What is Intellectual Property by fjwuxn


									What is Intellectual Property?

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                                             W ORLD
                                      I NTELLECTUAL
                                          P ROPERTY
                                     O RGANIZATION
What is Intellectual Property?

           Table of Contents


           What is Intellectual Property?         2

           What is a Patent?                      5

           What is a Trademark?                   8

           What is an Industrial Design?         12

           What is a Geographical Indication?    14

           What are Copyright                    18
           and Related Rights?

           What is the World Intellectual       22
           Property Organization?
               What is
               intellectual property?

               Intellectual property refers to
               creations of the mind: inventions,
               literary and artistic works, and
               symbols, names, and images used
               in commerce. Intellectual property
               is divided into two categories:

                   Industrial Property includes
                   patents for inventions,
                   trademarks, industrial designs
                   and geographical indications.

                   Copyright includes literary
                   works such as novels,
                   poems and plays, films,
                   musical works, artistic
                   works such as drawings,
                   paintings, photographs and
                   sculptures, and architectural
                   designs. Rights related to
                   copyright include those of
                   performing artists in their
                   performances, producers of
What is            phonograms, and those of
                   broadcasters in their radio
intellectual       and television programs.


What are intellectual                   Why promote and protect
property rights?                        intellectual property?

Intellectual property rights are like   There are several compelling
any other property rights – they        reasons. First, the progress and
allow the creator, or owner, of a       well-being of humanity rests on its
patent, trademark, or copyright to      capacity for new creations in the
benefit from his or her own work        areas of technology and culture.
or investment. These rights are         Second, the legal protection of
outlined in Article 27 of the           these new creations encourages
Universal Declaration of Human          the expenditure of additional
Rights, which sets forth the right      resources, which leads to further
to benefit from the protection          innovation. Third, the promotion
of moral and material interests         and protection of intellectual
resulting from authorship               property spurs economic growth,
of any scientific, literary, or         creates new jobs and industries,
artistic production.                    and enhances the quality and
                                        enjoyment of life.
The importance of intellectual
property was first recognized in        An efficient and equitable
the Paris Convention for the            intellectual property system can
Protection of Industrial Property in    help all countries realize
1883 and the Berne Convention           intellectual property’s potential as
for the Protection of Literary and      a powerful tool for economic
Artistic Works in 1886. Both            development and social and
treaties are administered by the        cultural well-being. The intellectual
World Intellectual Property             property system helps strike a
Organization (WIPO).                    balance between the interests of
                                        the innovator and the public
                                        interest, providing an environment
                                        in which creativity and invention
                                        can flourish, to the benefit of all.

    How does the average
    person benefit?
                                          What is
    Intellectual property rights reward
                                          a patent?
    creativity and human endeavor,
    which fuel the progress of
    humankind. Some examples:

         The multi-billion dollar film,
         recording, publishing, and
         software industries, which
         bring pleasure to millions of
         people in all parts of the
         world, would not exist
         without copyright protection;

         Consumers would have no
         means to confidently buy
         products or services without
         reliable, international
         trademark protection and
         enforcement to discourage
         counterfeiting and piracy;

         Without the rewards provided
         by the patent system,
         researchers and inventors
         would have little incentive to
         continue producing better
         and more efficient products
         for consumers worldwide.

What is a patent?                   What kind of protection
                                    does a patent offer?

A patent is an exclusive right      Patent protection means that the
granted for an invention, which     invention cannot be commercially
is a product or a process that      made, used, distributed or sold
provides a new way of doing         without the patent owner’s
something, or offers a new          consent. These patent rights are
technical solution to a problem.    usually enforced in a court, which,
                                    in most systems, holds the
A patent provides protection for    authority to stop patent
the invention to the owner of the   infringement. Conversely, a court
patent. The protection is granted   can also declare a patent invalid
for a limited period, generally     upon a successful challenge by
20 years.                           a third party.

                                    What rights does
                                    a patent owner have?

