Fuels Waste Heat Recovery by mpm74462

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 21

									           2008 DOE OVT Annual Merit Review

               Combustion & Fuels
      Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project
Project Technical Lead - Thermoelectric Analysis & Materials

                            27 February 2008
                             Dr. Terry J. Hendricks
                            Senior Program Manager
                          Energy & Efficiency Division
                        Energy & Environment Directorate

 Acknowledgement: PNNL Sincerely Thanks John Fairbanks and Gurpreet Singh
 For Their Sponsorship and Funding of This Project

      This Presentation Does Not Contain Any Proprietary of Confidential Information
             Agenda

Goals and Objectives
SMMR I Review Comments & Responses
Technical Barriers
Technical Approach
Accomplishments
Publications/Presentations
Collaborations/Interactions
Plans for Next Fiscal Year
Summary

                                     2
        OVT Goals & Project Objectives

Relevant OVT Goals:
   Develop Advanced Technologies to Dramatically Reduce Fuel Consumption & Emissions
   in All Petroleum-Fueled, Personal Vehicles Through Improved Energy Efficiency
   Develop Technology to Improve Commercial (Mid- & Heavy-Duty) Vehicle Fuel Economy
   Through Improved Energy Efficiency (Double Fuel Economy in Mid- & Long-Term)
Project Objective:
   Develop Waste Energy Recovery Systems Capable of Increasing Vehicle Fuel Economy
   by up to 10%
   Provide Technical Leadership to OVT Waste Energy Recovery & Utilization Project (John
   Fairbanks – Project/Technology Manager)
   Project Focusing on Advanced TE Materials & Systems & New Initiative Development
Project Initiated in FY 2007
   $100K Authorized to PNNL in October 2008
   $200K Authorized to PNNL in May 2007
       High ZT Materials Validation With NASA-JPL & ORNL
       PNNL / University Collaboration in Advanced TE Materials & Systems

                                                                                      3
          SMMR I Reviewers’ Comments
                 Reviewers’
Generally Quite Positive Comments From SMMR I
   High Relevance
   Providing High-Quality Technical Support to the DOE-OVT & Project Subcontractors
2007 SMMR I Reviewers Indicated Need for:
   Adding Project Cost Effectiveness Analysis
   Adding Focus on Transient System Analysis & More Parametric Optimization
   Ability/Mechanism to Interact More Closely With Industry Given Industry IP Concerns

Response to 2007 SMMR I Reviewer Comments
   Items 1 & 2 Would be Great Additions to the Project if Only We Had the Funding to
   Support – Discussions Underway with OVT
   There is a Mechanism Available to Us to Work More Closely With Industry, But It is
   Partially a Funding Issue ($ to Engage) & Effort to Overcome IP Inertia
       Interaction With the BSST Team in the Last Year (Analysis Details, Advanced TE Materials)
       Interaction With GM/GE Team in the Last Year (HVAC Systems, Probabilistic Design)
       Constant Level of Effort to Identify Ways/Methods to Provide Technical & Programmatic
       Support to Industry
                                                                                                   4
                 Technical Barriers

Low Component & System Performance
  Advanced TE Materials Need to Exhibit Higher ZT’s Over the
  Anticipated Temperature Ranges
     ZT ≥ 1.5 @ 400 – 873 K Really Needed to Achieve Project Goals and
     Make Industry Business Cases
  Advanced TE Materials MUST be Replicated and Validated at
  Multiple Laboratories / Locations
  Advanced TE Materials MUST be Demonstrated and Validated in
  Advanced TE Devices & Systems
High Component & System Costs
  Advanced TE Systems Costs Must Be < ~$1/W
Component & System Durability & Reliability Not
Demonstrated
                                                                         5
                  Technical Approach

