On Infant and Young Child Feeding

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					                                      I N N O C E N T I D E C L A R AT I O N 2 0 0 5
                                                                   On Infant and Young Child Feeding

I
   n the 15 years since the adoption of the original       Challenges remain: poverty, the HIV pandemic,                       • Implement the HIV and Infant Feeding – Framework           practise optimal breastfeeding and
   Innocenti Declaration in 1990, remarkable               natural and human-made emergencies, globalisation,                    for Priority Action, including protecting, promoting       complementary feeding.
   progress has been made in improving infant              environmental contamination, health systems investing                 and supporting breastfeeding for the general           •   Ensure that all mothers are aware of their rights
and young child feeding practices worldwide.               primarily in curative rather than preventive services,                population while providing counselling and support         and have access to support, information and
                                                           gender inequities and women’s increasing rates                        for HIV-positive women.                                    counselling in breastfeeding and complementary
Nevertheless, inappropriate feeding practices –            of employment outside the home, including in the                                                                                 feeding from health workers and peer groups.
sub-optimal or no breastfeeding and inadequate             non-formal sector. These challenges must be addressed               All governments                                          •   Establish sustainable systems for monitoring
complementary feeding – remain the greatest                to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and the                 • Establish or strengthen national infant and young          infant and young child feeding patterns and
threat to child health and survival globally.              aims of the Millennium Declaration and for the vision                 child feeding and breastfeeding authorities,               trends and use this information for advocacy
Improved breastfeeding alone could save the lives of       set out above to become reality for all children.                     coordinating committees and oversight groups               and programming.
more than 3,500 children every day, more than any                                                                                that are free from commercial influence and            •   Encourage the media to provide positive images
other preventive intervention.                             The targets of the 1990 Innocenti Declaration and                     other conflicts of interest.                               of optimal infant and young child feeding,
                                                           the 2002 Global Strategy for Infant and Young                       • Revitalise the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative           to support breastfeeding as the norm, and to
Guided by accepted human rights principles,                Child Feeding remain the foundation for action.                       (BFHI), maintaining the Global Criteria as the             participate in social mobilisation activities such
especially those embodied in the Convention on the         While remarkable progress has been made,                              minimum requirement for all facilities, expanding          as World Breastfeeding Week.
Rights of the Child, our vision is of an environment       much more needs to be done.                                           the Initiative’s application to include maternity,     •   Take measures to protect populations, especially
that enables mothers, families and other caregivers                                                                              neonatal and child health services and community-          pregnant and breastfeeding mothers, from
to make informed decisions about optimal feeding,          We therefore issue this Call for Action so that:                      based support for lactating women and caregivers           environmental contaminants and chemical
which is defined as exclusive breastfeeding1 for six                                                                             of young children.                                         residues.
months followed by the introduction of appropriate         All parties                                                         • Implement all provisions of the International          •   Identify and allocate sufficient resources to fully
complementary feeding and continuation of                  • Empower women in their own right, and as mothers                    Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes               implement actions called for in the Global
breastfeeding for up to two years of age or beyond.           and providers of breastfeeding support and                         and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly              Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding.
Achieving this vision requires skilled practical support      information to other women.                                        resolutions in their entirety as a minimum             •   Monitor progress in appropriate infant and
to arrive at the highest attainable standard of health     • Support breastfeeding as the norm for feeding infants               requirement, and establish sustainable enforcement         young child feeding practices and report
and development for infants and young children, which         and young children.                                                mechanisms to prevent and/or address                       periodically, including as provided in the
is the universally recognised right of every child.        • Highlight the risks of artificial feeding and the                   non-compliance.                                            Convention on the Rights of the Child.
                                                              implications for health and development throughout               • Adopt maternity protection legislation and other
                                                              the life course.                                                   measures that facilitate six months of exclusive       All manufacturers and distributors of products
    W       e who are assembled in Florence, Italy,
            on this Twenty-Second Day of November
    2005 to celebrate the 15 th Anniversary of the
                                                           • Ensure the health and nutritional status of women
                                                              throughout all stages of life.
                                                                                                                                 breastfeeding for women employed in all sectors,
                                                                                                                                 with urgent attention to the non-formal sector.
                                                                                                                                                                                        within the scope of the International Code
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Ensure full compliance with all provisions of
                                                           • Protect breastfeeding in emergencies, including by                • Ensure that appropriate guidelines and skill              the International Code and subsequent relevant
    Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion
                                                              supporting uninterrupted breastfeeding and                         acquisition regarding infant and young child feeding      World Health Assembly resolutions in all
    and Support of Breastfeeding declare that these
                                                              appropriate complementary feeding, and avoiding                    are included in both pre-service and in-service           countries, independently of any other measures
    actions are urgent and necessary to ensure the
                                                              general distribution of breast-milk substitutes.                   training of all health care staff, to enable them to      taken to implement the Code.
    best start in life for our children, for the
                                                                                                                                 implement infant and young child feeding policies      • Ensure that all processed foods for infants and
    achievement of the Millennium Development
                                                                                                                                 and to provide a high standard of breastfeeding           young children meet applicable Codex
    Goals by 2015, and for the realisation of the
                                                           1. Exclusive breastfeeding means that no other drink or food is       management and counseling to support mothers to           Alimentarius standards.
    human rights of present and future generations.           given to the infant; the infant should feed frequently and for
                                                              unrestricted periods.
                                                                      The Global Strategy                           The Innocenti Declaration 2005 was adopted by participants at
                                                              for Infant and Young Child Feeding                    the event, “Celebrating Innocenti 1990-2005: Achievements,
                                                              OPERATIONAL TARGETS

