‬

      he in whose heart is a disease         ٜ
                                             ٌ ٍِ ٗ‫جًٌٞ فٟ لٍر‬

      he upon whom is the liability          ُ ‫جًٌٞ ٪ٍ١ٗ جٌك‬
                                             ‫ك‬



Demonstrative Pronouns
Definitions
‫جُْ جإلٖحٌز‬       demonstrative pronoun

A demonstrative pronoun is a noun (ُْ‫ )ج‬which is used to point to something that has
already been mentioned in some form or another. The pointing is either near (―this‖),
medial, or distant (―that‖). For example:

ٓ١‫ً٘ج وطحخ ِر‬
This is a clear book

And:

           ٌ                             ٌ
ً‫وٍّح َُلٛج ِٕٙح ... لحٌٛج ً٘ج جًٌٞ َُلٕح ِٓ لر‬
Whenever they are to be given sustenance therein,
they shall say, ―this (i.e. this sustenance) is what we have been given prior.‖

The demonstrative pronoun itself is definite.


The Demonstrative Pronouns and Their Meanings
The demonstrative pronouns are as follows. The purpose of displaying these is not for
the reader to memorize them; they are simply presented here for reference and the
ones that are popularly used are discussed further down.

‫ء تٗ ؤ ٖ ه‬
َ ٌِ‫يج، يج ِ، يج ِ ِ، يج ُ ُ، آ‬                                            Masculine
‫ش‬            ٗ‫ي ي ٖ ض ض‬
ُ ‫يٞ، ضٟ، ِْٖ، ِ ِ، ِْٗ، ِ ِ، ضح، يج‬                                       Feminine

The charts below single out the demonstrative pronouns that are by far the most
popular. The charts also show the different pluralities, genders, and how to achieve
                                                                                  ‫ـ‬
proximity or distance in the pointing by utilizing the prefix ‫ ٘ح‬and the suffixes ٌِ and ‫.ن‬
The singular and plural forms of each demonstrative pronoun are indeclinable and
their endings are fixed as displayed.

              Near Proximity (“this”)
              Plural           Dual             Singular
                               /         ِ
                                         ْ‫ًٰ٘ج‬
                                               ‫ًٰ٘ج‬            Masculine
                               ًٓ
                               ِ ْ٠َ ٰ٘
              ‫أ ة‬
              ِ ٌُٰٚ‫ٰ٘ـ‬
                               /         ِ
                                         ْ‫ٰ٘طح‬
                                               ًٖ
                                               ِ ِ ٰ٘          Feminine
                               ٓ‫ط‬
                               ِ ْ١َ ‫ٰ٘ـ‬

              Medial Proximity
              Plural           Dual             Singular
              ِ ٌُٰٚ
              ‫أ ة‬              ٓ‫ِ ي‬
                               ِ ْ٠َ / ْ‫يج‬      ‫يج‬             Masculine




              Distant Proximity (“that”)
              Plural           Dual             Singular
              ‫أ ثه‬
              َ ِ ٌُٰٚ         /       َ ٔ ‫ٌه‬
                                       ‫يِٰ َ يج ِه‬             Masculine
                                ‫ي ٕه‬
                                َ ِ ْ٠َ
                                ‫ض ه ٔ َ ض ٕه‬
                                َ ِ ْ١َ / ‫ٍِْ َ ضح ِه‬              Feminine

As one will notice, near proximity is achieved by prefixing the demonstrative pronoun
‫ يج‬with ‫ – ٘ح‬one of the particles of prodding, translated loosely as ―Lo‖ or ―Hey.‖
Medial proximity is achieved by simply leaving the demonstrative pronoun as is, and
this is only realized for the masculine gender. Finally, distant proximity is achieved
by appending the 2nd person pronominal suffix and the particle ‫ ٌـ‬before it. And it is
also permissible to combine the ‫ ٘ح‬and the pronominal suffix in one word, as in ―‫.‖ً٘جن‬

The 2nd person pronominal suffix will, in fact, inflect for gender and plurality –
causing the demonstrative pronoun to vary, as in ―‫ ‖يٌىُ― ,‖يٌىّح‬and so forth. The
inflection of this suffix is based on the gender and plurality of the audience and not
the entity being pointed at. Thus, speaking to a group of men, for example, one would
say ―‫ .‖يٌىُ جٌىطحخ‬Notice that the pronominal suffix has changed based on the audience,
not based on the plurality and gender of the word ‫.وطحخ‬


Some Secondary Notes
Notice, briefly, that each of the plurals listed in the charts above have a silent ٚ‫ ;ٚج‬it is
not to be pronounced. Moreover, many of the ‫ جٌف‬in demonstrative pronouns have
been omitted, and this has been indicated by placing a small ‫ جٌف‬atop the letter prior,
as in ―‫ .‖ًٰ٘ج‬This is done simply for ease since these words are used so commonly.

Below are a few examples of the usage of demonstrative pronouns. There are many
things to take note of: Notice what happens in ‫ .ئٞحفس‬Notice the difference in
translation based on whether the thing being referenced has the definite article, Al,
and when it does not. Notice that the plurals may only be used for humans. And so
forth.

  Notes                                  Translation                  Example
  the plurals are used for, and          these orbits                 ‫ًٖ٘ جألفّالن‬
  only for, human entities               these students               ً١ِ‫٘أٌٚة جٌطّال‬
  if the referenced entity does not
  begin with Al, a full sentence
                                         those are the righteous
                                                                                 ُ٘ ‫أٌٚثه‬
  results; compare ―this book‖                                        ْٚ‫جٌٍجٖى‬
  and ―this is a book‖
                                         this is what we were
  but that‘s not always the case
                                         provided                     ‫ً٘ج جًٌٞ ٌَلٕح‬
  if the entity being referenced is      this is my inkpot            ٍٞ‫ً٘ج ِكر‬
  a ‫ ,ِٟحف‬the demonstrative
  pronoun must follow the entire         this inkpot of mine          ‫ِكرٍٞ ً٘ج‬
  ‫ ئٞحفس‬structure
Proper Nouns
Definitions
 ٍ٪
ََُ                 proper noun; name

A proper noun is one which is specifically coined or designated to refer to a particular
entity. Names of people, names of places, names of concepts such as theories are all
examples of proper nouns. This, in Arabic, is known as ٍُ٪ from the base letters َ ،‫٨، ي‬
(to know) because the ٍُ٪ is the ‫( ٪ّالِس‬or sign) of an entity by which we refer to it.

All proper nouns are definite.


Secondary Notes
                                            ٓ
Many names are fully declinable (such as ٌ ٓ‫ ,)ق‬others have restricted declension
          ‫س‬                                                               ٗ ِ
(such as ُ ّ٢‫ ,)فح‬and certain names are completely indeclinable (such as ِ ٠ٛ‫ .) ٠ر‬Further
discussion on ٍُ٪ is actually quite irrelevant and most rules regarding this type of noun
are self-evident.


Personal Pronouns
Definitions
.     ‫ّٞ١ٍ ؼ‬
ٍ‫ّٞحت‬               personal pronoun
‫ٍِّٟ ؼ. ـحش‬
A personal pronoun is a noun (ُْ‫ )ج‬which is used to refer to something that has
already been mentioned in some form or another. The reference is either in the third
person (―he‖, ―she‖, ―they‖, ―it‖, etc), the second person (―you‖, etc), or the first
person (―I‘, ―we‖, etc). For example:

ٟ‫ؾحءٟٔ َ٠ى. ٚ٘ٛ وحْ ٠رى‬
Zaid came to me. And he was crying.

And:

ٜٛ‫ج٪ىٌٛج؛ ٘ٛ ألٍخ ٌٍطم‬
Be just; it (i.e. being just) is nigh to piety.

The personal pronouns themselves are definite.

The Personal Pronouns in Arabic
Arabic theoretically has 6 sets of pronouns; there are separate sets for the three
grammatical states, and in each state, the pronoun may be attached to its agent or it
may be isolated from it – ergo 6 sets.
Definitions
  ‫ط‬
ًّٛ ِ                  attached

ًٛ‫ِٕف‬                  isolated

Attached nominative pronouns (ًٛ‫ )ٍِفٛ٨ ِط‬are those that are suffixed to verbs; these
are the endings of the perfect, imperfect, and imperative verbs we learn in Arabic verb
conjugation. If the verb is active, then the attached pronoun is nominative because it is
the subject of the verb. If the verb is passive, the pronoun is nominative because it is
the deputy subject. If the verb is one of the sisters of ْ‫ ,وح‬then the pronoun is
nominative because it is the subject of ْ‫.وح‬

If, for some reason, it is not possible to attach a nominative pronoun to its agent, we
must then resort to using the unattached version (ًٛ‫ .)ٍِفٛ٨ ِٕف‬This occurs when there
is nothing to which we can attach the pronoun, as is the case when it is ‫ ِرطىأ‬as in ― ٛ٘
ُ‫ ‖.لحت‬This may also occur when there is something to which we can attach it but
attachment is not appropriate, as is the case when it follows the particle ‫ ئال‬as in ― ُ‫ٌُ ٠م‬
ٛ٘ ‫ .‖ئال‬And there are a few other, more rare cases where this occurs.

Attached accusative pronouns (ًٛ‫ )ِٕٛٛخ ِط‬are those that are attached to verbs as
their direct objects, as in ―ٗ‫ ‖,ٍٞذط‬or those that are attached to the particles that
resemble verbs as their subjects, as in ―ٗٔ‫.‖ئ‬

When it is not possible to attach an accusative pronoun to its agent, we then resort to
                                       ‫ِٕف‬
unattached accusative pronouns (ًٚ ‫ .)ِٕٛٛخ‬This happens when, for example, the
direct object of a verb is brought before the verb and thus can no longer be attached to
it. An example of this is ―‫ ‖.ئ٠حن ٔ٫رى‬And there are a few other situations where this
occurs.