Advanced TE System-Level Analysis Integrated With Advanced TE
Materials & Testing R&D
   Monitor, Review & Incorporate Advanced TE Materials R&D Results Across
   Multiple Government/Industry Projects
      National / International Projects
      DOE
      DOD - DARPA & ONR
      Industrial Research & Development
   Evaluate Advanced TE Materials Against Project Goals
   Provide Verifying Design Optimization & Performance Analyses
   Evaluate Advanced TE Devices/Systems Against Project Goals
      TE Device Integration with Heat Exchangers
      Vehicle Drive Cycle Effects on TE System Integration
      Vehicle System Integration
Light-Duty / Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Industry/Government Agency Collaborations & Interactions
                                                                            6
     Accomplishments & Contributions

PNNL Served as Project Technical Lead
   Attend & Support Project Reviews With Technical Leadership & Guidance
   Provided Technical Comments & Guidance to OVT Project Manager, NETL Program
   Managers, and Subcontractors
       Advanced TE Materials
       Advanced TE System Analysis
       Advanced TE Testing Systems
   Coordinated With ORNL Thermoelectrics Program
   Coordinated With Outside Government Agency Programs
Provide Scientific & Analytic Foundation in Accomplishing Project Goals &
Evaluating Project Technical Progress
Independent, Normalized Evaluation of Project Results to Gauge Project
Progress
Technical Accomplishments & Contributions Illustrated In Following Slides
   Provided Technical Knowledge & Leadership Exemplified Below to OVT Project Manager
   & NETL Program Managers
                                                                                  7
   Typical System Efficiency – Power Maps
                                                                                  h           c                         ex           am b
                                                                          0.2
                                                                                                                                      Tcold=350 (K)
                                                                                                                                      Tcold=370 (K)
                                                                                         ← Th=730(K)
                                                                                                                                      Tcold=395 (K)
Integrated TE System Analysis                                            0.18
                                                                                                       ← Th=705(K)                    Constant Th
   TE Device                                                                                                         ← Th=680(K)
                                                                         0.16
                                                                                                                              ← Th=655(K)
   Heat Exchangers




                                                    Maximum Efficiency
                                                                                                                                     ← Th=630(K)

System η-P Map                                                           0.14
                                                                                                                                            ←Th=605(K)

   Identifies System Tradeoffs                                           0.12
                                                                                                                                              ← Th=580(K)

   Identifies Power Output Potential                                                                                                          ←Th=555(K)

   Performed for Various TE Material Combinations                         0.1                                                               ← Th=530(K)

   Quickly Shows System Impact of Increasing                                                                                        ← Th=505(K)
   Materials ZT                                                          0.08


System Cold-Side Cooling Needs                                           0.06
                                                                           1500       2000         2500        3000                   3500                4000
   Identifies Challenging Cooling Conditions                                                         Power (watts)

   Also Performed for Various TE Material
   Combinations

Project-Specific Analyses
   GM / GE System
   MSU System
   BSST / BMW System
                                                                                                                                                          8
 TE Device Specific Power Density, Power Flux &
           Volumetric Power Density

(P/m), (P/A), & (P/V) Analyses
                                                                             ZT ~ 1
Coupled with η - P Maps
   Illustrates Critical Relationships
   Illustrates Critical Tradeoffs
(P/m), (P/A), (P/V) All Follow               (P/m)
Similar Lines on η - P Maps
η - P - (P/m) or η - (P/m) Clearly
Shown on One Map
Prime Example of Depth of
System Understanding @ PNNL
   Analysis Performed for Any
   Advanced TE Material of Interest
                                        (P/m)=Specific Power Density [W/kg];
   Quickly Shows System Impact of       (P/A)=Power Flux [W/cm2];
   Increasing Materials ZT              (P/V)=Volumetric Power Density [W/cm3]

                                                                                      9
Thermoelectric / Thermal Systems Interactions

 Available Hot-Side Heat Exchanger Flux Dictates Much About the
 System Potential Power, Mass, & Volume
 Dependent on TE Materials – Couples TE Materials & System Design




                           ZT ~ 1




                                               Example Hot-Side Heat
                                               Exchanger Heat Flux




