Intelligence and Creativity (PowerPoint)

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					Intelligence and Creativity
         What is intelligence?
     The ability to acquire knowledge (learn &
  understand), apply knowledge (solve problems),
        and engage in abstract reasoning.

• Direction: ability to set and work towards a goal
• Adaptability: ability to adjust to new situations
• Comprehension: ability to understand new
  challenges & problems
• Self-evaluation: ability to evaluate solutions
   How is intelligence measured?

• Intelligence testing: mental age and
  Intelligence quotient (IQ)

• Mental age: the age level at which the
  test-taker is able to complete problems

• IQ:
          Mental age X 100 = IQ
          Physical age
  Measuring Intelligence
A six year old completes an IQ test
as well as most eight year olds.
What is the mental age and the IQ
of this child?

A 15-year old does as well on the
test as most 12-year olds. What is
the mental age and IQ of this child?
     Two Tests for Measuring
• Standford-Binet
• Weschler
   Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test

• Tests the four elements of intelligence in
  increasing difficulty
• Primarily designed for school-aged kids
• Focuses on verbal intelligence
Six Areas Measured by Stanford-
•   General intelligence
•   Knowledge
•   Fluid reasoning
•   Quantitative reasoning
•   Visual-spatial processing
•   Working memory
           Wechsler Scale
• More accurate for adults

• Wechsler scale assesses verbal
  intelligence and non-verbal reasoning &
     Sample Questions for Verbal
       Component of Weschler
• General Information
  –Who is the prime minister of England?
• Comprehension
  –Does "a bird in the hand is worth two in
   the bush" refer to animal husbandry or
   opportunity cost?
• Arithmetic
  –What's the change from $10 if you buy
   two cups of coffee for $3.75 each?
    Sample Questions for Verbal
      Component of Weschler

• Similarities (verbal reasoning)
  –Dog is to cat as ball is to '?'
• Vocabulary (word knowledge)
  –What is a lute?
• Attention and concentration
  –Given the sequence of digits '49652',
    reverse the sequence
Non-verbal Test Examples:
Which one of these does not conform
           to the others?
Non-verbal Test Examples:
Which one of these does not conform
           to the others?
 Non-verbal Test Examples:
Which two shapes can fitted together to
        make the larger shape?
   Non-verbal Test Examples:
Which larger shape would be made if the
    two sections are fitted together?

Choose Your Answer
 Non-verbal Test Examples:
 Choose the image that mirrors the same shape:

1)          2)           3)           4)         5)
 Non-verbal Test Examples:
 Sarah needs 11 bottles of water from
 the store. Sarah can only carry 3 at a
 time. What's the minimum number of
 trips Sarah needs to make to the

Choose Your Answer
 1) 5 2) 4 ½ 3) 1/2 4) 5 ½         5) 4
  Non-verbal Test Examples:
Which number is next in the sequence:

 5 10 15 10 ?

Choose Your Answer
 1) 9 2) 10 3) 5 4) 15
    Non-verbal Test Examples:
ELVIS is to LIVES as 72945 is to

Choose Your Answer
1) 24975
2) 54927
3) 24579
4) 24957
         Test Examples:

  Which one of the five is least like the
             other four?

Choose Your Answer:
1) Giraffe
2) Cow
3) Dog
4) Bird
5) Llama
          Test Examples
Pen is to paper as brush is to _______:

Choose Your Answer:

1)   Paint
2)   Air
3)   Oil
4)   Canvas
         Test Examples
    If all Moops are Tazzies and all
  Tazzies are Fazzies, then all Moops
          are definitely Fazzies?

Choose your answer:
         Test Examples
 Choose the word most similar to spy:

Choose Your Answer:
1) Hostile
2) Rock
3) Hidden
4) Observation
         Test Examples
 Choose the word that does not belong
           with the others:

Choose Your Answer
1) Laser
2) Sun
3) Moon
4) Space
5) Planet
         Test Examples
  If you rearrange the letters "NAKSE"
         you have the name of a:

Choose Your Answer:
1) Animal
2) Country
3) State
4) City
5) Ocean
        IQ Scales/Scores
Below 70: mentally retarded (~2%)
70-80: borderline MR (~7%)
80-90: low average (~16%)
90-110: average (50%)
110-120: high average (~16%)
120-130: superior (~7%)
Above 130: Very superior (~2%)
         What is genius?
• Genius: 126-130
• Super-genius: greater than 130

Highest ever recorded?
 Marilyn vos Savant has an
 approximate IQ of 228. At that level,
 IQ is almost impossible to measure
 with accuracy.
    Causes for Intelligence
• Strong genetic component
  – Identical twins have closer IQs than
    fraternal twins
  – Natural children’s IQs are more similar
    to their parents/siblings than adopted
    children’s IQs
• Environmental component
  – Nutrition
  – Stimulating environment during
       Causes for Retardation
Physical: 20% (usually result in severe to
  profound retardation)
• Injury/Disease
• Extreme malnutrition
• Lack of oxygen at birth
• Toxic chemical exposure
Environmental (usually linked to poverty)
• Lack of stimulation
• Alcohol/drug abuse by pregnant mom
• Poor nutrition
  Disorders that Affect
Intelligence or Learning
• Severe brain function disorder
• Affects the way the brain uses or transmits info
• May be genetic or caused by illness during
• Marked by:
   – Inappropriate social behavior
   – Lower intelligence
   – Language difficulties
   – Ritualistic or compulsive behavior
   – Bizarre responses to the environment.
          Diagnosing Autism
• problems with developing friendships
• problems with make-believe or social
• endlessly repeated words or strings of
• difficulty in carrying on a conversation
• obsessions with rituals or restricted
• preoccupation with parts of objects
            Savant Syndrome
• Person with below-normal mental capacity
  possesses particular talent or ability