Attached genitive pronouns (ًٛ‫ )ِؽٌٌٚ ِط‬are those that are ٗ١ٌ‫ ِٟحف ئ‬and attached to
their ‫ ,ِٟحف‬as in ―ٗ‫ ,‖وطحذ‬or those that are objects of a preposition to which they are
attached, as in ―ِٕٗ‖ . As a corollary to this point, notice that any pronoun attached to a
noun (an ُْ‫ )ج‬must be ًٛ‫ ;ِؿٌٍٚ ِط‬why?

In practice, there is no set of genitive unattached personal pronouns. When the need
arises to use these, either the nominative or the accusative unattached versions are
used.

‫يجزور‬         ‫يُصىب‬               ‫يُصىب‬     ‫يزفىع‬         ‫يزفىع‬
‫يتصم‬          ‫يُفصم‬               ‫يتصم‬      ‫يُفصم‬         ‫يتصم‬
                                                                         3rd person, masc.
ُ
ٖ‫ـ‬            ُ ‫ئ ّح‬
              ٖ٠                  ٗ
                                  ُ‫ـ‬        ٛ٘
                                            َُ                           sing.
                                                                         3rd person, masc.
  ٙ
‫ـ ُّح‬           ٘٠
              ‫ئ ّح ُّح‬            ‫ـ ُّح‬
                                    ٙ         ٘
                                            ‫ُّح‬           verb           dual
                                                                         3rd person, masc.
  ٙ
ُُْ ‫ـ‬           ٘٠
              ُُْ ‫ئ ّح‬            ُُْ ‫ـ‬
                                    ٙ         ٘
                                            ُُْ           suffixes
                                                                         pl.
                                                                         3rd person, fem.
‫ـٙح‬              ٠
              ‫ئ ّح٘ح‬              ‫ـٙح‬       ِٟ
                                            َ٘                           sing.
                                                                       3rd person, fem.
  ٙ
‫ـ ُّح‬           ٘٠
              ‫ئ ّح ُّح‬      ‫ـ ُّح‬
                              ٙ              ٘
                                           ‫ُّح‬                         dual
                                                                       3rd person, fem.
َٗ
ُْ ‫ـ‬          ٓ٘ ٠
              َ ُ ‫ئ ّح‬      َ ُ‫ـ‬
                            ٓٙ             ٓ٘
                                           َُ                          pl.
                                                                       2nd person, masc.
َ ‫ـ‬
‫ه‬             ‫٠ن‬
              َ ‫ئ ّح‬        َ‫ـ‬
                            ‫ه‬              ‫ص‬
                                           َ ْٔ‫أ‬                       sing.
                                                                       2nd person, masc.
  ‫ى‬
‫ـ ُّح‬           ‫٠و‬
              ‫ئ ّح ُّح‬      ‫ـ ُّح‬
                              ‫ى‬              ‫ط‬
                                           ‫أْٔـ ُّح‬                    dual
                                                                       2nd person, masc.
  ‫ى‬
ُُْ ‫ـ‬           ‫٠و‬
              ُُْ ‫ئ ّح‬      ُُْ ‫ـ‬
                              ‫ى‬              ‫ط‬
                                           ُُْ ‫أْٔـ‬                    pl.
                                                                       2nd person, fem.
ِ ‫ـ‬
‫ه‬             ِ ‫ئ ّح‬
              ‫٠ن‬            ِ‫ـ‬
                            ‫ه‬              ِ ْٔ‫أ‬
                                           ‫ص‬                           sing.
                                                                       2nd person, fem.
 ُ
 ‫ه‬
‫ـ ِح‬            ‫٠و‬
              ‫ئ ّح ُّح‬      ‫ـ ُّح‬
                              ‫ى‬              ‫ط‬
                                           ‫أْٔـ ُّح‬                    dual
                                                                       2nd person, fem.
ٓ‫ى‬
َ ُ‫ـ‬          َ ُ ‫ئ ّح‬
              ٓ‫٠ و‬          ٓ‫ى‬
                            َ ُ‫ـ‬           ٓ‫ط‬
                                           َ ُ ‫أْٔـ‬                    pl.
                                                                       1st       person,
ٟ‫ـ‬            َ ‫ئ ّح‬
              ٞ٠            ٟ‫ـ‬             ‫أٔح‬                         singular
                                                                       1st person, non-
‫ـٕح‬              ٠
              ‫ئ ّحٔح‬        ‫ـٕح‬            ٓ ٔ
                                           ُ ْ‫َك‬                       singular


Things to Note
Notice that the attached pronouns are exactly the same for both the accusative and
genitive states. We mention the two sets separately, yet we do not mention the
unattached genitive pronouns separately (they are completely omitted). Take a
moment to understand what is being said. Now, this is because the attached genitives
always share their form with the attached accusatives, but the unattached genitives
share their form with the unattached accusatives at times, and with the unattached
nominatives at other times. Moreover, the need for unattached genitives is
extraordinarily infrequent and it is not worth listing those pronouns separately.

Notice further that the unattached accusatives are simply the attached accusatives
prefixed with the ‫ ئ٠ح‬placeholder. This makes it very easy to memorize the three
columns to the left in the chart above.

Also notice that, for the second person pronouns, the unattached nominatives are the
same as the other three tables save that the ْ‫ أ‬placeholder is prefixed to them and the
letter ‫ ن‬is replaced with the letter ‫ .ش‬The endings, however, are exactly the same.

It is very crucial to refer back to the chart when taking note of these things.

Finally, it is important to note that in the nominative pronouns attached to verbs,
certain conjugations do not actually have a suffix. Take, for example, ً٫‫ ,ف‬where there
is no suffix to the verb. Take, also, both the active and passive participles which,
although they have subjects, their subjects are not always visible. This does not mean
that the pronoun doesn‘t exist; it merely means that it is concealed.

Definitions
ٌَ‫ذح‬               explicitly viewable

ٍ‫ِٓطط‬              concealed within the verb

This phenomenon of pronoun hiding can occur in conjugations 1 & 4 for the perfect
verb, in conjugations 1, 4, 7, 13, & 14 for the imperfect verb, in conjugation 1 of the
imperatives, and in the active and passive participles.


Interesting Notes
Note 1: If clusters involving pronouns occur, the cluster will be reduced by giving the
                                                         ُ
final letter on the pronoun a ‫ .ّٞس‬For example: ―ْٛ‫‖.٘ ُ جٌّطم‬

Note 2: If the pronouns ٗ‫ ,ـُٙ ,ـّٙح ,ـ‬or ٓٙ‫ ـ‬are preceded by a ْٞ or a ‫ ,وٍٓز‬the vowel on
                                                                                    ٗ
the ٖ will be a ‫ وٍٓز‬as opposed to the regular ‫ .ّٞس‬Examples include ―ُِٙ١ٍ٪‖, ―ِ ١ٍَْْٕ‖,
  ٙ
―ِٓ ‫.‖ِٓ ؾّالذ١ر‬

Note 3: If the nominative or genitive 1st person singular pronouns are preceded by an
Aleph, as in "ٞ‫( "ٔ٫ّال‬my two sandals), the pronoun ٞ will be vowelled with a ‫:فطكس‬
 ٞ
"َ ‫."ٔ٫ّال‬

Note 4: If the pronoun ٟ‫ ـ‬is appended to a verb, it will be preceded by a ْٛٔ known as
the ‫ .ْٔٛ جٌٛلح٠س‬The purpose of this ْٛٔ is to prevent the verb from receiving a ‫وٍٓز‬
vowel that the ٟ‫ ـ‬pronoun necessitates before it. One will say, for example,
                                                                             ٕ           ٕ
―‫ ‖.ْإٌٔطّٛٔ١ٙح‬This also occurs with certain particles such as in ―ٟٕ‫ ,‖ِ ّٟ― ,‖ٌ١ط‬and ―ّٟ ٪‖.

Note 5: The pronoun ‫ أٔح‬has a silent Aleph at its end. The purpose of this Aleph is to
show that, if this pronoun were to occur at the end of a sentence, ‫ ٚلف‬will not occur
and the ‫ فطكس‬on the ْٛٔ will be pronounced.

Note 6: Notice that the first person pronouns do not include a dual version. This is a
consequence of the definition of duality in Arabic. Singularity means for there to be
one of something, and plurality means for there to be three or more. Duality, on the
other hand, means ‗for something to have with it another like it‘. Hence the
understanding behind ْ‫ ,وطحذح‬for example, is ‫( وطحخ ٚوطحخ‬a book and a book). This works
perfectly for ―him and him‖ as well as ―you and you‖, but it does not apply for ―me
and I‖ since both refer to the same entity. Hence having a first person dual does not
make sense.


The Object of Vocation


Definitions
‫ٔىجء‬               vocation; summoning

ٜ‫ِٕحو‬              the object of a vocation
Vocation is the act of summoning an entity, as in ―Hey, Zaid‖ or ―O God.‖ The object
of vocation, the thing being summoned, is always definite because, in order to
summon an entity, that entity must be well defined. In the examples, ‗Zaid‘ and ‗God‘
are definite. Notice that the object of vocation may already be definite; however, if it
is not, it will become definite. There are instances, granted, where one may call out at
random as in ―ٞ‫( ‖٠ح ٌؾّال، نً ٠رى‬O someone, help! Grab my hand.) In such cases, the
object of vocation will not be definite.


