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HOW TO MANAGE PROJECTS

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					HOW TO MANAGE PROJECTS

Hooman Katirai · Unravel 2004 · Toronto
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

What you are about to learn
•Project Management -Methodology • Evolved from -Technology sector • Outperforms Traditional methodologies

Unravel „04

How to manage projects

Some settings it has been applied
Type
Non-profit: Academia: Corporation: Campus Club:

Name

Team Size
8 17 50 25

World Bank MIT Zero-Knowledge Univ. of Toronto

Unravel „04

How to manage projects Katirai - How to manage projects - Unravel 2004

Case Study: World Bank (Before & After)
Before …
Project: Writing a report Organization: 7 managers
Division of work: One section per manager

Project Methodology: The old way … Result: Team frequently missed deadlines

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How to manage projects

Case Study: World Bank (After)
“ … the first time our team delivered on time” “Managers felt so pressured that they began posting their schedules to public e-mail lists, as if to say: `look, I really am overworked, so please don‟t consider me lazy!‟ Nonetheless they still delivered on time.”
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Common Problems:
I want to do it but….
• “Am I allowed to? Is it my job to do so?”
 Result: hesitation/paralysis due to role confusion

• “I don‟t have the authority to make a decision”
 Result: meeting for every decision with everyone in room  wastes time
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Common Problems:
• “Somebody else will do it”
 Sometimes several busy people will have joint responsibility.

 They silently decide to let the deadline slide ..  No one calls a meeting  Result: Tasks doesn‟t get done.
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

The Old Fashioned Way: Roles & Responsibility Matrix
Tasks on the other axis
Book Room

Andy Chris Mike
    

Vlad

Names on one axis

Create posters
Distribute Posters



Create Invitations
Distribute Invitations

Write Newspaper Article
Meet with Editor of Newspaper





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How to manage projects

The Old Fashioned Way: What‟s wrong with this picture?
Andy Chris
Book Room Create posters
 

Distribute Posters Create Invitations
Distribute Invitations Write Newspaper Article Write Report Meet with Newspaper Editors
Unravel „04
   

Checkmarks not Vlad Mike enough: What is  Andy‟s Role? It does not   say….



 

Better way: Instead of using checkmarks explicitly assign roles

How to manage projects

The 3 Roles:

Manager Partner

Single person ultimately
responsible for the deliverable.

completes some portion
of the deliverable.

Consultant
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Has no deliverables but
is expected to provide information & advice.
How to manage projects

The New Way:
Andy
Book Room Create posters M M

Chris

Mike
P C

Vlad

Distribute Posters Create Invitations Distribute Invitations Write Newspaper Article
Decide on Newspapers to approach Meet with Editor of Newspaper
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

M M M M
P P M

P

P P

M

The New Way:
Andy
Book Room Create posters M M

Chris

Mike
P C

Vlad

Distribute Posters Create Invitations Distribute Invitations Write Newspaper Article
Decide on Newspapers to approach Meet with Editor of Newspaper
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

M M M M
P P M

P

P P

M

Example of a real table
Clios
Jason jason@mit.edu Scenarios P Storage Transport Terrorism Energy C Project Management M: Present’n

Legend:
M - Managers Ultimately responsible for the deliverable P - Partners Responsible for some portion of the deliverable

Delphine
Nurettin Timothee Jessica

dante@mit.edu
nurretin@mit.edu timothee@mit.edu jessicah@mit.edu P C

P

P
C

P
M C

P

C

Hooman Tony Betsy Matthew Kate Joshua Alisa Ayanna Kelvin

hooman@mit.edu tonylang@mit.edu emas@mit.edu mson@mit.edu katep@mit.edu jrein@mit.edu arhlee@mit.edu asamant@mit.edu ws@mit.edu P P C

P P M P P C

M: Overall

M: Editing & Integration

C - Consultants No deliverable but expected to provide information and advice

M: Overall P M P P C P M P P M C P

Including e-mails sak@mit.edu M Masahiro phone numbers P or ma@mit.edu Ali am@mit.edu enables people to easily contact Unravel „04 each other.
Satwiksai

Include legend when distributin g chart

How to manage projects

More on the roles matrix
Make every task a deliverable What is a deliverable? A deliverable can be (1) seen and (2) monitored by a project manager.
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

An Example
Is this a M deliverable? Can a M „decision‟ be seen or monitored?
M
M P Andy Chris Mike P Vlad

Book Room

Create posters
Distribute Posters

C
M P

Create Invitations
Distribute Invitations Write Newspaper Article Decide on Newspapers to approach