• 10 of autistic individuals possess savant

• Causes unknown

• Alonzo The Real Rainman Artistic Savant
       Dyslexia & Dysgraphia
• Problems in reading, spelling, writing,
  speaking, or listening
• Results from a mind that learns differently
  from others
• Affects performance rather than intelligence
• Genetic causes
        Diagnosing Dyslexia

Difficulty in:
• identifying single words
• understanding sounds in words
• spelling
• transposing letters in words
• handwriting
• reading comprehension
• delayed spoken language
  Try to interpret the writing on the page

       The correct paragraph is:
  Abbasid or Abbaside, Arabic family
  descended from Abbas, the uncle of
   Muhammad. They rose to power by
massacring the ruling Umayyad family and
  held the Caliphate from 749 to 1258.
  Prominent Abbasid caliphs include al-
  Mansur and Harun Ar-Rashid, under
 whom the caliphate reached its greatest
 power. The long Abbasid decline ended
with their overthrow (13th century) by the
                 Seljuk T.
         Fragile X Syndrome
• Most common form of inherited mental
  retardation. Marked by:
   –Developmental delay
   –Variable levels of mental retardation
   –Behavioral and emotional difficulties
   –Characteristic physical traits
• Diagnosed by genetic testing
          Down Syndrome
• Genetic disorder caused by an extra
  chromosome. Marked by:
   –Distinct facial features
   –Delays in physical and mental
    development (some mental retardation)
   –Problems with vision and hearing
   –Heart defects
      Diagnostic Characteristics of
           Down Syndrome
•   A flat face
•   Upwardly slanted eyes
•   A short neck
•   Misshapen ears
•   One deep crease in the center of the palm
•   A thick tongue
•   Poor muscle tone and loose joints
•   A white spot in the eyes
•   Small hands and feet
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
• Pattern of birth defects, learning, and
  behavioral problems
• Caused by consumption of alcohol by
  mother during pregnancy
• Totally preventable
      Physical Complications of FAS

•   Low birth weight and poor weight gain
•   Microcephaly (small head)
•   Characteristic pattern of facial features
•   Cleft palate
•   Congenital heart defects
•   Hearing loss
•   Wide range of birth defects
•   Seizures
Behavioral Complications of FAS
•   Difficulties with feeding
•   Irregular sleep-wake cycles
•   Poor muscle tone & motor skills
•   Developmental delays
•   Behavior and learning difficulties
•   Poor attention span & hyperactivity (ADHD)
•   Slow language development
•   Learning disabilities or mental retardation
              ADD & ADHD
• Developmental disorders
• Do not affect intelligence, but do affect
  ability to succeed in school
• Probably inherited
• ADD diagnosed by having 6 or more
  inattention symptoms
• ADHD adds hyperactivity symptoms to
  inattention symptoms
       Symptoms of Inattention

• fails to pay close attention to detail or
  makes many careless mistakes
• has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks
• does not appear to listen when spoken to
• does not follow through on instructions
  and does not finish tasks
• has difficulty organizing tasks and
• avoids or dislikes tasks that require
  sustained mental effort (e.g., homework)
       Symptoms of Hyperactivity
• fidgety in a squirmy sense;
• doesn't stay seated;
• runs or climbs excessively (or feelings of
  restlessness in older children);
• difficulty playing quietly;
• often "on the go" or acts if "driven by a motor";
• often talks excessively;
• blurts out answers to questions;
• difficulty waiting in lines or waiting turns;
• often interrupts or intrudes on others.
 You mean those are real words?
Real intelligence terms based on Wechsler:

1- Profound Idiot: (profound MR) - score 1-10 points in
  Wechsler IQ test scale.
2- Severe Idiot: (severe MR) - scores 11-25 points
3- Imbecile: (moderate MR) - score 26-40 points. Their
  mental age is no more than a child of five years old.
4- Moron: score 41-55 points. Their mental development
  equals that of a child of 8-12 years old.
5- Border Line: score 56-70 points on a Wechsler IQ test
• The mental processes that result in
  original, workable ideas
• Ability to deviate from the expected
• Ability to ‘break set’
• Not measurable by standard IQ tests
• Not necessarily correlated with high
      What is ‘breaking set?’
Set = tendency to use the same strategy or
 solution over and over again – even when
 it doesn’t work
Breaking set = new, unexpected solutions
 or ideas; using something in a way that is
 different from the normal way

Creative solutions are unusual, but effective
   Measuring Creativity
Write a story about this man on an
   Measuring Creativity
Use some or all of the objects below
   to mount a candle on the wall
    Measuring Creativity

List as many uses as possible for a
        Creative Students
• Not often identified as the ‘brightest’
• Above average IQ, but only slightly
• Often unpredictable & disruptive
• May be silly and tend to contradict
• Not often ‘teacher’s pets’
• Accomplishments are not always
  achieved in the usual way