How to Use Vocation in Arabic
The particles used to summon are divided based on whether the entity being
summoned is distant or near. And they are as follows.

َ
‫أ‬                                                                              Near
‫٠ح، أْٞ، آ، ٘١ح‬                                                                Distant

The most commonly used particle of vocation, by far, is ‫ .٠ح‬Many a time these
particles are omitted when it is clear that the speaker is calling out. And this happens
quite frequently.

The grammatical state of the object of vocation is of some interest. Basically
speaking, if the object is a single word, it is given the reflection of the nominative
case but is considered indeclinable, and it does not received nunation (ٓ٠ٕٛ‫ .)ض‬If, on the
other hand, the object is not a single word, or it is random vocation – as in ―O
someone, grab my hand!‖ – then it will be accusative and it will receive nunation.
Some examples follow.

                            Examples
                            ُ ‫٠ح ٘حِح‬
                            ْ
                            ْ‫٠ح ٌؾّال‬
                            ٍِْٛٛ ‫٠ح‬
                            ٓ١ٍٔ‫٠ح يج جٌم‬
                            ‫٠ح ٢حٌ٫ح ؾرّال‬
                            ٍِٛ ٍِّٟٓ ‫٠ح‬
                            ٞ‫٠ح ٌؾّال! نً ذ١ى‬
A final point to note is that if the object of vocation is prefixed with the definite
article, Al, the vocative particle ‫ ٠ح‬will not precede it directly. Instead, the particle ‫أ٠ٙح‬
or ‫ أ٠طٙح‬will interfere; the former when the object is masculine, and the latter when it is
feminine. Some examples follow.

                            Examples
                            ‫٠ح أ٠ٙح جًٌ٠ٓ إِٓٛج‬
                            ‫٠ح أ٠طٙح جٌٕفّ جٌّ٣ّثٕس‬
                            ٌٍّّْٛٓ‫أ٠ٙح ج‬
Pluralisation
Introduction
In Arabic, we indicate that there is only one of something by using the singular form
of the noun. Similarly, we indicate that there is two of something by using the dual
form. The chart below gives a simple example.

       (Male) Student                       One Student         Two Students
                               ٪
       ‫ ٠، ي، خ‬on the pattern ًِ ‫فح‬          ٌ
                                            ‫٢حِد‬                ْ
                                                                ِ ‫٢حٌرح‬
Now plurality is where the discussion become more interesting. There are two major
forms of plural nouns: the sound and the broken. The sound can be further divided
into the sound masculine plural and the sound feminine plural. Below is a
summary of the Arabic terms that describe these categories.

Definitions
                       The broken plural; a word that is pluralized by changing the
ٍ١ٓ‫ؾّ٩ جٌطى‬            noun‘s structure
        ‫و‬
ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جًٌّ ٍَ جٌٓح‬     The sound masculine plural
         ٔ
ٌُ‫ؾّ٩ جٌّإَع جٌٓح‬      The sound feminine plural

Sound plurals are created simply by adding a suffix to the singular form, whereas
broken plurals change the internal structure of the singular (ergo the term ‗broken‘).
Another distinction between the two is that there is only one form for the sound plural
for each of the two genders, whereas there are many broken plurals in the language.

In this tutorial, we will discuss how to form the sound plurals, give some details about
broken plurals, and discuss when to use which. What we do not discuss is how to
form broken plurals; that is covered in an advanced tutorial entitled Broken Plurals.


Sound Plurals

Forming Sound Plurals
Rendering a noun plural using a sound plural is quite simple. Both the masculine and
feminine versions have only one basic form each. And this form involves simply
adding a suffix to the noun as indicated in the chart below.

The only thing to note is that the form for the masculine plural is changed slightly
depending on the grammatical case of the noun.

               Nominative Case                        Accusative and Genitive Cases
               Suffix          Example                Suffix           Example
Masculine      ْ
               َ ْٛ‫ـ‬              ْ
                                  َ ٛ‫ٌجغِر‬            َ ْ١‫ـ‬
                                                      ٓ                   ٓ ‫غ‬
                                                                          َ ١‫ٌج ِر‬
Feminine         ‫ش‬
                 ٌ ‫ـح‬                 ‫ٌج ِرحش‬
                                      ٌ ‫غ‬               ‫ش‬
                                                        ٍ ‫ـح‬               ‫غ ش‬
                                                                           ٍ ‫ٌج ِرح‬

Nouns that Can Use Sound Plurals
In this section we identify the types of nouns that can use this nice, simple plural. But
remember, if a noun is capable of using the sound plural, it does not necessarily mean
it will use it in practice.


The Sound Masculine Plural in Usage
Two types of nouns can use this plural: static nouns (‫ ,)ؾحِى‬and derived nouns (‫.)ِٗطك‬
This excludes gerunds (ٌ‫.)ِٛى‬

As for static nouns, only men‘s names that do not end in ‫ ضحء ٍِذٛ٢س‬can pluralize this
way.

Reason                      for
                                   Counterexamples                      Examples
Counterexample
It is not a name at all            ْ ‫ٌؾ‬
                                   َ ٍُٛ َ                              ْ ‫ذى‬
                                                                        َ ٍَٚ َ
It‘s a woman‘s name (not a
man‘s)                             َ ٛ‫َ٠ْ َر‬
                                   ْ َٕ                                 ْ ِ
                                                                        َ ٍِٚ ‫٪ح‬
The singular (‫ )٢ٍكس‬ends in
‫ضحء ٍِذٛ٢س‬                         ْ ٢
                                   َ ٛ‫ٍَْك‬                              ْ َ
                                                                        َ ٚ‫َ٠ْى‬
It‘s a dog‘s name (not a
human‘s)                           ْ
                                   َ ْٛٓ‫ِحو‬

As for derived nouns, only those relating specifically to men which are void of ‫ضحء‬
‫ ٍِذٛ٢س‬can pluralize this way.

Reason                     for
                               Counterexamples                          Examples
Counterexample
‗Pregnant‘: This refers to
women                          ْ ِ
                               َ ٍِٛ ‫قح‬                                 َ ٛ‫وح ِر‬
                                                                        ْ ‫ض‬
The singular can refer to
both men and women             ْ
                               َ ٌٚٛ‫َر‬ ٚ                                َ ُِّْٛٓ
                                                                        ْ ٍ ِ
This refers to horses              َ ٛ‫ْح ِم‬
                                   ْ ‫ذ‬                                  ْ
                                                                        َ ٌٛٛ‫َِْٗغ‬
The singular (‫ )ٌقحٌس‬ends in
‫ضحء ٍِذٛ٢س‬                         َ ٌٛ‫َ ّح‬
                                   ْ ‫ٌق‬

Remember, we have only described nouns that can theoretically use the sound
masculine plural. Not all nouns realize plurality in the described manner. Below are
some examples of nouns that, despite meeting the requirements for sound plurality,
use broken plurals instead:

                          Plural                Noun
                            ٍ٢ ‫٢ّال‬
                          ‫ُ ّخ، ََرس‬            ‫٢حِد‬ٌ
                          ‫ْحوز‬                   ١ْ
                                                ‫َ ِى‬
                           ٧ٔ
                        ‫ُ َفحء‬                       ٔ
                                                  ‫َ٧١ف‬
Similarly, there are exceptions to the above rules. What we mean by that is that some
nouns that do not meet the above criteria may pluralize using the sound masculine
suffix. These exceptions, however, are very, very few in number. Below are a few
examples:

                        Plural                    Noun
                        ْ ٌ
                        َ َّٛ‫٪ح‬                    ٌ
                                                  َُ‫٪ح‬
                        ْ ْ
                        َ ِٕٛ                     ‫َٕس‬ْ
                        َ ٍَْٛ٘
                        ْ ‫أ‬                       ًَْ٘‫أ‬

The Sound Feminine Plural in Usage
This plural can be applied to any noun; static nouns, gerunds, and derived nouns are
all capable of using it, theoretically speaking. The examples below illustrate this form
being used on several types of nouns.
But, as noted with masculine plurality, a broken plural may be chosen to pluralize a
word despite the legitimacy of the sound feminine



Broken Plurals
What is this Tutorial About?
This tutorial deals with forming broken plurals. In classical methodologies, students
are merely asked to memorize the broken plurals for each new noun they encounter.
To aid in this memorization, some helpful heuristics are given such as which plural
patterns are typically used for which singular ones.

Here, however, we will use methodologies from generative linguistics developed by
McCarthy and Prince (1990). The methodologies of generative linguistics were
developed starting in the mid 20th century and are thus very new. These
methodologies present concise algorithms which, although far from perfect, provide a
means of going from a singular noun to its most common broken plural.

Disadvantages of the algorithm:
      Only a broken plural will be returned, even if the sound is also usable. E.g. Jafna will
       yield Jifān and not Jafanāt (both usable, the latter being a greater plural and the
       former a lesser plural).
      Not every broken plural is accounted for. The ones that are the most
       productive in the language, based on the dictionary, are the ones we consider.
      The algorithm will give only the most appropriate plural, even though there
       may be many for a given singular.
        The algorithm is not without memorization. Its purpose is simply to minimize
         the amount of memorization a student has to do in learning broken plurals.


Whom is this Tutorial For?
This presentation is designed for advanced students of the language. By advanced we
mean that a student must have enough experience studying the grammar that he/she is
capable of putting the classical methodology to one side, picking up this new
methodology, benefitting from it, and then continuing with the old methods. If a
student can do this comfortably, this tutorial will be accessible.

