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Introduction to Cellular Manufacturing

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Introduction to Cellular Manufacturing Powered By Docstoc
					Engineering
Management
                           MSE507
                 Lean Manufacturing



   Cellular Manufacturing
One Piece Flow for Workteams

           Chapter 3
  Basic Elements of Cell Design
                                                   Chapter 3 Overview
   Phase 1 – Understanding the Current Conditions
    •   Collect Product and Production Data
    •   Document Current Layout and Flow
    •   Time the Process
    •   Calculate Process Capacity and Takt Time
    •   Create Standard Work Combination Sheets
   Phase 2 – Converting to a Process-Based Layout
    •   Evaluate the Options
    •   Plan Possible New Layouts
    •   Move the Machines
    •   Document the New Operating Procedures
    •   Test to Confirm Improvement
   Phase 3 – Continuously Improving the Process
    •   Shorten Cycle Times
    •   Shorten Changeover Times
    •   Eliminate Product Defects
    •   Reduce Equipment Failures
   Summary
                    Converting Work Area into A
                             Manufacturing Cell


 Understanding the current conditions

 Converting to a process-based layout

 Continuously improving the process
                     Phase 1: Understanding the Current
                                             Conditions
  Helps the conversion team determine what process to
  convert, and a base line to measure improvement.
 Collect Product Data and Production Data
    • Product mix (momentum parts)
    • Production resources (shifts, hours, employees, volume)
   Document Current Layout and Flow
    • Process Route Analysis
    • Process Mapping
    • Time The Process
 Calculate Process Capacity and Takt Time
 Create Standard Work Combination Sheet
                Phase 2: Converting to a Process-Based
                                                 Layout
   Collect Product Data and Production Data
    •   Evaluate the Options
    •   Methods
    •   Machines
    •   Materials
    •   People
   Plan Possible New Layouts
    •   Layout in the process steps is the basic principle
    •   Machines placed close together
    •   U or C shape
    •   Often Counterclockwise (R/H next to machine)
 Move the Machines
 Document the New Operating Procedures
 Test to Confirm Improvement
                       Phase 3: Continuously Improving the
                                                  Process
   Rearranging the layout into a manufacturing cell is not really an
    end point - it is the beginning of continuous improvement
   Look for problems that keeps the process from flowing:
    •   Long cycle times
    •   Product defects
    •   Long changeover times
    •   Equipment failures
   Shorten Cycle Times
   Shorten Changeover Times
    •   Separate Internal and External Setup
    •   Convert Internal Setup to External Setup
    •   Streamline All Aspects of Setup
   Eliminate Product Defects
    •   Mistake proofing/Zero Quality Control (ZQC)
   Reduce Equipment Failure
                                                             Quiz 1
                                              Circle the best answer

1. The conversion from an operation-based factory layout to
   cell manufacturing has the following three basic phases:
   A. Understanding current conditions, converting to process-based
      layout, and continuously improving
   B. Understanding current conditions, converting to operation-based
      layout, and continuously improving
   C. Learning from the past, keeping tribal knowledge, and resisting
      change
   D. Understanding future goals, converting to process steps, and
      documenting them
2. Phase 1 is used to:
   A.   Convince management to spend more money for improvements
   B.   Reduce resources needed to perform the work
   C.   Give a baseline for measuring improvement
   D.   Collect data so people can stay busy
                                                                Quiz 2
                                                  Circle the best answer
3. Phase 2 is used to:
   A.   Evaluate ways to improve methods, machines, materials, and people.
   B.   Time the process steps of one cycle of each machine
   C.   Measure distances travelled to perform the work
   D.   Interview the employees to understand their problems


4. One of the actions taken in phase 3 is:
   A. Shorten cycle times
   B. Reduce headcount of employees needed
   C. Creation of Standard Work Combination Sheet for each operation in
      the process
   D. Creation of control charts to track attendance and performance
                                                     Summary

   Phase 1 – Understanding the Current Conditions
    •   Collect Product and Production Data
    •   Document Current Layout and Flow
    •   Time the Process
    •   Calculate Process Capacity and Takt Time
    •   Create Standard Work Combination Sheets
   Phase 2 – Converting to a Process-Based Layout
    •   Evaluate the Options
    •   Plan Possible New Layouts
    •   Move the Machines
    •   Document the New Operating Procedures
    •   Test to Confirm Improvement
   Phase 3 – Continuously Improving the Process
    •   Shorten Cycle Times
    •   Shorten Changeover Times
    •   Eliminate Product Defects
    •   Reduce Equipment Failures
Questions? Comments?
    Engineering
    Management
                               MSE507
                     Lean Manufacturing



