GREEN FUEL FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION – 2ND GENERATION

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GREEN FUEL FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION – 2ND GENERATION Powered By Docstoc
					   International Conference on Green Industry in Asia,
         Manila, Philippines, 9-11 September 2009




NEXT GENERATION BIOFUELS:
  MALAYSIAN EXPERIENCE

           Sabri Ahmad and Choo Yuen May




                 Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB)
   Ministry of Plantation Industries and Commodities, Malaysia
 Presentation Outline
• Overview of Malaysian Palm Oil
  Industry
• First Generation Biofuels
  (from palm oil)
• Palm Biomass as Renewable
  Energy Sources and Next
  Generation Biofuel
• Challenges and Future Outlook
  of 2nd Generation Biofuels
• Conclusion
     Malaysian Palm Oil Industry
• Currently one of the largest palm oil producer
• Largest palm oil exporter in the world
• Oil palm cultivation in 2008: 4.48 mil. Ha
• Palm oil (crude) production in 2008: 17.73 mil. T
• About 50% of the world palm oil production
• Export more than 90% of palm oil products
• Export earnings in 2008: RM 65.2 billion
• Current crude palm oil price: RM2,350.00
  (USD 660.00)
• Malaysian palm oil exported to more than 150
  countries.
         World Scenario
• About 20 countries involved in oil palm
  cultivation.
• Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Nigeria are
  4 significant producers of palm oil.
• Account for more than 80% of world palm oil
  production.
• 80-90% of palm oil used as food and 10-20%
  used in non-food applications (oleochemicals
  & biofuel)
• Palm oil has to compete with 16 other oils and
  fats for its market share.
     Common Raw Materials for Biodiesel
       Production and Their Oil Yield

     Soyabean                    0.36

    Sunflower                    0.42

   Cottonseed                   0.14

           Palm                                           3.43

     Rapeseed                     0.60

   Groundnut                    0.20

                   0              1           2       3    4
                                       Tonnes/Ha/Year

Source: Oil World Annual 2008
ABUNDANCE OF OIL PALM
BIOMASS

                                  PALM KERNEL CAKE




              OIL PALM FRONDS


                                     SHELL, 5.5%




              FRESH FRUIT BUNCH


                                  EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH,
                                         22%


                                                       POME

  10% oil      OIL PALM TRUNK
90% biomass                         FIBRE, 13.5%
   The flow chart of oil palm biomass distribution of
             one hectare plantation area
                                         A hectare of oil palm
           Felled palm trunk once in                                   Palm fronds
                  25-30 years                                          (a) During replanting
              Dry wt: 74.48 kg/ha                                          Dry wt: 14.47 tonnes/ha
                                          Fresh fruit bunches (FFB)    (b) Annual pruning
                                       Annual product: 20.08 tonnes/ha     Dry wt: 10.40 tonnes/ha
Empty fruit bunches (EFB)                  Dry wt: 10.59 tonnes/ha
EFB 22% FFB = 4.42 tonnes/ha                                           Fibre 13.5% FFB
Dry wt: 35% EFB = 1.546 tonnes/ha                                           = 2.71 ton/ha
                                                                       Dry weight: 60% fibre
                                                                            = 1.626 tonnes/ha

                                                                       Shell 5.5 % FFB
                                                                           = 1.10 ton/ha
                                                  Effluent             Dry weight: 85% wet shell
                                                                           = 0.938 tonnes/ha

 Sterilizer condensate                                                     Hydrocyclone washing
 12% FFB = 2.460 tonnes/ha              Centrifugal sludge
                                                                           5% FFB = 1.10 tonnes/ha
                                        50% FFB = 10.04 tonnes/ha




                                         Total = 13.604 tonnes/ha
                                         Dry weight 5% of wet effluent = 0.673 tonnes/ha
Projection of Oil Palm Trunks and Fronds during
Replanting in Peninsular Malaysia (2007 – 2020)
 Year     Replanting      No. of     Volume of oil   Fronds
             area        trunks      palm trunks     (million
        (thousand ha)   (millions)    (million m3)   tonnes)