P

P

M
M

Meet with Editors of Newspapers
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Better Way..
Andy Book Room Chris Mike P Vlad

Create posters
Distribute Posters

Better: now it M can be seen M and monitored
M
M

C
M P P

Create Invitations
Distribute Invitations Write Newspaper Article Create Document outlining Newspapers to Approach

P

P

M
M

Meet with Editors of Newspapers
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

More on the task list
Is Andy
Book Room

Create posters
Distribute Posters

this description Chris Mike Mspecific enough to P describe the task? M C
M

Vlad

P P

Create Invitations
Distribute Invitations Write Newspaper Article Create Newspapers to Approach Document M

M

P

Meet with Editors of Newspapers
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Missing: What topic is the article about? How P M long should it be? Etc.. M

How to manage projects

Task Descriptions
• Accompany matrix with:
– document describing each task.

• Task descriptions:
– span 1-2 paragraphs or even pages – are contracts: i.e. should contain everything you don’t want to leave to discretion of implementers – have due date and milestones.

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How to manage projects

How to build the chart
• Create an empty roles & responsibilities matrix
– Ask people to volunteer for preferred roles & tasks – If not enough people for a task ask people to “step up” to fill the need – Ensure no one is overloaded – Ensure teams that need to communicate have common members
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

How to build the chart
• Make deadlines reflect experience and ability to deliver on time • For inexperienced managers
– assign tasks of a short duration – Divide big tasks into pieces and use shortterm deadlines

• For experienced managers
– can trust with tasks that take a long time to complete

• Otherwise
– may end up months behind on a “big” task – not have enough time to do something about it.

Unravel „04

How to manage projects

Critique of a matrix
Clios
Jason jasongh@mit.edu Scenarios P Storage Transport Terrorism Energy C Project Management M: Present’n

Legend:
M - Managers Ultimately responsible for the deliverable P - Partners Responsible for some portion of the deliverable

Delphine
Nurettin Timothee Jessica

dantedf@mit.edu
demardiv@mit.edu doutriau@mit.edu harrisj@mit.edu P C

P

P
C

P
M C

P

C

Hooman Tony Betsy Matthew Kate Joshua Alisa Ayanna Kelvin

1 Partner, 1 hooman@mit.edu Consultant ..Pdoes tonymil@mit.edu P this person have emas@mit.edu C enough work?
msonh@mit.edu kpar@mit.edu rei@mit.edu P P

M: Overall P M P C M: Overall M P P M P M: Editing & Integration

Satwiksai
Masahiro

It turns out the P arh@mit.edu M person asam@mit.edu P volunteered for a wsee@mit.edu P lead role in the satwikjk@mit.edu M next project masa@mit.edu P
amost@mit.edu

C
P

C

Ali

1 Manger, No partners… person may be overloaded

C - Consultants No deliverable but expected to provide information and advice

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How to manage projects

How to get commitment
• Commitment is crucial! • After matrix completed:
– Verify accuracy with team – Get team‟s commitment Basic Idea Make it difficult for people to claim ignorance of their responsibilities which promotes

• Via Email:
– Send everyone a copy – Ask if changes need to be made – Confirm agreement to deadlines

• Alternately:
– Some managers ask team to sign paper copy of the matrix, task descriptions and GANTT charts.
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Accountability

It also helps to post the matrix publicly

• Why?
– Difficult for people to feign ignorance of due dates or their responsibilities – promotes public accountability – I.e. everyone knows everyone else‟s due dates

• Can be achieved by posting matrix on:
– A wall in the workplace – On the team‟s web site (or a Yahoogroup)
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Milestones
• Definition:
– Milestone = deliverable + due date

• Example:
– Draft Report – Final Report (due 1/3/04) (due 1/3/04)

• Can be much more granular:
– i.e. draft of a section (as opposed to draft of entire report)
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Phased Delivery
• Whenever possible
– divide project into phases

• Why?
– Here‟s an example

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How to manage projects

Example: Value of Phased Delivery
• Suppose you are
– appointed to a new job

• Task:
– To produce something – Let‟s suppose we‟re producing a piece of software

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How to manage projects

Phased Delivery Example (cont‟d)
• Estimated completion time:
– 1 year

• Management questions every move
– Especially requests for:
• Money • resources • people.