      Cellular Manufacturing
   One Piece Flow for Workteams

               Chapter 4
Teamwork Tools for Cellular Manufacturing
                                 Chapter 4 Overview

   Working in Teams
   Standardizing Workplace Conditions through 5S
   Using Visual Management for Production Control
    and Safety
   Performing Autonomous Maintenance Activities
   Using Activity Boards and One-Point Lessons
   Summary
                                         Working in Teams

 Success depends on teamwork
 In a cell, people work together in new ways
 Several operations are combined in a sequence, and the
  main job of the people working in the cell is to maintain a
  smooth flow through the operations
 Work must be coordinated
 A group of employees has more creative potential and
  energy than any person working on a problem alone
                       Standardizing Workplace Conditions
                                              through 5S
 Cellular manufacturing cannot succeed in a workplace that is
  cluttered, disorganized or dirty
 Establishing basic workplace conditions is essential in creating
  a manufacturing cell
 The 5S system is a set of five basic principles that have names
  beginning with S:
    •   Sort
    •   Set in Order
    •   Shine
    •   Standardize
    •   Sustain
                Using Visual Management for Production
                                    Control and Safety
   Visual management is an important support for cellular manufacturing
   Visual management techniques express information in a way that can
    be understood quickly by everyone
   Sharing information through visual tools helps keep production running
    smoothly and safely
   One form of visual management in manufacturing cells is the andon
    system:
     • Individual machines or assembly stations are equipped with call lamps
     • If the machine breaks down or run out of parts, the operator or the
       machine turns on a light to call attention
   Visual location indicators help keep order in the workplace
     • Lines, labels, and signboards
   Visual information can also prevent to make mistakes
     • Color coding
     • Matching color marks
                Performing Autonomous Maintenance
                                         Activities
   Activities carried out by shopfloor teams in cooperation
    with maintenance staff
   Element of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
   Changes old view that operators just run machines and
    maintenance people just fix them
   Operators learn how to clean the equipment daily and how
    to inspect it for trouble signs as they clean
   Learn the equipment and assist with repairs
   Team-based activity: work with maintenance technicians
    and engineer
                       Using Activity Boards and One-point
                                                  Lessons
 Two useful approaches for making information public
 A bulletin board or wall chart
    • Displays information about team activities and the results achieved
    • Chart improvement measures such as quality rate, On Time
      Delivery, First Time Yield, Overtime, Takt Rate, etc.
    • Helps keeping track of issues to follow up in the future
   A one-point lesson
    •   An easy to read poster to teach others about a particular problem
    •   An improvement example, or
    •   Basic knowledge that everyone should have
    •   Kept short and focused on one point
    •   Often illustrated with photos or drawings
                                                              Quiz 1
                                                 Circle the best answer

1. The main job of people working in a cell is to:
   A. Ensure there is always one person resting while others work
   B. Maintain a smooth flow through the operations
   C. Keep the equipment and machines in good shape
   D. Keep producing parts and be busy all the time
2. The 5S system is a set of five basic principles:
   A. Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Stabilize, Sustain
   B. Sort, Set in Order, Self-Control, Stabilize, Sustain
   C. Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain
   D. Sort, Set in Order, Simulate, Standardize, Sustain
                                                                 Quiz 2
                                                   Circle the best answer
3. Visual management techniques express information in a way
   that can be:
   A.   Understood quickly by management
   B.   Understood quickly by customers
   C.   Can be understood quickly by everyone
   D.   Can be understood quickly by only the cell employees


4. Autonomous maintenance refers to shop floor team activities:
   A.   To help stabilize basic equipment conditions and spot problems
   B.   To help the maintenance crew when one of them is sick
   C.   To control what is done on the machines they have in the cell
   D.   To give autonomy to the maintenance of each machine
                                           Summary

   Working in Teams
   Standardizing Workplace Conditions through 5S
   Using Visual Management for Production Control
    and Safety
   Performing Autonomous Maintenance Activities
   Using Activity Boards and One-Point Lessons
                  Homework Assignment
1. What did you learn from chapter 3 that stands out as
   particularly useful or interesting?
2. What did you learn from chapter 4 that stands out as
   particularly useful or interesting?

 Finalize Project Presentation & Report
 Complete Research Assignment Peer Review Report
 Start to study for final exam
Questions? Comments?

				
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