 2007       24.0          3.22           5.27         54.76
 2008       32.0          4.29           7.02         54.44
 2009       34.0          4.56           7.46         54.14
 2010       27.0          3.62           5.93         54.17
 2011       33.0          4.42           7.24         54.24
 2012       38.0          5.09           8.34         54.27
 2013       40.0          5.36           8.78         54.17
 2014       42.0          5.63           9.22         53.97
 2015       43.0          5.76           9.44         53.89
 2016       40.0          5.36           8.78         53.97
 2017       35.0          4.69           7.68         54.19
 2018       27.0          3.62           5.93         54.64
 2019       20.0          2.68           4.39         55.21
 2020       10.0          1.34           2.19         55.93
Barrel of Oil Equivalent (Mil)

 •   EFB                    19.4
 •   Fibre                  20.8
 •   Shell                  13.0
 •   Effluent                3.1
      Total                 56.3

 *Computed based on calorific values
      Biomass Potential
               Quantity         Annual        Maximum
  Sector       (million      Generation        Energy
             tonnes/year)   Potential (GWh) Potential (MW)

   EFB           16.7           18,400          2,100

  POME           38.9           2,800            320

Wood Chips       2.2             600             70

Rice Husks       0.4             300             30

 Bagasse         0.3             200             25

  TOTAL          58.5           22,300          2,545
Trends in R&D on Biofuels:
Programmes in the Pipeline

1.   1st Generation Biofuels using Palm
     Oil & Waste Palm Oil
2.   2nd Generation Biofuels using Oil
     Palm Biomass and Non-Edible
     Feedstocks (Jatropha)
3.   3rd Generation Biofuel (Algae)
      First Generation Biofuels
                       (from palm oil)

(1)   National Biofuel Policy – launched March 2006.
(2)   Malaysian Biofuel Industrial Act 2006
      – passed by Parliament in 2007.
(1)   Total no. of biodiesel plants built: 20 (capacity ~2 million
      tonnes).
(2)   Palm Biodiesel
       a) Normal grade biodiesel (CFPP: +15°C)
       b) Winter grade biodiesel (CFPP: 0 to -21°C)
       MPOB technology, already commerciallised

(3)   B5 Implementation in Malaysia with government vehicles –
      commenced February 2009.
(4)   Nation wide Implementation – expected by 2010.
Palm Biomass as Renewable
 Energy Sources and Next
    Generation Biofuel
Current Uses of Palm Biomass:
         Fibre & Shell

             • Firing boilers in Palm Oil
               Mills
             • Produce steam for
               processing
             • Produce electricity for
               power requirement



PALM OIL MILLS : SELF SUFFICIENT IN ENERGY
       Potential of Palm based
         Renewable Energy
• Substitute to fossil fuel (diesel
  & medium fuel oil)
• Palm oil complex – supply
  steam and electricity to refinery
  & kernel crushing plant
• Major feedstock for Small
  Renewable Energy
  Programme (SREP) & Clean
  Development Mechanism
  (CDM) projects
    Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP)

•   Launched on 11th May 2001 in conjunction with country’s fifth fuel
    policy (8th Malaysian Plan, 5% of total national generating capacity
    to be generated from the RE sources)

•   9th Malaysian Plan (2006 – 2010): Target of Electricity to be
    Generated
     • 300 MW in West Malaysia
     • 50 MW in East Malaysia
•   Implementation Agency : Ministry of Energy, Green Technology &
    Water.

•   Objective: to allow small power producers which utilize RE sources
    to sell their electricity to Tenaga Nasional Bhd. – maximum power
    export limited to 10MW

•   Biomass waste generated from Palm Oil Mills, in particular Empty
    Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) was identified
    as a main RE fuel for biomass based power plant
    SREP Projects

        SREP Approved Projects


   Others
 8 Projects
29% (56 MW)
                                 Palm
                             Biomass, 14
                             Projects 50%
Palm Biogas,                   (133MW)
 6 Projects -
21% (10 MW)
 Clean Development Mechanism
• Involves the trading of emission reductions resulted from a
  specific project (called CERs once such reductions are
  certified) to countries that can use these CERs to meet
  their targets. In return for the CERs, there will be a transfer
  of money to the project that actually reduces the
  greenhouse gases.

