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Teaching the Career Decision-Making Process to Secondary Students by dod85868


									Teaching the Career Decision-
Making Process to Secondary
Students and Their Parents

Dr. Ray Davis
State Department of Education
Office of Career and Technology Education
      Job Market Trends

Global Competition      Learning = Earning
No Low Skill jobs       Aging Workforce
No Lifetime Hire        More Women
Diverse Workforce       Language Skills
Portable/Transferable   Continuous Training
 Skills                  Flexibility
Changing Employer       Service/Security
 Base                     Economy
Worker of the Twenty-First

Exceeds at Problem Solving
Possesses Critical Thinking Skills
Works in Teams
Lifelong Learner
Succeeds in Diverse, Global Workplace
Functions with High Levels of Technology
 and Adaptability
To facilitate an informed career
decision, it is important to:
 Begin the career decision-making process early, but
  understand a choice is “tentative”
 focus on identifying career groupings, clusters, or fields
  rather than jobs
 develop sufficient self-awareness and self-understanding
  through assessments and counseling
 initiate a thorough investigation of careers and
  occupational areas through research and practical
 discover the “common ground” between self and the
  career(s) under consideration
 develop a plan that can lead to the chosen career path
The career decision-making
process consists of four steps.
The amount of time that each
step requires will vary from
person to person.
  Step One: Self-Assessment
  and Understanding

A good career choice begins when you
establish your individual career
parameters. This step begins with a
heightened awareness and understanding
of one’s beliefs, interests, work values,
needs, ambitions, lifestyle, and skills.
Questions for the student to
consider include:

 What type of work setting best interests me? (Interests)
 What have I done well and enjoyed in the past? (Skills,
 What components are most important for me to have in
  my work experience- High income? Team environment?
  Creativity? Structure? (Work values)
 What type of worker am I? (Lifestyle, Personality Traits)
 What type of work will I consider to be fulfilling? (Values)
How to Get Started:

A counselor can work with students using:
 Assessments
 Workshops
 Interviews
 Web sites
 Computer-assisted career guidance programs
 Group procedures to assist the student in gather
  information on “self”
The Role of the Counselor
Counseling is the backbone of the career
decision making process. A guidance
counselor enables a student to facilitate
self-knowledge as it relates to the
seemingly “adult task” of career decision-
making and the determination of one’s
“quality of life.”.
Step Two: Understanding of
Careers and World of Work

 “What career best suites me?” This is a
  question that most students ask educators. In
  most situations, there are numerous careers
  that might “fit” the student’s parameters for
  career selection. Effective exploration of
  career fields and job characteristics can help
  the student develop a realistic perspective on a
  career field. Invest time to make a thorough
Questions for the student to
consider include:

 What duties are involved in a career?
 What is the work environment like for jobs in a career?
 What types of careers will allow me to utilize my skills?
 Which careers provide opportunities for creativity,
  teamwork, variety, or other values of mine?
 What types of careers provide opportunities to work with
  people I enjoy being with?
 What opportunities exist for advancement?
How to Get Started:

School media specialists can link a student
with a wide variety of books and web sites.
Computer-assisted career guidance systems
(CAGS), such as SCOIS, can assist a
student in gaining valuable and updated
information on careers both in South Carolina
and the nation. Shadowing and mentoring
programs can match a professional
employed in a career field with a student.
Step Three: Choosing a Career
This step involves synthesizing all accumulated
 information gathered about self in Step One
 with the information on the “world of work” in
 Step Two.

     Knowledge      “Common      Knowledge
      of Self        Ground”     of World
       (Step one)               of Work
                          (Step Two)
The “Common Ground”

An effective choice is made when the
student determines the “common
ground” between self and career(s).
This step usually takes the most
time. A student having trouble
addressing barriers to decision
making should consult the school
guidance counselor.
Questions for the student to
consider include:
 What match exists between the characteristics of this
  career and my personal traits and characteristics?
 Do the “pluses” of this career outweigh the “minuses”?
 Will selection of this career necessitate that I make
  compromises with which I am comfortable? Can I handle
  the stress involved in this career?
 Am I capable of being successful in this career field?
 Can I explain this choice to my family even if it is not the
  career they want for me?
 Does a “perfect fit” between my parameters and the
  career have to exist for me to choose it as an initial
  career selection?
How to Get Started:

These questions are less difficult when a student
works with a school guidance counselor. A
counseling appointment can encourage the student
to discuss options with a counselor who is trained
to facilitate decision-making while minimizing stress
and building a student’s confidence.

Don’t forget the insight a mentor can provide!
Step Four: Establishing a Plan
to Enter the Career

Achieving an initial career goal involves being
aware of academic and career options and
taking steps to secure employment in the
career field. Talking with people currently
employed in the career of choice can assist a
student in determining the best path to take to
get from the point of career decision to
employment in the career.
Questions for the student to
consider include:

 What opportunities exist for me to gain experience in
  this field prior to graduation - internships, co-op jobs,
  service learning, or apprenticeships?
 What employers offer jobs matching my qualifications in
  this career field?
 Will I need to attend a two- or four-year college to
  achieve my goal?
Questions for the student to
consider include continued...

 What additional courses might I need to prepare me for
  entrance into this field? Can clubs and organizations
  help me build other skills?
 What skill improvement is needed to enhance my
  employability - computer skills, language skills,
  motivation, interpersonal skills, or promptness?
 Have I developed the job search skills needed?
How to Get Started:

Take action! Nothing beats work experience!

Time spent in the work environment will allow one
to realistically investigate “the match.” See if the
environment and work “culture” matches the
student’s personality.

Shadowing, internships, volunteering,
apprenticeships, and community service is great.
Getting “From Backpack to
The school guidance office houses
resources that can help a student make a
smooth transition from school to work.
Books, web sites, and workshops on
resume writing, job search, and
interviewing skills can assist a student in
making the transition from classroom to the
   What is the Role of the
  GCDF/School Counselor in
     Career Guidance?

“Data to Information to Action”
  How Do We Teach CD-M to
   Students and Parents?

    Myths                     Realities
K-5: Too Early for     College is Expensive
 Students to Start!      Career Planning
Don’t Rely Solely on   School Should Have
 PCT                     Seamless CG Program
No One Test Works      Use Variety of Tools
CD-M is a Process,     Utilize a Career
 Not a Product           Planner for 6-12
No Technology          “High Tech” Needs
 Replaces Counseling     “High Touch”
Keys to Parental Involvement

 Deliver career information in ordinary language
 Educate them regarding career choices
 Explain career assessments and technology
 Pre-planning activities for parents
 Involve them in student’s self and occupational
  exploration; teach decision-making
 Educate them about the career planner
 Structure parental planning meetings
 Search for alternatives to daytime meetings
 Consider child care for planning meetings
 Focus on parental empowerment
         Keys to Student

 Teach them that change is normal
 Promote student’s positive “self-talk”
 Invest them in career activities that promote
  career development self-efficacy
 Look for “Compulsivity vs. Implusivity” in
  decision making
 “Awareness of one’s self as the doer of a task”
 Reduce “Either/Or Thinking”…dualism
 Keep student focused on self-knowledge
            (Reardon, Lenz, Sampson, and Peterson, 2000)
  How To Improve Student’s

 Help student to avoid over-generalizing from past
 Guard against the student relying too much on
  others’ opinions of the student’s values, interests,
  and skills in relation to a career
 Back off of career decisions during emotional
 Make full use of tools in state-of-the-art-career
 Maximize clarity on student’s values, skills, and

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