Chapter 9 ppt - The Road to Revolution

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					The Road to Revolution

       Chapter 9
       1826-1835
    The Road to Revolution
“I fully hoped to have found
   Texas at peace and in
   tranquility, but regret to
   find it in commotion; all
   disorganized, all in
   anarchy, and threatened
   with immediate hostilities.
   This state of things is
   deeply to be lamented.”
-Texas empresario Stephen
  F. Austin
         Dictionary.com
•   Tranquility – a state of peace and quiet
•   Commotion - civil disturbance; disorder
•   Anarchy - political disorder and confusion
•   Hostilities - acts of war; overt warfare
•   Lamented - to regret deeply
       What do you know?
What comes to mind when you hear
 the word revolution? Do you think of
 military battles? Or do you see
 revolution as a form of change or
 movement? You are probably
 familiar with several different kinds of
 revolutions.
   What do you want to know?
Causes                     Effects
                           Tensions increase
                           between Mexican
                           nationalists and Texas
                           colonists.
The Law of April 6, 1830
is passed.
The Consultation is
formed.
The Road to Revolution
 1826 The Fredonian Rebellion
 erupts
 1830 Mexico passes Law of April 6, 1830

 1832 Colonists and Mexican
 troops
       clash at Anahuac
 1833 Stephen F. Austin imprisoned

 1835 The Battle of Gonzales fought

 1835 Texans and Mexican troops
 face
      off at Battle of San Antonio
    Tensions Mount Between
       Mexico and Texas
Not long after colonization began in Texas,
 conflicts erupted between the Mexican
 government and the colonists. Even
 though Mexican officials attempted to
 control the conflicts, their efforts served to
 anger and unify the colonists.
1

OBJECTIVES
• Explain why tensions arose between the
  Mexican government and the Texas
settlers.
• Identify the events that led to the passage
of
  the Law of April 6, 1830.
• Describe the effect that the Law of April 6,
  1830, had on Texas colonists.
         Differences Arise
• Settlers from the United States had to
  agree to adopt the laws and government
  of New Spain. This meant they had to
  convert to Catholicism and pledge loyalty
  to the Spanish king and queen.
• Most colonists were willing to change their
  way of life and live as the Spanish
  government wanted them to.
• But, some colonists did not really want to
  become loyal citizens of Mexico.
A Question of States’ Rights
• As in the United States of America, Mexico
  was divided into various states. Mexico’s
  Constitution of 1824 gave each of those
  states certain rights.
• A states’ rights government is where the
  states have most of the political power.
       Before the Constitution of 1824 most of the
       power was in the hands of the federal
       government.
 A Question of States’ Right
• Some leaders of the Mexican government
  did not approve of the states’ having so
  much power under the Constitution of
  1824.
• They felt that the power should belong to
  the national government.
• These Mexican nationalists were
  concerned that too many settlers from the
  United States were moving to Texas.
                 States’ Rights Issue
  Centralists/Nationalists         Anti-centralists
Supported removing some      Wanted important political
powers from the states and   powers to remain with the
giving more powers to the    states.
national government.         The states should hold
The federal government       most of the power.
should hold most of the
power.

President Bustamente         Constitution of 1824
A Question of States’ Rights
• Texas was in the state of Coahuila y
  Tejas.
• Since the state of Coahuila y Tejas was on
  the border with the United States many
  American colonists settled there.
• The Mexican government worried about
  too many American colonists coming to
  Texas because they might have wanted to
  make Texas a part of America.
         Vocabulary Check

