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This document provides a brief discussion on - Computer languages and communication technology. Discussion is done in question / answer format. Students can use the contents of this document to prepare their notes for the subject of Computer Science.
Computer Languages and Communication Technology Q1. What do you mean by computer languages? Discuss on various types of computer languages. Computer Languages are also known as programming languages. A Computer Language is an artificial language designed to write and express the sequence of various steps involved in certain computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of human communication. Many programming languages have some form of written specification or rules that are to be followed by a programmer while writing a program using a particular language. These rules are known as SYNTAX. Computer languages can be classified as: .1. Machine Language 2. Assembly language 3. High-level Language 1. Machine Language Machine language (machine code) is a low-level programming language. It is a set of instructions, encoded as strings of binary bits, interpreted directly by a computer's central processing unit. Each different type of central processing unit has its own machine language. For a given machine language, each unique combination of 1's and 0's in an instruction has a unique interpretation, including such operations as arithmetical operations, incrementing a counter, saving data to memory, testing if data has a certain value, and so on. Thus programs written in machine language for one computer will not run on another computer. This language is very close to hardware of the computer system and thus this language is machine dependent. 2. Assembly Language Assembly languages are a type of low-level languages for programming computers, microprocessors, microcontrollers, and other (usually) integrated circuits. They implement a symbolic representation of the numeric machine codes and other constants needed to program a particular CPU architecture. This representation is usually defined by the hardware manufacturer, and is based on abbreviations (called mnemonics) that help the programmer to remember individual instructions, registers, etc. An assembly language family is thus specific to a certain physical (or virtual) computer architecture. A utility program called an assembler is used to translate assembly language statements into the target computer's machine code. The assembler performs a more or less isomorphic translation (a one-to-one mapping) from mnemonic statements into machine instructions and data. 3. High-Level Language High-Level Language in computing, a programming language designed to suit the requirements of the programmer; it is independent of the internal machine code of any particular computer. High- level languages are used to solve problems and are often described as problem-oriented languages - for example, BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL Unlike low-level languages, high-level languages are relatively easy to learn and use because the instructions bear a close resemblance to normal English language, and because the programmer does not require a detailed knowledge of the internal workings of the computer. Each instruction in a high-level language is equivalent to several machine-code instructions. High-level programs are therefore more compact than equivalent low-level programs. However, each high-level instruction must be translated into machine code - by either a compiler or an interpreter program - before it can be executed by a computer. High-level languages are designed to be portable - programs written in a high-level language can be run on any computer that has a compiler or interpreter for that particular language. Features of High Level Languages Most high level languages have similar features. Reserved words Identifiers Data structures Operations on data Input/output operations Control structures File handling Functions and procedures. Q2. What is Software? Also write about its different categories. A software is a set if programs, procedures, and associated documentation related to the effective operation of c computer system. The instructions in the program direct the computer to perform input, process and output operations. The software can be classified into following categories 1. System Software 2. Application Software 3. Utilities 4. Packages 1. System Software System software refers to the files and programs that make up your computer's operating system. System files include libraries of functions, system services, drivers for printers and other hardware, system preferences, and other configuration files. The programs that are part of the system software include assemblers, compilers, file management tools, system utilities, and debuggers. The system software is installed on your computer when you install your operating system. However, system software is not meant to be run by the end user. Since system software runs at the most basic level of your computer, it is called "low-level" software. It generates the user interface and allows the operating system to interact with the hardware. 2. Application Software Application software is a computer program destined to help the user in performing certain type of work. One application software pertains to one specific application. For example - Web browsers, e-mail programs, word processors, games, and utilities are all applications. 3. Utilities Utility programs, commonly referred to as just "utilities," are software programs that add functionality to your computer to and so you to perform better. These include antivirus, backup, disk repair, file management, security, and networking programs. Utilities can also be applications such as screensavers, font and icon tools, and desktop enhancements. 4. Packages A package is a computer application program consisting of one or more individual programs created to perform a particular type of work. A package is bundle of application programs designed to perform on related tasks. For example - the package MS-office contains the individual application programs like MS-Word, MS-PowerPoint, MS-Excel etc. All of these applications get installed together when you install MS-Office and these applications are designed to perform on various office related tasks. Q3. Differentiate between Application software and System software An application, or application program, is a software program that runs on your computer. Web browsers, e-mail programs, word processors, games, and utilities are all applications. The word "application" is used because each program has a specific application for the user. For example, a word processor can help a student create a research paper, while a video game can prevent the student from getting the paper done. In contrast, system software consists of programs that run in the background, enabling applications to run. These programs include assemblers, compilers, file management tools, and the operating system itself. Applications are said to run on top of the system software, since the system software