                                    A patent owner has the right to
                                    decide who may – or may not –
                                    use the patented invention for the
                                    period in which the invention is
                                    protected. The patent owner may
                                    give permission to, or license,
                                    other parties to use the invention
                                    on mutually agreed terms. The
                                    owner may also sell the right to
                                    the invention to someone else,
                                    who will then become the new
                                    owner of the patent. Once a
                                    patent expires, the protection
                                    ends, and an invention enters the
                                    public domain, that is, the owner
                                    no longer holds exclusive rights to
    the invention, which becomes            the total body of technical
    available to commercial                 knowledge in the world. Such an
    exploitation by others.                 ever-increasing body of public
                                            knowledge promotes further
                                            creativity and innovation in others.
    Why are patents necessary?              In this way, patents provide not
                                            only protection for the owner but
    Patents provide incentives to           valuable information and
    individuals by offering them            inspiration for future generations
    recognition for their creativity and    of researchers and inventors.
    material reward for their marketable
    inventions. These incentives
    encourage innovation, which             How is a patent granted?
    assures that the quality of human
    life is continuously enhanced.          The first step in securing a patent
                                            is the filing of a patent
                                            application. The patent application
    What role do patents play               generally contains the title of the
    in everyday life?                       invention, as well as an indication
                                            of its technical field; it must
    Patented inventions have, in fact,      include the background and a
    pervaded every aspect of human          description of the invention, in
    life, from electric lighting (patents   clear language and enough detail
    held by Edison and Swan) and            that an individual with an average
    plastic (patents held by                understanding of the field could
    Baekeland), to ballpoint pens           use or reproduce the invention.
    (patents held by Biro) and              Such descriptions are usually
    microprocessors (patents held by        accompanied by visual materials
    Intel, for example).                    such as drawings, plans, or
                                            diagrams to better describe the
    All patent owners are obliged, in       invention. The application also
    return for patent protection, to        contains various “claims”, that is,
    publicly disclose information on        information which determines the
    their invention in order to enrich      extent of protection granted
                                            by the patent.

What kinds of inventions              Who grants patents?
can be protected?

An invention must, in general,        A patent is granted by a national
fulfill the following conditions to   patent office or by a regional
be protected by a patent. It must     office that does the work for a
be of practical use; it must show     number of countries, such as the
an element of novelty, that is,       European Patent Office (EPO) and
some new characteristic that is       the African Intellectual Property
not known in the body of existing     Organization (OAPI). Under such
knowledge in its technical field.     regional systems, an applicant
This body of existing knowledge       requests protection for the
is called “prior art”. The            invention in one or more
invention must show an inventive      countries, and each country
step that could not be deduced        decides as to whether to offer
by a person with average              patent protection within its
knowledge of the technical field.     borders. The WIPO-administered
Finally, its subject matter must be   Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
accepted as “patentable” under        provides for the filing of a single
law. In many countries, scientific    international patent application
theories, mathematical methods,       which has the same effect as
plant or animal varieties,            national applications filed in the
discoveries of natural substances,    designated countries. An
commercial methods, or methods        applicant seeking protection may
for medical treatment (as             file one application and request
opposed to medical products)          protection in as many signatory
are generally not patentable.         states as needed.

             What is a trademark?

             A trademark is a distinctive sign,
             which identifies certain goods or
             services as those produced or
             provided by a specific person or
             enterprise. Its origin dates back to
             ancient times, when craftsmen
             reproduced their signatures, or
             “marks” on their artistic or
             utilitarian products. Over the
             years these marks evolved into
             today’s system of trademark

             registration and protection. The
             system helps consumers identify
             and purchase a product or service
             because its nature and quality,
             indicated by its unique
             trademark, meets their needs.

What is a
What does a trademark do?              What kinds of trademarks
                                       can be registered?

A trademark provides protection        The possibilities are almost
to the owner of the mark by            limitless. Trademarks may be one
ensuring the exclusive right to use    or a combination of words, letters,
it to identify goods or services, or   and numerals. They may consist
to authorize another to use it in      of drawings, symbols, three-
return for payment. The period of      dimensional signs such as the
protection varies, but a trademark     shape and packaging of goods,
can be renewed indefinitely on         audible signs such as music or
payment of corresponding fees.         vocal sounds, fragrances, or colors
Trademark protection is enforced       used as distinguishing features.
by the courts, which in most
systems have the authority to          In addition to trademarks
block trademark infringement.          identifying the commercial source
                                       of goods or services, several other
In a larger sense, trademarks          categories of marks exist.
promote initiative and enterprise      Collective marks are owned by an
worldwide by rewarding the             association whose members use
owners of trademarks with              them to identify themselves with a
recognition and financial profit.      level of quality and other
Trademark protection also hinders      requirements set by the
the efforts of unfair competitors,     association. Examples of such
such as counterfeiters, to use         associations would be those
similar distinctive signs to market    representing accountants,
inferior or different products or      engineers, or architects.
services. The system enables           Certification marks are given for
people with skill and enterprise to    compliance with defined
produce and market goods and           standards, but are not confined to
services in the fairest possible       any membership. They may be
conditions, thereby facilitating       granted to anyone who can certify
international trade.

     that the products involved meet          as a trademark or other type of
     certain established standards. The       mark. The trademark must be
     internationally accepted “ISO            distinctive, so that consumers can
     9000” quality standards are an           distinguish it from other
     example of such widely recognized        trademarks identifying other
     certifications.                          products, as well as identify a
                                              particular product with it. It must
                                              neither mislead nor deceive
     How is a trademark                       customers or violate public order
     registered?                              or morality.

