Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquafeeds by Perendale


The global aquaculture industry is one of the fastest growing food production sectors with farmed seafood currently accounting for about 50 percent of all fish consumed in the world.

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									                                                May | June 2010
      Feature title: Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquafeeds

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        F: Lipid

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Global production of crude palm oil
                                                                                                                                                                                                           (CPO) exceeded 43 million tonnes and
                                                                                                                                                                                                           together with about nine million tonnes of
                                                                                                                                                                                                           coconut and palm kernel oils, constitutes
                                                                                                                                                                                                           a highly available and sustainable source of
                                                                                                                                                                                                           lipids for the aquafeed industry.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                When freshly extracted, CPO is the

                                                                                                                                                    Figure 1: Stacks of imported fish oil in drums are a
                                                                                                                                                                                                           richest known natural source of β-carotene
                                                                                                                                                                                                           and is also a rich source of vitamin E,
                                                                                                                                                                                                           consisting of tocopherols and tocotrienols.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Several studies have shown that various

                                                                                                                                                    common sight at aquafeed mills in Asia
                                                                                                                                                                                                           palm oil fractions can be successfully used

  in Aquafeeds
                                                                                                                                                                                                           either singly or in combination with other
                                                                                                                                                                                                           plant oils in the aquafeeds of commercially
                                                                                                                                                                                                           farmed species. The limited PUFA content,

  Alternative Lipid Sources                                                                                                                                                                                combined with the presence of natural                              Figure 3: Palm oil is the most produced and fractionated oil in the world
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and many fractions have been successfully evaluated in aquafeeds
                                                                                                                                                                                                           antioxidants (in the case of CPO), has been
                                                                                                                                                                                                           reported to impart enhanced pellet and
                                                                                                                                                                                                           fillet oxidative stability.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Furthermore, the overall fatty acid modi-      (MUFA)-rich oil produced is rapeseed           physiologically important n-3 LC-PUFA by
                                                                                                                                                                                                           fication of the fish fillet is less detrimentally   (canola) oil with olive, peanut and rice       many farmed species, albeit mostly at lim-
                                                                                                                                                                                                           affected by SFA-rich oils, when compared to         bran oils making up the rest of this class     ited capabilities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           other alternative lipid sources.                    of lipids. Oleic acid (18:1n-9) and other          Despite encouraging evidence of poten-
  by Dr Wing–Keong Ng, Fish Nutrition Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Dr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Nevertheless, concerns have been               MUFA are readily digested and β-oxidized       tial bio-conversion of ALA and SDA into
  Giovanni Turchini, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Australia, Dr Douglas Tocher,
                                                                                                                                                                                                           expressed on its potential negative effect          by fish to produce energy and have been        n-3 LC-PUFA, the inclusion of these oils
  Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland
                                                                                                                                                                                                           on nutrient digestibility, particularly when        reported to have no known adverse effect       (i.e. linseed/flaxseed, camelina, perilla and
                                                                                                                                                                                                           fed to cold water fish species during the           on fish growth performance.                    echium) in aquafeeds is limited, as they are