• Suppose
– Project could be divided into 3 phases (i.e. each phase lasting 4 months)

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How to manage projects

Phased Delivery Example: Continued
• Without Phased Delivery:
– 1 year before you deliver something useful – … and a 1 year to gain credibility

• With Phased Delivery:
– Deliver something useful in 3 months – Win credibility in 3 months – Boost team‟s confidence in 3 months

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How to manage projects

Phased Delivery
• Takeaway:
– Phased deliver helps your team more quickly win:
• credibility • confidence • management‟s trust

– Winning management‟s trust is important because:
• It helps you to more easily get the resources you need to be successful in future phases.
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Phased Delivery
• Takeaway (cont‟d): • Also if project terminated after the 1st phase:
– they will still be left with something useful

• Phased delivery also allows
– Time for contingency if issues arise

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How to manage projects

Why use milestones (cont‟d)
Other important reasons to use phased delivery: • Phased delivery implies milestones • Forces people to show progress. • If milestone not delivered
– you will know project is falling behind early enough to do something about it!

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How to manage projects

Set up a public delivery mechanism
• Idea: If someone fails to deliver on time everyone will know • Can be achieved via web site
– Give all team members access – Ask everyone to upload documents by due date

• Use a naming convention for documents.
– For example:
<team name>_<version>.doc

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How to manage projects

3 ways to check progress
• 1. My favorite: Call or visit the task‟s manager
Ask “How‟s it going?” or start small talk Person will often, start talking about project Doesn‟t make you perceived as bossy If you don‟t have strong faith in manager may want to check progress the task‟s “Partners” too. – Best managers: know not only when something has gone wrong but also know if something might go wrong.
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

– – – –

3 ways to check progress
2. Have periodic meetings with managers
– Provide richer information than email – Provide managers with incentive to show progress – But time consuming

3. E-mail
– Request reports via e-mail (good for non-risky tasks) – Send reminders of due dates (recommended)

Unravel „04

How to manage projects

Critical Path Analysis via a PERT chart
Book Room
½ day

Design & Print Posters
2 days

Put up Posters ½ day Run Event
1 day

start

Invite Speaker
2 days

Create list of Media outlets
2 days

Contact Media Outlets
2 days

end

Buy Refreshments
¼ days

Unravel „04

How to manage projects

Critical Path Analysis
Book Room
½ day

Design & Print Posters
2 days

Put up Posters ½ day Run Event
1 day

start

Invite Speaker
2 days

If task B can only be started if task A Create list of we is completed, draw an arrow Media outletsfrom 2 days B A to

Contact Media Outlets
2 days

end

Buy Refreshments
¼ days

Unravel „04

How to manage projects

Critical Path Analysis
The critical path is theDesign Book longest path& Print in Room Posters ½ day days 2 days
Invite start Speaker
2 days

Put up Posters ½ day Run Event
1 days

Create list of Media outlets
2 days

Contact Media Outlets
2 days

end

Buy Refreshments
¼ days

Unravel „04

How to manage projects

Critical Path
• If anything on the critical path is delayed,
– the whole project is delayed

• Conversely if a task is not on critical path
– It can be delayed to some extent without delaying the whole project

Unravel „04

How to manage projects

Critical Path
• Often good idea to:
– Closely monitor tasks on the critical path

• If a task on critical path falls behind:
– Try to re-allocate resources from tasks not on the critical path to that task. Unravel „04 How to manage projects

You will likely work with people more senior than yourself
• Most companies are “matrix organizations” • i.e. you are simultaneously assigned to:
– a department -- such as “marketing” and – a product or project

• Implication: in your career you will probably be called to manage peers and managers.
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

How to check on peers
• How do you check on your peers
– Without seeming bossy? – Especially people more senior?

• Good news: since every task is a deliverable
– It can be monitored – You can ask if it‟s done yet

• Also Accountability in system so strong
– People will feel pressured to do tasks even without yourto manage projects Unravel „04 How involvement

What to do if someone is late
• Sometime legitimate reasons; i.e. illness • If task is on critical path
– May decide to divert resources from non-critical tasks.

• Ask them to make a public commitment
– Get them to send e-mail to their team or manager with the new promised due date. – Why e-mail?
• E-mail is like a contract (can always refer back to it) • Accountability

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How to manage projects

Channeling Outside Pressures
• If no feeling of urgency…
– Work usually doesn‟t get done

• Technique for creating urgency:
– PERT Chart – Channeling outside pressures

• Explain consequences to project if task falls behind
– Critical path analysis – Implications to project‟s client

• Pressure from outside circumstances
– rather than yourself
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Risk Management
• List top 3-5 things that could go wrong • Create plan
– to deal with set-backs if they do happen

• Risky tasks
– Closely monitor them – Assign best, most experienced people

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How to manage projects

What‟s considered a „risky‟ task?
• Tasks that:
1. depend on work by outside parties
• especially if those parties are not as motivated as you are to deliver • Example: if you need timely delivery of materials