     First, an application for registration   Finally, the rights applied for
     of a trademark must be filed with        cannot be the same as, or similar
     the appropriate national or              to, rights already granted to
     regional trademark office. The           another trademark owner. This
     application must contain a clear         may be determined through
     reproduction of the sign filed for       search and examination by the
     registration, including any colors,      national office, or by the
     forms, or three-dimensional              opposition of third parties who
     features. The application must           claim similar or identical rights.
     also contain a list of goods or
     services to which the sign would
     apply. The sign must fulfill certain
     conditions in order to be protected

How extensive is                       Registration of Marks and the
trademark protection?                  Madrid Protocol. A person who
                                       has a link (through nationality,
Almost all countries in the world      domicile, or establishment) with a
register and protect trademarks.       country party to one or both of
Each national or regional office       these treaties may, on the basis of
maintains a Register of Trademarks     a registration or application with
which contains full application        the trademark office of that
information on all registrations       country, obtain an international
and renewals, facilitating             registration having effect in some
examination, search, and potential     or all of the other countries of the
opposition by third parties. The       Madrid Union.
effects of such a registration are,
however, limited to the country
(or, in the case of a regional
registration, countries) concerned.

In order to avoid the need to
register separately with each
national or regional office, WIPO
administers a system of
international registration of marks.
This system is governed by two
treaties, the Madrid Agreement
Concerning the International

                                                                             What is
What is                                                                      an industrial design?

an                                                                           An industrial design is the
                                                                             ornamental or aesthetic aspect of
industrial                                                                   an article. The design may consist
                                                                             of three-dimensional features,
design?                                                                      such as the shape or surface of
                                                                             an article, or of two-dimensional
                                                                             features, such as patterns, lines
                                                                             or color.

                                                                             Industrial designs are applied to a
                                                                             wide variety of products of
                                                                             industry and handicraft: from
                                                                             technical and medical instruments
                                                                             to watches, jewelry, and other
                                                                             luxury items; from housewares
                                                                             and electrical appliances to
                                                                             vehicles and architectural
                                                                             structures; from textile designs to
                                                                             leisure goods.

                                                                             To be protected under most
                                                                             national laws, an industrial design
                                 Swiss Army Knife: courtesy Victorinox Ltd

                                                                             must be new or original and non-
                                                                             functional. This means that an
                                                                             industrial design is primarily of an
                                                                             aesthetic nature and any technical
                                                                             features of the article to which it is
                                                                             applied are not protected.
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Why protect                            and protect. They are reasonably
industrial designs?                    accessible to small and medium-
                                       sized enterprises as well as to
Industrial designs are what make       individual artists and craftsmen,
an article attractive and appealing;   in both industrialized and
hence, they add to the commercial      developing countries.
value of a product and increase
its marketability.
                                       How can industrial designs
When an industrial design is           be protected?
protected, the owner – the person
or entity that has registered the      In most countries, an industrial
design – is assured an exclusive       design must be registered in order
right against unauthorized copying     to be protected under industrial
or imitation of the design by third    design law. As a general rule, to
parties. This helps to ensure a fair   be registrable, the design must be
return on investment. An effective     “new” or “original”. Different
system of protection also benefits     countries have varying definitions
consumers and the public at large,     of such terms, as well as variations
by promoting fair competition and      in the registration process itself.
honest trade practices,                Generally, “new” means that no
encouraging creativity, and            identical or very similar design is
promoting more aesthetically           known to have existed before.
attractive products.                   Once a design is registered, a
                                       registration certificate is issued.
Protecting industrial designs helps    Following that, the term of
economic development, by               protection is generally five years,
encouraging creativity in the          with the possibility of further
industrial and manufacturing           periods of renewal up to, in
sectors, as well as in traditional     most cases, 15 years.
arts and crafts. They contribute to
the expansion of commercial            Depending on the particular
activities and the export of           national law and the kind of
national products.                     design, an industrial design may
                                       also be protected as a work of
Industrial designs can be relatively   applied art under copyright law.
simple and inexpensive to develop      In some countries, industrial
     design and copyright protection
     can exist concurrently. In other
     countries, they are mutually
     exclusive: once the owner
     chooses one kind of protection, he
     can no longer invoke the other.

