Maritime security in South Pacific

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					Maritime Security in South Pacific
              By: David Raja Marpaung S.IP M,Def




  David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture University of Indonesia, also Indonesia Politic and Defense Consultant.
                        Email: davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62 81219588360
                 Why South Pacific…?
The South Pacific countries area more than 30 million square kilometres,
but occupy less than two percent of that area

Twenty percent of the world’s languages and cultures exist in the Pacific
Islands, but only one per cent of the world’s population

They have rich national resources, such as mining and fishing, also farm
production

South pacific also is very interesting region in the world. It consists of
hundred islands and few big powers present at there, such as USA,
France, UK and others


                            David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                             University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                             Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                           davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
Where’s the Region..?




     David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
      University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
      Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
    davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
      The Members and Politics Affiliation
                         Island                                        Political Affiliation
American Samoa                                       USA territory
Cook Islands                                         Free association with NZ
Federates States of Micronesia                       Free association with USA
Fiji                                                 Independent
French Polynesia                                     Overseas Territory of France
Guam                                                 USA Territory
Kiribati                                             Independent
Marshall Islands                                     Free association with USA
Nauru                                                Independent
New Caledonia                                        Overseas Territory of France
Niue                                                 Self Governing in Free association with NZ
Northern Mariana Islands                             Commonwealth of the USA
Palau                                                Free association with USA
Papua New Guinea                                     Independent
Pitcairn Islands                                     Dependency of the UK
Samoa                                                Independent
Solomon Islands                                      Independent
Tokelau                                              Territory of NZ
Tonga                                                Independent
Tuvalu                                               Independent
Vanuatu                                              Independent
Wallis and Futuna                                    Overseas Territory of France
                                  David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
Australia                                            Independent
                                   University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
New Zealand                                          Independent
                                   Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                                  davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
            Recent Problems?
• This paper will explore and analyze the effort
  and cooperation to counter transnational
  crime in order to protect maritime security

• The presence of big powers in South Pacific
  also colouring the maritime security in region.
  How about the influence of big powers in
  south pacific area
                 David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                  University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                  Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
                        Tools Analysis
Barry Buzan argues that the term security consists of five dimensions:

• Military dimensions: involves the military capability/military build up of
  one state both conventional and non-conventional, military ideology,
  personnel etc.
• Political dimensions: Involves the efforts to preserve political process,
  political system, and state’s ideology.
• Economic dimension determines access to resources, market, finances
  and provide the decisive basis for political influence and military power.
• Societal dimension including cultural values is less tangible but no less
  significant for security. It provides the atmosphere in which the values will
  affect the behavior of one state in the international system.
• Environmental dimension concerns the maintenance of the planetary
  biosphere as the essential support system on which all other human
  enterprises demand.

                           David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                            University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                            Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                          davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
               SWOT Technique
• SWOT is an acronym for strength, weakness,
  opportunity, and threat.
• Strength is positive tangible and intangible attributes
  which included internal factor.
• Weakness means factors that are within an
  organization’s control that detract from its ability to
  attain the desired goal.
• Opportunity is External attractive factors that represent
  the reason for an organization to exist and develop.
• Threat is external factors, beyond an organization’s
  control, which could place the organization mission or
  operation at risk
                    David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                     University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                     Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                   davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
                             Power Matrix
•    Analyse the capability of state or region to defend against threat, and the level of
     external security threat.

                                            Presence of External Security threats
                                     High                                  Low
                       High                    1                                     4
                                        Balance of Power                       Hegemony
     Capacity                              Deterrence                      Emergence of Non-
    To Defend                           (Cold War or Cold                  traditional Security
     Against                                 Peace)                               agenda
      them
                       Low                               2                           3
                                       Small states faced by               Warm peace among
                                                major rivals:                  democracies
                                             Insecurity and
                                David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture     Isolated small states
                                 University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                                                vulnerability
                                 Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                               davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
                5 Dimension Analysis
Political       Economical       Social                    Environment   Military
1. Internal     1. High cost     1. Conflict               1. Marine     1. Strengthen
violence        economy          getting warm              hazard           their
2. Corruption   2. Slow          easily                                     maritime
3. Political    economic         2. Number of                               forces
instability     growth           people with                                through
                3. Economical    the HIV/AIDS                               patrol boat
                instability      increase                                2. PTCCC
                                 3. Criminal                             3. TCU
                                 number also
                                 getting higher
                                 and often
                                 horrified

                          David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                           University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                           Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                         davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
                       SWOT Analysis
Strength             Weakness                  Opportunity            Threat
1. South Pacific     1. Destabilize            1. Exclusive           1. Drug
is rich of natural   political                 Economic Zone          trafficking
resources            condition                 (EEZ)                  2. Illegal
2. Comprises a       2. Very                   2. Geographical        migration and
lot of nation        dependent to the          Position               people
states               other country             3. Regional            smuggling
                                               Cooperation            3. Illegal,
                                                                      unregulated, and
                                                                      unreported
                                                                      fishing


