Dr. Michael Nightingale+Reflections on maximizing presentation

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					HTMi Research Conference
       May 2010
                     Michael Nightingale
                     University of Guelph
Aim of presentation
 Give a personal perspective on the responsibility of the
  learner in building the foundations for a successful
  career.
 Drawing on current thinking in North America on
  what contemporary college graduates need to know
  and be able to do.
 Value of incorporating experiential learning into
  professional programs in hospitality and tourism.
Structure of presentation

 Approaches to learning
 Research on learning in North America
 New vision for learning
 Experiential learning
 Keys to maximising learning
“Improbable research”
 “Each fall, a horde of illiterate, ignorant cretins enters
 Canada’s universities. A few years later, they all move
 on, just as illiterate, just as ignorant and rather more
 cretinous, but now armed with bits of paper, which
 most of them are probably not able to read, called
 degrees.”

                                        Martin (2009)
An approach to learning
“As students enter college, most do not imagine being
 responsible for their own learning. They believe that,
 somehow teachers make them learn or, in some cases,
 prevent them from learning. Many even see
 assignments, required courses and exams as obstacles
 to get around on their way to their ticket for the future
 – the degree.”

                                      Miller & Morgaine (2009)
This approach will not:
 Prepare you for a reshaped world.
 Develop the skills required to be leaders in:
    Your work
    Your personal lives, and
    Your communities?
 Enable you to adapt to the changing structure of
 knowledge?
How the world is being reshaped
 Increasing scientific & technological innovation
 Growth of global interdependence rather than
    insularity
   More cross-cultural encounters
   Changes in balance of economic & political power
   Less certainty and more ambiguity
   More volatility in career paths
   North America challenged to engage in new ways with
    the global community
                                              LEAP (2005)
World of work skills
  Initiative, integrity & persistence
  Self discipline, self confidence & self direction,
  Ability to
     cope with ambiguity, uncertainty and rapid change,
     work with multiple perspectives
     communicate effectively,
     think creatively as well as critically to solve problems,
     be interdependent & work with others, different to
      ourselves
     be “co-creative partners , and
     demonstrate supervisory skills.

                                     Oblinger & Verville (1998) & Zohar (1997)
Employers’ expectations
 Favour assessments of real-world and applied learning
  (E.g. comprehensive senior projects, supervised
  internships and community based projects)
 Also essay tests , and
 Electronic portfolios of student work, which provide
  evidence of ability in writing, creativity and problem
  solving from written work to visual work to virtual
  work.
                                               Maki (2009)
Life and citizenship skills
 On graduation individuals:
   want to know themselves and how to relate to others,
   wish to explore their own values,
   process information gathered from the external world, and
   envision a path, and to be proceeding down that path.
 On graduation individuals concerns were:
   having career success,
   finding meaningful relationships,
   finding their way in the adult world,
   establishing families, and
   in general “being happy.
                                            Baxter Magolda (2001)
The changing structure of knowledge
                                                             Summerlee (2007)


 Knowledge was …..
    Hierarchical         Choatic
    Prescribed
                          Random
    Known (finite)
                          Infinite

 Impact was ……
    Places of learning
    Organized                Information is democratized
    Taught in sequence       Ubiquitously available
                              Cannot be taught in sequence
BSc /BA
Three dimensions of the journey
• Intellectual development -How we know or decide what to
  believe
• Sense of identity - How we view ourselves
• Relationship with others - How we construct relationships




                                      Baxter Magolda (2001)
New vision for learning
 Degrees or diploma which represent new forms of
  learning and educational outcomes.
 Forms that:
   prepare graduates, as fully as possible, for the real- world
    demands of work, life and citizenship in a complex and
    fast changing society.
   offer a professional and liberal education.
 Outcomes that:
   foster & develop across the whole learning experience.
   develop “intentional learners”.
                                                      LEAP (2005)
Essential learning outcomes
 Knowledge of human cultures and the physical and
    natural world
   Intellectual & practical skills
   Professional skills
   Personal & social responsibility
   Integrative learning


                                            LEAP (2005)
Knowledge of human cultures and
the physical and natural world
 Sciences & Mathematics
 Social sciences
 Humanities & Histories
 Languages & Arts


