Macau Internet Diffusion and Impact

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					                               World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
The Digital
  Macau
              Impact of the Internet: Internet use, Family
  Macau
                Functioning and Sociability in Macau


                                       Angus, W. H. Cheong
                                         (Zhang Rongxian)
                                        University of Macau


               The International Symposium on Information Statistics of
                                    the Internet
                                      July 22-23, 2002, Beijing
                       • China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC)
              •Policy and Resource Committee, Internet Society of China
              •Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, USA
               •Department of English & Communication, Faculty of Humanities and
                           Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong
                            World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              A Brief Profile of the Internet Diffusion in Macau
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



               The Internet was first introduced by the University
                of Macau in 1994 and open to the public in 1995.
                                                    World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              A Brief Profile of the Internet Diffusion in Macau
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                                                    Growth of Registered Accounts

                                  40,000

                                  35,000
                                                                                                                   36,107 36,891
                                  30,000                                                  33,090 34,403
                No. of Accounts




                                  25,000                          29,041 30,204
                                                     27,346
                                  20,000   24,343

                                  15,000

                                  10,000

                                   5,000   The growth rate increased 24% in March 2002, comparing to the same period one year ago.

                                   0,000
                                           Sep-00     Dec-00      Mar-01      June-01 Sep-01           Dec-01       Mar-02      May-02

                                                                                     Time
                                                                                                   Source: DSEC, July 2002
                                      World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              A Brief Profile of the Internet Diffusion in Macau
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau

                                      Type of Registered Accounts

                         40,000                     36,588
                         35,000   29,415
                         30,000
                Number




                         25,000
                         20,000                                          Individual users
                         15,000                                          Group users
                         10,000                                          Leased lines
                          5,000       189 146      140 163

                             0
                                  May 2001      May 2002

                                                 Time


                                                                     Source: DSEC, July 2002
                           World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              A Brief Profile of the Internet Diffusion in Macau
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                           Fa mily Computer Penetra tion



                              No
                             36%                    Yes
                                                    64%




                                                     Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                                 World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              A Brief Profile of the Internet Diffusion in Macau
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                                  Online Fa mily Computer

                                     No
                                    16%
                Not ye t, will
                    be .
                   13%




                                                                         Ye s
                                                                         71%




                                                           Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                                        World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              A Brief Profile of the Internet Diffusion in Macau
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                                              he
                                             T Internet Penetra tion

                                60
                                                                           51.7
                                50
                   Percentage




                                40   32.9
                                30

                                20                       15.3

                                10

                                 0
                                     Current users    Discontinued users   Non-users

                                                     Type of Response
                                                                  Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                            World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                Internet Use Pattern by Macau Residents
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Online time per week          : 567.5 minutes (9.5 hours).
                  Home                       : 367.1minutes (6.1 hours)
                  Workplace/school           : 135.7 minutes (2.3 hours)
                  Elsewhere                  : 64.7 minutes (1.1 hours)




                                                      Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                               World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                Internet Use Pattern by Macau Residents
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Online activity time per week
                    Information searching   : 194 minutes (3.2 hours)
                    News reading            : 101 minutes (1.7 hours)
                    E-mails                 : 92 minutes (1.5 hours)
                    Chart room/forum: 84 minutes (1.4 hours)
                    Game playing            : 77 minutes (1.3 hours)




                                                         Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                           World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              Internet Use Pattern by Macau Residents
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau

                Top Ten Type of Information Browsed
                (%)
                 News                                     53.7
                 Entertainment                            39.2
                 Others                                   17.3
                 Sports                                   12
                 Academic research                        8.9
                 Education                                8.2
                 Travel                                   8.0
                 Computer                                 7.3
                 Fashion & Playing                        7.1
                 Finance                                  5.5
                                                     Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                                   World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              Internet Use Pattern by Macau Residents
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                                 E-mail Communication with Family/Relatives

                            60    53.9

                            50
               Percentage




                            40                      32.7

                            30

                            20                                       13.4

                            10

                            0
                                    Never           Sometimes           Often

                                                    Frequency

                                                             Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                                  World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              Internet Use Pattern by Macau Residents
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                                   E-mail Communication with Friends

