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CLEANTECH – ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

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					CLEANTECH – ENERGY AND
ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
Like a glowing focal point, the question of
how we should use our energy resources has
gained an unquestioned place on the political
agenda.

CleanTech covers energy and environment-
related development aimed at reducing
consumption of natural resources. CleanTech
is found in the sectors of energy, transport,
agriculture, air and water quality. CleanTech
companies work with energy, water treatment,
waste management and materials recycling.
Energy is the main component of CleanTech
and the focus of this presentation.
SWEDISH KNOW-HOW
Preeminent Swedish technological development of renewable energy has garnered
international attention. Investors in CleanTech are looking at Sweden, where long-
term environmental research and technology development are the foundations of
innovative energy technologies – and where the know-how required to efficiently
integrate the technologies into society can be found.

Decades of experience with goal-oriented, long-term initiatives have created
expertise, experience and extraordinary networks. Unlike many other countries, the
Swedish energy research programme has been distinctly oriented towards renewable
energy and improved energy efficiency for a very long time. National political
mechanisms, financial support for entrepreneurship, R&D and commitment to
sustainable environmental policy are a few of the explanations. But the open and
accepted climate of cooperation among industry organisations, politicians and
scientists is another key contributor to Sweden’s considerable expertise in CleanTech
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN SWEDEN
Sweden is one of the countries in the world
that invests the most per capita in research
and development. CleanTech research is no
exception.

Sweden has been making long-term
investments in renewable energy research
and technological development since the oil
crisis of the 1970s. Sweden has also made
tremendous progress in energy efficiency,
especially in the industrial sector. The
unmistakable focus has helped make Sweden
a world-leader in many energy and
environment-related fields.

Renewable sources of energy account for
37% of Sweden’s energy supply.
HEAT PUMPS
Geothermal heat is actually pure solar energy,
and the principle is basically very simple. The
technology is based on utilising the solar energy
stored in the ground during the year. Even
climates without a lot of sun suffice to store
enough heat energy underground. A fluid-filled
house is heated underground and collects the
stored heat of the sun.

After that, the heat pump’s job is to concentrate
the stored heat energy so that it can heat water
in the house – in the tap and the shower as well
as radiators. Heat pumps run on electricity, but
the pump returns several times more heat
energy than it uses.
WHY ARE HEAT PUMPS A GOOD IDEA?
• It takes only one part electricity to produce three parts heat
• New technology yields hotter water and faster heat for less money
• Geothermal heat reduces annual electricity consumption by 50 to 75% compared to
other types of heating
• Remote monitoring and control can be managed over the Internet
• The heat pump can serve as a climate control system and be used for both heating
and air conditioning
DISTRICT HEATING
District heating is usually highly resource-
efficient and eco-friendly. A central district
heating plant heats water, which is transported
in a pipeline under high pressure to a district
heating system in each building. Heat
exchangers in the building use the hot water to
heat radiators and hot water tanks. District
heating provides 12% of all heating in Sweden.

District heating plants can be run on a wide
variety of fuel types and take advantage of
energy that would otherwise go to waste, such
as waste heat from industrial processes,
forestry waste and energy recovered from
rubbish and waste. Large-scale combustion
yields high environmental performance and
district heating is very reliable. District heating
can generate both heat and power.
WHY IS DISTRICT HEATING A GOOD IDEA?
•District heating is usually a resource-efficient alternative that utilises a wide variety of
fuel types and takes advantage of energy that would otherwise go to waste. Running
heating plants with renewable fuels (instead of fossil fuels) is a major and important
environmental transition.

• Efficient use of surplus industrial heat
• Flexibility and options in fuel choice
• Enables energy recovery from rubbish and residual waste
• Cost-effective heating in towns and cities
• Flue gas purification at a single site reduces environmental impact
• Reduced carbon dioxide emissions improves air quality in towns and cities
• Efficient use of resources through co-generation of heat and power
• Extremely reliable
DISTRICT COOLING
District cooling is based on the same principles as district heating. Water is chilled
and then distributed in a pipeline to homes, offices, industrial buildings and other
spaces that need air conditioning. The cold water is pumped around in a closed
system and used to cool the air circulating in the building’s ventilation system. The
same water is then piped back to the production facility to be rechilled.

The temperature of the water pumped to buildings is about 6° C and the return water
about 16°. The return water is heated as much as possible as rooms and processes
are cooled. Sweden is benefiting from system expertise in district heating as well as
the expansive technology infrastructure.
WHY IS DISTRICT COOLING A GOOD IDEA?
•District cooling provides a consistent and comfortable indoor climate year-round,
while reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions.

• Costs less than local cooling systems
• Highly reliable
• Consistently high comfort in commercial spaces and buildings
• No noise from alternative cooling systems
• Limited maintenance
• No need to store or handle environmentally hazardous refrigerants and chemicals
• Flexible adaptation for both comfort cooling and process cooling
• Natural cold can be utilised in many cases, resulting in minimal energy consumption
• District cooling and district heating production can be combined for more resource-
efficient operation
SOLAR ENERGY
Sunlight can be used to produce heat or
electricity. Solar cells (photovoltaics) are used
to generate electricity. Silicon-based solar
cells are currently the most widely used
technology. There are metal contacts on both
sides of the solar cell. When sunlight strikes
the solar cell, a charge arises between the
front and back sides.

A solar cell produces a charge of about one
half volt. The cell continues generating
electricity as long as the light strikes it, but
stops instantly in darkness. Solar cells are
often assembled in solar modules that can be
linked to produce higher voltage.
WHY IS SOLAR ENERGY A GOOD IDEA?
The sun’s energy is so abundant that once we have learned how to use it
economically, energy supply will no longer be a problem. Sweden has been involved
in developing various solar energy technologies for many years that can be
successfully combined with other technologies. The results have been superb, since
conditions vary from one environment to the next. For instance, there are now hybrid
technologies that solve the problem of lighting in places where conventional
infrastructure is unavailable, like forests, rural areas or mountainous areas.