     Under certain circumstances an
     industrial design may also be
     protectable under unfair
     competition law, although the
     conditions of protection and the
     rights and remedies ensured can
     be significantly different.

     How extensive is industrial
     design protection?

     Generally, industrial design
     protection is limited to the country
     in which protection is granted.
     Under The Hague Agreement
     Concerning the International
     Deposit of Industrial Designs, a
     WIPO-administered treaty, a
     procedure for an international
     registration is offered. An
     applicant can file a single
     international deposit either with
     WIPO or the national office of a
     country which is party to the
                                            What is a
     treaty. The design will then be
     protected in as many member
     countries of the treaty as the
     applicant wishes.                      indication?
What is                                  such as specific manufacturing
a geographical                           skills and traditions. That place of
indication?                              origin may be a village or town, a
                                         region or a country. An example
A geographical indication is a sign      for the latter is “Switzerland” or
used on goods that have a specific       “Swiss”, which is perceived as a
geographical origin and possess          geographical indication in many
qualities or a reputation that are       countries for products that are
due to that place of origin. Most        made in Switzerland and, in
commonly, a geographical                 particular, for watches.
indication consists of the name of
the place of origin of the goods.
Agricultural products typically have     What is an appellation
qualities that derive from their         of origin?
place of production and are
influenced by specific local             An appellation of origin is a special
geographical factors, such as            kind of geographical indication,
climate and soil. Whether a sign         used on products that have a
functions as a geographical              specific quality that is exclusively or
indication is a matter of national       essentially due to the geographical
law and consumer perception.             environment in which the
Geographical indications may be          products are produced. The
used for a wide variety of               concept of geographical indication
agricultural products, such as, for      encompasses appellations of
example, “Tuscany” for olive oil         origin. Examples of appellations of
produced in a specific area of Italy,    origin which are protected in
or “Roquefort” for cheese                states that are party to the Lisbon
produced in this region of France.       Agreement for the Protection of
                                         Appellations of Origin and their
The use of geographical                  International Registration are
indications is not limited to            “Bordeaux” for wine produced in
agricultural products. They may          the Bordeaux region of France,
also highlight specific qualities of a   “Habana” for tobacco grown in
product which are due to human           the Havana region of Cuba or
factors that can be found in the         “Tequila” for spirits produced in
place of origin of the products,         particular areas of Mexico.
     Why do geographical                   What is the difference
     indications need protection?          between a geographical
                                           indication and a trademark?
     Geographical indications are
     understood by consumers to            A trademark is a sign used by an
     denote the origin and the quality     enterprise to distinguish its goods
     of products. Many of them have        and services from those of other
     acquired valuable reputations         enterprises. It gives its owner the
     which, if not adequately              right to exclude others from using
     protected, may be misrepresented      the trademark. A geographical
     by dishonest commercial               indication tells consumers that a
     operators. False use of               product is produced in a certain
     geographical indications by           place and has certain
     unauthorized parties, for example     characteristics that are due to that
     “Darjeeling” for tea that was not     place of production. It may be
     grown in the tea gardens of           used by all producers who make
     Darjeeling, is detrimental to         their products in the place
     consumers and legitimate              designated by a geographical
     producers. The former are             indication and whose products
     deceived and led into believing       share typical qualities.
     that they are buying a genuine
     product with specific qualities and
     characteristics, while they in fact   How is a geographical
     get a worthless imitation. The        indication protected?
     latter suffer damage because
     valuable business is taken away       Geographical indications are
     from them and the established         protected in accordance with
     reputation for their products         national laws and under a wide
     is damaged.                           range of concepts, such as laws
                                           against unfair competition,
                                           consumer protection laws, laws
                                           for the protection of certification
                                           marks or special laws for the
                                           protection of geographical
                                           indications or appellations of
                                           origin. In essence, unauthorized
parties may not use geographical       indication. For example, “Dijon
indications if such use is likely to   Mustard”, is a style of mustard
mislead the public as to the true      that originated many years ago in
origin of the product. Applicable      the French town of Dijon;
sanctions range from court             however, over time it has come
injunctions preventing the             to denote a certain style of
unauthorized use to the payment        mustard that is made in many
of damages and fines or, in serious    places. Hence, “Dijon mustard”
cases, imprisonment.                   is now a generic indication and
                                       refers to a type of product,
                                       rather than a place.
How are geographical
indications protected on
the international level?               What is WIPO’s role in the
                                       protection of geographical
A number of treaties                   indications?
administered by WIPO provide
for the protection of geographical     WIPO administers a number of
indications, most notably the          international agreements which
Paris Convention for the               deal partly or entirely with the
Protection of Industrial Property      protection of geographical
of 1883, and the Lisbon                indications (in particular, the Paris
Agreement for the Protection of        Convention for the Protection of
Appellations of Origin and Their       Industrial Property, and the Lisbon
International Registration.            Agreement for the Protection of
                                       Appellations of Origin and Their
                                       International Registration).
What is a “generic”                    Furthermore, the Member States
geographical indication?               of WIPO and other interested
                                       parties explore at WIPO meetings
If the name of a place is used as      new ways of enhancing the
the designation of a particular        international protection of
style of product, rather than an       geographical indications.
indication of the place of origin of
that product, the term no longer
functions as a geographical
                  What are copyright
What are          and related rights?

