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					HOW CULTURE AND GENDER
INFLUENCE THE LEARNING
STYLES OF INTERNATIONAL
HOSPITALITY STUDENTS


                  MBA - WORK IN PROGRESS
                               DAVID COY
                     AIM
To critically assess the learning styles of
 international students, taking into account the
 influence of culture and gender, and evaluate
 how these evolve during their studies.
             OBJECTIVES:

 To assess the student perceptions of their
  own learning styles in relation to gender and
  culture
 To examine the extent to which learning style
  affects the students‟ educational experience
 To evaluate how learning styles evolve as
  students progress through their course of
  study
              Literature

The literature review has focused on
mainly four areas:-
   Background theory of learning styles
   The impact of the students‟ gender
   The impact of the students‟ culture
   How these affect the learning experience
         People are Different

   The ancient
 Greeks knew
that people had
    different
  qualities and
  would learn
    things in
 different ways
          Fizzell (1984)
      LEARNING STYLE
 WHAT IS A LEARNING STYLE?
 WE ALL HAVE A UNIQUE
  COMBINATION OF SKILLS, TALENTS
  AND SUPPORT NETWORKS, PLUS AN
  ARRAY OF OUR OWN PREFERENCES
 ALL OF THESE CONTRIBUTE TOWARD
  FORMING A METHOD BY WHICH WE
  PREFER TO LEARN
      CORE THEORIES
                        MYERS -
HERMANN
                        BRIGGS
              APTER
        Coffield (2004)
                        DUNN &
    Identified 71 different
      VERMUNT            DUNN
   theories that have been
KOLB     ENTWISTLE
    proposed for learning
                     ALLINSON
                      & HAYES
            styles! RIDING
 HONEY &
 MUMFORD
  STERNBERG      GREGORC JACKSON
           The Problem?

“ Individual researchers continue to
design and develop their own
instruments without sufficient regard for
extant theory and measures, consequently
there is the potential for real confusion
amongst researchers and practitioners
alike”
                             Sadler-smith(2001 pp 610).
   GENDER
 There are some indications that
  Gender plays a role in learning style
  of individuals.
 However the prevailing ideas seem
  to be that the differences between
  genders is not the in the things that
  males and females are able to do, but
  is more a question of their approach
  to the task and how they do it
Rosati (1999), Weber and Custer (2005), Li (2007), Isman and
                                            Gundogan (2009)
                    CULTURE
 HOW DOES YOUR CULTURE AFFECT HOW YOUR
  LEARNING STYLE?

 Li, (2007) talks of the Confucion Heritage Culture

 Nield (2007) describes the Asian / Chinese stereotype

 Learning by rote and memorisation being the norm

 Western students experience student focussed and
  challenge based learning
 Does Learning Style and Culture
  affect the student experience?
 Getting used to studying
  in an international
  education environment
  “is a cultural adaptation
  as much as an academic
  one and, unsurprisingly,
  „learning shock‟ is
  prevalent” (Forland, 2006
  p1)
                   What next?
 Investigate studies that look more closely at the affect
  of learning styles on international hospitality students

 Adopt a qualitative methodology, using focus groups
 Investigate how students view their own approach to
  learning and whether this changes over time
 Sample students from Certificate, Higher Diploma and
  BSc groups
                                           REFERENCES
Coffield F, Moseley D, Hall E, & Ecclestone K, (2004) Should we be using learning styles? What research has to say to practice. Learning and Skills
     Research Centre, Cromwell Press , UK.

Fizzell, R. (1984), The Status of Learning Styles the Educational Forum 20

Forland H (2006) The international Student learning experience: bridging the gap between Rhetoric and reality, (Paper presented at Going Global 2, The
     UK international Education Conference. Edinburgh 6-8 December 2006

Isman C A , &Gundogan N U. (2009). The influence of digit ratio on the gender difference in learning style preferences, Personality and Individual
     Differences 46, p424-427

LI Xiao-liang, (2007) Case study on international students’ experiences at Western Oregon University. Nov. 2007, Volume 5, No.11 72 – 82 (Serial No.50)
      US-China Foreign Language, ISSN1539-8080, USA

Nield K. (2007) Understanding the Chinese Learner: a Case Study Exploration of the Notion of the Hong Kong Chinese Learner as a Rote or Strategic Learner
     - Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education Vol. 6, No. 1. ISSN: 1473-8376

Rosati P. (1999) Specific Differences and Similarities in the Learning Preferences of Engineering Students - November 10 - 13, 1999 San Juan, Puerto Rico
     29th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference

Sadler-Smith E, (2001) - The relationship between learning style and cognitive style - Personality and Individual Differences 30 (2001) pages 609±616,
     Pergamon, Elsevier Science Ltd.

Weber K and Custer R, (2005), Gender-based Preferences toward TechnologyEducation Content, Activities, and Instructional Methods. Journal of
    Technology Education Vol. 16 No. 2, Spring 2005

				
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