ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC PARASITOLOGY (3143) ORGANISER: John Williams TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 - C2 AIM The main aim is to introduce modern methods in use and under development for the laboratory diagnosis of the important parasitic diseases of man for clinical and epidemiological purposes. The Study Module also provides opportunities to evaluate the potential applications of these methods in developing and developed countries, and to improve and refine diagnosis by microscopical methods. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) demonstrate detailed knowledge and understanding of the application and evaluation of advanced diagnostic techniques; (ii) demonstrate increased ability to diagnose parasites by microscopy. CONSTITUENCY This module is designed for those who have either taken the Parasitology & Entomology (3122) module in Term 1 or have extensive practical experience in diagnostic parasitology. This module is intended for those expecting to specialise in diagnostic parasitology, monitoring control programmes or in the development of novel diagnostic techniques. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE Week 1: Introduction. Laboratory management and good practice. Principles of test evaluation. Constraints on accuracy and applicability of tests. Economic considerations. Reagent supply and test development. Microscopy. Week 2: Immunoassays for antibody and antigen. Western blots, ELISA, dot ELISA, Immunofluorescence, other immunoassays. Presentations by students with class discussion. Microscopy. Week 3: Nucleic acid techniques in diagnosis. Principles of probe and primer design. Polymerase and ligase chain reaction. Presentations by students with class discussion. Week 4: Culture-based diagnosis and : Electron microscopical techniques in diagnosis. Microscopy. Week 5. Practical revision and practical examination. TEACHING STRATEGY The module is designed to encourage maximum participation by students, who will be able to share their own specialised knowledge with the rest of the class. Each student will make one small group PowerPoint presentation with other members of the class on a given topic, which will usually be the diagnostic methods for a particular parasite or disease. This will not be assessed, but will be part of the learning process for all members of the class. The time balance is 30% lectures/discussions, 35% presentations, 35% practical work. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, composed of: contact time = 40 hours; reading time = 30 hours and assignment/assessment time = 30 hours. ASSESSMENT Assessment will be in two parts. An essay based on the presentation, which must be produced as an individual piece of work and a practical examination. ADVANCED IMMUNOLOGY 1 & 2 (3134 & 3144) ORGANISER: Dr Gregory Bancroft TIMETABLE SLOTS: Term 2 - C1 & C2 AIM The aim of these two linked modules is to provide students with an in-depth and critical understanding of contemporary concepts in immunology. Advanced Immunology is made up of 4 weeks course work and 1 week writing a „Nature‟ style News and Views review article. OBJECTIVES By the end of these modules students should be able to: (i) critically analyse published papers in various areas of contemporary immunology; (ii) assess the main areas of research in a particular aspect of the subject; (iii) identify important unanswered questions and suggest ways of answering them; (iv) communicate scientific information effectively using a variety of techniques including oral presentation, poster presentation and responding to oral questioning; CONSTITUENCY Prior experience in immunology is essential. Students proposing to take these modules should have, as a minimum, a basic knowledge of immunology equal to that provided by the Immunology of Infectious Diseases (3120) module in Term 1. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE In each of the first four weeks of the course, a major topic in contemporary immunology will be covered in depth through lectures, group work, student presentations, poster presentations and discussion sessions. In the fifth week, each student will prepare a „Nature‟ style News and Views review article on a topic covered in Week 4. TEACHING STRATEGY The teaching strategy will primarily consist of student-centred learning through interactive small group work, oral and poster presentations, and discussion sessions, with a few formal lectures. Approximately 50% of the time will be reserved for private study. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours composed of: contact time = 40 hours; reading time = 40 hours; assignment/assessment time = 20 hours. ASSESSMENT A short written test will take place on the first day of week 4 of the course, to evaluate knowledge and understanding of the topics presented in weeks 1, 2 and 3, and the ability to analyse data. A detailed review article will then be prepared in Week 5. These assessments cover the two linked modules. CLINICAL & PUBLIC HEALTH BACTERIOLOGY 1 (3157) ORGANISER: Dr Nick Dorrell TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 – C2 AIM To provide a review of the aetiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, control and therapy of human bacterial infections of clinical and public health importance. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) demonstrate knowledge and understanding of essential theory and practice of bacteriology of infectious diseases; (ii) demonstrate knowledge and understanding of bacteriological investigations required for the diagnosis and treatment of the infected individual; (iii) carry out various clinical laboratory procedures including specimen processing, isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. CONSTITUENCY This module is intended for students who wish to understand the principles of clinical and public health bacteriology and to be introduced to diagnostic laboratory practice and management. This module is a natural progression for students who have taken the Core Bacteriology module during the autumn term. Students who have not taken this module should be aware of the large practical component of this module that builds on areas covered during the Core Bacteriology course. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE This module covers theoretical aspects of infectious bacterial diseases and laboratory investigations necessary for the treatment of the infected individual. This unit is set in the context of infectious diseases in the hospital as well as the community environments. Laboratory practical work will include the processing of clinical specimens, and isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. TEACHING STRATEGY The module consists of lectures and practical sessions. The practical focus is of particular importance. LEARNING TIME The total contact time will be approximately 50 hours with lectures in the morning and practical classes every afternoon. Periods for private study will be scheduled in the timetable. ASSESSMENT Students will sit a two hour written examination covering all aspects of the module. There will also be practical spot tests during the written examination to determine students' ability to apply acquired knowledge in the identification of bacterial pathogens. CONFLICT & HEALTH (1402) ORGANISERS: Dr Egbert Sondorp TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 - C2 Olga Bornemisza AIM To provide participants with an overview of the current health-related challenges and policy debates concerning appropriate responses to populations affected by conflict. OBJECTIVES By the end of the module students should be able to: (i) demonstrate an understanding of the political, economic and social factors that contribute to conflict and forced migration; (ii) analyse the direct and indirect effects of conflict on health and health systems; (iii) identify the actors and institutions involved in the international humanitarian system, and the management and coordination issues currently facing them; (iv) describe and critique the key policy debates currently taking place within the humanitarian field (humanitarianism, relief to development, coordination, evaluation and quality); (v) describe the challenges of developing context-sensitive responses to public health problems (e.g. reproductive health, communicable disease, mental health); (vi) identify and discuss key issues concerning the transition from relief to rehabilitation and the development of health systems in the context of post-conflict recovery. CONSTITUENCY All LSHTM students; prior field experience with a humanitarian agency, donor or government will enable you to participate more actively but is not essential. The module will also be open to participants from NGOs, other agencies and a small number of other external students. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE The module will be broadly structured around five inter-related themes: 1. Nature and origins of different types of conflict, impact on health and health systems, and architecture of the humanitarian aid system. 2. Humanitarianism, the humanitarian principles, and ensuing ethical dilemmas. 3. Policy issues in relation to assessing needs, identifying appropriate interventions, and implementation strategies for selected disease-specific activities. 4. Policy issues in relation to the quality of interventions, the promotion of evidence-based practice, and the evaluation of humanitarian assistance. 5. The complexities of the linkages between emergency relief activities and longer term development and post-conflict health system issues, including health policy formulation during complex emergencies and the initial post-conflict phase. TEACHING STRATEGY The module will revolve around group work, lectures, seminars, and private study. Particular effort will be made to draw upon the experiences and insights of course participants. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours comprising contact time (25 hours), group work (20 hours), assignment (20 hours), reading (35 hours). ASSESSMENT The assessment consists of two parts that contribute to the final grade: 1. Group-work on specific themes in Conflict and Health (35%); 2. A final short-answer written exam, based on the key readings and lectures (65%). DESIGN & ANALYSIS OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES (2417) ORGANISERS: Dr Shabbar Jaffar TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 - C2 Dr Charalambos (Babis) Sismanidis AIM To equip students with the necessary skills to understand and appraise the design, analysis and interpretation of epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) demonstrate understanding of concepts underlying the design of epidemiological studies; (ii) select an appropriate study design for a given epidemiological scenario and provide a rationale for this; (iii) understand and conduct stratified analyses of data from epidemiological studies; (iv) appreciate the rationale and use of multivariable analyses of data from epidemiological studies; (v) explain basic approaches to the design and interpretation of multivariable analysis models; (vi) critically appraise the design, analysis and interpretation of studies conducted by other investigators; (vii) communicate effectively with those involved in conducting public health research. CONSTITUENCY The module is intended for students who have attended Term 1 modules in Epidemiology and in Statistics. It is aimed at those students who wish to understand more about the design and analysis of epidemiological studies, but who do not require detailed theoretical training or in-depth analysis skills. The emphasis of the module will be on the understanding and critical appraisal of epidemiological and statistical methods. The module Statistical Methods in Epidemiology (2402) is more suitable for those students who wish to perform their own more detailed data analyses. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE The module is composed of three topic blocks: Design issues in epidemiological studies; recognition and control of confounding; understanding multivariable analyses. TEACHING STRATEGY Teaching will consist of lectures, computer practical sessions (using Stata 8), a problem-based exercise on study design, and paper review discussion sessions. Data from both developing and developed countries will be used to illustrate the methods covered. Approximately ten sessions will be timetabled for private study time. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, composed of: contact time = 50 hours; reading/assignment/assessment time = 50 hours. ASSESSMENT Students will be asked to write a commentary on the design, analysis and interpretation of one study reported in the public health literature. DRUG, ALCOHOL, TOBACCO USE AND PUBLIC HEALTH (1457) ORGANISER: Dr Jim McCambridge TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 – C1 AIM To develop students understanding of the importance of drug use to public health, and to gain an appreciation of current tobacco, alcohol and other drug research, policy and intervention issues from a specifically public health perspective. OBJECTIVES By the end of the module students will be able to: (i) describe and compare the burden of harms from different drugs and patterns of use; (ii) identify public health objectives in relation to drug use and differentiate these from other influences on public policy formation; (iii) describe a wide range of interventions in terms of their contributions to reducing drug- related harm, from individually targeted approaches to international regulatory measures; (iv) evaluate the public health content of current policy debates on drug use; (v) analyse issues involved in researching drug, alcohol and tobacco use in public health and critique the resulting evidence. CONSTITUENCY Students on the MSc Public Health, particularly those in the general and health promotion streams. This will also be useful for other students in PHP and elsewhere who already have or wish to develop an interest in this topic. There is no requirement to have taken specific Term 1 modules. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE The health and other harms associated with tobacco, alcohol and other drugs will be described and compared, with attention also given to particularly high risk or harmful patterns of use. Intervention strategies in different populations at individual, community and structural levels will be examined, in part through use of a historical perspective. Current research issues and policy debates in both high and low income countries will be considered. TEACHING STRATEGY Lectures, seminars, group work, presentations, debates and individual study. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, with approximately 25 hours contact time and 75 hours for individual study including assessment task completion. ASSESSMENT Students will write a 1500 word essay on a public health approach to a policy debate or on a research issue. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR HEALTH POLICY (1504) ORGANISER: Fern Terris-Prestholt TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 – C2 AIM Economic Analysis for Health Policy builds on the economic theories and concepts introduced in Term 1, and applies them to analyse current issues and problems in health policy in developed and developing countries. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module, students should be able to: (i) describe and alternative ways of financing and organising health systems, and analyse them using the economic concepts of information, agency and incentives; (ii) identify different market structures used in the delivery of health services and key health service inputs such as human resources, discuss their associated strengths and weaknesses (market and policy failures) and potential ways of mitigating these effects. These will include the role and functioning of regulation and contracting for health services; (iii) explain the need for rationing in the health sector, and analyse different rationing mechanisms in terms of their implications for equity and efficiency; (iv) apply the tools of equity analysis (benefit incidence analysis and measurement of equity) to analyse the distribution of resources in the health sector. CONSTITUENCY The Term 1 linear module, Introduction to Health Economics (1103), is a pre-requisite for this module. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE Introduction and overview; agency, incentives and information; models of health system financing and organisation and international comparisons; markets and competition in health; international trade in human resources; rationing; insurance; contracting; tools for equity analysis; economics of governance and corruption. TEACHING STRATEGY Students participate in a combination of lectures and workshops. Lectures introduce concepts and ideas and clarify theories. Workshops use problem-based exercises and group discussions with the aim of supporting students‟ comfort with economic principles and models, and enable them to apply these principles to specific issues of health system organisation and financing. This course has a challenging reading list consisting of peer reviewed journal articles and policy reports targeting a range of audience from the applied policy maker to those with greater interests in the underlying economic theories. Students are encouraged to take an active role in their learning by selecting among the advanced readings and seeking out supporting materials where appropriate, in particular when researching their policy report. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours composed of 25 hours contact time; 75 hours reading and assignment time. ASSESSMENT The assessment will be in the form of an applied policy report. Students will apply the concepts and theories they have been exposed to in this course by writing an essay on a particular health policy topic. FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMES (2401) ORGANISER: Professor John Cleland TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 - C2 AIM To impart an understanding of the structure and functions of family planning programmes in developing countries and to develop students‟ capacity to evaluate such programmes. Students will explore the design, quality and health effects of family planning programmes, as well as their demographic impact within the context of other biological restraints on fertility. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) demonstrate an understanding of the diverse ways in which governments have attempted to promote family planning; (ii) analyse how the variation in approach to the promotion of family planning reflects policy priorities and socio-economic setting; (iii) identify key features of approaches commonly used to measure and interpret main biological and behavioural determinants of fertility, including contraception and abortion; (iv) explain how to analyse the design, quality, health effects and demographic impact of family planning programmes. CONSTITUENCY Students with an interest in developing countries. No prior demographic/medical expertise is assumed. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE 1. Organization of family planning programmes. The origins, policy objectives and development of family planning programmes are described. Various service delivery systems are compared on client profile, cost structure, logistics and staff requirements. The various ways, ranging from spectacular successes to dismal failures, in which governments have attempted to promote effective birth control are reviewed. Key debates, such as the integration of health and family planning services, the relationship of family planning to broader reproductive health concerns, quality of care, the use of incentive payments and differential promotion of particular methods are illustrated by specific country programmes. 2. Biological and behavioural determinants of fertility. Effectiveness and safety of particular contraceptive methods are assessed and the contribution of family planning and abortion to maternal and child health is clarified. In many developing countries, marriage and sexual customs, together with breastfeeding, are still more important fertility restraints than modern birth control. Methods of estimating their influence on fertility are described. 3. Evaluation. The evaluation of family planning programme processes and outcomes is reviewed. The use of situation analyses to assess quality of care is critiqued. Methods of estimating the impact on fertility of family planning programmes are presented, and two of the more valid and useful ones are detailed. TEACHING STRATEGY The main method will be lectures followed by classroom discussion. These are supplemented by classroom exercises. There will be no lectures in week 5. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, composed of: contact time = 20 hours; reading time = 65 hours; assignment/assessment time = 15 hours. ASSESSMENT A paper of 2,500 words in response to questions based on each week's sessions. HEALTH IMPACT & DECISION ANALYSIS (1304) ORGANISER: Professor Jack Dowie TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 – C2 AIM To introduce health impact analysis as a generic technique for contributing to the development of science-informed, value-based policies that are coherent and transparent, in non-health sectors as well as in health economies. OBJECTIVES Students should be able to demonstrate: (i) familiarity with the 'cognitive continuum' of varying analysis-intuition ratios as a framework for locating and distinguishing alternative knowledge technologies, information/communication technologies and policy/decision-making technologies; (ii) familiarity with the use of correspondence and coherence theories of truth and competence; (iii) ability to compare and contrast the orthodox epidemiology-based „Risk Approach‟ and the alternative Bayesian „Decision Analytic Approach‟, with particular attention to the treatment of values and costs; (iv) understanding of the basic principles of decision analysis and operational competence in constructing simple decision trees, drawing on epidemiological and other evidence and elicited values/preferences; (v) competence in explaining the conceptual and other bases of (and differences between) health impact estimation, health impact assessment and health impact analysis and displaying basic practical competence in each. CONSTITUENCY Suitable and accessible to students on any MSc course, particularly those who envisage becoming involved in health-relevant decision-making (in whatever capacity) or in researching the health impact of health or non-health sector policies. