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The global aquaculture industry is one of the fastest growing food production sectors with farmed seafood currently accounting for about 50 percent of all fish consumed in the world.
May | June 2010 Feature title: Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquafeeds International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry F: Lipid Global production of crude palm oil (CPO) exceeded 43 million tonnes and together with about nine million tonnes of coconut and palm kernel oils, constitutes a highly available and sustainable source of lipids for the aquafeed industry. When freshly extracted, CPO is the Figure 1: Stacks of imported fish oil in drums are a richest known natural source of β-carotene and is also a rich source of vitamin E, consisting of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Several studies have shown that various common sight at aquafeed mills in Asia palm oil fractions can be successfully used in Aquafeeds either singly or in combination with other plant oils in the aquafeeds of commercially farmed species. The limited PUFA content, Alternative Lipid Sources combined with the presence of natural Figure 3: Palm oil is the most produced and fractionated oil in the world and many fractions have been successfully evaluated in aquafeeds antioxidants (in the case of CPO), has been reported to impart enhanced pellet and fillet oxidative stability. Furthermore, the overall fatty acid modi- (MUFA)-rich oil produced is rapeseed physiologically important n-3 LC-PUFA by fication of the fish fillet is less detrimentally (canola) oil with olive, peanut and rice many farmed species, albeit mostly at lim- affected by SFA-rich oils, when compared to bran oils making up the rest of this class ited capabilities. other alternative lipid sources. of lipids. Oleic acid (18:1n-9) and other Despite encouraging evidence of poten- by Dr Wing–Keong Ng, Fish Nutrition Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Dr Nevertheless, concerns have been MUFA are readily digested and β-oxidized tial bio-conversion of ALA and SDA into Giovanni Turchini, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Australia, Dr Douglas Tocher, expressed on its potential negative effect by fish to produce energy and have been n-3 LC-PUFA, the inclusion of these oils Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland on nutrient digestibility, particularly when reported to have no known adverse effect (i.e. linseed/flaxseed, camelina, perilla and fed to cold water fish species during the on fish growth performance. echium) in aquafeeds is limited, as they are T winter season. Depending he global aquaculture Marine fish oil production has not various alternative lipid sources, grouped on market industry is one of the increased beyond 1.5 million tonnes for according to their main chemical charac- High quality sources prices, rape- fastest growing food the past quarter of a century and in order teristics. Their unique potential advantages of dietary energy seed oil is cur- p ro d u c t i o n with farmed seafood currently sectors to further expand, the global aquaculture industry cannot continue to rely solely on and challenges for use in aquafeeds will be highlighted. The physiological effects of Soybean, corn, safflower, cottonseed and sunflower oils are the main n-6 PUFA-rich rently one of the commonly Marine phospholipids accounting for about 50 percent this source of lipid. various lipid sources and their components (namely linoleic acid, 18:2n-6) oils produced. utilized lipid of all fish consumed in the world. The high demand, impending short sup- on growth, lipid metabolism, health and When incorporated into aquafeeds, alternatives in A new generation of omega-3 lipids ply and often times high prices makes post-harvest qualities of the farmed fish are these n-6 PUFA-rich plant oils have been commercial with a broader spectrum of health Aquafeeds and fish oils briefly discussed. reported to be high quality sources of aquafeeds, It is estimated that aquaculture dietary energy and fatty acids during the especially those bene ts. produces about 65 million tonnes Alternative lipid grow-out cycle in most fish tested to date. formulated for of seafood valued at more than sources However, a major concern of using these cold water - High DHA contents, preferably in US$78 billion annually. Oils and fats are characterised by oils is that linoleic acid is abundantly and and temperate easily digestible and highly bio Aquaculture is anticipated to their unique fatty acid composition. preferentially deposited in the fish fillet. species. available form for aquaculture use. play an increasingly important The major vegetable oils have Since our human diets already contain too Plant oils role in meeting the seafood one common characteristic; none much n-6 PUFA, some scientists believe rich in n-3 - Numerous bene ts on improving demand of a growing human contain n-3 long chain-polyunsatu- that a good fish oil substitute should limit PUFA [namely the immune response, better population. The rapid increase in rated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). the deposition of these less desirable fatty α-linolenic acid, weight gain and physical aquaculture production world- In contrast, marine fish oils have acids in fish fillets. ALA (18:3n-3), conditions of land animals. wide has been fueled by the a high content of n-3 LC-PUFA. Once deposited, linoleic acid is also and steari- use of industrially manufactured In consideration of the fact that known to be selectively retained in fish donic acid, aquafeeds. the dietary fatty acid composition fillets and resistant to ‘dilution’ even after SDA (18:4n-3)] Conventionally, marine fishmeal Figure 2: The annual world production (1995- is mirrored in farmed fish fillet, switching to a fish oil finishing diet. This has generated and fish oil are used as the major 2008) of the three major vegetables oils as the inclusion of alternative lipid may be problematic in the context of using much research compared to fish oil feed ingredients in the formulation sources in aquafeed