2. are inherently complex
• Lots of possible points of failure • Software

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How to manage projects

What‟s considered a „risky‟ task?
• Tasks that:
3. have never been tried before
• No one knows how long they will take • No one with experience on team

4. hard to define
• If you can‟t even define the work ..how do you get started? How do you know you are finished? • If in this conundrum, may want to consider spending more time understanding task or creating an outline • Example: create a table of contents or outline of a report before you start it.
How to manage projects

Unravel „04

What‟s considered a „risky‟ task?
3. Where you have a lack of control over resources
• Example: Person on the team may simultaneously be assigned to another more important project • Issue: person‟s availability cannot be guaranteed

– Solution:
• Get them to do task up-front OR • Find someone else who doesn‟t have such conflicts

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How to manage projects

Gantt Analysis
• Parallelize tasks
• Put riskiest things first

• Gives you time to work around failure of risky task

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How to manage projects

Leapfrogging
• Used by Intel • Increase output without causing burn-out • We Illustrate by example:
– Suppose you wish to have an event on campus every month.

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How to manage projects

Leapfrogging
Option1: Standard way – The whole team organizes an event every month Option 2: Leapfrogging – Divide team into 3 independent teams – Each team organizes one event every 3 months
Sep
Entire Team

Oct
Entire Team

Nov
Entire Team

Dec
Entire Team

Jan
Entire Team

Feb
Entire Team

Sep
Team 1

Oct
Team 2

Nov
Team 3

Dec
Team 1

Jan
Team 2

Feb
Team 3

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How to manage projects

How to run meetings
• Do‟s:
– Post agenda in advance
• Reason 1: people come prepared • Reason 2: prevents needless meetings

– Confirm agenda at beginning of meeting – Establish consensus on time limits for each agenda item that can overruled by vote. – Appoint a time keeper to enforce time limits with notices given 5, and 10 minutes before. – Create sub-teams empowered to make to avoid the need for meetings in the first place

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How to manage projects

Visioning Process
• Too often
– people will start making matrices and schedules without consulting team

• As a result teammates may not understand
– how their task is related to the project‟s overall success

• Consequently
– strong likelihood of misunderstanding the criteria for declaring their task a success.
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Visioning Process
Solution: • Try to clearly define what “success” means.
– Ex: “we‟ll know our project was a success if X,Y, and Z are true.”

• Allow team to
– help define project via meetings or some other medium

• if they helped defined it, they will:
– Understand the project – Feel joint ownership
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Some final thoughts
• Integration
– Putting people‟s work together – A task in and of itself – If possible put someone in charge of doing this

• Example: A report
– Need to:
• Edit writing • Enforce common look and feel of report • Work with teams when changes need to be made • Print and bind report
How to manage projects

Unravel „04

– Not trivial ..can be a lot of work!

Some final thoughts
• Best to have:
– A core team or at least one person to manage the managers – i.e. an “overall project manager” – If you don‟t one there will be no one to push the managers or call progress meetings.

• Each task can be considered a project
– Can create a matrix just for a task – Need depends on number of members assigned to task and complexity
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Leadership = Service
“The attitude of the individual as a servant, ... exemplified in … 'Abdu'lBahá, … permeates the activities of the Faith… It is in this framework that the concepts of rulership and leadership, authority and power are properly understood and actualized.”
-From a Letter dated 19 May 1994 from the Universal House of Justice to a National Spiritual Assembly

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How to manage projects

Summary
• Set up – Make every task a deliverable – Create roles matrix – Write Task description document – Use Milestones = deliverables + due dates – Get commitment from individuals – Have a risk mitigation strategy • Execution – Post matrix publicly – Check interim progress – Use a transparent delivery mechanism

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How to manage projects

HOW TO MANAGE PROJECTS

Hooman Katirai · Unravel 2004 · Feedback: hooman@mit.edu Slides: http://www.mit.edu/~hooman
Unravel „04 How to manage projects

Your TA for the breakout
Sanaz Holakoozadeh • Project Manager CIBC
– 8th largest bank in North America

• Formerly Project Manager at
– Sun Microsystems

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How to manage projects

Why the system works
• Accountability – the single person responsible makes things happen. • Transparency – If someone hands in things late, everyone will know. • Clarity – Everyone knows their roles, responsibilities, and due dates just by looking at the matrix • Planning – Risks were identified and a plan was made. • Shame – If Leverages the fact that no one wants to look bad in front of their peers. • Hierarchical – Well defined leadership structure
Unravel „04 How to manage projects


				
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