Additionally, the following prerequisites are preferable:
        comfort reading Arabic transliterated into English
        comfort when talking about extremely abstract concepts
        a basic understanding of the places of articulation for the Arabic letters
        a basic understanding of grammar and morphology (esp. morphophonemic
         rules)


Background Concepts

The Templatic Tier
Consider letters as the most basic constituent of speech. Letters are either consonants
(indicated by capital C) or vowels (indicated by capital V). There are six vowels in
Arabic; three short: u, a, i, and three long: uu, aa, ii corresponding to the short ones.

When we parse a word alphabetically, we assign all consonants the symbol C and all
vowels the symbol V. If we want to be more specific, we can use the actual vowel
sound (u, a, i, uu, aa, or ii) instead of using V. If we want to emphasize that two
consonants are the same, we subscript the C with a number.

Examples: the word ―quutila‖ is alphabetically parsed as CVVCVCV or, less
generally, as CuuCiCa. And the word ―zalzala‖ can be parsed as C1VC2C1VC2V or as
C1aC2C1aC2a.


The Syllabic Tier
Letters come together to form syllables. Syllables are grouped into one of three
categories depending on their weight; light (L), heavy (H), or super-heavy (S). The
inventory of syllables in Arabic is as follows:

       Syllable     Weight                                    Example
       CV           Light              L                      َ  ‫أ‬
       CVV          Heavy              H                      ‫٘ح‬
       CVC          Heavy              H                      ِْْ  ‫ئ‬
       CVCC         Super-heavy        S                       ْ‫ٍْٞخ‬ َ
Rar




       CVVC         Super-heavy        S                        ْ‫لحي‬
e
     CVVCC        Super-heavy       S                        ْ
                                                             ّ ‫ؾح‬


The Prosodic Tier
We start parsing words from the left and look for one or two syllables in order to form
feet. Consider two feet: the iamb and the moraic trochee. An iamb is a light syllable
followed by a heavy, and a trochee is two lights or one heavy.

Iamb:          LH             CVCVV or CVCVC
Trochee:       LL or H            CVCV, CVV, or CVC

Arabic is a trochee-based language, which means we parse words and look for
trochees; whatever syllables do not form trochees are left as residue.

Examples: ―kataba‖  CVCVCV. Starting from the left, CV is not a foot. CVCV
together, however, forms a trochee (LL). The final CV cannot form a foot so ―ba‖ is
left as residue.

―nafs‖  CVCC. CVC forms a trochee (H) and the final ―s‖ is residue. Similarly in
―rajul‖ we get CVCVC, so ―raju‖ is a trochee (LL) and ―l‖ is residue.


Motivation
The traditional way to look at a word is to consider it as a one-dimensional string.
This, however, limits our understanding of how a word changes from one form to
another; we end up saying that the base letters move from one pattern to another.

Generative linguistics, however, looks at words from a multi-dimensional perspective,
considering its templatic, syllabic, prosodic, etc tiers. When a word moves from one
form to another, the change might not be occurring on the face of the word; it might
be occurring on one of these other dimensions. With generative linguistics, we have
tools that allow us to look at these other dimensions and analyze how words actually
change.


Broken Plural Patterns
The figures that follow are based on McCarthy and Prince‘s (1990) survey, and are
approximates.
There are over 70 patterns for the broken plural, but save 31 of them the rest are
completely negligible; one can read entire libraries without ever coming across one of
them.

These 31 (which include the metathesized versions; see below) are divided into four
groups as follows.

Group A                Group B               Group C                Group D
CuC1C1aC               CuCC                  CiCaC                  CiCaaC
Cu C1C1aaC             CiCC + at             CiCaC + at             CiCaaC + at2
                               CiCC + aan                    CaCaC2         CuCuuC
                               CuCC + aan                    CaCaC + at     CuCuuC + at2
                               CaCC1                         CuCaC          CaCaaC1
                                                             CuCaC + at     CaCiiC2
                                                             CuCaC + aa‘    CawaaCiC
                                                                       3
                                                             CaCuC          CaCaa‘iC
                                                             CaCiC + at4    CaCaaCiC
                                                             CaCiC + aa‘4   CaCaaCiiC
                                                             CuCuC
1 May metathesize to ‗aCCaaC, may also change due to glide phonology
2 Rare
3 May metathesize to ‗aCCuC
4 May metathesize to ‗aCCiC



Group A
These plurals are used exclusively for the active participle on the pattern CaaCiC and
no other nouns.

Group B
These patterns are quite rare; they account for the plurals of only 4% of all singulars.

The pattern CuCC is mostly reserved as the plural of adjectives for colours and bodily
defects (whether masculine or feminine). It does occur elsewhere, as in ―fulk‖.

Group C
The patterns in this group are not rare, but there is no known algorithm that governs
them all.

Group D
This group contains the most productive plural patterns in the language, by far. There
is a single algorithm that takes a noun and returns its plural if that plural is among this
group.

To get an idea of just how productive this group is, consider all trilateral nouns. They
fall into one of the following templates: CVCC, CVCVC, CVCVVC, or CVVCVC.
With optional feminine suffix, this makes eight pattern groups. All singulars with
three base letters fall into one of these eight mentioned patterns. The fact that the vast
majority of them use group D pluralisation is evident from the following figures:

         83% of CVCC singulars use group D pluralisation
         81% of CVCVC singulars use it
         88% of CVCVVC+at singular use it
         97% of CVVCVC+at singulars use it
         group D is also significant for the CVCC+at, CVCVC+at, and CVVCVC
          singulars
         group D is insignificant only for CVCVVC singulars (with 8% productivity)
         25-30% of all singulars with more than three letters (base or otherwise; not
          including long vowels) use group D pluralisation




A Probabilistic Pluralisation Algorithm
Given a singular noun, the following algorithm will return its most appropriate broken
plural from group D. If the word happens not to use pluralisation patterns from group
D, this algorithm will still return a plural, but it will obviously be incorrect (false
positive).

    1. if the singular has a round Taa at the end, remove it
    2. look for the first trochee starting from the left edge and map it to a CVCVV
       iamb
            a. mapping is done by extending the vowels to fill the new vowel
               positions
            b. if there aren‘t enough consonants, use ―w‖ as a filler
    3. join the new iamb to the residue, keeping in mind morphophonemic rules
    4. change the vowel pattern to match the appropriate plural pattern
            a. which vowels are used needs to be memorized, but often ―a, i‖ is used
            b. consult the examples to learn how to distribute these vowels
    5. perform metathesis if necessary
            a. which nouns undergo metathesis is something that needs to be
               memorized
    6. if the new plural is on CiCaaC or CuCuuC, it may require a feminine Taa at its
       end
            a. whether a noun needs this or not must be memorized or learned with
               experience


Examples
The algorithm will make little without accompanying examples:

   ٔ
ّْ‫َف‬           1.
               2.
                     “naf” is the first trochee, “s” is residue
                     ―naf‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―nafaa‖ and the word becomes ―nafaas‖
(soul)         3.   this word takes the ―u‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―nufuus‖



   ِ
‫لىْـ‬           1.
               2.
                     “qid” is the first trochee, “h” is residue
                     ―qid‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―qidii‖ and the complete word is ―qidiih‖
(arrow)        3.   this word takes the ―i, a‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―qidaah‖



   ‫ق‬
ُْ‫ُى‬           1.
               2.
                     “huk” is the first trochee, “m” is residue
                     ―huk‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―hukuu‖ and the complete word is
(judgement)         ―hukuum‖
               3.   this word takes the ―a‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―hakaam‖
               4.   metathesis applies, changing ―hakaam‖ to ―ahkaam‖
 ْ
‫أَ َى‬         1.
              2.
                    “asa” is the first trochee, “d” is residue
                    ―asa‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―asaa‖ and the word becomes ―asaad‖
(lion)        3.   this word takes the ―u‖ vowel so it becomes ―usuud‖



 ‫ٌؾ‬
ًُ َ          1.
              2.
                    “raju” is the first trochee, “l” is residue
                    ―raju‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―rajuu‖ and the complete word is
(man)              ―rajuul‖
              3.   this word takes the ―i, a‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―rijaal‖


                    c

 ٕ
‫٪ِ َد‬         1.
              2.
                    “ ina” is the first trochee, “b” is residue
                    ―cina‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―cinaa‖ and the complete word is
(grape)            ―cinaab‖
              3.   this word takes the ―a‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―canaab‖
              4.   metathesis applies, changing ―canaab‖ to ―acnaab‖



    ْ
‫َكحذس‬         1.
              2.
                   removing the Taa gives “sahaab”
                    ―saha‖ is the first trochee, ―ab‖ is residue
(cloud)       3.    ―saha‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―sahaa‖ and the complete word should
                   be ―sahaa-ab‖. But based on morphophonemic rules, there must be an eliding
                   Hamza to facilitate this. This gives ―sahaa‘ab‖
              4.   this word takes the ―a, i‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―sahaa‘ib‖



‫ؾُ٠ٍز‬         1.
              2.
                   removing the Taa gives “jaziir”
                    ―jazi‖ is the first trochee, ―ir‖ is residue
(peninsula)   3.    ―jazi‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―jazii‖ and the complete word should be
                   ―jazii-ir‖. But there must be an eliding Hamza to facilitate this. This gives ―jazii‘ir‖
              4.   this word takes the ―a, i‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―jazaa‘ir‖