                                                                                                                                                                                                           winter season.                                         Depending
            he global aquaculture                    Marine fish oil production has not           various alternative lipid sources, grouped                                                                                                                   on       market
            industry is one of the               increased beyond 1.5 million tonnes for          according to their main chemical charac-                                                                 High quality sources                                prices, rape-
            fastest growing food                 the past quarter of a century and in order       teristics. Their unique potential advantages                                                             of dietary energy                                   seed oil is cur-
            p ro d u c t i o n
with farmed seafood currently
                               sectors           to further expand, the global aquaculture
                                                 industry cannot continue to rely solely on
                                                                                                  and challenges for use in aquafeeds will
                                                                                                  be highlighted. The physiological effects of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Soybean, corn, safflower, cottonseed and
                                                                                                                                                                                                           sunflower oils are the main n-6 PUFA-rich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               rently one of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the commonly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Marine phospholipids
accounting for about 50 percent                  this source of lipid.                            various lipid sources and their components                                                               (namely linoleic acid, 18:2n-6) oils produced.      utilized    lipid
of all fish consumed in the world.                   The high demand, impending short sup-        on growth, lipid metabolism, health and                                                                       When incorporated into aquafeeds,              alternatives in            A new generation of omega-3 lipids
                                                 ply and often times high prices makes            post-harvest qualities of the farmed fish are                                                            these n-6 PUFA-rich plant oils have been            commercial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with a broader spectrum of health
Aquafeeds and fish oils                                                                                    briefly discussed.                                                                              reported to be high quality sources of              aquafeeds,
    It is estimated that aquaculture                                                                                                                                                                       dietary energy and fatty acids during the           especially those
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          bene ts.
produces about 65 million tonnes                                                                          Alternative lipid                                                                                grow-out cycle in most fish tested to date.         formulated for
of seafood valued at more than                                                                            sources                                                                                               However, a major concern of using these        cold       water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           - High DHA contents, preferably in
US$78 billion annually.                                                                                        Oils and fats are characterised by                                                          oils is that linoleic acid is abundantly and        and temperate                   easily digestible and highly bio
    Aquaculture is anticipated to                                                                          their unique fatty acid composition.                                                            preferentially deposited in the fish fillet.        species.                        available form for aquaculture use.
play an increasingly important                                                                                 The major vegetable oils have                                                               Since our human diets already contain too              Plant     oils
role in meeting the seafood                                                                                one common characteristic; none                                                                 much n-6 PUFA, some scientists believe              rich in n-3                 - Numerous bene ts on improving
demand of a growing human                                                                                  contain n-3 long chain-polyunsatu-                                                              that a good fish oil substitute should limit        PUFA [namely                    the immune response, better
population. The rapid increase in                                                                          rated fatty acids (LC-PUFA).                                                                    the deposition of these less desirable fatty        α-linolenic acid,               weight gain and physical
aquaculture production world-                                                                                  In contrast, marine fish oils have                                                          acids in fish fillets.                              ALA (18:3n-3),                  conditions of land animals.
wide has been fueled by the                                                                                a high content of n-3 LC-PUFA.                                                                       Once deposited, linoleic acid is also          and       steari-
use of industrially manufactured                                                                           In consideration of the fact that                                                               known to be selectively retained in fish            donic       acid,
aquafeeds.                                                                                                 the dietary fatty acid composition                                                              fillets and resistant to ‘dilution’ even after      SDA (18:4n-3)]
    Conventionally, marine fishmeal           Figure 2: The annual world production (1995-                 is mirrored in farmed fish fillet,                                                              switching to a fish oil finishing diet. This        has generated
and fish oil are used as the major            2008) of the three major vegetables oils as                  the inclusion of alternative lipid                                                              may be problematic in the context of using          much research
                                              compared to fish oil
feed ingredients in the formulation                                                                        sources in aquafeed can have sig-                                                               fish oil finishing diet strategies to restore       interest     due
of commercial aquafeeds to supply                                                                          nificant impacts on the nutritional                                                             beneficial n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in farmed         to the ability
dietary protein and lipid, respectively. It is    dietary fish oil a bottle-neck in the farming   qualities of farmed seafood products. The                                                                fish fillets.                                       of these fatty
estimated that aquafeeds currently con-           of aquatic animals, and there is currently      n-3 LC-PUFA are known to impart health-                                                                       Several selected cultivars of these            acids to be                 Fiskerihavnsgade 35           Phone +45 79120999
sume about 90 percent of the global supply        great urgency within the global aquafeed        promoting benefits to human consumers.                                                                   oilseeds have been recently developed to            bio-converted               P.O. Box 359                  Fax     +45 79120888
of fish oil and many have predicted that the      industry in finding suitable alternatives to        Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich plant                                                                contain significantly lower concentrations          into the longer             6701 Esbjerg                  E-mail
demand for fish oil from the aquaculture          replace marine fish oils.                       oils include palm oil, palm kernel oil and                                                               of linoleic acid.                                   chain,     more             Denmark                       Web
industry will imminently out strip supply.           This article will give an overview of the    coconut oil.                                                                                                  The major monounsaturated fatty acid           unsaturated,

                                                10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010                                                                                                                                                                    May-June 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            999_AD_IAF0904V3.indd 1                                                 22/06/2009 14:01
 F: Lipid                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              F: Lipid