Integration of solar electricity and solar heating modules – a hybrid technoogy that
supplies waste heat and enhances efficiency.
Solar electricity and heat pump technology – a hybrid technology powerful enough to
make single-family homes energy self-sufficient
Solar cells, new battery technology and LED lighting – a hybrid technology for
environments where there is no power line infrastructure.
On-grid solar cells and solar heating systems connected to the district heating
network – large hybrid systems that are a superb choice for heating in sunny
countries.
WIND POWER
Wind power turbines utilise the energy in wind
to generate power. Wind arises when the sun
warms the atmosphere and creates
temperature differences. This produces
pressure differences that set air masses in
motion.

Modern wind turbines capture about one third
of the power in the wind that passes through
the rotor’s swept area. The blades on a wind
turbine look something like a propeller and
are linked to a generator that converts
movement to energy. Wind is an almost
infinite resource and creates no pollution.
WHY IS WIND POWER A GOOD IDEA?
•Wind power has many advantages from the environmental standpoint – the raw
material is renewable and requires no permanent alterations to the environment.

• Very limited environmental impact
• Production causes no environmentally harmful emissions
• There are no hazardous residual products and final storage is not required
• There are no fuel costs involved in production
• Production requires no transport of raw materials
• A standard wind turbine produces more energy in less than six months than it took to
manufacture it
LED LIGHTING
LED – Lighting Emitting Diode – is a young
lighting technology that emerged in the
2000s, but is developing at warp speed. In
another ten years or so, it is highly likely that
most of our indoor and outdoor lighting will be
powered by LED technology. LEDs can
withstand major temperature variations,
providing an enormous range of applications,
since installations are not affected by the
climate or the season

LEDs are semiconductors that directly
convert electric current to light. The diodes
emit colored light – red, orange, yellow, green
or blue. White light is created using a special
LED technology and is becoming more
common all the time.
WHY IS LED LIGHTING A GOOD IDEA?
•LED is an entirely new generation of lighting technology that is set to revolutionise
the world in the next ten years. The technology has superior competitive advantages
compared to low-energy light bulbs and incandescent bulbs.

• LEDs have a lifetime of about 100,000 hours, which is a hundred times longer than a
conventional light bulb.
• The diodes are extremely energy efficient. About 50% of the energy in an LED is
expended as light. In an ordinary light bulb, about 95% of the energy is expended as
heat and only 5% as light.
• LED lamps do not get as hot as halogen lamps. That makes LED lighting ideal for
bookshelves and other cramped spaces that should not be allowed to overheat.
• LEDs contain no environmentally hazardous substances like lead or mercury.
CLEANTECH – AN INDUSTRY
FOR THE FUTURE
Interest in environmental innovations is rising steadily as global climate problems
become more urgent.

CleanTech is considered one of the most important industries of the future. The
OECD estimates that the world environmental technology market will be worth about
€644 billion in 2010.

The European Commission has proposed targets to reduce emissions of greenhouse
gases by at least 20% and increase the share of energy consumption from renewable
sources to 20% by 2020, in accordance with the agreement made by EU Heads of
State in March 2007.

The relatively large percentage of renewable energy in the Swedish energy system is
an outstanding achievement. About one fourth of Swedish consumption comes from
renewable sources of energy. One example is the transport sector in Stockholm,
where 25% of bus traffic in runs on ethanol or biogas.
HEAT PUMPS
HEAT PUMPS USE THE FREE ENERGY
NATURE PROVIDES
Geothermal heat is actually pure solar
energy, and the principle is very simple. The
technology is based on utilising the solar
energy stored in the ground during the year.
Even climates without a lot of sun suffice to
store enough heat energy underground. A
fluid-filled house is heated underground and
collects the stored heat of the sun.

After that, the heat pump’s job is to
concentrate the stored heat energy so that it
can heat water in the house – in the tap and
the shower as well as radiators. Heat pumps
run on electricity, but the pump returns two to
four times more heat energy than it uses.
SWEDISH GEOTHERMAL HEAT IS A
FORCE TO BE RECKONED WITH
We have tremendous experience with geothermal heat in Sweden and more heat
pumps are installed here than anywhere else in the world. Thanks to all the
residential and industrial installations, tried-and-true Swedish geothermal heat
technology is ready for export.

• Long-term research and development since the 1970s
• Highly trained consultancies and certified installers
• The large number of installations (500,000) has created a platform for
independent researchers and developers
• The Swedish Energy Agency in partnership with the SP Technical Research
Institute of Sweden have carried out several independent tests of different heat
pumps
• Sweden has the highest number of installed geothermal heat pumps in the world
GEOTHERMAL HEAT –
A BRILLIANT, EFFICIENT IDEA
Even climates without a lot of sun suffice to
store enough heat energy underground. The
heat pump can be used for both heating and
air conditioning.

• It takes only one part electricity to produce
three parts heat
• RPM control reduces energy consumption
• New technology yields hotter water and
faster heat for less money
• Geothermal heat reduces annual electricity
consumption by 50 to 75%
• Remote monitoring and control can be
managed over the Internet
THE TREND IS STILL MOVING UP
The fact that geothermal heat is financially advantageous has driven the
installation rate for geothermal heat pumps in Sweden to new heights in the
2000s. A similar trend worldwide is highly likely.

Today’s market, characterised by high prices for oil and electricity and carbon
dioxide taxes, is favourable and is hastening the technical development of heat
pumps.

Mechanisms such as conversion grants and public/private partnerships have had
a powerful impact on the positive development.