copyright and     Copyright is the body of laws
                  which grants authors, artists and

related rights?   other creators protection for their
                  literary and artistic creations,
                  which are generally referred to as
                  “works”. A closely associated
                  field of rights related to copyright
                  is “related rights”, which provides
                  rights similar or identical to those
                  of copyright, although sometimes
                  more limited and of shorter
                  duration. The beneficiaries of
                  related rights are:

                       performers (such as actors
                       and musicians) in their
                       producers of sound
                       recordings (for example,
                       cassette recordings and
                       compact discs) in their
                       recordings; and
                       broadcasting organizations
                       in their radio and television

                  Works covered by copyright
                  include, but are not limited to:
                  novels, poems, plays, reference
                  works, newspapers, computer
                  programs, databases, films,
                  musical compositions,
                  choreography, paintings, drawings,
photographs, sculpture,                Many types of works, etc.,
architecture, advertisements,          protected under the laws of
maps, and technical drawings.          copyright and related rights
                                       require mass distribution,
                                       communication, and financial
What rights do copyright               investment for their successful
and related rights provide?            dissemination (for example,
                                       publications, sound recordings,
The creators of works protected by     and films); hence, creators often
copyright, and their heirs and         transfer the rights to their works
successors (generally referred to as   to companies best able to develop
“rightsholders”), have certain         and market the works, in return
basic rights under copyright law.      for compensation, in the form of
They hold the exclusive right to       payments and/or royalties
use or authorize others to use the     (compensation based on a
work on agreed terms. The              percentage of revenues generated
rightsholder(s) of a work can          by the work).
prohibit or authorize:
                                       The economic rights of copyright
     its reproduction in all forms,    have a duration, as provided for in
     including printing and sound      the relevant WIPO treaties,
     recording;                        commencing upon the creation
     its public performance and        and fixation of the work, and
     communication to the public;      lasting for not less than 50 years
     its broadcasting;                 after the creator’s death. National
     its translation into other        laws may establish longer terms of
     languages; and                    protection. This term of
     its adaptation, such as           protection enables both creators
     a novel into a screenplay         and their heirs and successors to
     for a film.                       benefit financially for a reasonable
                                       period of time. Related rights
Similar rights of, among others,       enjoy shorter terms, normally 50
fixation (recording) and               years after the performance,
reproduction are granted under         recording or broadcast took place.
related rights.                        Copyright and the protection of
                                       performers also include moral
     rights, which are the right to claim   existence and enforceability of
     authorship of a work, and the          rights, enterprises and companies
     right to oppose changes to the         can more easily invest in the
     work which could harm the              creation, development, and global
     creator’s reputation.                  dissemination of works; this, in
                                            turn, helps increase access to, and
     Rights provided for under              enhances the enjoyment of,
     copyright and related rights laws      culture, knowledge, and
     can be enforced by rightsholders       entertainment all over the world,
     through a variety of methods and       as well as stimulating economic
     fora, including by instituting civil   and social development.
     actions, pursing administrative
     remedies, and through criminal
     prosecutions. Injunctions, orders      How have copyright and
     requiring destruction of infringing    related rights kept up with
     items, inspection orders, etc., are    advances in technology?
     used to enforce rights.
                                            The field of copyright and related
                                            rights has expanded enormously
     What are the benefits                  during the last several decades
     in protecting copyright                with the spectacular progress of
     and related rights?                    technological developments,
                                            which have in turn brought new
     Copyright and related rights           ways of disseminating creations by
     protection is an essential             such forms of worldwide
     component in fostering human           communication as satellite
     creativity and innovation. Giving      broadcasting, compact discs and
     authors, artists and creators          DVDs. Dissemination of works via
     incentives in the form of              the Internet is but the latest
     recognition and fair economic          development, which raises new
     rewards increases their activities     questions concerning copyright
     and output and often enhances          and related rights in this global
     the results. Also, by insuring the     medium. WIPO is deeply involved
                                            in the on-going international
                                            debate to shape new standards