• January 2009 – 36 projects registered

• 28 projects – Palm based Biomass / Biogas projects

• CER issued : 4 projects
     2nd Generation Biofuels
         Emerging Field

(1) Biogas from palm oil mill effluent
    (1981 – to date)
(2) Production of syngas (2002)
(3) Production of bio-oils (2002)
(4) Palm biomass briquettes (2004)
(5) Production of bioethanol (2006)
(1) Gaseous Fuel (Biogas)


                            80% of palm oil mills deploy
                            ponding system for POME
                            treatment

   Ponds & Tank Digester




 UP POME treatment system       Gas Engine
      Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a
      Renewable Energy Source - Biogas

Potential yield: 1 m3 of completely digested POME produces 28
m3 biogas
Biogas is made up of 60-70 % CH4, 30-40 % CO2 and trace H2S

Based on discharged POME containing 1.54 million ton COD:
GHG emission : 23 million tons CO2 eq.
Recovered energy: 539 million Nm3 CH4



                  CH4                              CH4
                                            CO2
                                    CH4
         CO2                CO2
   GHG Emissions Savings from Selected Biodiesel
            from Major Vegetable Oils
                                                       GHG savings (%)
 Biofuel Feedstock
                                                   Typical*           Default**
 Palm oil biodiesel (process not
                                                       36                 19
 specified)
 Palm oil biodiesel (process with
                                                       62                 56
 methane capture at oil mill)
 Soybean oil biodiesel                                 40                 31
 Rapeseed oil biodiesel                                45                 38
 Sunflower seed oil biodiesel                          58                 51
Note:
*Typical value refers to established GHG emission savings
**Default value refers to typical values with 40 per cent inefficiency factor for
emission from processing
              GHG Emission Savings:
               A Comparison Study
                                               GHG savings (%)
Biofuel Feedstock
                                            Typical           Default
Palm oil biodiesel (process not
                                               51                   37
specified)
Palm oil biodiesel (process with
                                               66                   58
methane capture at oil mill)
Soybean oil biodiesel*                         40                   31
Rapeseed oil biodiesel*                        45                   38
Sunflower seed oil biodiesel*                  58                   51
   * Data from EU Directive on the Promotion of the Use of Energy
     from Renewable Sources
             (2) Production of Syngas

• Feed: Empty fruit bunches, palm shell and fiber
• Process optimization in progress to achieve: H2 (40%);
  CO (30%); CH4 (10%)
          (3) Production of Bio-oils
  Exhaust
              Pulley to
            Suspend / raise
               Reactor           Mass flow controller
                      Pressure
                       Gauge
Reactor




 Fluidised -
 Fixed Bed
 Quartz
 Reactor

Rig Set-up for Pyrolysis Experiment
                        Volatiles and char yield at different pyrolysis temperatures
              120                 (Based on weight of samples collected)

              100

               80           Bio-oil 42.28% at 500º C
                                                          Char            Crude
Y ie ld , %




                            Char    41.56% at 300º C
                                                                         Bio-oils
               60           Gas     46.00% at 700º C


               40
                                                                             Volatiles
               20
                                                                             Char
                0
                    0          200         400         600         800
                                                   o
                                     Temperature, C
     (4) Palm Biomass Briquettes
•   Treated EFB can be used as a raw material for the production
    of palm based biomass briquettes




100% Pulverized EFB       Pulverized EFB +     EFB Fibre + sawdust
                              sawdust
       (PEFB)                                  (FEFB+SD) (50:50)5
                          (FEFB+SD) ( 50:50)


•   As a substitute raw material for commercial sawdust briquette
    industry
•   Made either from 100% palm biomass or mixed with sawdust.
•   Calorific value: Palm briquette=17,823 kJ/kg, sawdust= 18,936
    kJ/kg
•   Being commerciallised.
             (5) Production of Bioethanol
(A) From Palm Biomass
1) Pre-Treatment of Palm Biomass




        Hemicellulose          Lignin         Cellulose
          (30-35%)            (17-21%)        (35-42%)

 2) Conversion of Palm Lignocellulosic biomass to sugar.
 3) Fermentation (Sugar to bioethanol).