                            60
                                                   51.6
                            50
               Percentage




                            40
                                                                    30.3
                            30
                                 18.1
                            20

                            10

                            0
                                   Never           Sometimes           Often

                                                   Frequency

                                                            Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                                  World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              Internet Use Pattern by Macau Residents
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                            E-mail Communication with Colleagues/Classmates
                            45   40.5
                            40                     34.6
                            35
               Percentage




                            30                                      24.9
                            25
                            20
                            15
                            10
                            5
                            0
                                   Never           Sometimes           Often

                                                   Frequency

                                                            Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                            World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                      Characteristics of Internet Users
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                                              Age
                                                65-74
                                      55-64                          18-24
                        45-54                   0.6%
                                      3.1%                           30.6%
                        10.0%




              35-44
              23.8%




                                                           25-34
                                                           31.9%

                                                        Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                   World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              Characteristics of Internet Users
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau



                                  Gender




                  Female
                                                     Male
                   45%
                                                     55%




                                             Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                                             World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                            Characteristics of Internet Users
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


                                                                  Education

                           50                                       45.2
                           45
                           40
              Percentage




                           35
                           30
                           25                        16.5                         16.9            16
                           20
                           15
                           10         3.7
                                                                                                                1.7
                            5
                            0   Primary or    Junio secondary High secondary   College   Undergraduate   Postgraduate
                                  below


                                                                       Level

                                                                                    Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                   World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
              Characteristics of Internet Users
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


                                        Marital Status

                                  60                         50.1
                                             48
                                  50


                     Percentage
                                  40
                                  30
                                  20
                                  10                                             1.9
                                    0
                                            le               er             ow
                                     S i ng           o geth         /W i d
                                                   gt             ed
                                          d /livin        ep  arat
                                  M arrie         rc ed/S
                                            Divo
                                                               Type

                                                          Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                                      World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                            Characteristics of Internet Users
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau

                                                  Family Income
                                        >30000            <3000
                        27001-30000      12%               2%             3001-6000
                            6%                                               11%


                                                                                          6001-9000
                                                                                             12%

              24001-27000
                  5%


              21001-24000
                  6%


                                                                                      9001-12000
                                                                                         15%
                        18001-21000
                            13%             15001-18000              12001-15000
                                                7%                       11%



                                                                  Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                           World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                     Characteristics of Internet Users
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Of the users, there are more male, aged 18-34, high
                secondary school, married/living together, medium-
                high family income.




                                                     Source: WIP-Macau, July 2002
                            World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                              The Macau Survey
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Telephone survey with a CATI system: January 17 to
                  21, 2002;
                 Phone numbers randomly selected from Macau
                  residents phone database;
                 Age between 18 and 74;
                 Complete sample: 1,002 cases;
                 AAPOR response rate 3 (RR3): 35.6%;
                 Cooperation rate 4 (COOP4): 63.5%;
                 Sampling error: 3.16% at 95% confidence level;
                 The sample was weighted against gender and age.
                               World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                           Theoretical Framework
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               According to Dutton, Rogers, and Jun’s (1987)
                 theoretical framework on personal computer
                 adoption, and Zhu and his colleagues’ (2001, 2002)
                 application of the model on the Internet, the Internet
                 diffusion process involves three stages:



                 1. Adoption             2. Use               3. Impact
                             World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                             Internet Impact on …
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Knowledge
               Attitudes
               Values
               Behaviors in work or study
               Family functioning
               Social activities
               Civic participation
               …
                            World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                             Research Questions
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


              1. What effects, if any, would the Internet use have on
                 family functioning?
              2. What effects, if any, would the Internet use have on
                 sociability?
                              World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                     Measurement
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Internet Use:
                 Time used to be the measurement of the media use. In this
                    study, Internet use will be measured by the amount of time
                    spent in different locations, the amount of time spent with
                    different activities on the web, frequency of using e-mails
                    for family functioning and sociability.
                        On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                         Internet at office or school per week?
                        On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                         Internet at home per week?
                        On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                         Internet at other places such as a friend’s home, library or
                         Internet bar per week?