Technology procurements have stimulated the development of new technology to
get new products, systems and processes to market. The outcome of the 1994
technology procurement for heat pumps was an estimated potential savings of 5
to 6 TWh/year for the Nordic countries over 15 years.
GEOTHERMAL HEAT IS REPLACING OIL
The Johansson family of two adults and their teenage son live in a single-storey
house with a basement in Torshälla, a small town in central Sweden. They heated
their home with an electric oil and wood-fired boiler for 15 years. The house is 95
sq m, built of concrete with a wood facade. It took about 30 kWh/year to heat the
house with the electric boiler.

In spring 2005, the Johanssons installed a geothermal heat pump – and cut their
electricity consumption in half. Now it takes only 14 kWh of electricity a year for
heating and the Johanssons think their home has felt especially warm and cosy
ever since. As an added bonus, the heat pump is much easier to maintain than
the boiler.
A SELECTION OF SWEDISH
GEOTHERMAL HEAT COMPANIES
• THERMIA
• NIBE
• IVT
• CTC
• EVIHeat
• ClimateWell
THERMIA
Thermia Värme AB is one of the larger manufacturers of heat pumps in Europe.
Thermia is part of Danfoss Heat Pumps. With especially powerful expansion in
Germany and France, Thermia is also experiencing robust international growth in
England, Ireland and Denmark. The company’s goal is to be the European market
leader by 2009.

Business direction
Geothermal heat pumps with integrated high-temperature water heaters. RPM
control of circulation pumps minimises energy consumption and maximises heat
production. The heat pumps can be easily managed and monitored remotely via
the Internet and text messaging.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 473 million (2005)
Contact details: www.thermia.se
NIBE INDUSTRIER
NIBE Industrier is divided into three business units. NIBE Heating manufactures
domestic heating products, including heat pumps. The company’s mission is to
supply the market with high-quality and innovative heating products. NIBE
Heating has 19 subsidiaries in Europe. NIBE Industrier is listed on the Stockholm
Stock Exchange (O list).

Business direction
Geothermal heat pumps with integrated water heaters that do not require auxiliary
electric heater cartridges. This is accomplished through intelligent control of an
RPM-controlled compressor and circulation pumps. The heat pumps can be easily
managed and monitored remotely via the Internet and text messaging.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 2.5 billion (2006)
Contact details: www.nibe.se
IVT
The IVT Group does business in the energy and environmental goods and
services sector. Their business concept is to supply heat and cooling in a way that
saves energy and conserves the environment more effectively than other energy
solutions. IVT possesses system expertise in energy solutions where the solar
energy stored in rock, soil water and outdoor air is used and the energy in
exhaust air is recovered. IVT is a subsidiary of Division Thermotechnik, Bosch
Group.

Business direction
IVT PremiumLine X15. Geothermal heat pump with RPM control. Provides
unlimited heat, 4.5 – 17 kW. Auxiliary electricity not required. The patented scroll
compressor yields high output, quiet operation and long service life. Savings up to
14% higher than equivalent heat pumps that do not have RPM control.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 1.3 million (2006)
Contact details: www.ivt.se
CTC
CTC’s business philosophy is to develop, manufacture and market burners,
boilers and heat pumps along with devices, equipment and components for
heating systems and industrial applications. CTC is a division of Enertech AB
Sweden, a subsidiary of Enertech Limited. The Enertech AB Sweden Group also
includes Bentone and Osby Parca.

Business direction
Energy from the sun can be used to supplement the heat pump via an outdoor
heat exchanger connected to the CTC EcoHeat pump or the EcoAir air/water
pump together with the CTC EcoEl for a free addition of the most eco-friendly
energy imaginable.

At a glance
Annual sales (Enertech AB): SEK 805 million (2006)
Contact details: www.ctcvarme.se
EVI HEAT
Heat pumps from EVI Heat are developed and manufactured by SIPS AB,
Sweden. The company has annual sales of SEK 50 million. SIPS AB was founded
in 1991 and is part of the EVI Group, located in southern Sweden.

Business direction
EviHeat manufactures solar heat pumps that are run in parallel with geothermal or
other heat pumps. Augmenting the system with a solar heat pump usually covers
the building’s entire heating and hot water requirement.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 50 million
Contact details: www.eviheat.se
CLIMATEWELL
ClimateWell develops solar-powered heat-pump climate systems that provide
both heating and cooling. The company operates in Sweden, Finland, Madrid and
Italy and exports to several countries including Spain, Italy and Germany.
ClimateWell has a patent on TCA technology in about 30 countries, which applies
to the entire solution. The company believes there will be several different
markets for TCA, including large-scale applications, but first and foremost, the
single-family home market.

Business direction
ClimateWell uses solar heating for air conditioning. The technology is called
Thermo Chemical Accumulator, or TCA, which involves storing energy from solar
panels in a “battery” of salt, which can be saved and extracted as either cold or
heat.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 1 million (2006)
Contact details: www.climatewell.se
HEAT PUMPS – A POWERFUL ALTERNATIVE
Heat pumps are an eco-friendly alternative that reduce the use of electric heat, oil
and gas. The heat pump is especially eco-friendly when the electricity is produced
using green methods like hydropower, wind power or biomass-fired co-generation.
The fact that the heating principle is financially advantageous has driven the
installation rate for geothermal heat pumps to new heights in the 2000s.

Heat pumps collect both heat and cold from the soil, which is extremely useful in
many countries with a warmer climate. This is also evident in the strong growth in
the heat pump market in France, Germany and England. China has also begun
using heat pumps.
DISTRICT HEATING
DISTRICT HEATING – A CLOSED SYSTEM
THAT RECOVERS ENERGY
District heating is a highly resource-efficient
and eco-friendly source of heat.

A central district heating plant heats water,
which is transported in a pipeline under high
pressure to a district heating system in each
building.

Heat exchangers in the building use the hot
water to heat radiators and hot water tanks.
DISTRICT HEATING – PRINCIPLE
District heating plants utilise a wide variety of fuel types and take advantage of
energy that would otherwise go to waste, such as waste heat from industrial
processes, forestry waste and energy recovered from rubbish and waste.