Focused by engagement with big questions both
 contemporary & enduring.
                                           LEAP (2005)
Intellectual & practical skills
   Inquiry & analysis
   Critical & creative thinking
   Written & oral communication
   Quantitative & information literacy
   Teamwork & problem solving

Practiced extensively, across the curriculum, in the
 context of progressively more challenging problems,
 projects & standards for performance.
                                             LEAP (2005)
Professional skills
  Hospitality & tourism:
     Understanding consumer expectations
     Design & delivery of quality service experiences, within an
      appropriate environment, to meet consumer expectations
  Leadership:
     Promoting a vision & setting an example as a professional
     Motivating people
  Business management: (e.g. Technology, finance,
   sales & legal requirements)

    Practiced extensively, across the curriculum, in the context of
      progressively more challenging problems, projects &
      standards for performance.
Personal & social responsibility
 Civic knowledge & engagement (local & global)
 Intercultural knowledge & competence
 Ethical reasoning & action
 Foundations & skills for lifelong learning


Anchored through active involvement with diverse
 communities and real-world challenges.

                                               LEAP (2005)
Integrative learning
 “How it all fits together” Synthesis & advanced
 accomplishment across general & specialized studies.



Demonstrated through the application of knowledge,
 skills & responsibilities to new settings & complex
 problems.

                                             LEAP (2005)
Experiential learning
                                                     Kolb & Fry (1975)
                           Concrete experience




Test implications in new                           Observations & reflections
        settings




                           Formation of concepts
Experiential learning
        Adapting to the world
        Tension and conflict filled and difficult to do
        Varied abilities
    1.     Concrete experience (poet)
    2.     Reflective observation (naturalist)
    3.     Abstract conceptualisation (mathematician)
    4.     Active experimentation (manger )

                                                Kolb & Fry (1975)
Fundamental questions
 How you learn effectively
 Are you achieving the kind of learning you need for
  work, life, and citizenship.
 How do you learn to deal with complexity and
  uncertainty?
Make learning a way of life
 Use the essential learning outcomes
 Develop a plan of study
 Immerse yourselves in activities that develop strong
    arts of inquiry & innovation skills
   Engage the big questions
   Connect knowledge with choices & action in real world
   Adopt civic, intercultural & ethical learning
   Challenge complex problems – use assessment as a
    means of continuous improvement.
                                              LEAP (2005)
Adopt smart practices
 Develop strong study and time management skills
 Participate in activities outside classroom
 Make connections - seek help & advice
 Work collaboratively/small groups
 Play with stronger players
 Learn from the strength of diversity
 Work on writing opportunities
 Learn to think like a professional
                                                Light (2001)
A final reflection
  “Be responsible for your own learning.. See
 assignments as opportunities to enhance your
 knowledge and skills, and ways of gaining a deeper
 understanding of yourself and how you relate to the
 world. Contribute to the learning of those around you
 as well as drawing on them to help facilitate your own
 learning. And regard a parchment of a diploma or
 degree as a symbol of having taken full advantage of
 each learning opportunity presented to you along the
 way.
References
 Baxter Magolda, M. B., (2001). Making their own way: narratives for transforming higher
    education to promote self development. Stylus Publishing.
   Bringle, R. G. & Hatcher, J. A. (2009). Innovative Practices in Service-Learning and Curricular
    Engagement. New Directions for Higher Education, 147, 37-46.
   LEAP [Liberal Education and American Promise], (2007). College Learning for the New Global
    Century, Liberal Education, Winter, 36-43.
   Light, R. J., (2001) Making the most of college: students speak their minds. Harvard.
   Martin, R. (2009). Interchange.. August.
   Miller, R. & Morgaine, W., (2009). The benefits of e-portfolios for students and faculty, in their
    own words. Peer Review, 11 (1), 8-12.
   Oblinger, D. G. & Verville, A-L., (1998). What business wants from higher education, Oryx
    Press.
   Summerlee, A. (2007) The changing structure of knowledge, The Botswana International
    University of Science and Technology Strategic Conference, Palapye, August.
   Zohar, D., (1997), Rewiring the corporate brain: using the new science to rewire corporate
    thinking. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Thank you !!!

				
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