‫وٍ٠ّس‬         1.
              2.
                   removing the Taa gives “kariim”
                   ―kari‖ is the first trochee, ―im‖ is residue
(noble)       3.    ―kari‖ transformed into an iamb becomes ―karii‖ and the complete word should be
                   ―karii-im‖. But there must be an eliding Hamza to facilitate this. This gives
                   ―karii‘im‖
              4.   this word takes the ―a, i‖ vowel pattern so it becomes ―karaa‘im‖



  ‫و‬
‫فح ِٙس‬        1.
              2.
                   removing the Taa gives “faakih”
                   ―faa‖ is the first trochee, ―kih‖ is the residue
(fruit)       3.   ―faa‖ only has one consonant so we compensate with a ―w‖ and map to an iamb.
                   This gives ―fawaa‖. The entire word is ―fawaakih‖
              4.   like most plurals, this take the ―a, i‖ vowel pattern so it remains ―fawaakih‖



  ٔ
‫آ ِٓس‬         1.
              2.
                   removing the Taa gives “aanis”
                   ―aa‖ is the first trochee and ―nis‖ is the residue
(cheerful)    3.   ―aa‖ has only one consonant (initial Hamza) so it maps to an iamb as ―awaa‖. The
                   entire word is then ―awaanis‖
              4.   this plural takes the ―a, i‖ vowel pattern so it remains ―awaanis‖
ِِٛ‫ؾح‬        1.
             2.
                  “jaa” is the first trochee and “muus” is the residue
                  ―jaa‖ mapped to an iamb becomes ―jawaa‖ and the entire word is ―jawaamuus‖
(buffalo)    3.   this plural takes pattern ―a, i‖ resulting in ―jawaamiis‖



     ْ
ْ‫ٍُْ٣ح‬       1.
             2.
                  “sul” is the first trochee and “taan” is residue
                  ―sul‖ maps to ―suluu‖ and the word becomes ―suluutaan‖
(sultan)     3.   this plural uses the ―a, i‖ vowel pattern to give ―salaatiin‖



  ٕ
ٓ١ّ ِ‫ض‬       1.
             2.
                  “tin” is the first trochee and “niin” is the residue
                  ―tin‖ maps to ―tinii‖ and the word is ―tiniiniin‖
(sea         3.   this plural uses the ―a, i‖ vowel pattern which gives ―tanaaniin‖
monster)

             This is already the plural of ―firaq‖, which is the plural of ―firqa‖. We can turn this into
‫أَفٍْجق‬      a level-3 plural as follows:
(sects)      1. “af” is the first trochee (remember the Hamza at the beginning), “raaq” is the
                  residue
             2. ―af‖ maps to ―afaa‖ and the word becomes ―afaaraaq‖
             3. this plural uses the ―a, i‖ pattern which gives ―afaariiq‖




Abstract Examples
In the above examples, we were feeding individual words to this algorithm. But it
stands to reason that singulars on the same pattern will usually yield the same types of
plurals. When it comes to static nouns and gerunds, this is of course not always the
case because of the vowel patterns (and other aspects of the algorithm that require
memorization), but derived nouns are very well behaved.

So instead of feeding it words, let‘s feed the algorithm entire templates.
                                                  c

     ِ
ًَ٫ْ‫ِف‬      1.
            2.
                  the first trochee is “mif” and “ al” is residual
                  ―mif‖ maps to ―mifii‖ and the word becomes ―mifiical‖
(noun of    3.    like almost all derived nouns, this takes vowel pattern ―a, i‖ to give ―mafaacil‖
usage)

                                                 c

  ٫ِ
‫ِفْ ٍَس‬     1.
            2.
                  removing the Taa we get “mif al”
                  the first trochee is ―mif‖ and ―cal‖ is residual
(noun of    3.    ―mif‖ maps to ―mifii‖ and the word becomes ―mifiical‖
usage)      4.    like almost all derived nouns, this takes vowel pattern ―a, i‖ to give ―mafaacil‖


                                                  c

     ِ
‫ِفْ٫حي‬      1.
            2.
                  the first trochee is “mif” and “ aal” is residual
                  ―mif‖ maps to ―mifii‖ and the word becomes ―mifiicaal‖
(noun of    3.    like almost all derived nouns, this takes vowel pattern ―a, i‖ to give ―mafaa ciil‖
usage)



Incredible! These are the plurals medieval Arab grammarians teach us to associate
with these singulars. Yet one algorithm gives us all of them at once despite their
varying singular forms. Below are more examples.
                                                  c

ًَ٫ْ‫أَف‬          1.
                 2.
                      the first trochee is “af” and “ al” is residual
                      ―af‖ maps to ―afaa‖ and the word becomes ―afaacal‖
(superlative)    3.   using the vowel pattern ―a, i‖ gives us ―afaacil‖


                                                      c

     ِ
‫َفْ٫ٛي‬           1.
                 2.
                      the first trochee is “maf” and “ uul” is residual
                      ―maf‖ maps to ―mafaa‖ and the word becomes ―mafaa cuul‖
(passive         3.   applying the ―a, i‖ vowels we get ―mafaa ciil‖
participle)

                                                      c

     ِ
ًَ٫ْ‫َف‬           1.
                 2.
                      the first trochee is “maf” and “ al” is residual
                      ―maf‖ maps to ―mafaa‖ and the word becomes ―mafaa cal‖
(locative        3.   applying the ―a, i‖ vowels we get ―mafaa cil‖
noun)

                                                      c

     ِ
ًِ٫ْ‫َف‬           1.
                 2.
                      the first trochee is “maf” and “ il” is residual
                      ―maf‖ maps to ―mafaa‖ and the word becomes ―mafaa cil‖
(locative        3.   applying the ―a, i‖ vowels, the word remains ―mafaa cil‖
noun)




Arabic Numbers
How we will approach this Topic
    Consider the following grouping of numbers and try to become accustomed to this
    categorization. Notice that there is a lot of division based on putting 1 & 2 into one
                                                           category, and 3 to 9 in another.

Group                                                                                 Numbers
    A                                                                                       1, 2
    B                                                                                      3..10
    C                                                                                     11, 12
    D                                                                                     13..19
    E                                                             20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90
    F                             21, 22, 31, 32, 41, 42, 51, 52, 61, 62, 71, 72, 81, 82, 91, 92
    G                             23..29, 33..39, 43..49, 53..59, 63..69, 73..79, 83..89, 93..99
    H                                             100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900
     I                                                                           1000 onwards

                                For each of these groups, we want to consider the following:
           How do you construct the number – ordinal and cardinal?
           What is the grammatical gender of the number?
           What is the grammatical case of the number?
           What is the grammatical case of the counted word (by counted word we mean,
            for example, ‗men‘ in the phrase ‘22 men‘)?
           Is the counted word going to be singular or plural?
    Constructing the Numbers
     Below are tables describing how we construct the different numbers mentioned. Both
         cardinals (one, two, three) are included, as well as ordinals (first, second, third).

           ) ٍٗ٪Note that we can make any of the ones place numbers (as well as the word
      ). The only exception is that ‫ ز‬of femininity (suffix ‫ضحء‬feminine simply by adding the
                                                                       ‫ج‬
        . Therefore, only the masculine forms have been shown.ٜ‫ ِقْى‬has feminine form ‫جقى‬

       The charts below are quite dense. To ease the learning process, familiarize yourself
      with this chart below which aims to introduce the core vocabulary of numbers. Most
                                  other numbers are simply manipulations of these words.

        10               9        8           7          6          5           4         3
        ٗ
       ٍَ َ٪          ٩ِْٓ‫ض‬    ٔ ‫غ‬
                              ِٟ ‫َّح‬      ٩ْ‫َْر‬        ‫ْص‬
                                                       ّ ِ          َ
                                                                 ّّْ‫ن‬        ‫َ ـ‬
                                                                            ٩َ‫جٌْذ‬         ‫غ‬
                                                                                       ‫َّالظ‬

                                                               2                1           A
                                                        Use dual     Use singular    Cardinal

                                                             ٟٔ‫غح‬           ‫ٚجقِى‬     Ordinal


        10          9     8             7    6     5                    4     3             B
       ْٗ
     ٍَ َ٪                 ‫غ‬
                 ٩ِْٓ‫َّحٟٔ ض‬        ٩ْ‫نّّْ ِ ّ َْر‬
                                          ‫ْص‬       َ                 ‫َ ذ‬       ‫غ‬
                                                                    ٩َ ٌْ‫َّالظ أ‬     Cardinal
      ٖ
     ٍِ ‫٪ح‬       ْ
                ٩ِ ‫غحِِٓ ضح‬         ‫ذ‬
                                   ٩ِ ‫نح ِّ ْح ِِ ْح‬
                                           ‫و‬    ِ                    ‫ذ‬       ٌ
                                                                    ٩ِ ‫غحِع ٌج‬        Ordinal