The technology is uncomplicated and very reliable.
SWEDEN IS THE WORLD LEADER IN
DISTRICT HEATING
Sweden is the world leader in district heating. Consistent and relatively high
environmental taxes on fossil fuels and openness to new solutions in the energy
sector have driven technological progress and sharply reduced the use of fossil
fuels.

The transition from individual systems to large district heating plants has reduced
emissions of nitric oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Swedish carbon
dioxide emissions have dropped by 20%.

• A long history of building knowledge about how common systems should be built
and maintained
• Energy companies with tremendous financial endurance
• Four-fifths of the heat used in Swedish district heating networks is based on
energy that would otherwise have gone to waste
SWEDISH DISTRICT HEATING FROM
A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
Swedish consultants have unique system expertise in relation to feasibility studies
and planning district heating systems and are frequently called upon for projects
run by organisations like European Bank and the World Bank.

Several SWEHeat companies have been involved in recent years in the
modernisation and expansion of district heating plants and networks in Eastern
and Central Europe.

Swedish experts have been used in North America for planning and operation of
several district heating plants.

China has used Swedish technology to manufacture insulated pipes and for a
range of other district heating products.

Swedish district heating technology is solidly established in Europe.
DISTRICT HEATING –
A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE
District heating utilises a wide variety of fuel types and takes advantage of energy
that would otherwise go to waste. Running heating plants with renewable fuels is
a major and important environmental transition.

• Efficient use of surplus industrial heat
• Flexibility and options in fuel choice
• Enables energy recovery from rubbish and residual waste
• Cost-effective heating in towns and cities
• Flue gas purification at a single site reduces environmental impact
• Reduced carbon dioxide emissions and cleaner air in towns and cities
• Efficient use of resources through co-generation of heat and power
• The technology is uncomplicated and extremely reliable
STOCKHOLM – A GREEN LEADER AMONG
WORLD CAPITALS
District heating produces about 75% of the heat required to keep Stockholm
warm. The high percentage has made Stockholm a green leader among world
capitals. Stockholm is growing and district heating is growing right along with it.

Högdalenverket is one of the biggest district heating
plants in Europe. The household waste produced by
the people of Stockholm is burned here and converted
to electricity and district heating. Over the years, this
has contributed to sharp reductions in emissions of
carbon dioxide and other harmful substances.

Every year, Högdalenverket takes in 500,000 tonnes of
household waste and 200,000 tonnes of sorted
industrial waste, which is converted to 450 GWh of
electricity and 1,700 GWh of district heating for a
quarter million Swedes.
REFERENCE SITES
District heating has been used in Sweden for more than fifty years, and today
there are more than 200 district heating systems. They range in size, from the
smallest, which sell about 5 GWh a year up to the biggest, which sell more than 7
TWh (7,000 GWh) a year.




Waste to CHP                                      Straw-fired hot water plant
Completed in 2006, Jönköping                      Sotenäs, Skaraborg
Power: 100 GWh a year                             Heat: 20 GWh a year
Heat: 350 GWh a year
A SELECTION OF SWEDISH
DISTRICT HEATING COMPANIES
Boiler Plant Equipment   Control and Automation
Petrokraft               Energy Opticon
VEÅ                      TAC
Heat Exchangers          Valves, Pipes and Fittings
Alfa Laval               Powerpipe Systems
Armatec                  Alvenius
SWEP International       Industriarmatur ARI
                         Mittel Fjärrvärme
                         TAC
                         Armatec

Heat Metering            (Pre)insulated Pipes
Metrima                  Alstom Power FlowSystems
                         Powerpipe Systems
A SELECTION OF SWEDISH
DISTRICT HEATING COMPANIES
Consultants                            Management Support
FVB District Energy                    Energy Opticon
Göteborg Energi International          FVB District Energy
SWECO International                    SWECO International
ÅF-Energi & Miljö                      ÅF-Energi & Miljö

Official Bodies                        District Heating Operators
Swedish District Heating Association   Göteborg Energi International
Swedish Energy Agency                  Mälarenergi
Swedish Trade Council                  Tekniska Verken in Linköping
                                       Umeå Energi
                                       Öresundskraft

Research and Development               Substations
Lund Institute of Technology           Alfa Laval
                                       Armatec
                                       SWEP International
FVB DISTRICT ENERGY
Founded in 1970, the company has been expanding in the energy sector ever
since. FVB District Energy is investing in research and has been providing training
in district heating to the international market for many years.

Business direction
Consultancy and turnkey projects related to heating, cogeneration and industrial
processes. Also provides advanced services of a strategic nature - often at the
management level.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 82,7 million (2006)
Contact details: www.fvb.com
SWECO INTERNATIONAL
SWECO International is the foremost consultancy firm in Scandinavia and
possesses solid expertise in the fields of engineering, the environment and
architecture.

Business direction
SWECO’s consultants work in all areas of the energy supply chain from
production to distribution and consumption. The objective is to help develop a
cost-effective and sustainable energy supply system with long-term concern for
the environment.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 163 million
Contact details: www.sweco.se
ÅF-ENERGI & MILJÖ
ÅF is a leading engineering consultancy whose knowledge is based on a century
of experience, with specialised and general expertise in process and civil
engineering and technical estimates.

Business direction
Combined with qualified project management, ÅF can take on any kind of civil
engineering project - from planning buildings and entire industrial facilities, to
specialised planning within the various disciplines. The company manages the full
spectrum of supplying heat to people and industrial processes.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 3.1 billion (2006)
Contact details: www.afconsult.com
RISING TO FUTURE CHALLENGES
District heating is a highly versatile system
that can be produced using the technique and
fuels that are optimal for the time and place.

International interest in district heating is
rising fast and the potential benefit to the
global climate may be enormous.

