The Road to Revolution Chapter 9 1826-1835 The Road to Revolution “I fully hoped to have found Texas at peace and in tranquility, but regret to find it in commotion; all disorganized, all in anarchy, and threatened with immediate hostilities. This state of things is deeply to be lamented.” -Texas empresario Stephen F. Austin Dictionary.com • Tranquility – a state of peace and quiet • Commotion - civil disturbance; disorder • Anarchy - political disorder and confusion • Hostilities - acts of war; overt warfare • Lamented - to regret deeply What do you know? What comes to mind when you hear the word revolution? Do you think of military battles? Or do you see revolution as a form of change or movement? You are probably familiar with several different kinds of revolutions. What do you want to know? Causes Effects Tensions increase between Mexican nationalists and Texas colonists. The Law of April 6, 1830 is passed. The Consultation is formed. The Road to Revolution 1826 The Fredonian Rebellion erupts 1830 Mexico passes Law of April 6, 1830 1832 Colonists and Mexican troops clash at Anahuac 1833 Stephen F. Austin imprisoned 1835 The Battle of Gonzales fought 1835 Texans and Mexican troops face off at Battle of San Antonio Tensions Mount Between Mexico and Texas Not long after colonization began in Texas, conflicts erupted between the Mexican government and the colonists. Even though Mexican officials attempted to control the conflicts, their efforts served to anger and unify the colonists. 1 OBJECTIVES • Explain why tensions arose between the Mexican government and the Texas settlers. • Identify the events that led to the passage of the Law of April 6, 1830. • Describe the effect that the Law of April 6, 1830, had on Texas colonists. Differences Arise • Settlers from the United States had to agree to adopt the laws and government of New Spain. This meant they had to convert to Catholicism and pledge loyalty to the Spanish king and queen. • Most colonists were willing to change their way of life and live as the Spanish government wanted them to. • But, some colonists did not really want to become loyal citizens of Mexico. A Question of States’ Rights • As in the United States of America, Mexico was divided into various states. Mexico’s Constitution of 1824 gave each of those states certain rights. • A states’ rights government is where the states have most of the political power. Before the Constitution of 1824 most of the power was in the hands of the federal government. A Question of States’ Right • Some leaders of the Mexican government did not approve of the states’ having so much power under the Constitution of 1824. • They felt that the power should belong to the national government. • These Mexican nationalists were concerned that too many settlers from the United States were moving to Texas. States’ Rights Issue Centralists/Nationalists Anti-centralists Supported removing some Wanted important political powers from the states and powers to remain with the giving more powers to the states. national government. The states should hold The federal government most of the power. should hold most of the power. President Bustamente Constitution of 1824 A Question of States’ Rights • Texas was in the state of Coahuila y Tejas. • Since the state of Coahuila y Tejas was on the border with the United States many American colonists settled there. • The Mexican government worried about too many American colonists coming to Texas because they might have wanted to make Texas a part of America. Vocabulary Check States Rights The theory that a state could choose whether to obey or enforce federal laws. Nationalists People who support policies that promote national interests. Competing Land Claims • Spanish colonists were living in the San Antonio area. • Stephen F. Austin and his colonists were living in the San Felipe area. • In 1825 Haden Edwards became the empresario of the eastern part of Texas (the Nacogdoches area). http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/maps/texas/statemap/1820-36tx.jpg Competing Land Claims • When Haden Edwards went to survey his land grant he discovered that there were already people living there. • Some of these “squatters” were Spanish colonists, some were Mexicans, and some were Cherokee families. • Edwards had bought the land and wanted control over who settled there, so he posted signs that said anyone living on the land needed to bring him proof of ownership. Competing Land Claims • Edwards’ response to the squatters angered Stephen F. Austin and other settlers in Texas. Austin wrote a letter to Edwards which called his behavior, “imprudent and improper” and “calculated to ruin yourself and materially injure all the American settlements”. • Other settlers wrote complaint letters to the Mexican government. The Edwards Brothers • The governor was fed up with the trouble caused by the Edwards Brothers so he responded by taking away Edwards’ land grant. He told the brothers they had to leave Texas. • Haden Edwards didn’t want to leave because he had invested $50,000 in his land grant. • Edwards responded to the governor by signing a treaty with the Cherokees in the