                                                                             Cont’d
                       World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                             Measurement
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


                 On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                  Internet for reading news per week?
                 On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                  Internet for e-mails per week?
                 On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                  Internet for attending chat room or a forum per week?
                 On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                  Internet for searching information per week?
                 On average, how long (hours/minutes) do you use the
                  Internet for playing games per week?




                                                                   Cont’d
                           World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                  Measurement
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


                     How often do you use e-mails for communication with your
                      family members or relatives?
                     How often do you use e-mails for communication with your
                      friends?
                     How often do you use e-mails for communication with your
                      colleagues or classmates?

               A Three-point scale is used to tap the above questions:
                 1.   Never
                 2.   Sometimes
                 3.   Often
                                 World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                        Measurement
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


                 Family Functioning
                  (namely “family interactions” in Lee & Zhu’s (2002) study.)
                  Direct interactions with family members:
                          On average, how many times do    you watch TV together with your
                           family members per week?
                          On average, how many times do    you dine together with your family
                           members at home per week?
                          On average, how many times do    you play games together with your
                           family members per week?
                          On average, how many times do    you go shopping together with your
                           family members per week?

                          A composite scale by combing the four measures (TV watching,
                           dinning, playing, and shopping)
                           (A considerably high coefficient of internal consistency: Cronbach’s α
                           =.57).
                          Thus, one variable is used.
                               World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                     Measurement
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Sociability:
                 Directly face-to-face contacts with other people in a private and
                     a social context.
                        In the past month, how many times do you attend other
                         people’s parties or dinners?
                        In the past month, how many times do you attend the
                         activities organized by the community organizations in Macau?



                        Although the two measures are positively correlated (.30,
                         <.01), the magnitude of the correlations is moderate.
                        Thus, two variables are used.
                        Face-to-face friends socializing: Party/dinner attending
                        Face-to-face community socializing: community activity
                         attending
                             World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                 Analytical Model
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau
              Independent variables
                   Gender
                   Age
                   Education
                   Family Income
                   Marital Status

                   Total online time                       Dependent variables
                   Time on online news                        Family functioning
                   Time on e-mails                            Friends socializing
                   Time on chat room/forum                    Community socializing
                   Time on information
                    search
                   Time on online games
                   Family communication via
                    e-mails
                   Friends communication via
                    e-mail
                   Colleagues/classmate
                    communication via e-mail
                                                World Internet Project-Macau




  The Digital
                                                               Findings
  The Digital
    Macau
    Macau
                      The Impact of Internet Use on Family Functioning and Sociability
                   Independent Variables                                             Dependent Variables
                                                               Family Functioning   Friendship Sociability Community Sociability
Demographics                                                          Beta                   Beta                Beta
Gender (Female=0)                                                   -0.058#                 0.018              -0.059#
Age                                                                 -0.095*                 -0.051             0.147***
Married/living together (Single=0)                                 0.311***                -0.088*              0.069#
Divorced/Separated/Widowed (Single=0)                                -0.008                 0.002               0.029
Education                                                             0.06                  0.051              0.187***
Family income                                                        -0.044               0.184***              0.042
Internet use
Total time                                                          -0.028                0.042                   -0.072
Time on online news                                                 -0.014                 -0.03                  0.004
Time on e-mails                                                     -0.006                0.026                   -0.026
Time on chat room/forum                                             0.052                 0.073*                 0.108**
Time on information search                                          0.000                 0.005                    0.06
Time on online games                                                0.049                 0.008                   0.007
Frequency of family/relative communication via e-mails              0.071#                0.004                  -0.075#
Frequency of friends communication via e-mails                      -0.006                0.125*                  0.121*
Frequency of colleagues/classmates communication via e-mails         -0.02                -0.039                  0.051