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE The relationship between science and health policy is currently conventionally conceptualised within the 'Risk Approach', where 'scientific' 'risk assessment' is followed by 'political' 'risk management' and the public is involved through a process of 'risk communication'. Health impact estimation (of the burden attributable to a problem) is the major epidemiological contribution to this process. But policy makers need to know the health impact of alternative possible solutions. Health impact assessment seeks to bridge the science-policy gap from both sides simultaneously, without grounding in any specific theory or set of methodological principles. Health impact analysis approaches the task explicitly from the Decision Science, rather than Knowledge Science, perspective and substitutes the 'Decision Approach' for the 'Risk Approach'. It represents the undertaking of quantitative decision analyses of alternative policy options, but ones limited to health events and outcomes. It provides a way in which the implications of the differing beliefs, uncertainties and values of different stakeholders in relation to health and non-health outcomes can be explored within a coherent analytical framework. TEACHING STRATEGY PowerPoint presentations, discussion forums, computer web-based teaching and exercises (via „Blackboard‟). LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, composed of: contact time = 20 hours; study time = 50 hours; computer practicals and assessment time = 30 hours. ASSESSMENT A written assignment, drawing on formative practical exercises carried out by the student. It includes a self-assessment, in which students grade and critique their assignment, the critique contributing 10% of the final mark. HEALTH PROMOTION APPROACHES AND METHODS (1807) ORGANISER: Professor Mark Petticrew TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 – C2 AIM To provide students with an overview and critical appreciation of a range of approaches and methods for promoting health, at the individual, community and population levels. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) describe a range of different approaches and methods for promoting health and their theoretical underpinnings; (ii) critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and methods covered in the course; (iii) demonstrate the appropriate use of different approaches and methods in a variety of contexts. CONSTITUENCY This module is compulsory for students taking the Health Promotion stream of the MSc Public Health and optional for other Public Health streams and MScs. The module is available to MSc Reproductive and Sexual Health Research. Only in exceptional circumstances will other students who have not undertaken the Health Promotion Theory (1109) linear module be allowed to take this module. Such cases should be discussed with the Module Organiser. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE This module builds on the theoretical core covered in the Term 1 Health Promotion Theory linear module. The module covers many of the different approaches and methods available to people engaged in health promotion practice, which address individual, community and structural determinants of health. Lectures will cover topics such motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioural therapy, peer education, theatre in health promotion, mass media campaigns, social marketing, media advocacy, community development, and settings-based health promotion. It will explore the strengths and weaknesses of these various approaches and methods and the contexts in which they might be used. TEACHING STRATEGY Teaching will be by lectures and seminars. There will be 10 half-day sessions, most of which will take the form of a one hour lecture linked to a one and a half hour seminar. The seminars will consist of range of different tasks including role-play, group-work and presentations. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, of which 25 hours is contact time and 75 hours of private study. ASSESSMENT Students will be asked to produce a manual containing a summary of the different approaches and methods covered in the course. For each they will include a brief description of the approach, its strengths and weakness and when it might be used. Students will be expected to accumulate this material throughout the module and to submit it for assessment in week 5. It is anticipated that this will provide students with a practical „guide‟ for future reference. MOLECULAR VIROLOGY (3140) ORGANISER: Dr Ursula Gompels TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 - C2 AIM To develop a broad understanding of molecular viral strategies and their applications; to provide theoretical knowledge of virus groups which are pathogens through an in depth study of selected viruses. OBJECTIVES The learning objectives include: (i) knowledge and understanding of basic molecular virological strategies and mechanisms; (ii) analysis