                                                                       10
  TE Cooling Systems – Automotive HVAC

                                                                                                  ZT ~ 1 TE Materials
Automotive HVAC is Critical                                    Maximum COP At Qc TEHVAC3panel
                                                 ), UA =100(W/K) , UA =16.67(W/K), T =311(K), T =297(K), md
   Solid State System to Eliminate Greenhouse                            h               c             ex        am b
   Gas Impacts                                                          1.8
                                                                                          Tcold=295 (K)
   Key Enabling Technology for Hybrid Vehicles                                            Tcold=290 (K)
                                                     1.6
Analysis Performed to Support                                                             Tcold=282.5 (K)
                                                                   Maximum COP At Qc TEHVACSys
                                                 ts), UA =300(W/K) , UA =50(W/K), T =311(K), T
                                                         h    ← Th=317.5(K)
                                                                         c         ex
                                                                                                    =297(K),
                                                                                          Constant Th mdot
                                                                                               am b
Automotive HVAC Initiative                           1.41
Development                                                                               Tcold=287.5 (K)




                                                          Maximum COP
                                                              ← Th=320(K)
                                                      0.9     ← Th=317.5(K)               Tcold=282.5 (K)
   Quantify Performance Expectations vs.             1.2
                                                              ← Th=322.5(K)               Tcold=275 (K)
   Materials                                                  ← Th=320(K)
                                                      0.8                                 Constant Th
                                                                                      3 TEC Design Point
   Integrate TE Materials with System                  1      ← Th=325(K)
                                                                                ← Th=322.5(K)
   Expectations                                                                 ← Th=327.5(K)



                                                 Maximum COP
                                                                        0.7
                                                                                ← Th=325(K)
                                                                                ← Th=330(K)
   Quantify Key Impact Phenomena                                        0.8
                                                                        0.6     ← Th=327.5(K)
   Evaluate Design Configuration Differences
                                                                                ← Th=330(K)
                                                                        0.6
   Establish Project Goals                                              0.5
   Establish Project Targets
                                                                        0.4
                                                                        0.4
                                                                           0       50         100      150        200   250
Overarching System-Level Analysis to                                                     Cooling Capacity (watts)
Separate Fact vs. Fiction                                               0.3

                                                                        0.2
                                                                          200      300        400      500        600   700
                                                                                         Cooling Capacity (watts)        11
   TE Cooling Systems – Automotive HVAC
                                                                                                                                                                 Bi2Te3 Materials
                                                                  1

Evaluate TE Cooling                                                                                                                                                                      Tcold=280 (K)
                                                                                                                                                                                         Tcold=271 (K)




                                                                                  ←
System Characteristics &




                                                                                   T
                                                                 0.9
                                                                1.4




                                                                                               =3
                                                                                                                                                                                         Tcold=262 (K)




                                                                                         h
                                                                                                  07
                                                                                                                                                                                   Tcold=280 (K) Thot




                                                                                                     (K
                                                                                                                                                                                         Constant
Parametric Relationships                                                                                                                  Tamb = 295 K




                                                                                                       )
                                                                                                                                                                                   Tcold=270 (K)
                                                                0.8




                                                                           ←
                                                                           ← h
                                                                            T
                                                                             T =h3
                                                                                                                                                                                   Tcold=260 (K)
                                                                                                                                          Tcabin = 293 K




                                                                                =301
                                                                1.2




                                                                                   10 K
                                                                                                                                                                                   Constant Thot
(P/A), (P/m), & (P/V)




                                                                                     (
                                                                                      (K
                                                                                                                                          UAc = 60 W/K




                                                                                        )
                                                                                         )
                                                                 0.7
                                                                1.4




                                                                                                                                                                     K)
                                                                                           ←




                                                                                                                                                                      (
                                                                                            Th




                                                                                                                                                                   01
                                                                                             =3




                                                                                                                                                                =3
                                                                         Tcold=280 (K)
Analyses Coupled with




                                                                                                13
                                                                                                                                Tamb = 295 K




                                                                                                                                                            T
                                                                                                 ←




                                                                                                                                                                 h
                                                                 1




                                                                                                   (K
                                      Maximum COP Maximum COP




                                                                                                                                                           ←
                                                                         Tcold=270 (K)