area. The Fredonian Rebellion • Benjamin Edwards, Harman Mayo, Richard Fields and John Hunter (the four writers of the treaty with the Cherokees) claimed the area around Nacogdoches was independent from Mexico. • On December 16, 1826 they marched into Nacogdoches with a small group of rebels. They held a white and red flag that read, “Independence, Liberty, and Justice”. • They forced the alcalde out of his office and took control of the city. The Fredonian Rebellion • Stephen F. Austin did not agree with the Fredonian Rebellion. • He and his settlers were trying to learn how to live under Spanish rule and they didn’t want any trouble with the Mexican government. • Austin worried that Edwards’ trouble with the government would make all the settlers look bad. • Austin gathered a militia to join the Mexican officials who went to put out the rebellion. The Fredonian Rebellion • Edwards’ rebellion did not last long. • After a month, word reached the officials in Mexico that Edwards had declared Nacogdoches independent. • Mexican military forces were sent to put out the rebellion, but before they even arrived the Fredonians gave up. • The Mexican government became more concerned with what happened in Texas after the Fredonian Rebellion. http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/maps/texas/misc/fredonia.jpg http://home.austin.rr.com/texrev/1826.HTM An Attempt to Purchase Texas • In 1826 the president of the United States was John Quincy Adams. People in America at that time wanted to move westward where there was more land and opportunity. • Adams wanted to win the support of the American people so he sent Joel R. Poinsett to Mexico with an offer to buy Texas for 1 million dollars. • The Mexican government was offended that anyone would think they would consider selling part of their country. The Mier y Teran Report • Mexican officials became suspicious of the colonization in Texas because they worried that if too many settlers came from the United States they would lose control of the area. • General Manuel Mier y Teran was sent to investigate Texas and write a report about what was going on there. The Mier y Teran Report • Mier y Teran’s report claimed that there were many more American settlers then Mexican settlers in Texas. He said that the United States had a strong influence on those living in Texas and that these settlers were trading with the U.S. • Mier y Teran’s suggestion was to keep slavery illegal in Mexico so that Texas would be a less desirable place for colonists to settle. Primary Source • Manuel Mier y Teran’s letter to President Guadalupe Victoria • June 30, 1828 • “The wealthy Americans of Louisiana and other western states are anxious to secure land in Texas for speculation, but they are restrained by the laws prohibiting slavery. If these laws should be repealed – which God forbid – in a few years Texas would be a powerful state which could compete in productions and wealth with Louisiana.” The Law of April 6, 1830 • This law outlawed immigration from the United States to Texas and canceled all empresarial grants that had not been fulfilled. • People were no longer allowed to come from the United States and settle in Texas. • However, people from Mexico and Europe WERE allowed to settle in Texas. The Law of April 6, 1830 • There were other provisions in the law that were meant to slow or stop Anglo American immigration. • Slaves could no longer be brought into Mexico. • New forts and presidios were built. • Customs duties were put on all goods entering Texas from the United States. Vocabulary Check Provisions A specific requirement set by law Customs Duty A tax that is collected on goods that are taken into or out of a country The Law of April 6, 1830 • Anglo Texans were alarmed! • Since they could no longer bring slaves into Texas they had trouble farming their cotton. • The new taxes hurt the economy of Texans. • Texans were upset that their friends and relatives from the United States could not join them in Texas. The Law of April 6, 1830 • This law not only made Texans mad, it also raised serious political questions within Mexico. • Under the Constitution of 1824, this law should have been a state issue. • Instead, the Law of April 6, 1830 came from the national government. • This law didn’t resolve the crisis in Texas, instead it made the tension worse between Texans and the Mexican government. 1 OBJECTIVES • Explain why tensions arose between the Mexican government and the Texas settlers. • Identify the events that led to the passage of the Law of April 6, 1830. • Describe the effect that the Law of April 6, 1830, had on Texas colonists. 1 MAIN IDEA Not long after colonization began in Texas, conflicts erupted between the Mexican government and the colonists. Even though Mexican officials attempted to control the conflicts, their efforts served to anger and unify the colonists. WHY IT MATTERS NOW The issue of immigration continues to cause conflict today between the United States and Mexico. 