"Fuels Waste Heat Recovery"
2008 DOE OVT Annual Merit Review Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project Project Technical Lead - Thermoelectric Analysis & Materials 27 February 2008 Dr. Terry J. Hendricks Senior Program Manager Energy & Efficiency Division Energy & Environment Directorate Acknowledgement: PNNL Sincerely Thanks John Fairbanks and Gurpreet Singh For Their Sponsorship and Funding of This Project This Presentation Does Not Contain Any Proprietary of Confidential Information Agenda Goals and Objectives SMMR I Review Comments & Responses Technical Barriers Technical Approach Accomplishments Publications/Presentations Collaborations/Interactions Plans for Next Fiscal Year Summary 2 OVT Goals & Project Objectives Relevant OVT Goals: Develop Advanced Technologies to Dramatically Reduce Fuel Consumption & Emissions in All Petroleum-Fueled, Personal Vehicles Through Improved Energy Efficiency Develop Technology to Improve Commercial (Mid- & Heavy-Duty) Vehicle Fuel Economy Through Improved Energy Efficiency (Double Fuel Economy in Mid- & Long-Term) Project Objective: Develop Waste Energy Recovery Systems Capable of Increasing Vehicle Fuel Economy by up to 10% Provide Technical Leadership to OVT Waste Energy Recovery & Utilization Project (John Fairbanks – Project/Technology Manager) Project Focusing on Advanced TE Materials & Systems & New Initiative Development Project Initiated in FY 2007 $100K Authorized to PNNL in October 2008 $200K Authorized to PNNL in May 2007 High ZT Materials Validation With NASA-JPL & ORNL PNNL / University Collaboration in Advanced TE Materials & Systems 3 SMMR I Reviewers’ Comments Reviewers’ Generally Quite Positive Comments From SMMR I High Relevance Providing High-Quality Technical Support to the DOE-OVT & Project Subcontractors 2007 SMMR I Reviewers Indicated Need for: Adding Project Cost Effectiveness Analysis Adding Focus on Transient System Analysis & More Parametric Optimization Ability/Mechanism to Interact More Closely With Industry Given Industry IP Concerns Response to 2007 SMMR I Reviewer Comments Items 1 & 2 Would be Great Additions to the Project if Only We Had the Funding to Support – Discussions Underway with OVT There is a Mechanism Available to Us to Work More Closely With Industry, But It is Partially a Funding Issue ($ to Engage) & Effort to Overcome IP Inertia Interaction With the BSST Team in the Last Year (Analysis Details, Advanced TE Materials) Interaction With GM/GE Team in the Last Year (HVAC Systems, Probabilistic Design) Constant Level of Effort to Identify Ways/Methods to Provide Technical & Programmatic Support to Industry 4 Technical Barriers Low Component & System Performance Advanced TE Materials Need to Exhibit Higher ZT’s Over the Anticipated Temperature Ranges ZT ≥ 1.5 @ 400 – 873 K Really Needed to Achieve Project Goals and Make Industry Business Cases Advanced TE Materials MUST be Replicated and Validated at Multiple Laboratories / Locations Advanced TE Materials MUST be Demonstrated and Validated in Advanced TE Devices & Systems High Component & System Costs Advanced TE Systems Costs Must Be < ~$1/W Component & System Durability & Reliability Not Demonstrated 5 Technical Approach Advanced TE System-Level Analysis Integrated With Advanced TE Materials & Testing R&D Monitor, Review & Incorporate Advanced TE Materials R&D Results Across Multiple Government/Industry Projects National / International Projects DOE DOD - DARPA & ONR Industrial Research & Development Evaluate Advanced TE Materials Against Project Goals Provide Verifying Design Optimization & Performance Analyses Evaluate Advanced TE Devices/Systems Against Project Goals TE Device Integration with Heat Exchangers Vehicle Drive Cycle Effects on TE System Integration Vehicle System Integration Light-Duty / Heavy-Duty Vehicles Industry/Government Agency Collaborations & Interactions 