(B) From Sago Biomass
R&D for (A) and (B) above on going - for yield optimisation
2nd Generation Biofuel generally have better
  GHG savings than 1st Generation Biofuel

Biofuel Production Pathway           Typical * GHG emission
                                             savings
1st. Generation
Wheat Ethanol ( process fuel not              32%
specified)
Corn Ethanol ( community
produced, natural gas as process              56%
fuel in CHP plant)

2nd. Generation
Wheat straw ethanol                           87%
Waste wood ethanol                            80%
Farmed wood ethanol                           76%



* EU Directive on Renewable Energy
Challenges & Future Outlook:
  2nd Generation Biofuels
CHALLENGES ON SECOND GENERATION
 BIOFUELS FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS

 •   Types of biomass /Biomass availability
 •   Sustainable Development
 •   Fundamental aspect

          Synergic Approach

Economics                   Environmental

     Energy balance    Technological
                  Future Outlook:
            Next Generation Biofuel - BTL
                 TREND IN BIOENERGY POTENTIAL




BTL production via integrated pyrolysis, gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)
      Sustainable Palm Resources Management


                                                  CO2
                                                                            water



                         Palm                                        Industrial Products

                       Resource:             Sustainable
                         Oil &                 Society
                       Biomass                                    Hydrogen      Methane



                                Industrial Biotechnology:          Bioethanol   Biodiesel
                                Conversion to Useful
                                Materials
    Malaysia is
                          Hydrolysis, fermentation,
Biomass-rich country
                          enzymatic bioconversion, etc



                                                         Adopted from SIRIM, 2008
      Biofuels from Jatropha & Algae


• Some activities including R&D are on-
  going in Malaysia.
              Conclusions
• Next generation biofuels can be produced from
  various palm sources.
• Biomass-to-Liquid (BTL) is an emerging
  bioenergy for future generation.
• Algae & jatropha are two potential feedstocks for
  biofuels production.
• Sustainable palm resources management is
  required to move the 2nd generation biofuels
  industry forward.
• Development of green fuels will contribute
  significantly to reduction of GHG emissions and
  mitigate climate change.
Thank you
Production & Exports of Malaysia’s Palm Oil
               (1995 – 2008)
               20
Mill. Tonnes




                                                                                   Prod            Export
               18

               16

               14

               12

               10

                8

                6

                4

                2

                0
                    1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008

                                                                                                                 Year


                                   Production: 08 – 17.73 Mill. Tonnes
                                   Export: 08 – 15.40 Mill. Tonnes
Overview of Conversion Routes of Crops to Biofuels
   Well-to-Wheel emision changes for a range of 1st generation
biofuels e.g. biodiesel and bioethanol (excluding land use change)
              compared with gasoline or mineral diesel




 Source: OCED, 2008 based on IEA and UNEP analysis of 60 published life-cycle analysis studies
 giving either ranges (shown by the bars) or specific data (shown by the dots).
    Projected translation between 1st and 2nd generation
                     biofuels over time




