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HTMi Research Conference May 2010 Michael Nightingale University of Guelph Aim of presentation Give a personal perspective on the responsibility of the learner in building the foundations for a successful career. Drawing on current thinking in North America on what contemporary college graduates need to know and be able to do. Value of incorporating experiential learning into professional programs in hospitality and tourism. Structure of presentation Approaches to learning Research on learning in North America New vision for learning Experiential learning Keys to maximising learning “Improbable research” “Each fall, a horde of illiterate, ignorant cretins enters Canada’s universities. A few years later, they all move on, just as illiterate, just as ignorant and rather more cretinous, but now armed with bits of paper, which most of them are probably not able to read, called degrees.” Martin (2009) An approach to learning “As students enter college, most do not imagine being responsible for their own learning. They believe that, somehow teachers make them learn or, in some cases, prevent them from learning. Many even see assignments, required courses and exams as obstacles to get around on their way to their ticket for the future – the degree.” Miller & Morgaine (2009) This approach will not: Prepare you for a reshaped world. Develop the skills required to be leaders in: Your work Your personal lives, and Your communities? Enable you to adapt to the changing structure of knowledge? How the world is being reshaped Increasing scientific & technological innovation Growth of global interdependence rather than insularity More cross-cultural encounters Changes in balance of economic & political power Less certainty and more ambiguity More volatility in career paths North America challenged to engage in new ways with the global community LEAP (2005) World of work skills Initiative, integrity & persistence Self discipline, self confidence & self direction, Ability to cope with ambiguity, uncertainty and rapid change, work with multiple perspectives communicate effectively, think creatively as well as critically to solve problems, be interdependent & work with others, different to ourselves be “co-creative partners , and demonstrate supervisory skills. Oblinger & Verville (1998) & Zohar (1997) Employers’ expectations Favour assessments of real-world and applied learning (E.g. comprehensive senior projects, supervised internships and community based projects) Also essay tests , and Electronic portfolios of student work, which provide evidence of ability in writing, creativity and problem solving from written work to visual work to virtual work. Maki (2009) Life and citizenship skills On graduation individuals: want to know themselves and how to relate to others, wish to explore their own values, process information gathered from the external world, and envision a path, and to be proceeding down that path. On graduation individuals concerns were: having career success, finding meaningful relationships, finding their way in the adult world, establishing families, and in general “being happy. Baxter Magolda (2001) The changing structure of knowledge Summerlee (2007) Knowledge was ….. Hierarchical Choatic Prescribed Random Known (finite) Infinite Impact was …… Places of learning Organized Information is democratized Taught in sequence Ubiquitously available Cannot be taught in sequence BSc /BA Three dimensions of the journey • Intellectual development -How we know or decide what to believe • Sense of identity - How we view ourselves • Relationship with others - How we construct relationships Baxter Magolda (2001) New vision for learning Degrees or diploma which represent new forms of learning and educational outcomes. Forms that: prepare graduates, as fully as possible, for the real- world demands of work, life and citizenship in a complex and fast changing society. offer a professional and liberal education. Outcomes that: foster & develop across the whole learning experience. develop “intentional learners”. LEAP (2005) Essential learning outcomes Knowledge of human cultures and the physical and natural world Intellectual & practical skills Professional skills Personal & social responsibility Integrative learning LEAP (2005) Knowledge of human cultures and the physical and natural world Sciences & Mathematics Social sciences Humanities & Histories Languages & Arts Focused by engagement with big questions both contemporary & enduring. LEAP (2005) Intellectual & practical skills Inquiry & analysis Critical & creative thinking Written & oral communication Quantitative & information literacy Teamwork & problem solving Practiced extensively, across the curriculum, in the context of progressively more challenging problems, projects & standards for performance. LEAP (2005) Professional skills Hospitality & tourism: Understanding consumer expectations Design & delivery of quality service experiences, within an appropriate environment, to meet consumer expectations Leadership: Promoting a vision & setting an example as a professional Motivating people Business management: (e.g. Technology, finance, sales & legal requirements) Practiced extensively, across the curriculum, in the context of progressively more challenging problems, projects & standards for performance. Personal & social responsibility Civic knowledge & engagement (local & global) Intercultural knowledge & competence Ethical reasoning & action Foundations & skills for lifelong learning Anchored through active involvement with diverse communities and real-world challenges. LEAP (2005) Integrative learning “How it all fits together” Synthesis & advanced accomplishment across general & specialized studies. Demonstrated through the application of knowledge, skills & responsibilities to new settings & complex problems. LEAP (2005) Experiential learning Kolb & Fry (1975) Concrete experience Test implications in new Observations & reflections settings Formation of concepts Experiential learning Adapting to the world Tension and conflict filled and difficult to do Varied abilities 1. Concrete experience (poet) 2. Reflective observation (naturalist) 3. Abstract conceptualisation (mathematician) 4. Active experimentation (manger ) Kolb & Fry (1975) Fundamental questions How you learn effectively Are you achieving the kind of learning you need for work, life, and citizenship. How do you learn to deal with complexity and uncertainty? Make learning a way of life Use the essential learning outcomes Develop a plan of study Immerse yourselves in activities that develop strong arts of inquiry & innovation skills Engage the big questions Connect knowledge with choices & action in real world Adopt civic, intercultural & ethical learning Challenge complex problems – use assessment as a means of continuous improvement. LEAP (2005) Adopt smart practices Develop strong study and time management skills Participate in activities outside classroom Make connections - seek help & advice Work collaboratively/small groups Play with stronger players Learn from the strength of diversity Work on writing opportunities Learn to think like a professional Light (2001) A final reflection “Be responsible for your own learning.. See assignments as opportunities to enhance your knowledge and skills, and ways of gaining a deeper understanding of yourself and how you relate to the world. Contribute to the learning of those around you as well as drawing on them to help facilitate your own learning. And regard a parchment of a diploma or degree as a symbol of having taken full advantage of each learning opportunity presented to you along the way. References Baxter Magolda, M. B., (2001). Making their own way: narratives for transforming higher education to promote self development. Stylus Publishing. Bringle, R. G. & Hatcher, J. A. (2009). Innovative Practices in Service-Learning and Curricular Engagement. New Directions for Higher Education, 147, 37-46. LEAP [Liberal Education and American Promise], (2007). College Learning for the New Global Century, Liberal Education, Winter, 36-43. Light, R. J., (2001) Making the most of college: students speak their minds. Harvard. Martin, R. (2009). Interchange.. August. Miller, R. & Morgaine, W., (2009). The benefits of e-portfolios for students and faculty, in their own words. Peer Review, 11 (1), 8-12. Oblinger, D. G. & Verville, A-L., (1998). What business wants from higher education, Oryx Press. Summerlee, A. (2007) The changing structure of knowledge, The Botswana International University of Science and Technology Strategic Conference, Palapye, August. Zohar, D., (1997), Rewiring the corporate brain: using the new science to rewire corporate thinking. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Thank you !!!
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