States Rights
The theory that a state could choose whether
to obey or enforce federal laws.
Nationalists
People who support policies that promote
national interests.
   Competing Land Claims
• Spanish colonists were living in the San
  Antonio area.
• Stephen F. Austin and his colonists were
  living in the San Felipe area.
• In 1825 Haden Edwards became the
  empresario of the eastern part of Texas
  (the Nacogdoches area).
http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/maps/texas/statemap/1820-36tx.jpg
   Competing Land Claims
• When Haden Edwards went to survey his
  land grant he discovered that there were
  already people living there.
• Some of these “squatters” were Spanish
  colonists, some were Mexicans, and some
  were Cherokee families.
• Edwards had bought the land and wanted
  control over who settled there, so he
  posted signs that said anyone living on the
  land needed to bring him proof of
  ownership.
   Competing Land Claims
• Edwards’ response to the squatters
  angered Stephen F. Austin and other
  settlers in Texas. Austin wrote a letter to
  Edwards which called his behavior,
  “imprudent and improper” and “calculated
  to ruin yourself and materially injure all the
  American settlements”.
• Other settlers wrote complaint letters to
  the Mexican government.
    The Edwards Brothers
• The governor was fed up with the trouble
  caused by the Edwards Brothers so he
  responded by taking away Edwards’ land grant.
  He told the brothers they had to leave Texas.
• Haden Edwards didn’t want to leave because he
  had invested $50,000 in his land grant.
• Edwards responded to the governor by signing a
  treaty with the Cherokees in the area.
  The Fredonian Rebellion
• Benjamin Edwards, Harman Mayo, Richard
  Fields and John Hunter (the four writers of the
  treaty with the Cherokees) claimed the area
  around Nacogdoches was independent from
  Mexico.
• On December 16, 1826 they marched into
  Nacogdoches with a small group of rebels.
  They held a white and red flag that read,
  “Independence, Liberty, and Justice”.
• They forced the alcalde out of his office and
  took control of the city.
  The Fredonian Rebellion
• Stephen F. Austin did not agree with the
  Fredonian Rebellion.
• He and his settlers were trying to learn how to
  live under Spanish rule and they didn’t want
  any trouble with the Mexican government.
• Austin worried that Edwards’ trouble with the
  government would make all the settlers look
  bad.
• Austin gathered a militia to join the Mexican
  officials who went to put out the rebellion.
  The Fredonian Rebellion
• Edwards’ rebellion did not last long.
• After a month, word reached the officials in
  Mexico that Edwards had declared
  Nacogdoches independent.
• Mexican military forces were sent to put out the
  rebellion, but before they even arrived the
  Fredonians gave up.
• The Mexican government became more
  concerned with what happened in Texas after
  the Fredonian Rebellion.
http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/maps/texas/misc/fredonia.jpg
http://home.austin.rr.com/texrev/1826.HTM
An Attempt to Purchase Texas
• In 1826 the president of the United States was
  John Quincy Adams. People in America at that
  time wanted to move westward where there was
  more land and opportunity.
• Adams wanted to win the support of the
  American people so he sent Joel R. Poinsett to
  Mexico with an offer to buy Texas for 1 million
  dollars.
• The Mexican government was offended that
  anyone would think they would consider selling
  part of their country.
  The Mier y Teran Report
• Mexican officials became suspicious of the
  colonization in Texas because they
  worried that if too many settlers came from
  the United States they would lose control
  of the area.
• General Manuel Mier y Teran was sent to
  investigate Texas and write a report about
  what was going on there.
  The Mier y Teran Report
• Mier y Teran’s report claimed that there
  were many more American settlers then
  Mexican settlers in Texas. He said that
  the United States had a strong influence
  on those living in Texas and that these
  settlers were trading with the U.S.
• Mier y Teran’s suggestion was to keep
  slavery illegal in Mexico so that Texas
  would be a less desirable place for
  colonists to settle.
           Primary Source
• Manuel Mier y Teran’s letter to President
  Guadalupe Victoria
• June 30, 1828
• “The wealthy Americans of Louisiana and other
  western states are anxious to secure land in
  Texas for speculation, but they are restrained by
  the laws prohibiting slavery. If these laws should
  be repealed – which God forbid – in a few years
  Texas would be a powerful state which could
  compete in productions and wealth with
  Louisiana.”
  The Law of April 6, 1830
• This law outlawed immigration from the
  United States to Texas and canceled all
  empresarial grants that had not been
  fulfilled.
• People were no longer allowed to come
  from the United States and settle in Texas.
• However, people from Mexico and Europe
  WERE allowed to settle in Texas.
  The Law of April 6, 1830
• There were other provisions in the law that
  were meant to slow or stop Anglo
  American immigration.
• Slaves could no longer be brought into
  Mexico.
• New forts and presidios were built.
• Customs duties were put on all goods
  entering Texas from the United States.
          Vocabulary Check

