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NOMENCLATURE NOMENCLATURE Some polyatomic negative ions Polyatomic

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NOMENCLATURE NOMENCLATURE Some polyatomic negative ions Polyatomic Powered By Docstoc
					                                                        NOMENCLATURE
           Some polyatomic negative ions (Polyatomic anions) are named using the root + ate ending. Most other
             polyatomic anions can be named if you memorize the Root-ate ion list and follow the rules below.




    Elements with two less                 Elements with one less                  These are the Root-ate ions    Elements with one more
    oxygens than the “ate” ions            oxygen than the “ate” ions              from which the other ion       oxygen than the “ate” ions
    use the prefix hypo then               use the root and end in ite.            names can be derived.          use the prefix per then the
    the root and end in ite.               Root-ite.                                Memorize this list.           root and end in ate.
    Hypo-root-ite.                                                                                                 Per-root-ate.

    Name                   Symbol          Name                    Symbol          Name              Symbol       Name                         Symbol
                               1-                                        1-                                1-                                        1-
    Hypobromite            BrO             Bromite                  BrO2           Bromate            BrO3        Perbromate                    BrO4
                              1-                                         1-                                1-                                        1-
    Hypochlorite           ClO             Chlorite                 ClO2           Chlorate           ClO3        Perchlorate                   ClO4
                                2-                                      1-                                1-
    Hyponitrite            N2O2            Nitrite                  NO2            Nitrate            NO3         ------------------
                                                                                                          2-
    ------------------                     ------------------                      Carbonate          CO3         ------------------
                                                                                                           2-
    ------------------                     ------------------                      Chromate           CrO4        ------------------
                                                                                                             2-                                        1-
    ------------------                     ------------------                      Manganate          MnO4        Permanganate                  MnO4
                                  2-                                      2-                              2-
    Hyposulfite             SO2            Sulfite                  SO3            Sulfate            SO4         ------------------
                                                                          3-                                3-
    ------------------                     Arsenite                 AsO3           Arsenate           AsO4        ------------------
                                  3-                                    3-                                3-
    Hypophosphite           PO2            Phosphite                PO3            Phosphate          PO4         ------------------




Naming monatomic anion acids                      Naming polyatomic anion acids                          Positive ions (cation) simply give the
When naming acids you must pay                    Acids that are formed from ions that end in ite        name of the metal. If the metal exhibits
particular attention to the ion forming           are named by replacing the ite with ous acid.          more than one charge, you must give the
the acid. First acids formed from                 Hypo-root-ite ==> Hypo-root-ous acid                   charge in roman numerals.
monatomic anions.                                 Root-ite     ==> Root-ous acid
 Hydro-root-ic-acid                               Acids that are formed from ions that end in ate        Symbol   Name                   Old name
                                                                                                             2+
                                                  are named by replacing the ate with ic acid.           Ca        Calcium
                                                                                                            3+
Ion        Formula       Name                     Per-root-ate ==> Per-root-ic acid                      Cr        Chromium (III)        Chromic
   1-                                                                                                        1+
Cl          HCl          Hydrochloric acid        Root-ate     ==> Root-ic acid                          Cu        Copper (I)            Cuprous
  2-                                                                                                         2+
S           H2S          Hydrosulfuric acid                                                              Cu        Copper (II)           Cupric
  1-                                                                                                        2+
F           HF           Hydrofluric acid         Ion           Formula        Name              .       Fe        Iron (II)             Ferrous
   1-                                                 1-                                                    3+
Br          HBr          Hydrobromic acid         ClO           HClO           Hypochlorous acid         Fe        Iron (III)            Ferric
                                                       1-                                                    +
                                                  ClO2          HClO2          Chlorous acid             Na        Sodium
                                                       1-                                                   2+
                                                  ClO3          HClO3          Chloric acid              Pb        Lead (II)             Plumbus
                                                       1-                                                   4+
                                                  ClO4          HClO4          Perchloric acid           Pb        Lead (IV)             Plumbic


Monatomic negative ions (anions)                  Hydrogen Associated Ions. When the 2- or               Other common ions that are not regular
use the root of the element and end in            3- charged ions at the top form ions with one          or follow old nomenclature.
ide. Root-ide                                     or two associated hydrogens, use the prefix
                                                  hydrogen (di for 2 hydrogens)
Element            Ion                 Symbol     Name                     Symbol Old Name               Name                Ion           .
                                          1-                                     1-                                                     1-
Fluorine           Fluoride            F          Hydrogen sulfate         HSO4      Bisulfate           Acetate             C2H3O2
                                            1-                                   1-                                               +
Chlorine           Chloride            Cl         Hydrogen carbonate       HCO3      Bicarbonate         Ammonium            NH4
                                            1-                                   2-                                              1-
Bromine            Bromide             Br         Hydrogen phosphate       HPO4                          Hydroxide           OH
                                         1-                                       1-                                                2-
Iodine             Iodide              I          Dihydrogen phosphate H2PO4                             Oxalate             C2O4
                                           2-                                                                                   1-
Oxygen             Oxide               O **                                                              Cyanide             CN
                                          2-                                                                                        2-
Sulfur             Sulfide             S                                                                 Chromate            CrO4
                                          3-                                                                                         2-
Nitrogen           Nitride             N **                                                              Dichromate          Cr2O7
                                          3-                                                                                        2-
Phosphorous        Phosphide           P                                                                 Thiosulfate         S2O3
                                          4-
Carbon             Carbide             C **
Naming molecular compounds, you must use prefixes
to indicate the number of each element present. One
exception is when there is only one of the first element,
and the prefix is omitted.

Prefixes      Meaning
 Mono          1
 Di            2
 Tri           3
 Tetra         4
 Penta         5
 Hexa          6
 Hepta         7
 Octa          8

When the element begins in a vowel, you omit the „a‟ at
the end of the prefix.

Formula        Name
NO2        Nitrogen dioxide
N2O4       Dinitrogen tetroxide
SO3        Sulfur trioxide
P3O4       Triphosphorous tetroxide

				
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