                  #<.10;*<.05; **<.01; ***<.001; N=1002. Standardized beta coefficient for variables at final step.
                              World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                         Findings
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Impact on family functioning
                  Age is negatively correlated with family functioning, meaning
                   that the older the respondents are, the less interactions they
                   have with their family members.
                  For marital status, it is found that the married/living together
                   is significantly correlated with family functioning. It is
                   understood that married respondents are having more family
                   contacts than single respondents.
                  Gender has a moderate correlation with family functioning
                   though it is not statistically significant.
                  For education, family income, and
                   divorced/separated/widowed, no significant relationship were
                   found.
                             World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                        Findings
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Impact on family functioning
                  Previous studies (Lee & Zhu, 2002) found that there was no
                   relationship between Internet use and family interactions.
                   The same results were found in this study.
                  When looking into the amount of time that the respondents
                   spent on different types of Internet activities and e-mail
                   communication, we found that the frequency of
                   family/relatives communication via e-mails has a moderate
                   correlation with family functioning.
                  This may suggest that more communication via e-mails
                   among family members and/or relatives lead to more family
                   interactions.
                              World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                         Findings
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Impact on friends socializing
                  The marital status of the married/living together was found to
                   have a significantly negative relationship with friends
                   socializing.
                  This suggests that the married/living together has less fact-
                   to-face interactions with their friends than the single.
                  Family income is another predictor of friends socializing. The
                   result suggests that for those who are having higher family
                   income, they tend to attend their friends’ party/dinner more.
                  Gender, age, education, and divorced/separated/widowed
                   were found to be non-significantly correlated with friends
                   socializing.
                              World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                         Findings
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Impact on friends socializing
                  Not surprisingly, the total time of internet use was found to
                   have no significant correlation with friends socializing.
                  However, when looking into to specific type of online
                   activities, we found that time spent on chat room/forum has a
                   significant correlation with friends socializing.
                  Moreover, frequency of communication with friends via e-
                   mails is significantly correlated with friends socializing.
                  Thus, more interactive online activities with others or friends
                   leads to more friends socializing.
                             World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                        Findings
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Impact on community socializing
                  Age was found to be significantly correlated with community
                   socializing, suggesting that the older the respondents are,
                   the more they attend community activities.
                  Education is also a good predictor of community socializing.
                   The result suggest that those who have a higher education
                   level attend more community activities.
                  Though gender and the married/living together were found to
                   be not significantly correlated with community socializing
                   respectively, they presented a moderate relationship.
                  Divorced/separated/widowed and family income have no
                   significant relationship with community socializing.
                              World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                                         Findings
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               Impact on community socializing
                  Again, the total amount of time of Internet use was found to
                   be not significantly correlated with community socializing.
                  However, time spent on chat room/forum and frequency of
                   friends communication via e-mails were found to be good
                   predictors of community socializing.
                  The longer the respondents stay with chart room/forum, the
                   more often they attend community activities.
                  The more often they communicate with their friends via e-
                   mails, the more frequently they do community socializing.
                               World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                          Conclusion and Implications
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               This study has tried to explore the impact of Internet use on
                family functioning, friends socializing, and community socializing.
               Generally speaking, social-economic status variables have more
                predicting powers than Internet use variables.
               The results confirm that there was no significant correlation
                between Internet use and family functioning as well as
                sociability when using the total amount of online time as the
                predictor.
               Offline and online seem to be two separate worlds.
                               World Internet Project-Macau




The Digital
                           Conclusion and Implications
The Digital
  Macau
  Macau


               However, different from the traditional media, the Internet has
                multi-functional attractions to users.
               After having tried to include a larger dimension of the concept of
                Internet use, the current study found that the amount of the
                online time for functional purpose like reading news and
                searching information has no effects at all, whereas the amount
                of the online time for communicative purpose such as attending
                chat rooms and using e-mails do have significant impact on the
                similar off-line activities.
               This may imply that the Internet use produces impacts as
                supplement to offline activities, depending upon the similarity
                and differences of the features of the online and offline features.
               In conclusion, a broader conceptualization of Internet use and
                more applications should be encouraged.

				
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