can have sig- fish oil finishing diet strategies to restore interest due of commercial aquafeeds to supply nificant impacts on the nutritional beneficial n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in farmed to the ability dietary protein and lipid, respectively. It is dietary fish oil a bottle-neck in the farming qualities of farmed seafood products. The fish fillets. of these fatty estimated that aquafeeds currently con- of aquatic animals, and there is currently n-3 LC-PUFA are known to impart health- Several selected cultivars of these acids to be Fiskerihavnsgade 35 Phone +45 79120999 sume about 90 percent of the global supply great urgency within the global aquafeed promoting benefits to human consumers. oilseeds have been recently developed to bio-converted P.O. Box 359 Fax +45 79120888 of fish oil and many have predicted that the industry in finding suitable alternatives to Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich plant contain significantly lower concentrations into the longer 6701 Esbjerg E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org demand for fish oil from the aquaculture replace marine fish oils. oils include palm oil, palm kernel oil and of linoleic acid. chain, more Denmark Web www.999.dk industry will imminently out strip supply. This article will give an overview of the coconut oil. The major monounsaturated fatty acid unsaturated, 10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010 May-June 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11 999_AD_IAF0904V3.indd 1 22/06/2009 14:01 F: Lipid F: Lipid Impact of lipid increased activity of the desaturation/elon- Seafood from farmed animals fed diets sources on gation pathway. with high fish oil replacements remains a farmed fish Unfortunately this is restricted to cer- good source of n-3 LC-PUFA that, although About the Authors: As mentioned above, tain species and does not occur in marine reduced, are still higher than in any alterna- Wing–Keong Ng of the Fish dietary fatty acid com- fish and crustaceans. Irrespective of species, tive meat or food item and so contribute Nutrition Laboratory, School of position directly influ- increased synthesis of LC-PUFA is not able positive health benefits. Biological Sciences, at Universiti ences flesh fatty acid to compensate for the lack of dietary n-3 Impacts of dietary lipid source on Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia composition, the extent LC-PUFA. physical quality aspects are few, but (Email: email@example.com); Dr Giovanni of which depends on Lipids and fatty acids are now known to lower oxidation values in flesh during M. Turchini, is at the School of Life the level of substitution be highly metabolically active, involved in shelf life in fish fed vegetable oils com- and Environmental Sciences, Deakin of fish oil, the duration controlling and regulating cell metabolism pared to fish oil is the most consistent. University, Warrnambool, VIC 3280 in of feeding and the pre- and animal physiology through mechanisms Other influences include some limited Australia and Douglas R. Tocher is at cise fatty acid composi- involving gene expression and several lipid effects on flesh colour, texture and gap- the Institute of Aquaculture, University tion of the substituting signalling pathways. ing, and liquid holding, but not freshness, of Stirling in Stirling, Scotland. oils. Therefore, modification of tissue fatty during shelf life. In general, substitution acid compositions can have wide ranging In most farmed species studied, taste with vegetable oils results effects. panelists were able to discriminate amongst Author’s note: The subject matter of this article in increased proportions Among the most studied are the eicosa- some specific attributes and quality param- will be the topic of an upcoming Figure 4: Farmed seafood fed alternative lipid sources remains a good dietary source of of C18 fatty acids (18:1n- noids (for example, prostaglandins, leukot- eters of fillet of fish fed different lipid health-promoting omega-3 fatty acids for the human consumer book entitled ‘Fish Oil Replacement 9, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3), rienes and resolvins) that are metabolically sources. and Alternative Lipid Sources in and decreased propor- active derivatives of LC-PUFA with impor- However, these differences are relatively Aquaculture Feeds’ edited by the tions of n-3 LC-PUFA tant roles in mediating inflammatory and subtle and consumers have been reported authors and published by CRC Press - currently relatively expensive and limited New lipid sources (EPA, 20:5n-3 and DHA, 22:6n-3). immune responses to a variety of stresses. not to show any specific preferences for Taylor and Francis Group: http://www. in supply. In recent years, new lipid sources con- In choosing substituting oils, we should The n-6-derived eicosanoids are differently fed farmed fish. Effects on fil- crcpress.com/ However, they can be useful in oil blend taining n-3 LC-PUFA are the subject of aim to minimise these effects and so, ideally, pro-inflammatory whereas n-3-derived let organoleptic properties are somewhat formulations to adjust dietary n-3 PUFA intense research interest. These include oils the replacing oil should satisfy some general eicosanoids are either less potent or subjective and variable, and are dependent levels. derived from marine invertebrates such as criteria. The oil should have a high MUFA anti-inflammatory. on the dietary oil blends used. The product copepods, krill and amphipods. content, not only to provide a good energy Thus, substitution of n-3-rich fish oil quality fac- Animal fats Given the significantly large biomass of source, but also to reduce the level of C18 by n-6-rich vegetable oils will alter the tors can, to a Terrestrial animal fats include tallow, marine invertebrates and projecting a ‘safe’ PUFA, which should be relatively low. eicosanoids produced resulting in effects on large extent, poultry by-product fat and lard. About level of harvest, it has been estimated that For this reason, oils with high C18 inflammatory and immune responses, which be restored Are you