Simply by doubling the use of district heating
in Europe, the EU could meet its
commitments under the Kyoto Protocol by a
wide margin. Opportunities to expand CHP in
Europe are particularly favourable.
DISTRICT COOLING
DISTRICT COOLING – A TECHNOLOGY
WITH MINIMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
District cooling is based on the same principles as district heating. Water is chilled
and then distributed in a pipeline to homes, offices, industrial buildings and other
spaces that need air conditioning.

The cold water is pumped around in a closed system and used to cool the air
circulating in the building’s ventilation system. The same water is then piped back
to the production facility to be rechilled.

The cooling may even consist of natural cold taken from cold water layers deep in
lakes, rivers or the ocean. Snow stockpiles saved from the winter can also be
used in district cooling systems.

See principle 
DISTRICT COOLING – PRINCIPLE
SWEDEN IS A PIONEERING COUNTRY
IN DISTRICT COOLING
Sweden’s first district cooling plant went operational in 1992. Today, there are
about thirty plants producing district cooling in Sweden. Studies show that total
demand for district cooling equals about 2000-5000 GWh.

District cooling replaces used to run individual air conditioners, which goes hand-
in-hand with lower operating costs and better environmental performance.

Swedish district cooling companies have laid a strong foundation for building
systems in the form of pipelines.

The district cooling companies are turnkey contractors who supply the entire
heating and air conditioning requirement.
THE SMART WAY TO PRODUCE COOLING
District cooling provides a consistent and comfortable indoor climate year-round,
while reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions.

• Costs less than e.g. compressor-driven air conditioning
• Highly reliable
• Consistently high comfort in commercial spaces and buildings
• No noise from alternative cooling systems
• Limited maintenance
• No need to store or handle environmentally hazardous refrigerants and
chemicals
• Flexible adaptation for both comfort cooling and process cooling
DISTRICT COOLING IS MAKING STRIDES
The growing numbers of computers in the workplace and the realisation that
comfort cooling increases productivity have brought greater demands for a
comfortable climate at work. As a result, the need for eco-friendly and cost-
effective comfort solutions is increasing every year and the market is growing
rapidly.

• 10% of global electricity production is used for cooling
• 16% of US electricity production is used for cooling
• More than 80% of buildings in the US and Japan are air-conditioned. The figure
is less than 50% elsewhere in the world, but is rising fast
• The EU expects district cooling to provide 25% of the requirement by 2020
THE HEATING PLANT IS COOLING LINKÖPING
The regional utility company, Tekniska Verken, supplies district cooling in two
large networks in central Linköping. The absorption heat principle is used to
produce the cooling in the large central plants that run on district heating.

Technological progress has now made it also profitable to build small local
networks with compact air conditioning systems that run on district heating.

Tekniska Verken is now offering the solution to buildings that are not connected to
the main district heating networks.
REFERENCES
Zuidas: 76 MW, project started 2003 and in operation July - 2006




Zuidoost lob: 60 MW, project started 2005 and scheduled to begin
operation first half - 2008
A SELECTION OF SWEDISH DISTRICT
COOLING COMPANIES
Consulting & Management Support        Valves, Pipes and Fittings
FVB District Energy                    Powerpipe Systems
ÅF-Energi & Miljö
Capital Cooling Europe AB              Meters
                                       Metrima
Official Bodies                        District Cooling Operators
Swedish District Heating Association   Fortum
Swedish Energy Agency                  Göteborg Energi
Swedish Trade Council                  Norrenergi
                                       Mälarenergi
Heat Exchangers                        Tekniska Verken i Linköping
Alfa Laval                             Öresundskraft

R&D Education                          Substations
Lund Institute of Technology           Alfa Laval
KTH                                    Armatec
Chalmers                               SWEP International
CAPITAL COOLING (CCE)
CCE focuses on the European market for District Cooling. The company sets up
and implements business projects with robust, sustainable features. Including
current projects, Capital Cooling Europe has developed about 20 projects with a
corresponding investment volume of about 350 million euro.

Business direction
Total concept for BOT (Build Own Transfer), including financial solutions
Management consulting
Partner Strategy (Implement DC business units in local energy companies)

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 35 million
References:
Contact details: www.capitalcooling.se
FVB DISTRICT ENERGY
Founded in 1970, the company has been expanding in the energy sector ever
since. FVB District Energy is investing in research and has been providing training
in district heating to the international market for many years.

Business direction
Consultancy and turnkey projects related to heating, cogeneration and industrial
processes. Also provides advanced services of a strategic nature - often at the
management level.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 82,7 million (2006)
Contact details: www.fvb.se
ÅF-ENERGI & MILJÖ
ÅF is a leading engineering consultancy whose knowledge is based on a century
of experience, with specialised and general expertise in process and civil
engineering and technical estimates.

Business direction
Combined with qualified project management, ÅF can take on any kind of civil
engineering project - from planning buildings and entire industrial facilities to
specialised planning within the various disciplines. The company has special
expertise in district cooling.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 3.1 billion (2006)
Contact details: www.afconsult.com
RISING TO FUTURE CHALLENGES
Future climate changes combined with rising demands for personal comfort are
continually increasing the need for air conditioning all over the world. Thanks to its
superior system function and resource efficiency, district cooling has an excellent
chance of becoming a key component of the energy system of the future.
SOLAR ENERGY
THE SUN – THE CLEANEST ENERGY SOURCE
The sun is a clean source of energy. Solar
energy emits no toxic emissions or hazardous
waste and demands no energy to produce
energy.

Solar energy can be used to generate both
heat and electricity. The easiest way to
generate solar heating is to let the sun heat
water in a solar collector.
THE SUN – THE CLEANEST ENERGY SOURCE
Solar cells convert sunlight directly to
electricity. The solar cell is made of a
semiconductor material with metal contacts
on both sides, front and back.

When sunlight strikes the solar cell,
electrons are knocked loose and are moved
by a voltage difference between the front
and back sides of the solar cell, creating
electricity.