                           David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                            University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                            Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                          davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
        Cooperation Against Threat
• The PTCCC
Pacific Islands Forum at June 2004 establish the Pacific Transnational Crime
   Coordination Centre (PTCCC). The PTCCC was originally located in Suva
   (Fiji) but moved to Apia (Samoa) in 2008. PTCCC roles:
• To provide a proactive transnational criminal intelligence capability to
   Pacific Region Law Enforcement Agencies
• Management and coordination of intelligence generated by TCU Unit
• To facilitate and enhance the exchange of law enforcement intelligence
   throughout the Pacific Region
• Engagement with broader Pacific Law Enforcement Agencies-Customs,
   Immigration & Police


                           David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                            University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                            Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                          davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
 David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
  University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
  Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
• FFA
Forum Fisheries Agency broadened its focus in recent times and recognizes it
   has a wider role to play in maritime security
• The vessel monitoring system (VMS) by FFA with an Automatic Location
   Communicator (ALC), which sends a signal (via satellite) to FFA. Any
   foreign fishing vessel that wishes to apply for a licence to fish in waters of
   an FFA member


• RMP under the Pacific Community
The Regional Maritime Programme (RMP) works with the maritime sector of
   countries and territories to review and update maritime legislation and
   facilitate training to ensure that all seafarers meet required qualifications
   and standards




                             David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                              University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                              Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                            davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
• Vehicle Support under South Pacific Forum
The PICs response capability is mainly provided by the patrol boats supplied by
   Australia Twenty-two boats have now been donated by Australia to twelve
   recipient countries. These vessels have a length of 31.5 metres, a top
   speed of 21 knots, a range of 2,500 miles (at 12 knots and nil fuel
   remaining) and a complement of 17




                           David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                            University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                            Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                          davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
Presence of Big Powers




      David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
       University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
       Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
     davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
United States
The United States is a key stakeholder in maritime security in the Pacific
   through the Territory of Guam, its Territory of American Samoa and the
   Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas and its Compacts of Free
   Association with the former US Trust Territories of Micronesia: Palau,
   Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and the Marshall Islands.

The US Navy and US Coast Guard (USCG) have provided assistance with air
   surveillance and occasional visits by USCG cutters have provided the
   opportunity for training assistance to local maritime security forces

The Joint Interagency Task Force West (JIATF West), based in Hawaii, plays
   an important role in fostering intelligence collection special eport and
   maritime security cooperation in the Pacific.




                           David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                            University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                            Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                          davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
• France
France has the overseas collectivises of New Caledonia, French Polynesia and
   Wallis and Futuna. The French Navy provides some air surveillance
   support, especially to Vanuatu and in the southern Solomon, around French
   Polynesia and a small effort in the Cook Islands. The French navy has a
   couple of deployments each year from their tier two ships staying within a
   1500NM radius (approx) of their operating bases.

• China
China is becoming much more actively involved in the PICs, particularly
  in the two largest regional countries, Papua New Guinea and Fiji. It
  has wiped out all PIC debt of about US$700 million over three years
  and built facilities in Tonga for the Forum Leaders’ meeting in
  October 2007. While much of this activity is ‘cheque book’ diplomacy
  to counter Taiwanese influence


                           David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                            University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                            Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                          davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
• Japan
Japan is one country with a major stake in the region but so far has not been
   involved in cooperative arrangements to any great extent despite having
   significant skills and resources to assist in capacity building for regional
   maritime security. Through the Japan Coast Guard, Japan has been very
   active in Southeast Asia in assisting to build the capacity of countries in that
   region to deal with piracy and the threat of maritime terrorism


• Taiwan
Taiwan has diplomatic relations with Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau,
   Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. Taiwan holds regular regional naval visits to
   those recognizing it (two frigate/destroyer size vessels and one
   replenishment vessel). They have had coastguard-type vessels apparently
   on patrol from time to time in the EEZs of some of the Micronesian states




                             David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                              University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                              Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                            davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
    Power Relation in Security Cooperation

• Inter South Pacific
                          Hegemony




              Australia and                                Pacific
              New Zealand                                  Island
                                                        Countries




                  David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                   University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                   Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                 davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
• South Pacific Countries and External Powers
                      Balance of Powers




          South Pacific Countries                       Big Power Countries




                     David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                      University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                      Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                    davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
• Pacific Island Countries and External Powers
              Insecurity/ Vulnerability


                          Big Power Countries



                            Pacific Island
                             Countries




                 David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                  University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                  Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
                    Recommendation
•   PTCCC should broadening its function, not just as sharing in information
    and intelligence, but also regional act and arrest right
•   South Pacific Countries should establish strong maritime regional
    coordination through all regional organizations
•   Coastal patrol vessel need to be operated by the PICs at a national level in
    order to decrease dependency to the big power countries
•   Australia should consider giving more support through AusAID to support
    development of maritime security system in south pacific region
•   There should be more balances of power in south pacific area, so the
    capability of each country to counter threat or transnational crime becomes
    better




                            David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
                             University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
                             Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
                           davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62
 David Raja Marpaung. Associate Lecture
  University of Indonesia, also Indonesia
  Politic and Defense Consultant. Email:
davidrajamarpaung@gmail.com Phoe: +62

				
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