Provisions
A specific requirement set by law



Customs Duty
A tax that is collected on goods that are
  taken into or out of a country
  The Law of April 6, 1830
• Anglo Texans were alarmed!
• Since they could no longer bring slaves
  into Texas they had trouble farming their
  cotton.
• The new taxes hurt the economy of
  Texans.
• Texans were upset that their friends and
  relatives from the United States could not
  join them in Texas.
  The Law of April 6, 1830
• This law not only made Texans mad, it
  also raised serious political questions
  within Mexico.
• Under the Constitution of 1824, this law
  should have been a state issue.
• Instead, the Law of April 6, 1830 came
  from the national government.
• This law didn’t resolve the crisis in Texas,
  instead it made the tension worse between
  Texans and the Mexican government.
1

OBJECTIVES
• Explain why tensions arose between the
  Mexican government and the Texas
settlers.
• Identify the events that led to the passage
of
  the Law of April 6, 1830.
• Describe the effect that the Law of April 6,
  1830, had on Texas colonists.
1


MAIN IDEA
Not long after colonization began in Texas,
conflicts erupted between the Mexican
government and the colonists. Even though
Mexican officials attempted to control the
conflicts, their efforts served to anger and
unify the colonists.

WHY IT MATTERS NOW
The issue of immigration continues to cause
conflict today between the United States and
Mexico.
1

CRITICAL THINKING
• What did nationalist leaders in Mexico
infer
  from the Fredonian Rebellion?
• What developments in Texas alarmed
the
  Mexican government? What actions by
the
• Mexican government alarmed Texans?
  Summarize the provisions of the Law of
  April 6, 1830, and describe Texans’
  reactions to it.
  A Bitter Division Evolves

Early battles and the Conventions of 1832
 and 1833 established the foundations of
 an independent Texas.
2


OBJECTIVES
• Describe the controversy surrounding the
  Constitution of 1824.

• Explain the significance of the Turtle Bayou
  Resolutions.

• Identify the events that led to the arrest
of
  Stephen F. Austin.
          Unrest in Texas
• Under the Law of April 6, 1830 Texans
  had to pay a customs duty on everything
  that came from the United States.
• In order to collect these new taxes, the
  Mexican government sent soldiers to
  Texas.
• Texans didn’t like having soldiers hanging
  around or having to pay new taxes to
  Mexico.
Santa Anna’s Rise to Power
• The president of Mexico, Anatasio
  Bustamente, had ignored the Constitution
  of 1824 by creating a strong national
  government.
• Under the Constitution of 1824 the states
  were given local control, so when
  President Bustamente took that power
  away, Mexican citizens were angry.
Santa Anna’s Rise to Power
• Santa Anna was in the Spanish military.
• He served on the mission to defeat the
  Gutierrez-Magee expedition.
• He shifted his allegiance from Spain to
  Mexico during the Mexican war for
  independence.
• He claimed to be opposed to the
  centralists.
• In 1832 he launched a revolution against
  President Bustamente.
         Vocabulary Check

Allegiance
Loyalty

Centralist
A supporter of strong national government
  and weak state power
Santa Anna’s Rise to Power
• Santa Anna was supported by many
  Texans in his revolution against President
  Bustamente because they did not like
  Mexico’s strong central government (they
  wanted to be able to make decisions for
  themselves).
• Stephen F. Austin helped convince
  Texans to support Santa Anna’s effort to
  preserve the states’ rights constitution.
      Conflict at Galveston
• George Fisher was a European who had
  emigrated to the United States in 1819.
• He wanted to be an empresario in Texas,
  but was denied a land grant.
• He became a Mexican citizen in 1829 an
  settled five hundred families in east Texas.
• The Mexican government appointed him to
  collect customs duties and to stop
  shippers from smuggling.
          Vocabulary Check


Smuggling
Illegally transporting goods
     Conflict at Galveston
• George Fisher had a hard time collecting
  the taxes and stopping the smuggling
  because shippers didn’t like paying
  customs duties and they didn’t want the
  Mexican government telling them they had
  to stop smuggling goods into Texas.
• Fisher required all ships to receive
  clearance papers from the customs house
  at Anahuac on Galveston Bay.
• Shippers who were going somewhere else
  still had to go through Galveston which
  made them angry.
 Bradburn Increases Tensions
• Colonel John Davis Bradburn was a
  Mexican official who supported the
  centralists in Mexico.
• His job was to enforce emigration laws
  (especially the Law of April 6, 1830).
• Bradburn arrested Francisco Madero for
  giving land titles to settlers who already
  were living in Texas.
• He also dismantled the settlement of
  Liberty.
 Bradburn Increases Tensions