1 CRITICAL THINKING • What did nationalist leaders in Mexico infer from the Fredonian Rebellion? • What developments in Texas alarmed the Mexican government? What actions by the • Mexican government alarmed Texans? Summarize the provisions of the Law of April 6, 1830, and describe Texans’ reactions to it. A Bitter Division Evolves Early battles and the Conventions of 1832 and 1833 established the foundations of an independent Texas. 2 OBJECTIVES • Describe the controversy surrounding the Constitution of 1824. • Explain the significance of the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. • Identify the events that led to the arrest of Stephen F. Austin. Unrest in Texas • Under the Law of April 6, 1830 Texans had to pay a customs duty on everything that came from the United States. • In order to collect these new taxes, the Mexican government sent soldiers to Texas. • Texans didn’t like having soldiers hanging around or having to pay new taxes to Mexico. Santa Anna’s Rise to Power • The president of Mexico, Anatasio Bustamente, had ignored the Constitution of 1824 by creating a strong national government. • Under the Constitution of 1824 the states were given local control, so when President Bustamente took that power away, Mexican citizens were angry. Santa Anna’s Rise to Power • Santa Anna was in the Spanish military. • He served on the mission to defeat the Gutierrez-Magee expedition. • He shifted his allegiance from Spain to Mexico during the Mexican war for independence. • He claimed to be opposed to the centralists. • In 1832 he launched a revolution against President Bustamente. Vocabulary Check Allegiance Loyalty Centralist A supporter of strong national government and weak state power Santa Anna’s Rise to Power • Santa Anna was supported by many Texans in his revolution against President Bustamente because they did not like Mexico’s strong central government (they wanted to be able to make decisions for themselves). • Stephen F. Austin helped convince Texans to support Santa Anna’s effort to preserve the states’ rights constitution. Conflict at Galveston • George Fisher was a European who had emigrated to the United States in 1819. • He wanted to be an empresario in Texas, but was denied a land grant. • He became a Mexican citizen in 1829 an settled five hundred families in east Texas. • The Mexican government appointed him to collect customs duties and to stop shippers from smuggling. Vocabulary Check Smuggling Illegally transporting goods Conflict at Galveston • George Fisher had a hard time collecting the taxes and stopping the smuggling because shippers didn’t like paying customs duties and they didn’t want the Mexican government telling them they had to stop smuggling goods into Texas. • Fisher required all ships to receive clearance papers from the customs house at Anahuac on Galveston Bay. • Shippers who were going somewhere else still had to go through Galveston which made them angry. Bradburn Increases Tensions • Colonel John Davis Bradburn was a Mexican official who supported the centralists in Mexico. • His job was to enforce emigration laws (especially the Law of April 6, 1830). • Bradburn arrested Francisco Madero for giving land titles to settlers who already were living in Texas. • He also dismantled the settlement of Liberty. Bradburn Increases Tensions • Bradburn also made Texans angry when he built a new fort at Anahuac. • He required settlers to provide free materials and labor. • He also used the colonists’ slaves to help build his public works. • Things were getting very tense between the Texans and the Mexican government. The Disturbance at Anahuac • In May 1832 William T. Logan came to Anahuac from the United States because two of his slaves had run away and he wanted to get them back. • The slaves were with Colonel John Davis Bradburn and he told Logan the slaves would not be released unless Logan could prove they belonged to him. • Logan hired an attorney named William Barrett Travis. The Distrubance at Anahuac • Logan left Travis to deal with Bradburn and returned to Louisiana. • Travis decided to try to trick Bradburn into returning the slaves. He sent a message to Bradburn saying that Logan had returned to Texas and had brought with him armed men. • Bradburn sent out his soldiers to confront the armed men, but ended up looking foolish when Logan wasn’t there. The Disturbance at Anahuac • Bradburn was angry that Travis had tried to trick him and he had Travis arrested. • Travis’ law partner, Patrick Jack, protested the arrest. So, Bradburn had him arrested too. • When Jack’s brother found out that Travis and Jack had been arrested he organized 150 settlers to travel to Anahuac and protest. The Disturbance at Anahuac • Bradburn told the protesters that if they would leave he would let Travis and Jack go free. • When the settlers retreated, though, Bradburn did not release his prisoners. • The colonists then decided to camp between Anahuac and Liberty at Turtle Bayou. Turtle Bayou Resolutions • The settlers who were camped out in Turtle Bayou sent John Austin to Brazoria for a cannon. • While they waited for Austin to come back they wrote down the Turtle Bayou Resolutions where they pledged their loyalty to Mexico and support for Santa Anna’s revolution. Vocabulary Check Resolution a formal written statement of a decision, opinion, or