sure 12 million tonnes of rendered animal these new sources have the potential to PUFA, particularly 18:2n-6, should be used can be potentially detrimental or beneficial through the use I‘m not missing fats are manufactured every year around produce more marine oils than current sparingly. depending upon the particular stress. of finishing diets a key essential the world and are generally more eco- global fish oil production. The replacement oil should contain The above illustrates one mechanism rich in fish oil. nutrient? nomical than fish and plant oils. Animal However, there are some technical con- 18:3n-3, not simply for potential conversion whereby altered dietary fatty acids, espe- In conclu- fats represent a very diverse group of cerns on the use of such oils, such as har- to EPA and DHA, but also because its cially n-3/n-6 balance, can affect the health sion, in the products but are generally rich in SFA vesting technologies and the large content inclusion will help to balance the n-3/n-6 and welfare of fish. current era of although some can be rich in MUFA and of waxes and phospholipids together with ratio and limit 18:2n-6 inclusion. Some However, substitution of fish oil with increased con- contain PUFA. great variability in fatty acid composition. researchers suggest that oil blends consist- vegetable oils affects the immune system sumer demands Their fatty acid composition is largely One good n-3 LC-PUFA-rich source ing of several plant oils are better in terms in several ways, including both cellular and for food safety, influenced by the diet of the livestock. are oils derived from by-catch and fishery of health and welfare of the fish when used humoral immunity, although these effects do traceability For example, poultry by-product fat in or aquaculture by-products. With better in aquafeeds. not always alter resistance to disease. and quality, the Australia is enriched with MUFA as chick- management and utilisation, it is estimated Other aspects of health status of fish challenge for ens are commonly fed a rapeseed-based that the total quantities of fish meal and Dietary fat influences that may be affected by dietary fatty acids the aquaculture VANNAGEN ® diet, while in the USA, it has relatively fish oil coming from aquaculture and fishery Dietary fatty acid composition also include welfare, through altering the cortisol industry is to higher n-6 PUFA as birds are commonly fed derived waste and by-products are most influences various aspects of lipid and response to stress, tissue morphology (for maintain the naturally supports… a soybean-based diet. likely in the range of several million tonnes. fatty acid metabolism. These include example, liver and intestine) that may or recognised … Per formance Recent studies have reported that these Single cell oils (from microalgae) and digestibility, lipogenesis, lipid transport may not affect organ functionality, skeletal benefits of development, cataracts and development of seafood con- … Health lipid sources are well digested and utilised genetically modified oilseeds represent and uptake, fatty acid catabolism and by most fish species. Growth performance novel n-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils. fatty acid desaturation and elongation atherosclerosis and cardiac lesions. sumption for … Stress management of aquaculture species are generally not Nutritionally, single cell oils are likely to that can all influence tissue fatty acid However, many factors can affect stress, human health, negatively impacted by dietary animal fats as be the best alternative to fish oil as they composition. immunity and pathogen resistance in fish, especially when www.chemoforma.com long as the diets are formulated to contain contain even higher amounts of beneficial For example, the amount of dietary including the type, level and duration of veg- alternative sufficient amount of MUFA and PUFA to n-3 LC-PUFA, but their very high produc- SFA influences the digestibility of lipids etable oil feeding, other dietary nutrients, lipids are used facilitate the digestion of SFA and meet tion costs and limited availability make their especially at low water temperatures. fish species and environmental conditions. in aquafeed for- the essential fatty acid requirements of the use almost prohibitive. Oils from genetically LC-PUFA synthesis from 18:3n-3 has been Product quality encompasses physical mulations, while aquatic animal. modified oilseeds are not yet a commercial shown to be increased in fish fed diets aspects such as freshness and appearance, maintaining We have your per for mance in mind Terrestrial animal fats are increasingly commodity and legislative issues may need with fish oil substituted by vegetable oils and organoleptic properties, as well as sustainability recognized as safe and cost-effective lipid to be addressed before such oils can be through up-regulation of desaturase and nutritional quality, which is largely defined and profitability Chemoforma Ltd. CH-4302 Augst Switzerland sources when properly used in aquafeeds. used in aquafeeds. elongase gene expression and consequently by the n-3 LC-PUFA content. of the industry. Tel +41 61 811 33 55 Fax +41 61 811 28 03 12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010 May-June 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13 Naturally ahead Have You Experienced This In Your Elevator? Volume 13 / Issue 3 / May-June 2010 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2010 / All rights reserved BIOMIN Aqua Products For over 35 years, and in more than 50 countries, Tapco has been solving the Naturally ahead in aquaculture! problem of bent & torn steel buckets. ® STYLE CC-HD (HEAVY DUTY) Polyethylene Elevator Bucket Urethane • Nylon T apco nonmetallic buckets have the ability to absorb impact in the elevator leg and “give” or “yield” to bypass an obstruction. They then return to their original shape and keep on working for you. Tapco buckets weigh less than their pressed steel counterparts, lack sharp edges and therefore are far safer and easier to handle when fitting an elevator. 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