• Bradburn also made Texans angry when
  he built a new fort at Anahuac.
• He required settlers to provide free
  materials and labor.
• He also used the colonists’ slaves to help
  build his public works.
• Things were getting very tense between
  the Texans and the Mexican government.
 The Disturbance at Anahuac

• In May 1832 William T. Logan came to
  Anahuac from the United States because
  two of his slaves had run away and he
  wanted to get them back.
• The slaves were with Colonel John Davis
  Bradburn and he told Logan the slaves
  would not be released unless Logan could
  prove they belonged to him.
• Logan hired an attorney named William
  Barrett Travis.
  The Distrubance at Anahuac

• Logan left Travis to deal with Bradburn
  and returned to Louisiana.
• Travis decided to try to trick Bradburn into
  returning the slaves. He sent a message
  to Bradburn saying that Logan had
  returned to Texas and had brought with
  him armed men.
• Bradburn sent out his soldiers to confront
  the armed men, but ended up looking
  foolish when Logan wasn’t there.
 The Disturbance at Anahuac
• Bradburn was angry that Travis had tried
  to trick him and he had Travis arrested.
• Travis’ law partner, Patrick Jack, protested
  the arrest. So, Bradburn had him arrested
  too.
• When Jack’s brother found out that Travis
  and Jack had been arrested he organized
  150 settlers to travel to Anahuac and
  protest.
 The Disturbance at Anahuac

• Bradburn told the protesters that if they
  would leave he would let Travis and Jack
  go free.
• When the settlers retreated, though,
  Bradburn did not release his prisoners.
• The colonists then decided to camp
  between Anahuac and Liberty at Turtle
  Bayou.
 Turtle Bayou Resolutions
• The settlers who were camped out in
  Turtle Bayou sent John Austin to Brazoria
  for a cannon.
• While they waited for Austin to come back
  they wrote down the Turtle Bayou
  Resolutions where they pledged their
  loyalty to Mexico and support for Santa
  Anna’s revolution.
          Vocabulary Check


Resolution
a formal written statement of a decision,
  opinion, or course of action by an official
  group
  Turtle Bayou Resolutions
• Meanwhile, Colonel Jose de las Piedras (a
  commander in the Mexican army) decided
  to investigate the disturbance in Anahuac.
• He released Travis and Jack when he
  arrived at Anahuac.
• He also relieved Bradburn of his
  command.
      The Battle of Velasco
• John Austin (who had gone to Brazoria for a
  cannon) had to fight his way back to Anahuac.
• He put the cannon on a ship and drove the ship
  down the Brazos toward the Gulf of Mexico.
• When his ship reached Velasco the Mexican
  commander, Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea,
  would not let them pass by.
• Austin’s men and the Mexican soldiers got into a
  fight and shot at each other.
      The Battle at Velasco
• People were hurt on both sides.
• Ten Texans and five Mexicans were killed.
• The Mexican soldiers eventually ran out of
  ammunition and had to surrender to the Texans.
• The Texans told the Mexican soldiers to go back
  to Mexico and the Texans continued to
  Anahuac.
• When they got there they were told that the
  conflict had already been resolved.
 The Conventions of 1832 and
            1833
• The Texans had been successful when
  they stood up to the Mexican government,
  but they were still unhappy with some of
  the decisions of the Mexican government.
• They chose about 56 delegates (men to
  represent them) in San Felipe in October
  of 1832 to write resolutions pledging their
  support for the Mexican government.
• These men elected Stephen F. Austin to
  be their president at this convention.
         Vocabulary Check
• Delegate
• A person who represents others
 The Conventions of 1832 and
            1833
• The delegates also asked the Mexican
  government to repeal the Law of April 6, 1830.
• They wanted Mexico to allow immigration from
  the United States and to exempt Texans from
  customs duties.
• The delegates also requested better protection
  from the native Americans and the creation of
  public schools.
• Finally, they wanted their state, Caohuila y
  Tejas, to be divided sot that each territory could
  have its own government.
 The Conventions of 1832 and
            1833
• When Stephen F. Austin went to San
  Antonio to get support from the Tejanos
  they refused to send the requests to the
  officials in Mexico City. This violated the
  Texans’ right to petition their government.
• While Austin was in San Antonio the
  convention delegates called another
  meeting (April 1, 1833). They chose
  William Wharton to lead the meeting.
 The Conventions of 1832 and
            1833