        19     18        17     16   15              14        13 12 11                  C, D
     َ ّْ‫ض‬
     ٨ ِ       ٔ ‫غ‬
             ِٟ ‫َّح‬     ٩
                        َ ْ‫نّ َ ِ َ َْر‬
                                ‫َ ّْ ْص‬            َ َ ٌْ‫أ‬
                                                   ٩‫َ ذ‬      َ ‫َقَ َ جِغْٕح َّال‬
                                                             ‫غ ظ‬            ‫ج ى‬      Cardinal
    ٍَ
    َ َٗ٪    َ َٗ٪
             ٍَ        َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪
                       ٍَ      ٍَ   ٍَ            َ َٗ٪
                                                  ٍَ         ٍَ     ٍَ     ٍَ
                                                             َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪
        ْ
    ٩ِ ‫ضح‬     ِِٓ‫غح‬      ‫ذ‬      ‫و‬
                       ٩ِ ‫نح ِّ ْح ِِ ْح‬
                                     ِ               ‫ذ‬
                                                   ٩ِ ‫ٌج‬        ٌ
                                                              ‫قحوٞ غحٟٔ غحِع‬          Ordinal
    ٍَ
    َ َٗ٪    ٍَ
             َ َٗ٪     َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪
                       ٍَ      ٍَ   ٍَ            َ َٗ٪
                                                  ٍَ         ٍَ     ٍَ     ٍَ
                                                             َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪ َ َٗ٪
   90       80      70 60             50      40       30         20                       E
                                                                                     Cardinal
ْ        ْ ‫ْ غ‬            ْ ‫ْ غ ْ َ ذ ْ َ ْ ط‬
َ ٛ٫ِْٓ‫٪ٍِْٗٚ َ َّالغٛ َ أٌْ َ٫ٛ َ نّْٓٛ َ ِْ ّٛ َ َْرْ٫ٛ َ َّحٔٛ َ ض‬                 Ordinal

               ...             23             22                21                       F, G
                   ْ               ْ                ْ
               ... َ ٍِْٚٗ٪ٚ ‫ٚجقِى ٚ٪ٍِْٗٚ َ ئغْٕحْ ٚ٪ٍِْٗٚ َ غّالظ‬                  Cardinal
               ...                                            ٞ‫قحو‬
                    ْ           ٌ ْ
                    َ ٍِْٚٗ٪ٚ ‫غحٟٔ ٚ٪ٍِْٗٚ َ غحِع‬                                     Ordinal
                                                          َ ٌٚ ٪ٚ
                                                          ْ ِْٕ
 900            800         700 600                  500            400          300 200 100                      H
 ّ
‫ضِْٓ٫ ِح‬       ّ ‫غ‬
              ‫َّحٔ١ ِح‬      ّ        ّّ
                           ‫ِْط ِح َْرْ٫ ِح‬        ‫نّْٓ ِح‬
                                                   ّ َ             ّ‫َ ذ‬
                                                                  ‫جٌْ َ٫ ِح‬     ‫غ ـ‬
                                                                               ‫َّالغِّح‬                     Cardinal
     ‫تس‬             ‫تس‬           ‫تس‬     ‫تس‬              ‫تس‬               ‫تس‬         ‫تس‬
                                                                                        ِ ‫ِحتس ِح َطح‬
                                                                                        ْ ‫ِت‬        ِ
    ْ
  ٩ِ ‫ضح‬          ِِٓ‫غح‬         ‫ذ‬     ‫و‬
                             ٩ِ ‫ْح ِِ ْح‬          ِّ ‫نح‬
                                                      ِ               ‫ذ‬
                                                                     ٩ِ ‫ٌج‬          ٌ
                                                                                 ‫غحِع‬                       Ordinal
      ِ
   ‫ِحتس‬          ‫ِحتس‬ِ        ‫ِحتس‬ِ ‫ِحتس‬ ِ               ِ
                                                      ‫ِحتس‬           ‫ِحتس‬ ِ       ‫ِحتس‬ِ
                                      100,000 ... 3,000 2,000 1,000                                     I
                                                        ‫غ‬
                                                    ‫َّالظ‬
                                                ...                                             Cardinal
                                                    ‫آالف‬
                                              ِ
                                      ‫ِحتس آالف‬           ِ ‫ٌَْفح‬
                                                          ْ ‫ج‬        ‫ج‬
                                                                  ‫ٌَْف‬
                                                      ٌ
                                                    ‫غحِع‬
                                                ...                                              Ordinal
                                                    ‫آالف‬

                                                                                              Examples

               a floor                      ‫٢حذك‬          1st floor                       ‫جٌ٣حذك جٌٛجقى‬
              2 floors                     ْ‫٢حذمح‬            nd
                                                         2 floor                           ٟٔ‫جٌ٣حذك جٌػح‬
               5 tests           ‫نّٓس جِطكحٔحش‬               5th test                  ِّ‫جالِطكحْ جٌهح‬
           11 pictures       ‫جقىٜ ٪ٍٗز ٌٚٛز‬           11th picture               ‫جٌٌٛٛز جٌكحو٠س ٪ٍٗز‬
            18 arrows          ‫غّحٔ١س ٪ٍٗ ّْٙح‬         18th arrow                     ٍٗ٪ ِٓ‫جٌُٓٙ جٌػح‬
           60 buckets                          ‫ط‬
                                       ‫ّْْٛ وٌٛج‬       60th bucket                          ْٛ‫جٌىٌٛ جٌٓط‬
             31 cities      ‫ٚجقىز ٚغّالغْٛ ِى٠ٕس‬          31st city            ْٛ‫جٌّى٠ٕس جٌكحو٠س ٚجٌػّالغ‬
           29 regions       ‫ضٓ٩ ٚ٪ٍْٗٚ ِٕ٣مس‬           29th region            ٍْٚٗ٫ٌ‫جٌّٕ٣مس جٌطحْ٫س ٚج‬
                  300                                          300th
              soldiers          ٞ
                                ّ ٍ‫غّالغّحتس ٪ٓى‬             soldier              ‫جٌ٫ٓىٍٞ جٌػحٌع ِحتس‬
                            ٍٗ٪ ‫جٌذ٫ّحتس ٚغّالغس‬
           413 thieves                                 413th thief      ٍٗ٪ ‫جٌٍٙ جٌٍجذ٩ ِحتس ٚجٌػحٌع‬
                                             ‫ٌٛح‬
            5year 198
                              ‫ْٕس جٌف ٚضٓ٫ّحتس‬        1,985th year
                                                                              ‫جٌٕٓس جالٌف ٚجٌطحْ٫س ِحتس‬
                                  ٓ١ٔ‫ٚنّّ ٚغّح‬                                      ْٛٔ‫ٚجٌهحِٓس ٚجٌػّح‬


           Grammatical Gender of the Numbers
           The table below explains what the gender of a cardinal number will be given the word
             being counted. The ordinals have not been included because, in most cases, they act
            ً‫جٌٍؾ‬as adjectives for the counted word. So they will match in gender. For example,
                                                                             .‫ جٌٍّأز جٌػحٌػس‬and ‫جٌػحٌع‬
 To facilitate the understanding of these rules, let‘s consider a rule of thumb: Consider
 the gender of the singular form of the word being counted. When the ones place is 1
  or 2, the ones place will match that singular in gender. And when the ones place is a
                                             number between 3 and 9, it will mismatch.

Group            Numbers                         Gender of Cardinals                         Example
        A                   1, 2   There is no number, the counted word is
                                   used either as singular or dual as needed
                                                                                        ْ‫ٌت١ّ، ٌت١ٓح‬
                                                                                          ْ‫ٍِأز، ٍِأضح‬
         B               3..10          Ones place: gender opposite of the
                                                            counted word
                                                                               ‫(جِطكحْ )غّالغس‬sing.
                                                                                               ‫جِطكحٔحش‬
                                                                               ‫(ِرحٌجز)غّالظ‬sing.
                                                                                                ‫ِرحٌ٠حش‬
         C              11, 12     Ones place: gender same as the counted
                                                                    word
                                                                                          ‫جقى ٪ٍٗ ذٍىج‬
                                   Tens place: gender same as the counted            ‫ئقىٜ ٪ٍٗز ٚال٠س‬
                                                                    word
        D               13..19         Ones place: gender opposite of the
                                                            counted word
                                                                                    ‫أٌذ٫س ٪ٍٗ ْر١ّال‬
                                   Tens place: gender same as the counted          ‫أٌذ٩ ٪ٍٗز ِ٫ؿُز‬
                                                                    word
         E     20, 30, 40, 50,
                            ...
                                            Tens place: always masculine
                                                                                      ‫نّْٓٛ ٚك١فح‬
                                                                                        ‫نّْٓٛ ٌٚلس‬
         F     21, 22, 31, 32,
                            ...
                                   Ones place: gender same as the counted
                                                                      word
                                                                                 ‫جغٕحْ ْٚطْٛ ٍِجذ٣ح‬
                                             Tens place: always masculine        ‫جغٕطحْ ْٚطْٛ َٚؾس‬
        G      23..29, 33..39,
                            ...
                                       Ones place: gender opposite of the
                                                             counted word
                                                                                  ‫ْر٫س ْٚر٫ْٛ ٌوٕح‬
                                             Tens place: always masculine         ‫ْر٩ ْٚر٫ْٛ ٚىلس‬
        H      100, 200, 300,
                           ...
                                   Hundreds place: always masculine since
                                                   is feminine‫ِحتس‬the word
                                                                                     ‫غّحٔ١ّحتس ٚنّٓس‬
                                          is always feminine‫ِحتس‬The word                 ‫ٚ٪ٍْٗٚ ذ١طح‬
                                                                                     ّّ‫غّحٔ١ّحتس ٚن‬
                                                                                        ٌ‫ٚ٪ٍْٗٚ وج‬
         I     1000, 2000, ...     Thousands place: always feminine since
                                                 is masculine‫جٌف‬the word
                                                                                      ‫ّال‬
                                                                                     ‫ضٓ٫س آالف ؾ ّو‬
                                         is always masculine‫جٌف‬The word               ‫ضٓ٫س آالف ٍ٘ز‬

     Exercise: translate the following phrases into Arabic. The translations of the counted
      words have been provided. Where you see two words, you must use the underlined
                              plural; the singular is there to help you figure out the gender.

a.     dog (            )
b.    7 kittens (‫)ٍ٘٠ٍز، ٍ٘٠ٍجش‬
c.    10 masc. students (‫)٢حٌد، ٢ّالخ‬
d.    11 mice (‫)فأٌز‬
e.    12 masc. classmates (ً١َِ)
f.    14 windows (‫)ٖرحن‬
g.    18 caravans (‫)لحفٍس‬
h.   32 dates (‫)ضٍّز‬
i.   51 journalists (ْٛ١‫)ٚكحف‬
j.   96 frogs (٨‫)ٞفى‬
k.   99 nicknames (‫)وٕ١س‬
l.   307 stars (َٛ‫)ٔؿُ، ٔؿ‬
m.   411 telephones (‫)٘حضف‬
n.   789 beds (‫)ٍْ٠ٍز‬
o.                    ‫ف‬
     1,718 apples (‫)ض ّحـ‬
p.                        ٌ
     36,036 peaches (‫)و ّجق‬


Grammatical Case of the Numbers & the Counted Words
The table below summarizes what grammatical case both the number and the counted
word take.