                                                                                                                   Impact of lipid               increased activity of the desaturation/elon-         Seafood from farmed animals fed diets
                                                                                                                   sources on                    gation pathway.                                  with high fish oil replacements remains a
                                                                                                                   farmed fish                       Unfortunately this is restricted to cer-     good source of n-3 LC-PUFA that, although                       About the Authors:
                                                                                                                      As mentioned above,        tain species and does not occur in marine        reduced, are still higher than in any alterna-                      Wing–Keong Ng of the Fish
                                                                                                                   dietary fatty acid com-       fish and crustaceans. Irrespective of species,   tive meat or food item and so contribute                        Nutrition Laboratory, School of
                                                                                                                   position directly influ-      increased synthesis of LC-PUFA is not able       positive health benefits.                                       Biological Sciences, at Universiti
                                                                                                                   ences flesh fatty acid        to compensate for the lack of dietary n-3            Impacts of dietary lipid source on                          Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia
                                                                                                                   composition, the extent       LC-PUFA.                                         physical quality aspects are few, but                           (Email:; Dr Giovanni
                                                                                                                   of which depends on               Lipids and fatty acids are now known to      lower oxidation values in flesh during                          M. Turchini, is at the School of Life
                                                                                                                   the level of substitution     be highly metabolically active, involved in      shelf life in fish fed vegetable oils com-                      and Environmental Sciences, Deakin
                                                                                                                   of fish oil, the duration     controlling and regulating cell metabolism       pared to fish oil is the most consistent.                       University, Warrnambool, VIC 3280 in
                                                                                                                   of feeding and the pre-       and animal physiology through mechanisms         Other influences include some limited                           Australia and Douglas R. Tocher is at
                                                                                                                   cise fatty acid composi-      involving gene expression and several lipid      effects on flesh colour, texture and gap-                       the Institute of Aquaculture, University
                                                                                                                   tion of the substituting      signalling pathways.                             ing, and liquid holding, but not freshness,                     of Stirling in Stirling, Scotland.
                                                                                                                   oils.                             Therefore, modification of tissue fatty      during shelf life.
                                                                                                                      In general, substitution   acid compositions can have wide ranging              In most farmed species studied, taste
                                                                                                                   with vegetable oils results   effects.                                         panelists were able to discriminate amongst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Author’s note:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The subject matter of this article
                                                                                                                   in increased proportions          Among the most studied are the eicosa-       some specific attributes and quality param-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  will be the topic of an upcoming
      Figure 4: Farmed seafood fed alternative lipid sources remains a good dietary source of                      of C18 fatty acids (18:1n-    noids (for example, prostaglandins, leukot-      eters of fillet of fish fed different lipid
      health-promoting omega-3 fatty acids for the human consumer                                                                                                                                                                                                 book entitled ‘Fish Oil Replacement
                                                                                                                   9, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3),      rienes and resolvins) that are metabolically     sources.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and Alternative Lipid Sources in
                                                                                                                   and decreased propor-         active derivatives of LC-PUFA with impor-            However, these differences are relatively
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Aquaculture Feeds’ edited by the
                                                                                                                   tions of n-3 LC-PUFA          tant roles in mediating inflammatory and         subtle and consumers have been reported
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  authors and published by CRC Press -
currently relatively expensive and limited    New lipid sources                                 (EPA, 20:5n-3 and DHA, 22:6n-3).                 immune responses to a variety of stresses.       not to show any specific preferences for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Taylor and Francis Group: http://www.
in supply.                                        In recent years, new lipid sources con-           In choosing substituting oils, we should         The n-6-derived eicosanoids are              differently fed farmed fish. Effects on fil-
    However, they can be useful in oil blend  taining n-3 LC-PUFA are the subject of            aim to minimise these effects and so, ideally,   pro-inflammatory whereas n-3-derived             let organoleptic properties are somewhat
formulations to adjust dietary n-3 PUFA       intense research interest. These include oils     the replacing oil should satisfy some general    eicosanoids are either less potent or            subjective and variable, and are dependent
levels.                                       derived from marine invertebrates such as         criteria. The oil should have a high MUFA        anti-inflammatory.                               on the dietary oil blends used. The product
                                              copepods, krill and amphipods.                    content, not only to provide a good energy           Thus, substitution of n-3-rich fish oil      quality       fac-
Animal fats                                       Given the significantly large biomass of      source, but also to reduce the level of C18      by n-6-rich vegetable oils will alter the        tors can, to a
    Terrestrial animal fats include tallow,   marine invertebrates and projecting a ‘safe’      PUFA, which should be relatively low.            eicosanoids produced resulting in effects on     large extent,
poultry by-product fat and lard. About        level of harvest, it has been estimated that          For this reason, oils with high C18          inflammatory and immune responses, which         be      restored                                                         Are you sure
12 million tonnes of rendered animal          these new sources have the potential to           PUFA, particularly 18:2n-6, should be used       can be potentially detrimental or beneficial     through the use                                                          I‘m not missing
fats are manufactured every year around       produce more marine oils than current             sparingly.                                       depending upon the particular stress.            of finishing diets                                                       a key essential
the world and are generally more eco-         global fish oil production.                           The replacement oil should contain               The above illustrates one mechanism          rich in fish oil.                                                        nutrient?
nomical than fish and plant oils. Animal          However, there are some technical con-        18:3n-3, not simply for potential conversion     whereby altered dietary fatty acids, espe-           In conclu-
fats represent a very diverse group of        cerns on the use of such oils, such as har-       to EPA and DHA, but also because its             cially n-3/n-6 balance, can affect the health    sion, in the
products but are generally rich in SFA        vesting technologies and the large content        inclusion will help to balance the n-3/n-6       and welfare of fish.                             current era of
although some can be rich in MUFA and         of waxes and phospholipids together with          ratio and limit 18:2n-6 inclusion. Some              However, substitution of fish oil with       increased con-
contain PUFA.                                 great variability in fatty acid composition.      researchers suggest that oil blends consist-     vegetable oils affects the immune system         sumer demands
    Their fatty acid composition is largely       One good n-3 LC-PUFA-rich source              ing of several plant oils are better in terms    in several ways, including both cellular and     for food safety,
influenced by the diet of the livestock.      are oils derived from by-catch and fishery        of health and welfare of the fish when used      humoral immunity, although these effects do      traceability
    For example, poultry by-product fat in    or aquaculture by-products. With better           in aquafeeds.                                    not always alter resistance to disease.          and quality, the
Australia is enriched with MUFA as chick-     management and utilisation, it is estimated                                                            Other aspects of health status of fish       challenge for
ens are commonly fed a rapeseed-based         that the total quantities of fish meal and        Dietary fat influences                           that may be affected by dietary fatty acids      the aquaculture                                              VANNAGEN                                ®
diet, while in the USA, it has relatively     fish oil coming from aquaculture and fishery          Dietary fatty acid composition also          include welfare, through altering the cortisol   industry is to
higher n-6 PUFA as birds are commonly fed     derived waste and by-products are most            influences various aspects of lipid and          response to stress, tissue morphology (for       maintain the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       naturally supports…
a soybean-based diet.                         likely in the range of several million tonnes.    fatty acid metabolism. These include             example, liver and intestine) that may or        recognised
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       … Per formance
    Recent studies have reported that these       Single cell oils (from microalgae) and        digestibility, lipogenesis, lipid transport      may not affect organ functionality, skeletal     benefits        of
                                                                                                                                                 development, cataracts and development of        seafood con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       … Health
lipid sources are well digested and utilised  genetically modified oilseeds represent           and uptake, fatty acid catabolism and
by most fish species. Growth performance      novel n-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils.                      fatty acid desaturation and elongation           atherosclerosis and cardiac lesions.             sumption for                         … Stress management
of aquaculture species are generally not          Nutritionally, single cell oils are likely to that can all influence tissue fatty acid             However, many factors can affect stress,     human health,
negatively impacted by dietary animal fats as be the best alternative to fish oil as they       composition.                                     immunity and pathogen resistance in fish,        especially when