course of action by an official group Turtle Bayou Resolutions • Meanwhile, Colonel Jose de las Piedras (a commander in the Mexican army) decided to investigate the disturbance in Anahuac. • He released Travis and Jack when he arrived at Anahuac. • He also relieved Bradburn of his command. The Battle of Velasco • John Austin (who had gone to Brazoria for a cannon) had to fight his way back to Anahuac. • He put the cannon on a ship and drove the ship down the Brazos toward the Gulf of Mexico. • When his ship reached Velasco the Mexican commander, Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea, would not let them pass by. • Austin’s men and the Mexican soldiers got into a fight and shot at each other. The Battle at Velasco • People were hurt on both sides. • Ten Texans and five Mexicans were killed. • The Mexican soldiers eventually ran out of ammunition and had to surrender to the Texans. • The Texans told the Mexican soldiers to go back to Mexico and the Texans continued to Anahuac. • When they got there they were told that the conflict had already been resolved. The Conventions of 1832 and 1833 • The Texans had been successful when they stood up to the Mexican government, but they were still unhappy with some of the decisions of the Mexican government. • They chose about 56 delegates (men to represent them) in San Felipe in October of 1832 to write resolutions pledging their support for the Mexican government. • These men elected Stephen F. Austin to be their president at this convention. Vocabulary Check • Delegate • A person who represents others The Conventions of 1832 and 1833 • The delegates also asked the Mexican government to repeal the Law of April 6, 1830. • They wanted Mexico to allow immigration from the United States and to exempt Texans from customs duties. • The delegates also requested better protection from the native Americans and the creation of public schools. • Finally, they wanted their state, Caohuila y Tejas, to be divided sot that each territory could have its own government. The Conventions of 1832 and 1833 • When Stephen F. Austin went to San Antonio to get support from the Tejanos they refused to send the requests to the officials in Mexico City. This violated the Texans’ right to petition their government. • While Austin was in San Antonio the convention delegates called another meeting (April 1, 1833). They chose William Wharton to lead the meeting. The Conventions of 1832 and 1833 • The Convention of 1833 wrote a resolution that requested a new Mexican state of Texas. • This was seen by many Mexicans as defiance against the government. Austin in Mexico • Stephen F. Austin took a three month journey to Mexico City so he could deliver the Turtle Bayou Resolutions to the Mexican Government. • When he got to Mexico City he found a city in turmoil. Santa Anna’s revolution was successful and there were many political changes being made. There was also an epidemic of cholera killing thousands of people. Austin in Mexico • Santa Anna was away from Mexico City and had put Valentin Gomez Farias in charge of the government. • Austin presented the resolutions to Gomez Farias, but didn’t get a response. So he wrote a letter to the Texans telling them they should set up a new state government for Texas. • This would make Texas a separate state, but still part of Mexico. Austin in Mexico • A month later, when Santa Anna was back in Mexico City, Austin met with Santa Anna. • Santa Anna agreed with most of the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. • He did not agree, though, that Texas should be its own state. Austin’s Arrest • Stephen F. Austin left Mexico City after his meeting with Santa Anna. • On his way home, however, he was arrested. • Gomez Farias had intercepted Austin’s letter to the Texans (where he told them to create their own state government). • This letter was considered a challenge to the authority of Mexico. Austin’s Arrest • Austin had been arrested for treason, but he was never put on trial. • Instead, he was jailed for a year. • Two lawyers, Spencer Jack and Peter Grayson, were sent to Mexico City to petition for Austin’s release. • On December 25, 1834 Austin was set free from prison, but he was placed under house arrest for several months. • Finally in the summer of 1835 he was allowed to go home. 2 OBJECTIVES • Describe the controversy surrounding the Constitution of 1824. • Explain the significance of the Turtle Bayou Resolutions. • Identify the events that led to the arrest of Stephen F. Austin. 2 MAIN IDEA Clashes between Texas colonists and Mexican leaders over states’ rights led Texans to petition for a separate state. WHY IT MATTERS NOW Early battles and the Conventions of 1832 and 1833 established the foundations of an independent Texas. 2 CRITICAL THINKING • Describe the problems that arose in Texas concerning the Mexican Constitution of 1824. • What message did the Texas colonists convey in the Turtle Bayou Resolutions? • What sequence of events resulted in the arrest of Stephen F. Austin? The Conflict Escalates When Santa Anna gained control of the Mexican government, he sent Mexican troops into Texas once again. His actions convinced many Texans that independence was the solution. 