The process continues as long as the light is
striking the solar cell, but stops instantly in
darkness.
OUTSTANDING SWEDISH RESEARCH IN
PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY
Sweden has wide-ranging research expertise in photovoltaic (solar cell) energy.
Several multinational owner-operated companies are using and further developing
Swedish research findings.

The Ångström Solar Center is supporting research.

The national co-financed “SolEl” programme for PV systems and applications is
the foundation of Swedish research and development in the field. SolEl is a joint
effort of the energy, construction and manufacturing sectors.

Government investment grants are providing a platform for developing on-grid PV
systems in public buildings. Sweden also grants funding for installation of PV
systems, in addition to the long-standing grant programme for installation of solar
collectors. Grants are also available for PV systems integrated in new buildings.
HYBRIDS OF SOLAR AND OTHER
TECHNOLOGIES
Sweden has been developing various types of hybrid technologies for many
years. For instance, these solutions are being used successfully in environments
where conventional power infrastructure is unavailable, such as forests, remote
rural areas and mountainous areas.

Integration of solar electricity and solar heating modules – a hybrid technoogy that
supplies waste heat and enhances efficiency.

Solar cells, new battery technology and LED lighting – a hybrid technology for
environments where there is no power line infrastructure.

Solar energy offers a good alternative in places that lack reliable energy supply,
such as rural areas in developing countries. The need and the potential are huge,
especially since sun conditions in these places are often ideal.
SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IS HUGE,
ESPECIALLY IN SUNNY COUNTRIES
For a long time, it simply was not profitable to utilise solar energy except in places
where there was no conventional power infrastructure. But the technology is
advancing rapidly and vigorous support programmes have stimulated powerful
market growth.

• Solar energy accounted for less than one half-thousandth of world energy
consumption in 2000. That figure is expected to increase to 20% by 2025.
• The PV market has grown by about 40% a year in the 2000s.
• EU target: 200 GW solar cells out of an estimated worldwide total of 1,000 GW
by 2030.
• Production costs are declining steadily as new technology is developed and
production increases.
• Consumer prices for solar energy are expected to drop by half in ten years.
Estimated cost of solar energy in southern Europe: €0.15/kW in 2015, €0.06/kW
in 2030.
• Thin-film technology is lowering costs by about 80%.
• Access to venture capital is abundant.
PV CELLS – AN ECO-FRIENDLY AND
RELIABLE ALTERNATIVE
The sun’s resources are abundant and unlimited, which makes solar energy a
very interesting alternative in the energy system of the future.

• Sunlight is converted directly to electricity, with no moving parts and nothing
consumed.
• PV modules can fill multiple functions, such as replacing roof or facade materials
or doing double duty as shades.
• Maintenance costs are low.
• Reliable technology, output guarantee on the modules (80% after 25 years).
There are systems in Sweden still working beautifully after a quarter century.
• The technology can be attractively integrated with the built environment.
• Simple and modular, the technology can be adapted to preferred requirements.
VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN DEVELOPMENT
Silicon-based solar cells are currently the most widely used technology for
converting solar energy to electricity. The maximum efficiency of conversion is 15
to16%.

Although reliable solar cell systems are commercially available today, further
research and development is needed to reduce the costs and make large-scale
distribution of solar cells possible.

Research and development of several new solar cell technologies with the
potential to improve efficiency and lower production costs are in progress all over
the world. The development of thin-film PV cells (second-generation solar cells)
has brought new technologies that are starting to break into the market. In
parallel, development of third-generation solar cells, such as Grätzel cells, is in
progress.
SOLAR ENERGY IS A VIABLE CHOICE




                                                   University Student Union, 25 kW, Aug 2006
Bjurslätt Senior Citizen Housing, 5 kW, Aug 2006




Allé School, Hallsberg, 40 kW, Dec 2005
                                                   Mellanhed School, 35 kW, Feb 2007
SOLAR CELLS AT MELLANHED SCHOOL
There are 251 m2 of solar cells installed at Mellanhed School in Malmö, with peak
output of 31 kW. The PV modules are installed above the windows, meaning they
also work as shades. The decision to install solar cells to protect students and
teachers from the glare of the sun was taken in connection with an interior
refurbishment. The system went operational in January 2007.

Mellanhed School’s PV system won the Solar Energy Association of Sweden’s
2007 Solar Energy Award in 2007, with the following citation:

“An architecturally well-integrated PV system of modules adapted to work as
shades in connection with refurbishment. The system is designed for high energy
efficiency while improving the indoor climate. The choice to install the system at a
school also gives it high educational value.”
A SELECTION OF SWEDISH SOLAR CELL
COMPANIES
• ArcticSolar AB
• Gällivare Photovoltaic AB (GPV)
• PV Enterprise Sweden AB
• Solibro
• n67solar
ARCTIC SOLAR
In Laponia, under the midnight sun and the polar sky, the sun plays a special part
in our lives. Perhaps that is why we are so good at making solar modules, which
provide eco-friendly energy to people all over the world.

Business direction
Clean, eco-friendly energy from the land of the midnight sun!

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 30 million
Contact details: www.arcticsolar.se
GÄLLIVARE PHOTOVOLTAIC AB
Gällivare Photovoltaic AB (GPV) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Solar World AG,
a large German corporation with more than 1,350 employees in ten locations.
GPV manufactures about 20 MW of PV panels a year, with 92% exported to
Germany and the remainder sold in the Scandinavian market.

Business direction
GPV is the first and biggest producer of photovoltaic modules in Scandinavia.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 500 million
Contact details: www.gpv-solar.com
PV ENTERPRISE SWEDEN
PV Enterprise is successfully competing in the rapidly growing international
market for solar energy with innovative, high-quality products and highly
automated production.

Business direction
PV Enterprise is a Swedish company that specialises in developing and
manufacturing photovoltaic panels.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 70 million
Contact details: www.pv-enterprise.com
SOLIBRO
Solibro is a spin-off of the Ångström Solar Center in Uppsala, Sweden, a centre of
world-leading research on this type of solar cells for many years.