Group Numbers                Case of Number             Case of Word                Example
A          1, 2                                         Determined by its
                             There is no number                                     ٓ‫ٌأ٠ص ٌؾٍ١ـ‬
                                                        position in the sentence

B          3..10                                        The number and word
                             Determined by its                                           ِ
                                                                                         ‫ٌ٫د فٟ غّالغس‬
                                                        form ‫ ,جٞحفس‬so it will be
                             position in the sentence                               َ ٠‫ِ١حو‬
                                                                                    ٓ
                                                        genitive
           11, 12
C                            Both parts are

                             indeclinable; final
D
           13..19                                                                       ‫َ ح‬        ‫ظ‬
                                                                                        ً ٕ١٪ ‫غّال َ ٪ٍٗز‬
                             letters take the ‫فطكس‬
                             vowel in all cases
           20, 30, 40, 50,                              The number and word
E          ...
                                                        form ُ١ّ‫ ,ض‬so it will be

           21, 22, 31, 32,                              accusative
F          ...               Determined by its                                                ً
                                                                                              ‫نً غّالغح‬
                             position in the sentence                               ‫ج‬       ‫ٚأٌخ‬
                                                                                    ًٌ‫٪١ـٓ وج‬
           23..29, 33..39,
G          ...


           100, 200, 300,
H          ...               The number‘s case is       The number and word
                                                                                          ِ ‫غ‬
                                                                                          ‫أٚل٥ غّال ُّحتس‬
                             determined by its          form ‫ ,جٞحفس‬so it will be
I
           1000, 2000, ...                                                          ٍ ‫جٌف ٔحت‬
                                                                                    ُ ِ
                             position                   genitive


It is important to note that, when you have a complicated number like 1234, those
numbers that form ‫ جٞحفس‬or ُ١ّ‫ ض‬will do so with the words that follow them, whether
those words are the thing being counted or other numbers.

                 ُ ‫ف‬             ‫غ‬
For example, in ―ٍ ‫ ِحتس ,‖أٚل٥ غّال ُّحتسِ جٌ ِ ٔحت‬forms ‫ جٞحفس‬with ‫.جٌف‬
Exercise: correctly inflect the underlined words in the following sentences:
    a.

    b.   ٟ‫أُٔي جهلل ِحتس جٌف ٚأٌذ٫س ٚ٪ٍْٗٚ جٌف ٔر‬

Plurality of the Counted Words
The final task is to understand whether the word following the number will be
singular or plural. This is a relatively simple topic summarized in the table below.

Group Numbers               Plurality of Word      Example
A         1, 2              single or dual         ْ‫غ٫ٍد، غ٫ٍرح‬
B         3..10             plural                 ‫د‬
                                                   َ ٌ‫نّٓس غ٫ح‬
          11, 12
C
                                                   ‫َ ح‬        ‫ى‬
                                                   ً ‫جق َ ٪ٍٗ غ٫ٍر‬
          13..19
D
                                                   ً ‫نّٓ َ ٪ٍٗ غ٫ٍر‬
                                                   ‫َ ح‬        ‫س‬
          20, 30, 40, 50,
E         ...
                                                   ً ‫نّْٓٛ غ٫ٍر‬
                                                   ‫ح‬
          21, 22, 31, 32,
F         ...
                            single
                                                   ً ‫ٚجقى ٚنّْٓٛ غ٫ٍر‬
                                                   ‫ح‬
          23..29, 33..39,
G         ...
                                                   ً ‫نّٓس ٚنّْٓٛ غ٫ٍر‬
                                                   ‫ح‬
          100, 200, 300,
H         ...
                                                   ٍ ٍ٫‫نّّٓحتس غ‬
                                                   ‫ِ د‬

I
          1000, 2000, ...
                                                   ‫ِ د‬
                                                   ٍ ٍ٫‫نّٓس آالف غ‬

Exercise: correct the following phrases in terms of gender and grammatical case, as
necessary:
    a.

    b.   ‫ح‬      ‫ز‬
         ً ٌّ٘‫جغٕطح ٪ٍٗ َ و‬
    c.   ‫ِ خ‬         ‫س‬
         ٍ ‫ضٓ٫ َ ٪ٍٗز وطح‬
    d.   ‫ز‬
         ٍ ‫نّٓٛ لٟح‬
    e.   ٍ ‫غّالغ ُ ِحتس ٚئقىٜ ٚضٓ٫١ٓ ٢حٚال‬
         ‫ش‬                    ٍ ‫س‬
Extend your Knowledge

Numerals
The numerals associated with the numbers are summarized in the following chart:

                         Number        Numeral
                         ٍ‫ٚف‬           ٓ           0
                         ‫ٚجقى‬          ٔ           1
                         ْ‫جغٕح‬         ٕ           2
                         ‫غّالغس‬        ٖ           3
                         ‫أٌذ٫س‬         ٗ           4
                         ‫نّٓس‬          ٘           5
                         ‫ْطس‬           ٙ           6
                         ‫ْر٫س‬          ٧           7
                         ‫غّحٔ١س‬        ۸           8
                         ‫ضٓ٫س‬          ۹           9

Fractions
In Arabic, we use the word ‫ ٔٛف‬to indicate one half. In order to indicate fractions
with a numerator of 1 but denominators larger than 2, we place the cardinal numbers
        ٫‫ف‬
on the ًُ ُ pattern. The table below makes this clearer.

                                           ...    1/5         1/4             1/3     1/2
                                           ...     ّ‫ن‬
                                                  ُّ ُ        ٩ُ ُ
                                                               ‫ٌذ‬             ‫ُُع‬
                                                                               ٍ‫غ‬        ٔ
                                                                                      ‫ِْٛف‬
In order to change the numerator, we use the rules of numbers we‘ve just learned,
using the denominator as the counted word. In essence, what we are saying is ‗three
one-quarters,‘ for example. Below are a few examples.

               3/4          3/3         3/2         2/4              2/3            2/2
                    ‫غ‬
               ‫َّالغس‬            ‫غ‬
                            ‫َّالغس‬           ‫غ‬
                                        ‫َّالغس‬
                                                    ْ ‫ٌذ‬
                                                    ِ ‫ُ ُ٫ح‬          ِ ‫ُُػح‬
                                                                     ْ ٍ‫غ‬           ِ ‫ِْٛفح‬
                                                                                    ْ ٔ
               ٨ ‫أ‬
               ٍ ‫ٌَْذح‬      ‫أ ظ‬
                            ٍ ‫َغّْال‬    ٍ ‫أْٔٛح‬
                                        ‫ف‬




Types of
What is This Tutorial About?
There are approximately ten types of in the Arabic language. That is to say, these are ten
homonyms. Some of these are nouns while others are particles, and their meanings and
functions can be vastly different. Therefore, being able to recognize which is which is an
essential skill for grammar and comprehension, the lack of which can lead to major errors in
reading and comprehension.


This tutorial discusses each type of with respect to its meanings and provides some helpful
clues on how it will be used in sentences.


The Types of
Interrogative –
This is a noun which is used to ask a question and it is typically translated as “what ...?” For
example, we may ask “what is wrong with you?” Consider the example below.


What is wrong with you that you do not fight
in the way of God?


It will be the very first word in the sentence unless it is preceded by a particle such as “and”
or the like. Consider the example below.


And what is wrong with me that I do not
worship the one who created me?


We usually find this before nominal sentences, but it may come before a verb. Often in
this situation, the acts as the direct object of the verb, as in the following example.


What will you worship after me?

And often the word comes between and the verb, in which case the is the subject of
the nominal sentence. Consider the following.


What is it that God intends with this as an
example?
A final point to note is that this particular will lose its aleph when in the genitive case. This
applies to both being preceded by a genitival particle as well as being in a possessive
structure. Consider the following.
Regarding what do they question each
other?


Pronominal –
This is a relative pronoun (a type of noun) used for inanimate objects. Consequently, it is
translated as “that which”, or simply “that/what/which”. This is a very popular usage of the
word. Consider the following.


Follow that which has been revealed to you.



Often there will be a pronoun in the relative clause that refers back to this . This will
indicate that this word is in its pronominal function. However, even if the pronoun has been
dropped, the context is almost always clear and sufficient to deduce which      is being used.
In the example above, we would never employ the translation “follow.... what has been
revealed to you?” This is quite clear from the context.


Negative –
This is a particle used to negate the perfect (past tense) verb. It almost invariably comes
before such verbs; consider the following.


They would not have added to you
(anything) except disorder.


Although this is almost always followed by a past tense verb, it does not mean that every
followed by such a verb is negative; it may be pronominal, for example, as in the following
example.