long as the diets are formulated to contain   contain even higher amounts of beneficial             For example, the amount of dietary           including the type, level and duration of veg-   alternative
sufficient amount of MUFA and PUFA to         n-3 LC-PUFA, but their very high produc-          SFA influences the digestibility of lipids       etable oil feeding, other dietary nutrients,     lipids are used
facilitate the digestion of SFA and meet      tion costs and limited availability make their    especially at low water temperatures.            fish species and environmental conditions.       in aquafeed for-
the essential fatty acid requirements of the  use almost prohibitive. Oils from genetically     LC-PUFA synthesis from 18:3n-3 has been              Product quality encompasses physical         mulations, while
aquatic animal.                               modified oilseeds are not yet a commercial        shown to be increased in fish fed diets          aspects such as freshness and appearance,        maintaining                                                        We have your per for mance in mind
    Terrestrial animal fats are increasingly  commodity and legislative issues may need         with fish oil substituted by vegetable oils      and organoleptic properties, as well as          sustainability
recognized as safe and cost-effective lipid   to be addressed before such oils can be           through up-regulation of desaturase and          nutritional quality, which is largely defined    and profitability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Chemoforma Ltd. CH-4302 Augst Switzerland
sources when properly used in aquafeeds.      used in aquafeeds.                                elongase gene expression and consequently        by the n-3 LC-PUFA content.                      of the industry.         Tel +41 61 811 33 55 Fax +41 61 811 28 03

                                               12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010                                                                                                        May-June 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13
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                                                                                     This In Your Elevator?   Volume 13 / Issue 3 / May-June 2010 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2010 / All rights reserved

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