6 Accomplishments & Contributions PNNL Served as Project Technical Lead Attend & Support Project Reviews With Technical Leadership & Guidance Provided Technical Comments & Guidance to OVT Project Manager, NETL Program Managers, and Subcontractors Advanced TE Materials Advanced TE System Analysis Advanced TE Testing Systems Coordinated With ORNL Thermoelectrics Program Coordinated With Outside Government Agency Programs Provide Scientific & Analytic Foundation in Accomplishing Project Goals & Evaluating Project Technical Progress Independent, Normalized Evaluation of Project Results to Gauge Project Progress Technical Accomplishments & Contributions Illustrated In Following Slides Provided Technical Knowledge & Leadership Exemplified Below to OVT Project Manager & NETL Program Managers 7 Typical System Efficiency – Power Maps h c ex am b 0.2 Tcold=350 (K) Tcold=370 (K) ← Th=730(K) Tcold=395 (K) Integrated TE System Analysis 0.18 ← Th=705(K) Constant Th TE Device ← Th=680(K) 0.16 ← Th=655(K) Heat Exchangers Maximum Efficiency ← Th=630(K) System η-P Map 0.14 ←Th=605(K) Identifies System Tradeoffs 0.12 ← Th=580(K) Identifies Power Output Potential ←Th=555(K) Performed for Various TE Material Combinations 0.1 ← Th=530(K) Quickly Shows System Impact of Increasing ← Th=505(K) Materials ZT 0.08 System Cold-Side Cooling Needs 0.06 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Identifies Challenging Cooling Conditions Power (watts) Also Performed for Various TE Material Combinations Project-Specific Analyses GM / GE System MSU System BSST / BMW System 8 TE Device Specific Power Density, Power Flux & Volumetric Power Density (P/m), (P/A), & (P/V) Analyses ZT ~ 1 Coupled with η - P Maps Illustrates Critical Relationships Illustrates Critical Tradeoffs (P/m), (P/A), (P/V) All Follow (P/m) Similar Lines on η - P Maps η - P - (P/m) or η - (P/m) Clearly Shown on One Map Prime Example of Depth of System Understanding @ PNNL Analysis Performed for Any Advanced TE Material of Interest (P/m)=Specific Power Density [W/kg]; Quickly Shows System Impact of (P/A)=Power Flux [W/cm2]; Increasing Materials ZT (P/V)=Volumetric Power Density [W/cm3] 9 Thermoelectric / Thermal Systems Interactions Available Hot-Side Heat Exchanger Flux Dictates Much About the System Potential Power, Mass, & Volume Dependent on TE Materials – Couples TE Materials & System Design ZT ~ 1 Example Hot-Side Heat Exchanger Heat Flux 10 TE Cooling Systems – Automotive HVAC ZT ~ 1 TE Materials Automotive HVAC is Critical Maximum COP At Qc TEHVAC3panel ), UA =100(W/K) , UA =16.67(W/K), T =311(K), T =297(K), md Solid State System to Eliminate Greenhouse h c ex am b Gas Impacts 1.8 Tcold=295 (K) Key Enabling Technology for Hybrid Vehicles Tcold=290 (K) 1.6 Analysis Performed to Support Tcold=282.5 (K) Maximum COP At Qc TEHVACSys ts), UA =300(W/K) , UA =50(W/K), T =311(K), T h ← Th=317.5(K) c ex =297(K), Constant Th mdot am b Automotive HVAC Initiative 1.41 Development Tcold=287.5 (K) Maximum COP ← Th=320(K) 0.9 ← Th=317.5(K) Tcold=282.5 (K) Quantify Performance Expectations vs. 1.2 ← Th=322.5(K) Tcold=275 (K) Materials ← Th=320(K) 0.8 Constant Th 3 TEC Design Point Integrate TE Materials with System 1 ← Th=325(K) ← Th=322.5(K) Expectations ← Th=327.5(K) Maximum COP 0.7 ← Th=325(K) ← Th=330(K) Quantify Key Impact Phenomena 0.8 0.6 ← Th=327.5(K) Evaluate Design Configuration Differences ← Th=330(K) 0.6 Establish Project Goals 0.5 Establish Project Targets 0.4 0.4 0 50 100 150 200 250 Overarching System-Level Analysis to Cooling Capacity (watts) Separate Fact vs. Fiction 0.3 0.2 200 300 400 500 600 700 Cooling Capacity (watts) 11 TE Cooling Systems – Automotive HVAC Bi2Te3 Materials 1 Evaluate TE Cooling Tcold=280 (K) Tcold=271 (K) ← System Characteristics & T 0.9 1.4 =3 Tcold=262 (K) h 07 Tcold=280 (K) Thot (K Constant Parametric Relationships Tamb = 295 K ) Tcold=270 (K) 