is made of of "low-level" programs. While system software is automatically installed with the operating system, you can choose which applications you want to install and run on your computer Q4. What is Multimedia? As the name implies, multimedia is the integration of multiple forms of media. This includes text, graphics, audio, video, etc. For example, a presentation involving audio and video clips would be considered a "multimedia presentation." Educational software that involves animations, sound, and text is called "multimedia software." Multimedia can be classified in three categories: 1. Entertainment - Games, animation sequences, and realistic sounds etc. 2. Information system - The main purpose of this is to provide information using rich media contents. Example - Encyclopedia on CD-ROM, literature, magazines with audio and video etc. 3. Interactive - It includes software hat enables you to create your own multimedia programs, games, presentation and tools. Q5. What is Animation? Animation Process of giving the illusion of movement to drawings, models, or inanimate objects. Actually it is a series of still drawings that, when viewed in rapid succession, gives the impression of a moving picture. Creating an animated short or full-length feature is a long, tedious process. Extremely labor-intensive, the average short cartoon has approximately 45,000 separate frames Q6. What is Computer Networking? Computer networking is the engineering discipline concerned with the communication between computer systems or devices. A computer network is any set of computers and / or other networking devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering since it relies heavily upon the theoretical and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines. The three types of networks are: the Internet, the intranet, and the extranet Q7. What is a Computer Network? And what are its types? The term 'Computer Network' means an interconnected collection of autonomous computers and other networking devices that are able to exchange information. These computers and other networking devices are physically connected to each other through some wired and /or wireless means and are logically connected by set of rules and algorithms known as PROTOCOLS. Computer networks can be classified as follows: A) Internet- The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of B) Intranet An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet Protocol technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or network operating system within that organization. The term is used in contrast to internet, a network between organizations, and instead refers to a network within an organization C) Extranet An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company's intranet that is extended to users outside the company, usually via the Internet Q8. Classify Computer Networks on the basis of network methods. Examples of different network methods are: Local area network (LAN), which is usually a small network constrained to a small geographic area. An example of a LAN would be a computer network within a building. A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office, or small groups of buildings, such as a school, or an airport. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide area networks (WANs), include their usually higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic area, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. Metropolitan area network (MAN), which is used for medium size area. examples for a city or a state. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high- capacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks and the Internet. Wide area network (WAN) that is usually a larger network that covers a large geographic area. A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively. Wireless LANs and WANs (WLAN & WWAN) are the wireless equivalent of the LAN and WAN. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented with some type of remote information transmission system that uses electromagnetic waves. Q9. What are the benefits of Networking? As we know that a computer network is any set of computers and /or other networking devices connected to each other with the ability to exchange data. So on the basis of this fundamental attributes of computer networks we can easily draw some major benefits out of this. They are as follows: A) Resource sharing - The interconnected computers and other networking devices can share hardware and software resources. B) Reliability - Networking allows sure access of any information even if one or more nodes in a network is failed. As data files are generally replicated in more than one sites in a particular network so if one of them is unavailable, the other copies can be used. C) Financial Benefits - Network allows sharing of costly hardware and software resources and thus there is no need of installing costly hardware and software materials at every terminal, these can be installed at the server site and can be used by all client sites. So we can say that networking is financially beneficial. D) Better Communication medium - Networking of computers facilitates cheap and easy mode of communication among the different branches of an organization. E) Access to Remote Database - Networking provides access to remote database, it is possible to get rid of unnecessary trouble and wastage of precious time especially in works such as airplane and railway reservations etc. Q10. Define the following terms: World Wide Web, Website, Web page, Modem. World Wide Web A technical definition of the World Wide Web is: all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). This means World Wide Web is a series of servers interconnected through Hypertext. A broader definition comes from the organization that Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee helped found, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): "The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge." Website A website is a collection of related web pages; containing images, videos or other digital media that are addressed using absolute or relative URLs, consisting of domain name, sub-domains, and the root path an Internet Protocol-based network. A web site is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network. Web page A web page is a document, normally written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). A web page may combine elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are read and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the web page content. The user's application, usually a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Modem A modem is a computer peripheral that allows you to connect and communicate with other computers via telephone lines. Modem stands for modulator-demodulator, is the device we use to translate analog signals into digital signals and vice-versa for purposes of computer communications. It serves as a bridge of sorts between the input and output of data. Modems are of two types: Internal Modem and External Modem.
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