for copyright protection in             to pursue the legal and
cyberspace. In that regard, the         administrative enforcement of
Organization administers the            copyright and related rights,
WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) and         especially given the increasingly
the WIPO Performance and                worldwide use of literary, musical
Phonogram Treaty (WPPT), which          and performance rights. As a
are often referred to as the            result, the establishment and
“Internet Treaties”. These Internet     enhancement of collective
Treaties have clarified international   management organizations, or
norms aimed at preventing               “societies”, is a growing and
unauthorized access to and use of       necessary trend in many countries.
creative works on the Internet.         These societies can provide for
                                        their members the benefits of the
                                        organization’s administrative and
How are copyright and                   legal expertise and efficiency in,
related rights regulated?               for example, collecting, managing,
                                        and disbursing royalties gained
Copyright and related rights            from the national and
protection is obtained                  international use of a member’s
automatically without any need          work or performance. Certain
for registration or other               rights of producers of sound
formalities. However, many              recordings and broadcasting
countries provide for a national        organizations are sometimes
system of optional registration and     managed collectively as well.
deposit of works; these systems
facilitate, for example, questions
involving disputes over ownership
or creation, financing transactions,
sales, assignments and transfers
of rights.

Many authors and performers do
not have the ability or the means

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                                    What is
                                    the World Intellectual
                                    Property Organization?

                                    Established in 1970, the World
                                    Intellectual Property Organization
                                    (WIPO) is an international
                                    organization dedicated to helping
                                    to ensure that the rights of
                                    creators and owners of intellectual

What is                             property are protected worldwide
                                    and that inventors and authors are

the World                           thus recognized and rewarded for
                                    their ingenuity.

Intellectual                        This international protection acts
                                    as a spur to human creativity,
Property                            pushing forward the boundaries of
                                    science and technology and
Organization?                       enriching the world of literature
                                    and the arts. By providing a stable
                                    environment for the marketing of
                                    intellectual property products, it
                                    also oils the wheels of
                                    international trade. WIPO works
                                    closely with its Member States and
                                    other constituents to ensure that
                                    the intellectual property system
                                    remains a supple and adaptable
                                    tool for prosperity and well-being,
                                    crafted to help realize the full
                                    potential of intellectual property
                                    for present and future generations.
How does WIPO                           WIPO works with its Member
promote the protection                  States to demystify intellectual
of intellectual property?               property from the grass-roots level
                                        through the business sector to
As part of the United Nations,          policy makers to ensure that its
WIPO exists as a forum for its          benefits are well known, properly
Member States to create and             understood, and accessible to all.
harmonize rules and practices to
protect intellectual property rights.
Most industrialized nations have        How is WIPO funded?
protection systems that are
centuries old. Many new and             WIPO is largely a self-financed
developing countries, however, are      organization, generating more
now building up their patent,           than 90 percent of its annual
trademark, and copyright laws and       budget through its widely used
systems. With the rapid                 international registration services,
globalization of trade during the       as well as through its
last decade, WIPO plays a key role      publications and arbitration
in helping these new systems            and mediation activities. The
evolve through treaty negotiation,      remainder comes from
legal and technical assistance, and     contributions by Member States.
training in various forms, including
in the area of enforcement of
intellectual property rights.

WIPO also provides global
registration systems – for patents,
trademarks, and industrial designs
– which are under regular review
by Member States and other
stakeholders to determine how
they can better serve the needs of
users and potential users.

For more information contact the
World Intellectual Property Organization
34, chemin des Colombettes
P.O. Box 18
CH-1211 Geneva 20
41 22 338 91 11
41 22 733 54 28

or its New York Coordination Office at:
2, United Nations Plaza
Suite 2525
New York, N.Y. 10017
United States of America
1 212 963 6813
1 212 963 4801
Visit the WIPO website at:
and order from the WIPO Electronic Bookshop at:

WIPO Publication No. 450(E)               ISBN 92-805-1155-4

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