Then for them is two thirds of what he has
left.
Finally, this is sometimes followed by an imperfect verb. This has minor rhetorical
considerations and is somewhat rare. An example follows.


Say: I do not ask you for a reward for it.



The one that Resembles        –
This , too, is negative. The difference is that this one enters upon a nominal sentence, not a
past tense verb. It acts like      in both meaning as well as in the fact that it leaves the subject
of the sentence nominative and it renders the predicate accusative.


Although this is relatively scarce, the accusative predicate can be used as a clue to
determine that it is this . Consider the following.


This is not a man.



Like    , if the predicate is a single word or a short phrase, an extra    comes before it in
order to emphasize the negation. Consider the example below.


I am not at all responsible for you.



And many a time we find the subject preceded by           also for the purposes of emphasizing
the negation. In such a situation, the predicate is often omitted. See the following example.


There is absolutely no creature (in existence)
except that He has a hold on its forehead.


Adverbial –
This is widely considered to be a particle and it gives the meaning of “as long as”. It comes
before both perfect and imperfect verbs, and specifically, it is popularly brought before an
imperfect verb with . But this does not mean that every in this position will be                .


If you divorce women so long as you have
not touched them


And it is also popularly brought before the verb       , in which case the is both       and
       . Consider the following.


And He enjoined prayer and charity on me so
long as I am alive.


Gerundival –
Much like the particle , this renders the following perfect or imperfect verb into the
gerund meaning. And it is a particle just like . Below is an example of its usage.


And the land became constricted upon you
despite it being vast.


It is quite often seen after locative nouns such as    ,   ,   ,    , and others. Below is an
example.


So whoever changes it after having heard it



And, in this capacity, it does not necessarily have to be followed by a verb. Below is an
example where it is followed by a nominal sentence.


While I was walking



Indefinite Adjectival –
This connects with the indefinite word prior to it, becoming an adjective for it, and
exaggerates the indefiniteness. It is a noun. For example, compare “meet me at some time”
and “meet me at any time at all.” The Arabic equivalent is below.


Meet me at any time at all.



Indefinite Complete –
This is a noun and it is used in the place of the word         (thing) or something similarly
abstract. It is used in very particular situations, one of which is after the verb   . In the
example below, the that connects to the verb          could have been replaced by the abstract
word “thing”:


What a great thing the Arabic language is!



Another instance, and perhaps the only other one, is the use of this before a verb of
astonishment (            ). In the example below, the is in the place of the abstract word
“person”. The deeper translation of the example would be “what person (or even thing) is
greater than Zaid?!”


How great Zaid is!



Preventative –
This comes after the                    . It is a particle and it stops these     from carrying
out their typical grammatical influence. In the case of     especially, even the meaning is
altered from “indeed” to that of restriction. Below is an example.


Say: I am only a man like yourselves.



Extra –
This is the that comes extra and it is considered a particle. It typically comes extra before
particles and nouns of condition, as well as after genitival particles. An example of the first
as follows.


And the witnesses should not refuse when
they are called upon.


And an example of the second is seen below. In some cases, the          coming after a genitival
particle has no effect, yet sometimes it stops the particle from rendering the following word
genitive. In the example below, the does not stop the effect of the particle.


So it is due to a mercy from God that you
were lenient towards them.


Summary



Term                      Function
                          used to ask a question

                          introduces a relative clause

                          negates the past tense verb
                        resembles      in meaning and function

                        “as long as”

                        turns the following verb/sentence into a gerund

                        emphasizes the negation of a preceding noun

                        in place of the word “thing”

                        comes after the particles that resemble verbs

                        extra




Exercises
Identify all the instances of from the following sentences and describe the function of each
one.


   a.

   b.

   c.

   d.

   e.

   f.

   g.

   h.

   i.

   j.
Arabic Vocabulary

Time
Intervals of Time
English            Arabic Singular               Arabic Plural
Second

Minute

Hour

Day

Week

Month


Year


Decade

Century




Times of Day

          Arabic                English
                                before dawn

                                dawn, twilight

                                sunrise time

                                early morning

                                mid-morning, before noon

                                morning

                                morning (dawn to noon)

                                noon

                                noon, forenoon

                                afternoon

                                late afternoon

                                sunset time

                                dusk, twilight
                   evening, nightfall

                   day (morning to night)

                   night (night to morning)




Days of the Week

       Arabic      English
                   Sunday

                   Monday

                   Tuesday

                   Wednesday

                   Thursday

                   Friday

                   Saturday




Relative Times

       Arabic      English
                   Previous

                   Previous / Preceding

                   Next

                   Upcoming

                   Following / Subsequent

                   Now

                   Yesterday

                   Today

                   Tomorrow

                   Past
                         Present

                         Future




Body Parts
Body Parts
English      Arabic Singular       Arabic Plural
Head

Hair

Forehead

Forelock

Brain

Ear

Eyebrow




Eye




Eyelid

Eyelash

Nose

Nostril


Cheek


Moustache

Mouth
Lip

Tooth

Tongue

Jaw

Beard

Throat

Neck

Shoulder

Wing

Chest / Breast

Heart

Lung


Stomach


Liver

Back

Arm

Armpit

Elbow

Wrist

Hand

Finger

Joint / Knuckle
Fingertip / Parts between
the knuckles
Buttock

Thigh

Knee
Shin / Shank

Leg

Ankle

Foot

Heel

Nail

Skin

Bone

Blood

Vein

Nerve (also vein, artery)

Body




Numbers
One

Arabic                      English
                            to return; regress
                            first; foremost

                            (superlative: what you arrive at after doing the most
                            returning)
                            firstly, at the outset

                            since the beginning / inception of ...

                            at the beginning of... (some timeframe)

                            during the first ten days of a month

                            day before yesterday
         first come first serve

         One

         Individually

         singularity, oneness

         alone; lonely
         declaring the oneness of God; consolidation;
         standardization
         Unity

         united (as in U.N., U.S.A, U.A.E, etc)

         Sunday



Two

Arabic   English
         to bend; among other meanings
         two (when one thing bends towards another to the point
         where they become paired)
         Second

         second (as in time)

         Dualism

         by twos; two at a time

         dual; binary

         duo (usually musical)

         secondary (as in secondary school)

         Dual

         Monday



Three

Arabic   English
         Three
         Third

         one third

         by threes; three at a time

         Tertiary

         Trinary

         Trinity

         Triangle

         Trigonometric

         Tuesday



Four

Arabic   English
         Four

         Fourth

         Quarter

         Spring

         sitting cross-legged

         by fours; four at a time
         (as an adjective)
         quadruple; tetragonal; quartet; quatrain (poetry)
         Quadratic
         square (rectangle =          ); quadrilateral

         Quadrant

         Wednesday



Five

Arabic   English
         Five

         Fifth
         one fifth
         (as an adjective)

         five-fold; five at a time; quintuple; quintet; pentagonal;
         pentahedral
         Pentagon

         Thursday



Six

Arabic   English
         Six

         Sixth

         one sixth
         (as an adjective)

         six-fold; six at a time; hex-triple; sextet; hexagonal;
         hexahedral
         Hexagon



Seven

Arabic   English
         Seven

         Seventh

         one seventh
         (as an adjective)

         seven-fold; seven at a time; sextuple; sextuplet;
         heptahedral
         Heptagon

         Week

         Weekly



Eight
Arabic   English
         Eight

         Eighth

         one eighth
         (as an adjective)

         eight-fold; eight at a time; etc
         Octagon



Nine

Arabic   English
         Nine

         Ninth

         one ninth



Ten

Arabic   English
         ten

         tenth

         one tenth; one twentieth

         decimal (as opposed to binary)

         animals (esp. camels) ten months pregnant

         the tenth part of something

         the tenth of Muharram



Zero
Arabic   English
         to be vacant/empty

         zero
Common Verbs
Common Verbs from the Basic Paradigms
The following is a list of approximately 200 of the most commonly used verbs. They
are all restricted to the 3-lettered basic paradigms. The words are divided into groups
of twenty, after each of which is a short translation exercise designed to activate the
new vocabulary. To complete the exercises, you may use any resource. A dictionary
will be most helpful in determining which particles will follow a particular verb as
well as the different shades of meaning of each verb.

This vocabulary list is not meant to be gone through all at once. Readers are strongly
encouraged to pace themselves. The recommended time frame for completing this
tutorial is between one and three months. Do one section at a time and allow time for
the vocabulary to sink in.



Arabic                                       English
                                             to come

                                             to take

                                             to eat

                                             to command

                                             to (re)search

                                             to begin

                                             to replace

                                             to emerge

                                             to spread (something)

                                             to dispatch

                                             to remain

                                             to cry

                                             to reach

                                             to build

                                             to become clear

                                             to follow
Common Verbs
Common Verbs from the Basic Paradigms
The following is a list of approximately 200 of the most commonly used verbs. They
are all restricted to the 3-lettered basic paradigms. The words are divided into groups
of twenty, after each of which is a short translation exercise designed to activate the
new vocabulary. To complete the exercises, you may use any resource. A dictionary
will be most helpful in determining which particles will follow a particular verb as
well as the different shades of meaning of each verb.

This vocabulary list is not meant to be gone through all at once. Readers are strongly
encouraged to pace themselves. The recommended time frame for completing this
tutorial is between one and three months. Do one section at a time and allow time for
the vocabulary to sink in.


Arabic                                       English
                                             to come

                                             to take

                                             to eat

                                             to command

                                             to (re)search

                                             to begin

                                             to replace

                                             to emerge

                                             to spread (something)

                                             to dispatch

                                             to remain

                                             to cry

                                             to reach

                                             to build
to become clear

to follow

								
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