Business direction
Solibro develops thin-film solar cells, based on a compound semiconductor known
as CIGS. Solibro supplies thin-film solar cell modules with a very high efficiency
(16.6%), based on the research of the Ångström Solar Center.

At a glance
Annual sales: USD 0.5 million
Contact details: www.solibro.se
N67 SOLAR
Our mission at n67solar is simple: To provide high-end crystalline photovoltaic
modules of consistent quality, in large volumes and at fair prices, while meeting
our obligations to our partners reliably and punctually, upstream and downstream.

Business direction
n67solar manufactures large crystalline photovoltaic modules for on-grid systems,
BIPV and stand-alone applications.

At a glance
Employees: About 30 (2008)
Contact details: www.n67solar.se
THE FUTURE OF SOLAR ENERGY
Solar energy is probably the most important
alternative for the energy system of the
future. Technology is developing very rapidly,
thanks to successful research, tougher
environmental policies worldwide and good
access to venture capital.

Far more than a billion people still have no
access to electricity. In the future, solar
energy is probably going to play a crucial role
in their lives.

New hybrid technologies are expanding the
possibilities for using solar energy. Swedish
research and technology are far and away the
leaders in this area, with products and
technologies that have a sterling reputation in
the global market.
WIND POWER
WIND POWER –
AN INFINITE ENERGY RESOURCE
A wind turbine is completely dependent on
the wind.

When the sun warms the atmosphere, it
creates temperature differences. This in turn
produces pressure differences that set air
masses in motion – and the wind starts to
blow.
WIND POWER –
AN INFINITE ENERGY RESOURCE
Modern wind turbines capture about one third of the power in the wind that strikes
the rotor. The blades on a wind turbine look something like a propeller and are
linked to a generator that converts movement to energy.

Wind is an almost infinite resource that costs nothing and creates no pollution.

See principle 
WIND POWER – PRINCIPLE
FAIR WINDS FOR SWEDISH WIND POWER
There is considerable wind power potential in
Sweden and the political message is to develop
wind power in the country. Discussions are in
progress about the expansion of groups of wind
power farms. The planning will involve about 15
large wind power farms, each with about 100
wind turbines.

Sweden’s large expanses of land, such as the
inland areas in the north, are ideal sites for wind
power. The environments are remote, far from
recreational areas and communities and the sites
are not classified as conservation areas.

Sweden is currently running an extensive test
project with the objective of running plug-in hybrid
cars on wind turbine generated electricity. The
Swedish automotive industry has demonstrated
keen interest in the project.
WIND IS A CLEAN AND ECO-FRIENDLY
ENERGY SOURCE
Wind power has many advantages from the environmental standpoint – the raw
material is renewable and requires no alterations to the environment.

• Very limited environmental impact
• Production causes no environmentally harmful emissions
• There are no hazardous residual products and final storage is not required
• There are no fuel costs involved in production
• Production requires no transport of raw materials
• A standard wind turbine produces more energy in less than six months than it
took to manufacture it
WIND POWER IS A RAPIDLY GROWING
ENERGY RESOURCE
Total global production is still small, which gives wind power huge growth
potential.

Leading producers believe wind power will account for 10% of total world power
production by 2015.

Right now, Swedish wind power covers about 1% of the country’s total power
consumption. Once the planned new production is operational, wind power will
account for one third of Sweden’s electricity consumption.

Wind power already covers 20% of electricity consumption in Denmark. In 30
years, an estimated half of all electricity will be generated by wind power turbines.
Development is also advancing very rapidly in countries like Germany, Spain and
the Netherlands.
LILLGRUND – THE WORLD’S
THIRD-LARGEST OFFSHORE WIND PARK
Lillgrund is by far the biggest offshore wind
power project in Sweden. The project,
implemented by the Swedish energy
company Vattenfall, is going to yield
knowledge that large-scale offshore wind
power works in purely technical and financial
terms, which will pave the way for future
projects.

The farm consists of 48 turbines with total
output of 110 MW. Total production in a
normal year is estimated at 385 GWh.
A SELECTION OF SWEDISH WIND
POWER COMPANIES
Technology Development
• SW Vindkraft AB
• DynaWind AB

Components
• VG Power
• Roxtec
• SKF
• ABB
• ESAB
SCANWIND
ScanWind Group AS designs, manufactures and sells large wind turbines with
minimum output of 3 MW. ScanWind has developed a technique adapted to
withstand very rough wind and weather conditions. The type of wind turbines
currently in mass production are direct-drive turbines with installed output of 3.5-5
MW for both onshore and offshore applications.
ScanWind Group AS is Norwegian-owned. The head office is in Trondheim,
Norway and the R&D department is in Karlstad, Sweden.

Business direction
Developing wind power technology for rough wind conditions and large turbines.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 8 million (2005)
Contact details: www.scanwind.com
DYNAWIND AB
DynaWind AB is a Swedish manufacturer of wind turbines adapted to our Nordic
climate. DynaWind is part of the Swedish industrial group Morphic Technologies
AB, an expansive Swedish company intent on becoming a leader in competitive,
eco-friendly energy systems.
A great deal of the wind power operations at the company are run in partnership
with a Finnish company, WinWinD. The partnership agreement gives DynaWind
exclusive rights to WinWinD’s unique turbine technology in the Swedish market.

Business direction
Manufacturing of wind turbine masts.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 33 million (2006)
Contact details: www.dynawind.se
VG POWER AB
VG Power has developed a new Swedish direct-drive generator that cuts the price
of wind power – a key factor in stimulating expansion. Conventional generators
are heavy – which makes them costly. VG Power has solved the problem with a
patented technology that reduces the weight by up to 70%, which could potentially
cut the price of the generator in half.