3 OBJECTIVES • Explain the controversy that arose over the Constitution of 1824. • Describe Santa Anna’s role in the development of the Texas Revolution. • Identify the significance of the Battle of Gonzales. Mexican Troops Return to Texas • Santa Anna became the president of Mexico because he claimed to oppose the centralists (who wanted a strong national government). • But, once Santa Anna was given power he tried to put all of the power in his own hands. • He dismissed the Mexican congress and had a new constitution written. • The new constitution gave Santa Anna all of the power. Mexican Troops Return to Texas • General Martin Perfecto de Cos was sent by Santa Anna to northern Mexico in 1835. • His job was to enforce Santa Anna’s laws and put down any rebellions. • General Cos sent Antonio Tenorio to Anahuac so that the fort begun by Bradburn could be completed and the customs duties could be collected. Mexican Troops Return to Texas • Tenorio had two Texans in Anahuac arrested because they did not show him respect. • Texans were upset when they learned that their state government had been overthrown and that their governor had been imprisoned. • These actions led some Texans to believe that their rights were being violated. Mexican Troops Return to Texas • Texans reacted by meeting in Harrisburg and deciding to overthrow Tenorio. • They chose William B. Travis as their leader. • Travis and about 25 men went to Anahuac armed and forced Tenorio and his soldiers to surrender. War and Peace Parties • There were two factions of people in Texas at this time. • Texans who supported a free Texas (e.g. William B. Travis and William Wharton) were called the “war party”. • Texans who wanted to “wait-and-see” what was going to happen were called the “peace party”. Centralist Reaction • Travis led General Cos to San Antonio and when they arrived Cos demanded that Travis be arrested. The officials would not arrest Travis. • When Stephen F. Austin returned from prison the colonists looked to him to settle the disputes between Texas and Mexico. • Austin’s time in prison had convinced him that war was inevitable. Primary Source “War is our only recourse. There is no other remedy. We must defend our rights, ourselves, and our country by force of arms.” Stephen F. Austin Centralist Reaction • Cos gathered a small army of soldiers to enforce the arrest of Travis and others who supported him. • On the way, Colonel Ugartechea (a Mexican official) went to Gonzales to get a cannon that Cos wanted to take with him. • The cannon had been provided by the Mexican government to help settlers defend themselves from indians. The Battle of Gonzales • The alcalde of Gonzales was Andrew Ponton. He refused to give General Cos the cannon without written orders. • The Mexican patrol retreated to wait for their written orders to take the cannon and while they were gone, Ponton had the Texans bury the cannon and prepare for the soldiers’ return. The Battle of Gonzales • Around 160 Texan settlers gathered at Gonzales, elected J. H. Moore as their leader, and waited for the Mexican soldiers to return. • They dug up the cannon and put a flag near it that read: “Come and Take It”. The Battle of Gonzales • The Mexican soldiers returned led by Lieutenant Francisco Castaneda. • They waited on the other side of the Guadalupe River when they saw the armed settlers. • After several days of a stand-off Moor led his men across the Guadalupe with the cannon. • They fired the cannon at Castaneda and the Mexican soldiers retreated to San Antonio. The Army of the People • Texans who heard about the Battle of Gonzales began to volunteer in the fight for Texas’ independence. • They marched to San Antonio to try to drive the Mexican soldiers out of Texas. • As General Cos marched to San Antonio he sent 30 soldiers to Goliad so that they could protect the fort there. The Army of the People • George Collingsworth led about 50 Texans to attack the 30 Mexican soldiers who were protecting the Goliad fort. • There was a short fight and the Mexican soldiers surrendered. • This battle proved two things to the Texans: – They believed the Mexican army would be easy to defeat. – They believed they could cut off the Mexican army from their supply route. The Army of the People • The volunteers who had joined up to drive the Mexican soldiers from San Antonio organized themselves into the Army of the People. • They elected Stephen F. Austin to lead them. • These volunteers began a month-long siege of San Antonio. The Consultation • The Consultation was a meeting in San Felipe of delegates who wanted to decide what action Texans should take. • Both war party and peace party delegates were there. • War party delegates wanted Texas to declare independence from Mexico. • Peace party delegates wanted to remain loyal to the Constitution of 1824. The Consultation • Delegates voted to declare Texas’ independence on November 6, 1835 and the next day they adopted the “Declaration of the People in Texas in General Convention Assembled”. • They pledged to remain loyal citizens of Mexico who supported the Constitution of 1824. • They