0.8 ← ← h T T =h3 Tcold=260 (K) Tcabin = 293 K =301 1.2 10 K Constant Thot (P/A), (P/m), & (P/V) ( (K UAc = 60 W/K ) ) 0.7 1.4 K) ← ( Th 01 =3 =3 Tcold=280 (K) Analyses Coupled with 13 Tamb = 295 K T ← h 1 (K Maximum COP Maximum COP ← Tcold=270 (K) Th ← ) 0.6 =3 h T 2 Tcold=260 (K) ←1.1793(W/cm ) Tcabin = 293 K =5 0 COP - Qc Maps 3(1 1.2 (P/A) K) 6( Constant Thot ← Maximum COP K) UAc = 60 W/K T ) (K 2 ← =3 09 3 =3 13 h =3 h 0.5 ←1.3705(W/cm ) 05 T← 0.8 19 (K 2 25 (K =3 Critical Relationships / Trends h (K ) (K T T h ) 2 (P/m) = ←1.5748(W/cm ) ← ← Th 2 1 ← T h =3 0.4 ) ) (K Critical Tradeoffs 2 ←447(W/kg) ←1.7922(W/cm ) 09 (K ) 0.6 =3 ) ← T h Th Th Th Th Th ← 0.3 =3 ) ←553(W/kg) (K Establish Project Goals & 17 321 325 329 333 0.8 ← ← ← ← 13 (K =3 ) = T ←669(W/kg) h ← ) Targets 0.4 (K (K (K (K (K 0.2 17 = = = ) h =3 ←794(W/kg) ) (K T ← 0.6 ) 21 ←929(W/kg) Establish Fact vs. Fiction h =3 0.1 ) (K (K) ) ) ←1073(W/kg) T 0.2 25 ← h =3 h =3 ) (K 29 T ← ←T 0.40 33 h =3 T 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 Cooling Capacity [W] ← 100 150 200 250 300 350 Cooling Capacity [W] 0.2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Qc Per Mass[W/kg] 12 Si/SiGe Thin-Film Material Validation Si/SiGe Thin-Film PNNL is Leading An Effort to Validate (or Not) Latest Thin-Film Si/SiGe Materials NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory NIST Early Results With JPL (September 2007) Contractor Supplied 100 Si/SiGe Layers (10 nm Thick) on 400 um Si Substrate High Seebeck Coefficient & Low Electrical Resistivity Measured However, Thick Si Substrate Significantly Clouded the Results Thick Si Substrate in The Measurement Circuit – Not Acceptable PNNL Recommended a 4-Step Test Validation Process Perform Testing on Si/SiGe Multi-Layers on SIMOX Samples – Electrically Eliminate Si JPL ORNL Develop Multi-Layer Electrical Model of Test Sample Configuration Guide / Provide Critical Interpretations of Test Results Draw Conclusions On Important Test Circuit Parameters & Their Impact on Test Results Perform Thermal Efficiency &/or ΔTmax Tests @ TE Couple Level External Validation of Thermal Efficiency / ΔTmax Tests ASAP 13 Oregon’s first “Signature Research Center” Expanding Oregon’s role as micro&nano R&D nexus with largest micro-nano R&D community in U.S. Mission – Grow micro & nano R&D supporting high tech industry Increase and accelerate commerciallization of micro & nano technology Develop micro & nano technology leaders CAMCOR - UO Materials Characterization and Research thrusts - Facility Nanofabrication MBI – “Green” nanomaterials and nanomanufacturing OSU/PNNL Network Microtechnology-based Micro Chemical CEMN - PSU energy and chemical systems and Energy beam metrology & Nanolaminates, Devices & nanofabrication materials/processes for Micro/Nano nanoelectronics Fabrication Nanoscale metrology + HP, FEI, ESI, … OHSU, PNNL, UO, OSU, PSU 14 Multiple Rattlers in Skutterudites: RxRy’Co4Sb12 PNNL & ONAMI Collaboration on Advanced “Multiple - Rattler” Skutterudites & Advanced Oxides Multiple Rattlers: R2+: Ba, Sr, Ca, Ag, Pd, R3+: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, In, Sc InxCo4Sb12 Shows High ZT ~1 at 573 K InxCeyCo4Sb12 Increases the ZT >1.3 at 573K Co4Sb12 Synthesis of More Rattler Combinations in Progress Goal for Advanced Materials ZT ~ 1.6-1.8 @ 600-700 K Similar Materials Confirmed By ORNL and Purdue Univ. Measurements Later Focus On Mixed Valent Transition Metal Oxides High Performance TE Materials Expected RxCo4Sb12 Bulk-Type Materials for Easier Device Manufacture & Integration Results Expected At the End of FY 2008 Expect to Transition Results to Projects As Appropriate & Quickly As Possible 15 DOE / ONAMI Project (Continued) Objectives Optimize the Synthetic Conditions & Properties of Newly Discovered Thermoelectric Compositions Optimize Compositions Test & Characterize TE Material Properties (ONAMI & PNNL) Seebeck Coefficient Electrical Resistivity Thermal Conductivity PNNL to Characterize System-Level Benefits of Material Compositions in Waste Energy Recovery Applications Project Duration: Through FY 2008 Sponsor: John Fairbanks, Technology Manager, OVT FY 2007 Funding: $100K 16 Publications / Presentations 26th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, Jeju, South Korea, June 2007 Hendricks, T.J. and Karri, N.K., “Design Impacts of Stochastically-Varying Input Parameters on Advanced Thermoelectric Conversion Systems”, TE Theories and Phenomena Session, Paper #O- M-1 ASME Energy Sustainability 2007 Conference, Long Beach, CA, June 2007 Hendricks, T.J. and Karri, N.K., “Probabilistic Design & Analysis for Robust Design of Advanced Thermoelectric Conversion Systems“, Nano- & Micro-Scale Devices/Energy Systems Session, Paper #ES2007-36085 Journal of Energy Resources Technology, ASME, New York, 2007 Hendricks, T.J., “Thermal System Interactions in Optimizing Advanced Thermoelectric Energy Recovery Systems”, Vol. 129, No. 3 AIAA International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO, June 2007 Karri, N.K. and Hendricks, T.J., “Probabilistic Modeling Approach to Thermoelectric Systems Design Optimization”, Paper #81312 Micro Nano Breakthrough Conference, Invited Plenary Session Speaker, Portland, OR, September 2007 Title: Advanced Energy Recovery & Conversion Systems Employing Micro Technology 17 Collaborations & Interactions GM / GE Automotive HVAC Systems & Probabilisitic Design Michigan State University & Tellurex, Inc. LAST-m TE Material Properties BSST, Visteon, BMW ORNL Advanced Si/SiGe Thin-Film TE Material Testing & Validation NASA-JPL Advanced Si/SiGe Thin-Film TE Material Testing & Validation NIST ONAMI Joint Project in Advanced TE Materials Development ONR DTEC Program Review – August 2007 Japanese NEDO Delegation – November 2007 26th International Conference on Thermoelectrics Japanese METI NEDO TE Project – Japanese Program Managers United Kingdom R&D – UK Program Managers FY 2008 Plans FY 2008 AOP Will Govern Our Activities in FY 08 Several Technical Ideas Identified for FY 2008 AOP Provide Project Technical Leadership, Scientific, & Analysis Support Advanced TE Materials Advanced TE Devices & Systems Advanced Testing Systems Develop Advanced System Concepts Advanced Analytic Techniques & Methodologies Develop PNNL / Industry / University Joint Projects on Advanced TE Materials & Systems Continue Government / Industry Collaborations in TE Materials, Devices & Systems, and Testing 19 Summary PNNL Provides Support to WHR&U In Several Areas Independent WHR&U Project Technical Evaluation & Leadership In-Depth Thermoelectric Analysis Advanced TE Power Systems Advanced TE Material Effects Advanced Test System Support New Project Initiative Development “Initiative” Analytic Justifications New Project Ideas / Concepts to Achieve / Accelerate Goals Critical International Collaborations & Interactions Constant State-of-the-Art and State-of-Research Barometer How to Leverage National / International R&D Progress & Successes Industrial / Theoretical Experience TE Materials TE Systems 20 Advanced Thermoelectric System Design System-Level, Coupled Design Analysis qhin Hot Side Heat Exchanger Industrial & Vehicle Exhaust Hot Side Heat TE Device Exchanger • Tex , mh Thot Cold Side Heat Exchanger Exhaust Single & Segmented TE Material Legs Temperature-Dependent TE Materials P N Accounts for Hot/Cold Thermal Resistances Accounts for Electrical Contact Resistances Accounts for HX / TE Device Thermal Losses Optimum Heat Exchanger / TE Design Environment T col Tcold Ambient Flow Cold Side Heat Exchangerd Parameters Determined Simultaneously • Tamb , mc qcout Maximum Efficiency & Maximum Power Ambient Density Designs Are Possible Load Off-Nominal & Variable Condition Power Out Performance Analysis 21