• The Convention of 1833 wrote a resolution
  that requested a new Mexican state of
  Texas.
• This was seen by many Mexicans as
  defiance against the government.
         Austin in Mexico
• Stephen F. Austin took a three month
  journey to Mexico City so he could deliver
  the Turtle Bayou Resolutions to the
  Mexican Government.
• When he got to Mexico City he found a
  city in turmoil. Santa Anna’s revolution
  was successful and there were many
  political changes being made. There was
  also an epidemic of cholera killing
  thousands of people.
        Austin in Mexico
• Santa Anna was away from Mexico City
  and had put Valentin Gomez Farias in
  charge of the government.
• Austin presented the resolutions to Gomez
  Farias, but didn’t get a response. So he
  wrote a letter to the Texans telling them
  they should set up a new state
  government for Texas.
• This would make Texas a separate state,
  but still part of Mexico.
        Austin in Mexico
• A month later, when Santa Anna was back
  in Mexico City, Austin met with Santa
  Anna.
• Santa Anna agreed with most of the Turtle
  Bayou Resolutions.
• He did not agree, though, that Texas
  should be its own state.
          Austin’s Arrest
• Stephen F. Austin left Mexico City after his
  meeting with Santa Anna.
• On his way home, however, he was
  arrested.
• Gomez Farias had intercepted Austin’s
  letter to the Texans (where he told them to
  create their own state government).
• This letter was considered a challenge to
  the authority of Mexico.
          Austin’s Arrest
• Austin had been arrested for treason, but
  he was never put on trial.
• Instead, he was jailed for a year.
• Two lawyers, Spencer Jack and Peter
  Grayson, were sent to Mexico City to
  petition for Austin’s release.
• On December 25, 1834 Austin was set
  free from prison, but he was placed under
  house arrest for several months.
• Finally in the summer of 1835 he was
  allowed to go home.
2


OBJECTIVES
• Describe the controversy surrounding the
  Constitution of 1824.

• Explain the significance of the Turtle Bayou
  Resolutions.

• Identify the events that led to the arrest
of
  Stephen F. Austin.
2


MAIN IDEA
Clashes between Texas colonists and
Mexican leaders over states’ rights led
Texans to petition for a separate state.

WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Early battles and the Conventions of
1832 and 1833 established the
foundations of an independent Texas.
2

CRITICAL THINKING
• Describe the problems that arose in
Texas
  concerning the Mexican Constitution
  of 1824.
• What message did the Texas colonists
  convey in the Turtle Bayou
Resolutions?
• What sequence of events resulted in the
  arrest of Stephen F. Austin?
The Conflict Escalates
When Santa Anna gained control of
 the Mexican government, he sent
 Mexican troops into Texas once
 again. His actions convinced
 many Texans that independence
 was the solution.
3

OBJECTIVES

• Explain the controversy that arose
over
  the Constitution of 1824.
• Describe Santa Anna’s role in the
  development of the Texas Revolution.

• Identify the significance of the Battle
  of Gonzales.
   Mexican Troops Return to
            Texas
• Santa Anna became the president of
  Mexico because he claimed to oppose the
  centralists (who wanted a strong national
  government).
• But, once Santa Anna was given power he
  tried to put all of the power in his own
  hands.
• He dismissed the Mexican congress and
  had a new constitution written.
• The new constitution gave Santa Anna all
  of the power.
   Mexican Troops Return to
            Texas
• General Martin Perfecto de Cos was sent
  by Santa Anna to northern Mexico in 1835.
• His job was to enforce Santa Anna’s laws
  and put down any rebellions.
• General Cos sent Antonio Tenorio to
  Anahuac so that the fort begun by
  Bradburn could be completed and the
  customs duties could be collected.
   Mexican Troops Return to
            Texas
• Tenorio had two Texans in Anahuac
  arrested because they did not show him
  respect.
• Texans were upset when they learned that
  their state government had been
  overthrown and that their governor had
  been imprisoned.
• These actions led some Texans to believe
  that their rights were being violated.
   Mexican Troops Return to
            Texas
• Texans reacted by meeting in Harrisburg
  and deciding to overthrow Tenorio.
• They chose William B. Travis as their
  leader.
• Travis and about 25 men went to Anahuac
  armed and forced Tenorio and his soldiers
  to surrender.
   War and Peace Parties
• There were two factions of people in
  Texas at this time.
• Texans who supported a free Texas (e.g.
  William B. Travis and William Wharton)
  were called the “war party”.
• Texans who wanted to “wait-and-see”
  what was going to happen were called the
  “peace party”.
       Centralist Reaction
• Travis led General Cos to San Antonio
  and when they arrived Cos demanded that
  Travis be arrested. The officials would not
  arrest Travis.
• When Stephen F. Austin returned from
  prison the colonists looked to him to settle
  the disputes between Texas and Mexico.
• Austin’s time in prison had convinced him
  that war was inevitable.
     Primary Source
 “War is our only recourse.
There is no other remedy. We
   must defend our rights,
ourselves, and our country by
        force of arms.”