Business direction
Direct-drive generators with no gearbox

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 92 million (2006)
Contact details: www.vgpower.com
ROXTEC
Roxtec is the world's single largest manufacturer of module based cable and pipe
seals. The core of the product invention is the Multidiameter Technology.
Founded in 1990, Roxtec became one of the most rapidly growing companies of
its kind in less than a decade.
Roxtec´s Multidiameter Technology makes it possible to seal cables and pipes in
a wide range of diameters with only a few sizes of seals. Installations can always
be finished on-site because the Multidiameter units compensate for any surprises
or last-minute changes.

Business direction
Technical solution for safe laying of cables, pipes, etc.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 372 million (2005)
Contact details: www.roxtec.com
SKF
SKF has become a major supplier to the wind power sector, having developed
key elements of the turbine itself.

Business direction
One of the world’s foremost manufacturers of bearings.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 50 billion (2006)
Contact details: www.skf.com/portal/skf_se/home
ABB
ABB is a world leader in power and automation technology.

Business direction
ABB does not make rotor blades. Or steel masts. But ABB does make almost
everything else required to produce and transport wind-generated electricity into
the power grid. With a long list of products, systems and services, ABB is the
world’s largest supplier of wind power solutions.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 21.6 billion (2005)
Contact details: www.abb.se
ESAB
ESAB develops welding and cutting equipment used to manufacture wind
turbines.

Business direction
More than a century of steady research, development and sales has made ESAB
a world leader in welding and cutting, as well as a multinational supplier of
products, know-how and service.

At a glance
Annual sales: SEK 9 billion (2006)
Contact details: www.esab.se
WIND POWER IS GROWING GLOBALLY
Wind power is the source of energy that is
going to make the primary contribution to
reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.
Expansion is expected to increase by 25% a
year for the next several years.

There is tremendous potential for wind power
in Sweden. The expansion rate is on par with
the rest of the world, meaning that by 2015,
about ten new wind turbines will be built every
week. Offshore wind power will have to be
exploited to accomplish a truly major
expansion.
LIGHTING
LED – A LITTLE HIGH-TECH POWERHOUSE
LED – Lighting Emitting Diode – is a young
lighting technology that emerged in the
2000s, but is developing at warp speed.

In another ten years or so, it is highly likely
that most of our indoor and outdoor lighting
will be powered by LED technology.
LED – A LITTLE HIGH-TECH POWERHOUSE
LEDs are semiconductors that directly
convert electric current to light. The diodes
emit colored light – red, orange, yellow,
green or blue.

White light is created using a special LED
technology and is becoming more common
all the time.
NORDIC LIGHT INSPIRES DEVELOPMENT
The Scandinavian winter is long and dark, and Scandinavians perhaps have a
greater need than others for artificial light. It only makes sense that Sweden is a
clear front-runner in the lighting segment, with regard to both research and
manufacturing.

• Swedish companies have developed a very useful technical platform for LED
that is built into outdoor lighting fixtures. As an added bonus, the new LED fixtures
costs less than conventional fixtures.
• Jönköping University has been offering a degree in lighting design and planning
for several years now.
• Sweden has an abundant supply of professional lighting planners working as
consultants in the lighting industry and large municipalities.
• Quite a few Swedish manufacturers of lighting fixtures have a historic tradition of
exporting good lighting solutions.
LED – SUPERIOR LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY
LED is an entirely new generation of lighting technology that is set to revolutionise
the world in the next ten years. The technology has superior competitive
advantages compared to low-energy light bulbs and incandescent bulbs.

• LEDs have a lifetime of about 100,000 hours – a hundred times longer than a
conventional light bulb.
• The diodes are extremely energy efficient. About 50% of the energy in an LED is
expended as light. In an ordinary light bulb, about 95% of the energy is expended
as heat and only 5% as light.
• LED lamps do not get as hot as halogen lamps. That makes LED lighting ideal
for bookshelves and other cramped spaces that should not be allowed to
overheat.
• LEDs can withstand major temperature variations, providing an enormous range
of applications, since installations are not affected by the climate or the season.
• LEDs contain no environmentally hazardous substances like lead or mercury.
LED – THE LIGHT SOURCE FOR THE FUTURE
The minimal size of only a few millimetres
won’t stop LEDs from becoming the
technological lighting revolution of tomorrow.

• LED technology has come a long way fast.
Once used only in displays, it is now being
used as a complete lighting alternative,
indoors and out.
• Within 10-15 years, a significant percentage
of lighting around the world will be based on
LED technology.
• The technology is being continuously refined
and LED lighting is getting better and more
efficient all the time, in terms of both lighting
and energy.
A SELECTION OF SWEDISH
LIGHTING COMPANIES
• Olsson & Linder
• Johnsson Lighting Technologies
OLSSON & LINDER
Olsson & Linder is a consulting company working within the lighting services area
including design of armatures.

Business direction
Olsson & Linder also offers lectures, workshops and educations customized to
each customer needs. A few examples of areas for lectures:
• Lighting and room
• Lighting in the city
• Lighting within green areas (parks)

At a glance
Contact details: www.olssonlinder.se
JOHNSSON LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
Johnsson Lighting Technologies – design and planning offers total solutions within
the lighting services area.

Business direction
JLT customize each lighting system, as well as the application, according to the
requirements of the user. This process includes the analysis of the customer’s
specific needs prior to the building and installation of a system.
JLT has developed a unique platform for application of the new LED (Light
Emitting Diode) technology:
• JLT Quad LED System
• JLT White LED System
LED Systems are suitable for Shops, restaurants and hotel environments.

At a glance
Contact details: www.jltsweden.com
A REVOLUTION IN LIGHTING
LED is an entirely new generation of lighting
technology that emerged in the 2000s and is
set to revolutionise the world in the next ten
years.

LEDs pack a lot of power despite their
minimal size and are making many novel
applications possible.

Development is swift and there are great
expectations of a breakthrough in the near
future, when LEDs are going to revolutionise
the indoor lighting market.

				
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