                                                                                                    Th
                                                                                                     ←


                                                                                                     )
                                                                0.6




                                                                                                       =3 h
                                                                                                       T
                                                                                                                                                   2
                                                                         Tcold=260 (K)                                               ←1.1793(W/cm )
                                                                                                                                Tcabin = 293 K




                                                                                                         =5
                                                                                                         0
COP - Qc Maps




                                                                                                            3(1
                                                                1.2
                                                                                                                                                                (P/A)




                                                                                                              K)
                                                                                                               6(
                                                                         Constant Thot




                                                                                                                ←
                                               Maximum COP




                                                                                                                 K)
                                                                                                                                UAc = 60 W/K




                                                                                                                  T




                                                                                                                                                                                    )
                                                                                                                                                                                  (K
                                                                                                                                                                 2




                                                                           ←

                                                                           =3 09 3 =3 13
                                                                           h =3 h
                                                                 0.5                                                                             ←1.3705(W/cm )




                                                                                                                                                                               05
                                                                             T←
                                                                0.8




                                                                             19 (K 2 25 (K




                                                                                                                                                                            =3
    Critical Relationships / Trends




                                                                               h



                                                                               (K ) (K
                                                                                 T




                                                                                                                                                                           T
                                                                                                                                                                               h
                                                                                   )
                                                                                                                                                               2
                                                                                                                                                                     (P/m)




                                                                                     =
                                                                                                                                                   ←1.5748(W/cm )




                                                                                                                                                                          ←
                                                                                       ← Th

                                                                                       2
                                                                 1




                                                                                         ←
                                                                                         T h =3
                                                                0.4




                                                                                                                                                                                                )
                                                                                           )




                                                                                                                                                                                              (K
    Critical Tradeoffs                                                                                                                                                    2
                                                                                                                                                   ←447(W/kg) ←1.7922(W/cm )




                                                                                                                                                                                           09
                                                                                                (K )
                                                                0.6




                                                                                                                                                                                        =3
                                                                                                  )
                                                                                                  ←




                                                                                                                                                                                    T
                                                                                                                                                                                        h
                                                                                                    Th Th Th Th Th




                                                                                                                                                                                   ←
                                                                 0.3




                                                                                                     =3




                                                                                                                                                                                                            )
                                                                                                                                                               ←553(W/kg)




                                                                                                                                                                                                          (K
Establish Project Goals &

                                                                                                        17 321 325 329 333
                                                                0.8



                                                                                                         ← ← ← ←




                                                                                                                                                                                                       13
                                                                                                          (K




                                                                                                                                                                                                    =3
                                                                                                            )
                                                                                                              =




                                                                                                                                                                                             T
                                                                                                                                                                          ←669(W/kg)




                                                                                                                                                                                                    h
                                                                                                                                                                                            ←




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 )
Targets                                                         0.4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (K
                                                                                                                (K (K (K (K
                                                                 0.2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17
                                                                                                                  = = =

                                                                                                                  )




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       h =3
                                                                                                                                                                                        ←794(W/kg)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (K
                                                                                                                                                                                                      T
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ←
                                                                0.6

                                                                                                                     )




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   21
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ←929(W/kg)
Establish Fact vs. Fiction




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              h =3
                                                                 0.1




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ) (K (K)
                                                                                                                        ) )
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ←1073(W/kg)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              T
                                                                0.2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ←

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 h =3 h =3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          )
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (K 29
                                                                                                                                                                                                           T ← ←T
                                                                0.40




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 33
                                                                                                                                                                                                            h =3 T
                                                                   100                                    150                         200                250                       300                                            350
                                                                  0                                                                 Cooling Capacity [W]




                                                                                                                                                                                                          ←
                                                                  100                            150                                200         250                         300                            350
                                                                                                                                Cooling Capacity [W]
                                                                0.2