     Stephen F. Austin
       Centralist Reaction
• Cos gathered a small army of soldiers to
  enforce the arrest of Travis and others
  who supported him.
• On the way, Colonel Ugartechea (a
  Mexican official) went to Gonzales to get a
  cannon that Cos wanted to take with him.
• The cannon had been provided by the
  Mexican government to help settlers
  defend themselves from indians.
    The Battle of Gonzales
• The alcalde of Gonzales was Andrew
  Ponton. He refused to give General Cos
  the cannon without written orders.
• The Mexican patrol retreated to wait for
  their written orders to take the cannon and
  while they were gone, Ponton had the
  Texans bury the cannon and prepare for
  the soldiers’ return.
   The Battle of Gonzales
• Around 160 Texan settlers
  gathered at Gonzales, elected J.
  H. Moore as their leader, and
  waited for the Mexican soldiers to
  return.
• They dug up the cannon and put
  a flag near it that read: “Come
  and Take It”.
      The Battle of Gonzales
• The Mexican soldiers returned led by
  Lieutenant Francisco Castaneda.
• They waited on the other side of the Guadalupe
  River when they saw the armed settlers.
• After several days of a stand-off Moor led his
  men across the Guadalupe with the cannon.
• They fired the cannon at Castaneda and the
  Mexican soldiers retreated to San Antonio.
   The Army of the People
• Texans who heard about the Battle of
  Gonzales began to volunteer in the fight
  for Texas’ independence.
• They marched to San Antonio to try to
  drive the Mexican soldiers out of Texas.
• As General Cos marched to San Antonio
  he sent 30 soldiers to Goliad so that they
  could protect the fort there.
   The Army of the People
• George Collingsworth led about 50 Texans
  to attack the 30 Mexican soldiers who
  were protecting the Goliad fort.
• There was a short fight and the Mexican
  soldiers surrendered.
• This battle proved two things to the
  Texans:
  – They believed the Mexican army would be
    easy to defeat.
  – They believed they could cut off the Mexican
    army from their supply route.
   The Army of the People
• The volunteers who had joined up to drive
  the Mexican soldiers from San Antonio
  organized themselves into the Army of the
  People.
• They elected Stephen F. Austin to lead
  them.
• These volunteers began a month-long
  siege of San Antonio.
        The Consultation
• The Consultation was a meeting in San
  Felipe of delegates who wanted to decide
  what action Texans should take.
• Both war party and peace party delegates
  were there.
• War party delegates wanted Texas to
  declare independence from Mexico.
• Peace party delegates wanted to remain
  loyal to the Constitution of 1824.
        The Consultation
• Delegates voted to declare Texas’
  independence on November 6, 1835 and
  the next day they adopted the “Declaration
  of the People in Texas in General
  Convention Assembled”.
• They pledged to remain loyal citizens of
  Mexico who supported the Constitution of
  1824.
• They also encouraged other Mexicans to
  join them.
        The Consultation
• The delegates set up a provisional
  government, elected Henry Smith as their
  governor, and sent Stephen F. Austin (and
  others) on a mission to raise money and
  troops in the United States.
• Edward Burleson was chosen to take
  Austin’s place as the leader in San
  Antonio.
• Sam Houston was chosen to lead the
  volunteer army.
             Vocabulary Check
• Faction
• A group of people who share a viewpoint on an
  issue

• Seige
• A lengthy military attack on a fortified place

• Provisional government
• A group of people who make laws and provide
  services on a temporary basis
   The Attack on San Antonio
• The Texans decided to attack San Antonio
  when they learned that General Cos’ troops
  were low on supplies.
• Ben Milam led 300 men on December 5th to
  begin the attack on San Antonio.
• The fight lasted five days and Milam was one of
  the first men killed.
• General Cos eventually surrendered to the
  Texans and gave them all of the money and
  supplies that were in San Antonio.
• He also pledged to never again oppose the
  Constitution of 1824.
3

OBJECTIVES

• Explain the controversy that arose
over
  the Constitution of 1824.
• Describe Santa Anna’s role in the
  development of the Texas Revolution.