also encouraged other Mexicans to join them. The Consultation • The delegates set up a provisional government, elected Henry Smith as their governor, and sent Stephen F. Austin (and others) on a mission to raise money and troops in the United States. • Edward Burleson was chosen to take Austin’s place as the leader in San Antonio. • Sam Houston was chosen to lead the volunteer army. Vocabulary Check • Faction • A group of people who share a viewpoint on an issue • Seige • A lengthy military attack on a fortified place • Provisional government • A group of people who make laws and provide services on a temporary basis The Attack on San Antonio • The Texans decided to attack San Antonio when they learned that General Cos’ troops were low on supplies. • Ben Milam led 300 men on December 5th to begin the attack on San Antonio. • The fight lasted five days and Milam was one of the first men killed. • General Cos eventually surrendered to the Texans and gave them all of the money and supplies that were in San Antonio. • He also pledged to never again oppose the Constitution of 1824. 3 OBJECTIVES • Explain the controversy that arose over the Constitution of 1824. • Describe Santa Anna’s role in the development of the Texas Revolution. • Identify the significance of the Battle of Gonzales. 3 MAIN IDEA When Santa Anna gained control of the Mexican government, he sent Mexican troops into Texas once again. His actions convinced many Texans that independence was the solution. WHY IT MATTERS NOW Clashes between the colonists and the Mexican soldiers led to the beginning of the Texas Revolution. 3 CRITICAL THINKING • How did Santa Anna’s new constitution create conflict in Texas? • How did Santa Anna’s actions in 1835 lead to physical conflict with the Texans? • What was the significance of the Battle of Gonzales? • How did the Texans’ actions differ from their words? What do you want to know? Causes Effects Many cultural differences existed between the settlers and government officials. Tensions increase between Mexican Tensions also arose over the balance of power between the state and national nationalists and Texas colonists. government. Problems with the Mexican government also arose over conflicting claims over land. The tensions in Texas finally resulted in a clash between the Texas colonists and the Mexican government in the Fredonian Rebellion. Mexican fears that settlers had secret ties with the United States increased when the U.S. offered to purchase Texas in 1826. Outlawed immigration from the United States to Texas; canceled all The Law of April 6, 1830 is passed. empresarial grantes that had not been fulfilled; slaves could no longer be The increasing number of settlers from the United States in Texas, the brought into Mexico to work the fields for Anglo American colonists; new forts Fredonian Rebellion, and the offer by the United States to purchase Texas and presidios were establisted to stop illegal immigration; customs duties were fueled concerns of the Mexican nationalists. placed on all goods entering Texas from the United States. General Mier y Teran was sent to investigate conditions in Texas and his The law alarmed Anglo Texans. report made it clear that Mexico must gain control of Texas. The law raised serious political questions within Mexico. Mexican officials wanted to make Texas less attractive to current or future colonists from the United States. Delegates gathered at San Felipe for a meeting to decide what action the The Consultation is formed. Texans should take. On November 6, 1835, the Consultation voted against an immediate declaration of independence. They encouraged other loyal Mexicans to join them in their fight for the Constitution of 1824. The delegates set up a provisional government in Texas. The Consultation asked Stephen F. Austin to set out on a mission to the United States to raise troops and money for their cause. Sam Houston was appointed commander of their military forces. REVIEW QUESTIONS Tensions Mount Between Mexico and Texas (pages 192–197) • What two factors led to the beginning conflicts between Texas colonists and Mexican leaders? • What conclusions did Mier y Terán make about the conditions in Texas? A Bitter Division Evolves (pages 198– 204) • Why were the colonists upset by the presence • of Mexican troops in Texas? arrest Stephen What led Mexican officials to F. Austin? REVIEW QUESTIONS continued The Conflict Escalates (pages 205–210) • Why did the colonists in Texas change their opinion of Santa Anna? • What decision did the delegates at the Consultation make concerning Texas’s relationship with Mexico? CRITICAL THINKING Making Inferences Describe the reaction of colonists to the Fredonian Rebellion. Who did most colonists side with? Why? Supporting a Point of View What was the colonists’ purpose for writing the Turtle Bayou Resolutions? What did they hope to accomplish? CRITICAL THINKING continued Making a Hypothesis What impact did the Texans’ victory at San Antonio have on future events? What might have changed if the Mexican troops had won this battle? Comparing Information Compare the causes of the Texas Revolution and the American Revolution.