                                                                 0
                                                                  50                100                                       150            200               250                 300                               350
                                                                                                                                    Qc Per Mass[W/kg]                                                                 12
     Si/SiGe Thin-Film Material Validation
     Si/SiGe Thin-Film
PNNL is Leading An Effort to Validate (or Not) Latest Thin-Film Si/SiGe Materials
    NASA-Jet Propulsion Laboratory
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    NIST
Early Results With JPL (September 2007)
    Contractor Supplied 100 Si/SiGe Layers (10 nm Thick) on 400 um Si Substrate
    High Seebeck Coefficient & Low Electrical Resistivity Measured
    However, Thick Si Substrate Significantly Clouded the Results
         Thick Si Substrate in The Measurement Circuit – Not Acceptable

PNNL Recommended a 4-Step Test Validation Process
    Perform Testing on Si/SiGe Multi-Layers on SIMOX Samples – Electrically Eliminate Si
         JPL
         ORNL
    Develop Multi-Layer Electrical Model of Test Sample Configuration
         Guide / Provide Critical Interpretations of Test Results
         Draw Conclusions On Important Test Circuit Parameters & Their Impact on Test Results
    Perform Thermal Efficiency &/or ΔTmax Tests @ TE Couple Level
    External Validation of Thermal Efficiency / ΔTmax Tests ASAP
                                                                                                13
                            Oregon’s first “Signature Research
                                          Center”
                              Expanding Oregon’s role as micro&nano R&D nexus
                                with largest micro-nano R&D community in U.S.


Mission –
Grow micro & nano R&D supporting high tech industry
Increase and accelerate commerciallization of micro &
nano technology
Develop micro & nano technology leaders                     CAMCOR - UO
                                                            Materials
                                                            Characterization
                                                            and
Research thrusts -                            Facility      Nanofabrication
                                MBI –
  “Green” nanomaterials and
nanomanufacturing               OSU/PNNL      Network
  Microtechnology-based         Micro Chemical             CEMN - PSU
energy and chemical systems     and Energy                 beam metrology &
  Nanolaminates,                Devices &                  nanofabrication
materials/processes for         Micro/Nano
nanoelectronics                 Fabrication
  Nanoscale metrology                                       + HP, FEI, ESI, …
                                                        OHSU, PNNL, UO, OSU, PSU
                                                                               14
                         Multiple Rattlers in
                     Skutterudites: RxRy’Co4Sb12
    PNNL & ONAMI Collaboration on Advanced “Multiple - Rattler”
    Skutterudites & Advanced Oxides
Multiple Rattlers:
R2+: Ba, Sr, Ca, Ag, Pd,
R3+: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, In, Sc

        InxCo4Sb12 Shows High ZT ~1 at 573 K
        InxCeyCo4Sb12 Increases the ZT >1.3 at 573K                              Co4Sb12
        Synthesis of More Rattler Combinations in Progress
        Goal for Advanced Materials
             ZT ~ 1.6-1.8 @ 600-700 K
             Similar Materials Confirmed By ORNL and Purdue Univ. Measurements
        Later Focus On Mixed Valent Transition Metal Oxides
    High Performance TE Materials Expected                                       RxCo4Sb12
        Bulk-Type Materials for Easier Device Manufacture & Integration
        Results Expected At the End of FY 2008
        Expect to Transition Results to Projects As Appropriate
        & Quickly As Possible                                                              15
      DOE / ONAMI Project (Continued)

Objectives
   Optimize the Synthetic Conditions & Properties of Newly Discovered
   Thermoelectric Compositions
   Optimize Compositions
   Test & Characterize TE Material Properties (ONAMI & PNNL)
      Seebeck Coefficient
      Electrical Resistivity
      Thermal Conductivity
   PNNL to Characterize System-Level Benefits of Material Compositions in
   Waste Energy Recovery Applications
Project Duration: Through FY 2008
Sponsor: John Fairbanks, Technology Manager, OVT
FY 2007 Funding: $100K