of experimental design to answer specific questions in virological research; (iii) use of computer aided analyses of nucleotide or protein sequence information and their annotations relevant to virus research; (iv) ability to research literature and databases on relevant topics and present the data; (v) ability to critically assess data and findings of current publications on virus research. CONSTITUENCY This module is intended for students with a basic background in both virology and molecular biology (i.e. have attended the General Virology (in Bacteriology & Virology core) and Molecular Biology modules in Term 1). The module will extend this basic background to a more advanced level focusing on selected contemporary molecular issues in virology. The students should have a basic understanding of biochemistry and genetics. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE This module will be divided into five teaching blocks covering current research areas in virology using a particular virus family as an example for each theme. Areas covered include: gene expression/therapy and virus persistence/ latency; protective immunity and vaccines, immune evasion; virus receptors, cell fusion and tissue tropism; viral oncogenes and tumorigenesis; and molecular evolution, virulence and emergent infections. Teaching includes lectures by specialists in each field, a student “journal club” for discussion of selected recent research articles complementing the study areas (copies of all articles provided), and a computer initiated research project. Emphasis will be on student participation with time for library/internet-based research. TEACHING STRATEGY Teaching includes: lectures followed by discussion; journal club with presentations of research articles by groups of students followed by discussions; a problem based approach where students will choose an unidentified virus nucleotide sequence fragment from a list compiled by the Organiser. This will be followed by tutorial sessions and use of computer based analyses leading to selection of a research problem for further literature based study. Findings will be presented in a mini “research symposium” at the end of the module. LEARNING TIME Lectures, tutorials, discussions and presentations will occupy two days per week with half a day for private study. Total learning time is 90 hours composed of: contact time = 40 hours; reading time = 30 hours; assignment/assessment time = 20 hours. ASSESSMENT Two presentations: (i) Journal club presentation - 40% (ii) Presentation on computer (bioinformatics) and literature based research question - 60% QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGIES (1700) ORGANISER: Professor Tim Rhodes TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 - C2 AIM To develop students‟ understanding of the principles and practice of using qualitative methods in health research. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) identify appropriate qualitative designs for health research; (ii) assess the advantages and disadvantages of a range of data collection methods; (iii) understand different approaches to data analysis; (iv) apply their knowledge of the principles of qualitative research. CONSTITUENCY This module is intended for students wanting to develop their theoretical and practical understanding of qualitative methods. It is designed primarily for Research Degree students and those studying MScs for which an empirical project is required (that is, those students working on their own qualitative study). It will also be appropriate for external students intending to develop their understanding of methodology. The linear module Principles of Social Research (1104) (or equivalent) is a pre-requisite for this module. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE This module is designed to provide students with an introduction to qualitative research skills (such as interviewing and data analysis) within a sound understanding of methodological principles. The emphasis is on theoretical understanding and not practical skills. The following aspects of qualitative research are addressed: 1. Principles of qualitative study: Assumptions about the social world and how to research it; debates in the use of qualitative research in policy orientated qualitative work. 2. Data collection methods: Producing data using in-depth one to one and group interviews; ethnographic approaches; developing interview skills; practical issues in participant observation fieldwork. 3. Analysing data: Approaches to data analysis (thematic analysis, grounded theory); using manual and computer assisted aids to data management and analysis (Note: there are no practical sessions on computer aided analysis). TEACHING STRATEGY The module comprises short presentations from lecturers on key topics, followed by student led seminar work. Students are expected to participate in all activities. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, composed of contact time = 30 hours, private study = 70 hours. ASSESSMENT Assessment is by essay. STATISTICAL METHODS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY (2402) ORGANISERS: Professor Simon Cousens TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 - C2 Dr Katherine Fielding AIM To equip students with the skills needed to analyse and interpret data from cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies, using cross-tabulation, stratification and regression models. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) explain the key statistical and epidemiological concepts which underlie the analysis of epidemiological data; (ii) perform analyses of data arising from epidemiological studies, using appropriate computer software (the software used throughout will be STATA); (iii) investigate confounding and effect modification (interaction) in epidemiological data; (iv) interpret appropriately the results of these analyses, taking into account study design issues; (v) write a clear report presenting and interpreting the results of an analysis of epidemiological data. CONSTITUENCY This module is primarily intended for students who have attended the Term 1 modules in Statistics for EPH (2021) and Extended Epidemiology (2007), and are familiar with STATA and who wish to acquire further skills in the analysis and interpretation of epidemiological studies. Students need to have a good grasp of this Term 1 material in order to benefit from this module. In particular, students should be familiar with the three major epidemiological study designs, with the concepts of confounding and effect modification/ interaction, with the interpretation of statistical tests and confidence intervals, and with the basic data handling commands in STATA. Students wishing to take the Advanced Statistical Methods in Epidemiology (2412) module in Term 3 need to take this course. The module Design & Analysis of Epidemiological Studies (2417) is more appropriate for students who do not need detailed knowledge of data analysis techniques. CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE This module is composed of four blocks: 1. Cohort studies: analysis of rates using stratification to investigate confounding and interaction; simple survival analysis (life tables and Kaplan-Meier). 2. Case-control studies: design issues including matching; analysis of studies using stratification to investigate confounding and interaction. 3. Likelihood theory. 4. Logistic regression for the analysis of case-control, cross-sectional and fixed cohort studies. The emphasis is on the practical application of methods, with a brief introduction to likelihood theory, which provides the theoretical basis for most of the statistical methods covered in the Module. TEACHING STRATEGY Teaching consists mostly of lectures followed by computer practical sessions. Methods are illustrated using data drawn from research work of staff in the Departments of Epidemiology & Population Health, and Infectious and Tropical Diseases. These include both industrialised and developing country studies. The computer package STATA is used extensively. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours, composed of: contact time = 50 hours; reading time/assessment time = 50 hours. ASSESSMENT Students will analyse an epidemiological dataset. They will each write a brief report describing their approach to the analysis and presenting and interpreting their results. VECTOR BIOLOGY & VECTOR-PARASITE INTERACTIONS (3166) ORGANISER: Dr Mark Rowland TIMETABLE SLOT: Term 2 – D2 AIM To provide students with a broad understanding of the key aspects of insect vector behaviour, vector ecology and vector-parasite interactions relevant to the epidemiology and control of vector-borne diseases. OBJECTIVES By the end of this module students should be able to: (i) demonstrate knowledge and understanding of key aspects of vector behaviour, vector ecology and vector-parasite interactions; (ii) demonstrate an understanding of how these features impact on the epidemiology and control of vector-borne diseases; (iii) apply a range of practical entomological techniques and tools used in research on vector competence and ecology; (iv) demonstrate the ability to critically evaluate the relevant scientific literature; (v) demonstrate some of the skills required to design a research project related to vector biology or competence. CONSTITUENCY This module is intended primarily for entomologists and parasitologists who wish to develop an active research interest in this discipline in field or laboratory, or apply it within the context of a control programme. Some basic knowledge is assumed (e.g. contents of Parasitology and Entomology (3122) in term 1). CONCEPTUAL OUTLINE This module will be divided into three teaching blocks covering research areas in vector behaviour, vector ecology, and vector-parasite interactions. Areas covered will include some of the following: host location and blood-feeding behaviour; host selection: anthropophily and zoophily; endophily- exophily; sugar feeding behaviour; dispersal behaviour and learning; sexual (mating) behaviour and pheromones; effects of vector saliva; larval competition; seasonality and diapause; daily biting, circadian activity rhythms and gonotrophic cycle; genetic and physiological determinants of vector competence and vector-parasite specificity; effects of parasites on vector behaviour, survival and parasite transmission; host-parasite evolution. TEACHING STRATEGY Teaching will include formal lectures by specialists in each field, many with associated laboratory practicals; small group work for developing research proposals on selected topics related to the course. Visits will be made to research institutions working on vector behaviour and host-parasite interactions. LEARNING TIME Total learning time is 100 hours composed of: contact time = 50 hours, non contact time = 50 hours. ASSESSMENT Short test of multiple choice questions on the module (33%); written presentation of a research proposal in the form suitable to submit to a named grant funding agency (67%).
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