(Microsoft PowerPoint - Sepp344l344 Nanopolymers for paper tech) by nwv14113

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									   Nanostructured polymers; New
   materials for paper technologies



                                      Jukka Seppälä
                                      Helsinki University of Technology




Vulcanizatio n of rubber       1839

Cellulose nitrate              1862                         The Use of Synthetic Plastic s
                                                          Kunststoffe 92/2002 /No. 10 mukaan
Bakelite                       1909
                                               300,0
(phenol formaldehy de resin)
                                               250,0

Polystyrene                    1925            200,0

                                          Mt/a 150,0
Poly(vinyl chloride)           1927
Cellulose acetate              1927            100,0


Condensation poly mers         1930´s           50,0

(polyesters, polyamides)                         0,0
                                                   1960     1970      1980           1990      2000   2010

High pressure polyethylene     1933                                          Vuosi




Stereospecific polymerization 1950´s
(Polypropylene)

Metallocene catalysis          1980´s

Conducting po lymers, Nobel    2000

Supra molecular chemistry
Nobel                          1987
Nanopoly mers




                                                                                                             1
         2000
         1800
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         1400
         1200
"Hits"




         1000
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             200   1
               0
               1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003
                            Key Word: "Nanotechnology" (S cifinder S cholar)



                                                        Kunststoffe 94, No. 8, 2004




       Report of National Nanoscience Working Group:
   ”Development of nanoscience and technologies in Finland”


         •     Nanoscience focus on the research of phenomena and processes in
               the scale of a nanometer. ( In practice 0,1 – 0,001microns)

         •     In the nanoscience functional materials and sructures are
               modelled, designed, synthetised and characterised.

         •     Nanotechnology means the design and manufacturing of
               components and devices based on functionally new nanoscale
               structures and materials.




                                                                                       2
            BIO- JA NANOPOLYMEERIEN TUTKIMUSRYHMÄ



                       devices
10-3m        milli


                           fibers
  -6
10 m         mikro         cells

                     length of polymeric molecules


                lamellar thic knesses in poly mer crystals10nm
  -9
10 m         nano catalytic structures               enzymes


               -C-C- bond 1Å =0,1nm

                                                                             O   Si
                                                              Cl   Zr   Cl

                                                     Si   O
                                                                                               -s     a      t t               i         eer m
                                                                                      Ksyl oosi i om er asi ki ei äj aent syym nm onom i uot o,
                                                                                                                                    ++     ++
                                                                                                 mn     s n a             a i     g       n
                                                                                      j ossat um i a pi t ei ä kksi m et l l a( M t ai M ) .
                                                                                               i    ä          ln       a     t g              u      )
                                                                                      Ent syym on t r keät eol i en kat l yyt i ( l ukoosi >f r kt oosi




              Materials and nanotechnology

        •   Self organized structures
        •   Tailored synnthesis, new molecular structures
        •   Catalysis
        •   S oft nano
            Hard nano
            Nano devices
            Bionano

            S o what? For what?
            How really implemented?
                                                                                                           J. Seppälä




                                                                                                                                                          3
Feynman 1959:
”I want to build a billion of tiny factories”

Drexler:

”There is plenty of room at the bottom”

”M olecule processing system” = liukuhihnakatalyytti

”Nanoscale roboting”

”M edical nanomachines”




               CONTROLLED POLYMER S TRUCTURES
               ENABLED BY
               NEW POLYMERIZATION CATALYS IS
                              Minimal termination
                              polymerizatio ns


                                                         Polymerizaton
                                                         with metal complexes
  Template
  polymerizatio ns




                          CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS
                          AND POLYMERI ZATIONS




       Combinatorial                                    Polymerizaton with
       techniques                                       metallocene catalysts


                                                    Pure Appl. Chem.,No.10, 2003




                                                                                   4
            New structures through novel
            polyme rization technologies
                                                                                             O   Si
•   Metallocence catalysis
                                                            Cl Zr                       Cl
•   Organometallic compounds of transition metals
                                                       Si O
•   ”Living” polymerizations
     – metallocenes
     – Living free radical polymerizations
•   Combinatorial synthesis, high throughput methods, sequential
    synthesis.
                                                                                    Ph
                                                                   ( Ph 3 )P

                                                                                   Ni

                                                                        O                N

                                                       A nth




                       R            R



              R    R        R




                                        !