                                                                            16
              Publications / Presentations
26th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, Jeju, South Korea, June 2007
   Hendricks, T.J. and Karri, N.K., “Design Impacts of Stochastically-Varying Input Parameters on
   Advanced Thermoelectric Conversion Systems”, TE Theories and Phenomena Session, Paper #O-
   M-1
ASME Energy Sustainability 2007 Conference, Long Beach, CA, June 2007
   Hendricks, T.J. and Karri, N.K., “Probabilistic Design & Analysis for Robust Design of Advanced
   Thermoelectric Conversion Systems“, Nano- & Micro-Scale Devices/Energy Systems Session, Paper
   #ES2007-36085
Journal of Energy Resources Technology, ASME, New York, 2007
   Hendricks, T.J., “Thermal System Interactions in Optimizing Advanced Thermoelectric Energy
   Recovery Systems”, Vol. 129, No. 3
AIAA International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, St. Louis, MO,
June 2007
   Karri, N.K. and Hendricks, T.J., “Probabilistic Modeling Approach to Thermoelectric Systems Design
   Optimization”, Paper #81312
Micro Nano Breakthrough Conference, Invited Plenary Session Speaker, Portland,
OR, September 2007
   Title: Advanced Energy Recovery & Conversion Systems Employing Micro Technology


                                                                                                   17
      Collaborations & Interactions
GM / GE
   Automotive HVAC Systems & Probabilisitic Design
Michigan State University & Tellurex, Inc.
   LAST-m TE Material Properties
BSST, Visteon, BMW
ORNL
   Advanced Si/SiGe Thin-Film TE Material Testing & Validation
NASA-JPL
   Advanced Si/SiGe Thin-Film TE Material Testing & Validation
NIST
ONAMI
   Joint Project in Advanced TE Materials Development
ONR DTEC Program Review – August 2007
Japanese NEDO Delegation – November 2007
26th International Conference on Thermoelectrics
   Japanese METI NEDO TE Project – Japanese Program Managers
   United Kingdom R&D – UK Program Managers
                        FY 2008 Plans

FY 2008 AOP Will Govern Our Activities in FY 08
Several Technical Ideas Identified for FY 2008 AOP
   Provide Project Technical Leadership, Scientific, & Analysis Support
      Advanced TE Materials
      Advanced TE Devices & Systems
      Advanced Testing Systems
   Develop Advanced System Concepts
   Advanced Analytic Techniques & Methodologies
   Develop PNNL / Industry / University Joint Projects on Advanced TE
   Materials & Systems
   Continue Government / Industry Collaborations in TE Materials, Devices
   & Systems, and Testing



                                                                          19
                            Summary
PNNL Provides Support to WHR&U In Several Areas
  Independent WHR&U Project Technical Evaluation & Leadership
  In-Depth Thermoelectric Analysis
     Advanced TE Power Systems
     Advanced TE Material Effects
  Advanced Test System Support
  New Project Initiative Development
     “Initiative” Analytic Justifications
     New Project Ideas / Concepts to Achieve / Accelerate Goals
  Critical International Collaborations & Interactions
     Constant State-of-the-Art and State-of-Research Barometer
     How to Leverage National / International R&D Progress & Successes
  Industrial / Theoretical Experience
     TE Materials
     TE Systems
                                                                         20
         Advanced Thermoelectric System Design

System-Level, Coupled Design Analysis                                    qhin
    Hot Side Heat Exchanger                   Industrial & Vehicle
                                                    Exhaust          Hot Side Heat
    TE Device                                                         Exchanger
                                                         •
                                                   Tex , mh                             Thot
    Cold Side Heat Exchanger
                                                   Exhaust
Single & Segmented TE Material Legs
Temperature-Dependent TE Materials
                                                                     P             N
Accounts for Hot/Cold Thermal Resistances
Accounts for Electrical Contact Resistances
Accounts for HX / TE Device Thermal Losses
Optimum Heat Exchanger / TE Design              Environment                      T
                                                                                 col
                                                                                         Tcold
                                                Ambient Flow         Cold Side Heat
                                                                      Exchangerd
  Parameters Determined Simultaneously                    •
                                                   Tamb , mc                    qcout
Maximum Efficiency & Maximum Power                 Ambient

Density Designs Are Possible                                               Load
Off-Nominal & Variable Condition
                                                                     Power Out
Performance Analysis
                                                                                               21

								
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