     Source: IEA, 2008a

•   MPOB’s biofuels research programmes covers both 1st and 2nd generation
    biofuels
    MPOB LCA Programmes
• Aim is to improve carbon footprint and GHG
  emissions of the entire production chain of palm oil
  and related products
• LCA Programmes include
  - Upstream (nursery, plantation)
  - Midstream (CPO, RBD Palm Oil, RBD Palm Olein
    production, margarine, etc.)
  - Downstream (biodiesel)
• Address to international issues on GHG emissions
  and climate change mitigation
             GHG emissions for the
          Production of One Tonne CPO
                         GHG emissions per tonne CPO
    Output                     with allocation
Nursery          0.041      kg CO2 eq
Plantation       1031.02    kg CO2 eq( 20 years)
Milling          693.96     kg CO2 eq
Milling Biogas   210.52     kg CO2 eq
Capture (85%)
Total            1.72       t CO2 eq (20 years)
                 1.24       t CO2 eq (20 years) (biogas cap)
          Breakdown of GHG emissions
           contribution by each factor
                                    GHG emission
     Factor              (t CO2eq/ t             (g CO2eq/MJ
                         biodiesel)               biodiesel)
Nursery                  6.09 x 10-5                0.0015
Oil Palm
                             0.44                    10.84
Plantation*
Palm Oil Mill**              0.22                     5.46
Refinery                     0.19                     4.72
Biodiesel
                             0.30                     7.40
Factory
Total Emission               1.15                    28.42
* Conversion from oil palm plantation – land use change is excluded
** Biogas is captured at palm oil mills
         Breakdown of GHG emissions
          contribution by each factor
                                 GHG emission
    Factor                (t CO2eq/ t     (g CO2eq/MJ
                          biodiesel)       biodiesel)
Nursery                   6.09 x 10-5       0.0015
Oil Palm
                             0.44            10.84
Plantation*
Palm Oil Mill                0.73            18.00
Refinery                     0.19             4.72
Biodiesel
                             0.30               7.40
Factory
Total Emission               1.66            40.96
* With biogas emissions
          Breakdown of GHG emissions
           contribution by each factor
                                    GHG emission
     Factor              (t CO2eq/ t             (g CO2eq/MJ
                         biodiesel)               biodiesel)
Nursery                  6.09 x 10-5                0.0015
Oil Palm
                             0.44                    10.84
Plantation*
Palm Oil Mill**              0.22                     5.46
Refinery                     0.19                     4.72
Biodiesel
                             0.30                     7.40
Factory
Total Emission               1.15                    28.42
* Conversion from oil palm plantation – land use change is excluded
** Biogas is captured at palm oil mills
              GHG Emission Savings:
               A Comparison Study
                                               GHG savings (%)
Biofuel Feedstock
                                            Typical           Default
Palm oil biodiesel (process not
                                               51                   37
specified)
Palm oil biodiesel (process with
                                               66                   58
methane capture at oil mill)
Soybean oil biodiesel*                         40                   31
Rapeseed oil biodiesel*                        45                   38
Sunflower seed oil biodiesel*                  58                   51
   * Data from EU Directive on the Promotion of the Use of Energy
     from Renewable Sources
          Breakdown of GHG emissions
           contribution by each factor
                                    GHG emission
     Factor              (t CO2eq/ t             (g CO2eq/MJ
                         biodiesel)               biodiesel)
Nursery                  6.09 x 10-5                0.0015
Oil Palm
                             0.44                    10.84
Plantation*
Palm Oil Mill**              0.22                     5.46
Refinery                     0.19                     4.72
Biodiesel
                             0.30                     7.40
Factory
Total Emission               1.15                    28.42
* Conversion from oil palm plantation – land use change is excluded
** Biogas is captured at palm oil mills
          Breakdown of GHG emissions
           contribution by each factor
                                    GHG emission
     Factor              (t CO2eq/ t             (g CO2eq/MJ
                         biodiesel)               biodiesel)
Nursery                  6.09 x 10-5                0.0015
Oil Palm
                             0.44                    10.84
Plantation*
Palm Oil Mill**              0.22                     5.46
Refinery                     0.19                     4.72
Biodiesel
                             0.30                     7.40
Factory
Total Emission               1.15                    28.42
* Conversion from oil palm plantation – land use change is excluded
** Biogas is captured at palm oil mills
              GHG Emission Savings:
               A Comparison Study
                                               GHG savings (%)
Biofuel Feedstock
                                            Typical           Default
Palm oil biodiesel (process not
                                               51                   37
specified)
Palm oil biodiesel (process with
                                               66                   58
methane capture at oil mill)
Soybean oil biodiesel*                         40                   31
Rapeseed oil biodiesel*                        45                   38
Sunflower seed oil biodiesel*                  58                   51
   * Data from EU Directive on the Promotion of the Use of Energy
     from Renewable Sources
…Cont




               Conclusions
  • Development of green fuels will contribute
    significantly to reduction of GHG emissions
    and mitigate climate change.
  • Use of renewable green fuel in energy sector
    will contribute to sustainable development of
    oil palm industry and nation.