                                        "   #      $           #               %




                                                                                                      5
  ”Living” radical polymerizationATRP




                     Matyj aszewski, Xia Chem. Rev. (2001)




Dendrimers
                    Hyperbranched polymers

                     Kunststoffe 94, No. 8, 2004




                                                             6
                              Supra molecular
                              assemblies



                                                     Dendrimers
Rotaxanest
catenates


                                     NEW MOLECULAR
                                     ARCHITECTURES




             On/Off                                  Molecular
             ko nformations                          recognition


                                       Chiralic
                                       recognition




                       Starch graft copolymers
• Amphiphilic structures based on starch oligomers and
  synthetic grafts




• controlled ATRP polymerization
   – Controlled graft length
   – Tailored graft density
   – Starch and synthetic components can be chosen ->
     different material properties




                                                                   7
Coating of cellulose fibers with
amphiphilic polymers




                                   8
         Self-assembly of amphiphilic
              polymers on surface
   (1)
                         solvent




   (2)

                          solvent




                   Nanocomposites
                                   Nanosilicate

• Filler loading around 5-%
• Mechanical properties
  better than with
  conventional fillers
• Rheology and
  processability




                                                  9
 Barrier properties can be modified by tailoring
 the surface of the nanocomposite.




           Carbon nanotubes
Properties:
– Excellet electri al and
  thermalconductivity
    • fro m semiconductors to metallic
      conductivity
– Extreme mechani cal strength
    • tensile strength 20 times higher than
      steel
    • flexible, can be blended
– Extremely stable
    • durable up to 700C under oxidative
      conditions




                                                   10
                                                                       [1] A. Frenot & I. S. Chronakis , Polymer nanofibers as s embled by electros pinning
                                                                       Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, Volume 8, Is s ue 1, 2003, 64-65




Nanofibers by Electrospinning

 Translucent polymer layer network on substrate; 0.1 g/m2.


                                          23 m




     Harlin A., Heikkilä P., Tampere University of Technology, Fibre
     Materials Science




       Electrospinning Coating with
         Polymer Nanocomposites
    •Surface characteristic can be modified with very small amount of material 0.03-0.5 g/m2
         ->Functionality is enough even as a single layer.
    •Composites 5-20 nm particles and 100-400 nm structures of the network.
    •Very low amount of material distributed evenly enables effective use of functional
    materials.




      P VA/nanoTiO 2 .




                                                                                                                                                              11
               LOTUS EFFECT




Lotus-effect




                  Kunststoffe 94, No. 8, 2004




                                                12
                                               O
                                        HO CH C OH
                                           CH3

                                        LACTIC ACID
                                                                                   POLYMERIZATION
      FOSSIL RAW
      MATERIALS

                                     LIFE CYCLE OF
                                     BIOPOLYMERS
                                                                                                    PROCESSING
         BIOMASS




                             COMPOSTING                                             PRODUCTS




                        Bio- and nanopolymers research group

                                                           Tailored catalysts for
                                                           new polymer synthesis



                                   SEPPÄLÄ                              LESKELÄ
                            Polymerization                       New transition metal
Tailored polymers for       Polymer synthesis                    complexes for
hierarchically structured   and analysis                         - coordination polymerization
                            Structure-property -                 - ionic polymerization
materials                   correlations                         - atomic transfer radical
                                                                   polymerization                Feedback for materials
                                                                                                 synthesis

                                    IKKALA                              YLI-URPO
                            Nano- and mesoscale control          Controlled active agent
                            of structure                         release
                            Controllable materials based         Tissue reconstruction
                            on them                                          n
                                                                 Tissue guidi g
                                                                 Tissue engineering
                                                                 applications




                                           New materials for tissue
                                           reconstruction, guiding,
                                           engineering and controlled
                                           release applications




                                                                                                                          13
INNOVATIONS ARE CREATED AT THE INTERPHAS ES




                        Enabling
                      technologies



                   Competitive edge




                           Products




   • Minor improvements to the existing state of the art?
   • High Tech to the well established technologies?
   • Totally new products?




                      here


       Polymer research
       focusing
                          or here




                                                            14
• Minor improvements to the existing state of the art?
• High Tech to the well established technologies?
• Totally new products?




                   here


    Polymer research
    focusing
                       or here




                                                         15

								
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