• Identify the significance of the Battle
  of Gonzales.
3


MAIN IDEA
When Santa Anna gained control of the
Mexican government, he sent Mexican troops
into Texas once again. His actions convinced
many Texans that independence was the
solution.
WHY IT MATTERS NOW
Clashes between the colonists and the
Mexican soldiers led to the beginning of the
Texas Revolution.
3


CRITICAL THINKING
• How did Santa Anna’s new constitution
  create conflict in Texas?
• How did Santa Anna’s actions in 1835
  lead to physical conflict with the
Texans?
• What was the significance of the
Battle
  of Gonzales?
• How did the Texans’ actions differ from
  their words?
                              What do you want to know?
Causes                                                                          Effects
Many cultural differences existed between the settlers and government
officials.                                                                      Tensions increase between Mexican
Tensions also arose over the balance of power between the state and national    nationalists and Texas colonists.
government.
Problems with the Mexican government also arose over conflicting claims over
land.
The tensions in Texas finally resulted in a clash between the Texas colonists
and the Mexican government in the Fredonian Rebellion.
Mexican fears that settlers had secret ties with the United States increased
when the U.S. offered to purchase Texas in 1826.
                                                                                Outlawed immigration from the United States to Texas; canceled all
The Law of April 6, 1830 is passed.                                             empresarial grantes that had not been fulfilled; slaves could no longer be
The increasing number of settlers from the United States in Texas, the          brought into Mexico to work the fields for Anglo American colonists; new forts
Fredonian Rebellion, and the offer by the United States to purchase Texas       and presidios were establisted to stop illegal immigration; customs duties were
fueled concerns of the Mexican nationalists.                                    placed on all goods entering Texas from the United States.
General Mier y Teran was sent to investigate conditions in Texas and his        The law alarmed Anglo Texans.
report made it clear that Mexico must gain control of Texas.                    The law raised serious political questions within Mexico.
Mexican officials wanted to make Texas less attractive to current or future
colonists from the United States.


                                                                                Delegates gathered at San Felipe for a meeting to decide what action the
The Consultation is formed.                                                     Texans should take.
                                                                                On November 6, 1835, the Consultation voted against an immediate
                                                                                declaration of independence.
                                                                                They encouraged other loyal Mexicans to join them in their fight for the
                                                                                Constitution of 1824.
                                                                                The delegates set up a provisional government in Texas.
                                                                                The Consultation asked Stephen F. Austin to set out on a mission to the
                                                                                United States to raise troops and money for their cause.
                                                                                Sam Houston was appointed commander of their military forces.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
 Tensions Mount Between Mexico and
 Texas (pages 192–197)
 • What two factors led to the beginning conflicts
   between Texas colonists and Mexican
 leaders?
 • What conclusions did Mier y Terán make
   about the conditions in Texas?
 A Bitter Division Evolves (pages 198–
 204)
 • Why were the colonists upset by the
 presence
 • of Mexican troops in Texas? arrest Stephen
   What led Mexican officials to
 F.
   Austin?
REVIEW QUESTIONS           continued

 The Conflict Escalates (pages 205–210)
 • Why did the colonists in Texas
 change
   their opinion of Santa Anna?
 • What decision did the delegates at the
   Consultation make concerning Texas’s
   relationship with Mexico?
CRITICAL THINKING
 Making Inferences
 Describe the reaction of colonists to the
 Fredonian Rebellion. Who did most colonists
 side with? Why?

 Supporting a Point of View
 What was the colonists’ purpose for
 writing the Turtle Bayou Resolutions?
 What did they hope to accomplish?
CRITICAL THINKING        continued

 Making a Hypothesis
 What impact did the Texans’ victory at San
 Antonio have on future events? What
 might have changed if the Mexican troops
 had won this battle?

 Comparing Information
 Compare the causes of the Texas
 Revolution and the American Revolution.

				
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