                                                          Four operational targets from the 1990
                                                                                                                    Challenges and Future Imperatives”, held on 22 November 2005,
                                                                                                                    in Italy, co-organised by the following organisations:                      INNOCENTI
Multilateral and bilateral organisations and
                                                          Innocenti Declaration:
                                                          1. Appoint a national breastfeeding coordinator with
                                                             appropriate authority, and establish a multisectoral
                                                                                                                                                                                               DECLARATION
international financial institutions
• Recognise that optimal breastfeeding and comple-
   mentary feeding are essential to achieving the
                                                             national breastfeeding committee composed
                                                             of representatives from relevant government
                                                             departments, non-governmental organisations,
                                                                                                                                                                                                   2005
                                                             and health professional associations.                  The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
   long-term physical, intellectual and emotional
                                                          2. Ensure that every facility providing maternity
   health of all populations and therefore the attain-       services fully practises all the “Ten steps to
   ment of the Millennium Development Goals and              successful breastfeeding” set out in the WHO/
   other development initiatives and that inappropriate      UNICEF statement on breastfeeding and maternity                                                                                        On Infant
   feeding practices and their consequences                  services.
   are major obstacles to poverty reduction and           3. Give effect to the principles and aim of the
                                                             International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk
                                                                                                                                                                                                 and Young Child
   sustainable socio-economic development.
• Identify and budget for sufficient financial
                                                             Substitutes and subsequent relevant Health
                                                             Assembly resolutions in their entirety.
                                                                                                                           International Lactation
                                                                                                                          Consultants Association                                                    Feeding
   resources and expertise to support governments         4. Enact imaginative legislation protecting
   in formulating, implementing, monitoring and              the breastfeeding rights of working women
   evaluating their policies and programmes on               and establish means for its enforcement.
   optimal infant and young child feeding, including      Five additional operational targets:
   revitalising the BFHI.                                 5. Develop, implement, monitor and evaluate a
• Increase technical guidance and support for                comprehensive policy on infant and young child
   national capacity building in all the target areas        feeding, in the context of national policies and
                                                             programmes for nutrition, child and reproductive
   set forth in the Global Strategy for Infant and
                                                             health, and poverty reduction.
   Young Child Feeding.
                                                          6. Ensure that the health and other relevant sectors
• Support operational research to fill information           protect, promote and support exclusive breastfeeding
   gaps and improve programming.                             for six months and continued breastfeeding up to
• Encourage the inclusion of programmes to                   two years of age or beyond, while providing women
   improve breastfeeding and complementary                   access to the support they require – in the family,
                                                             community and workplace – to achieve this goal.
   feeding in poverty-reduction strategies and health
                                                          7. Promote timely, adequate, safe and appropriate
   sector development plans.                                                                                                 World Alliance for
                                                             complementary feeding with continued                           Breastfeeding Action
                                                             breastfeeding.
Public interest non-governmental organisations
                                                          8. Provide guidance on feeding infants and young
• Give greater priority to protecting, promoting and         children in exceptionally difficult circumstances,     Further information can be obtained from:
  supporting optimal feeding practices, including            and on the related support required by mothers,        • Innocenti +15 www.innocenti15.net • ABM www.bfmed.org
  relevant training of health and community                  families and other caregivers.                         • ILCA        www.ilca.org              • LLLI www.llli.org
  workers, and increase effectiveness through             9. Consider what new legislation or other suitable        • IBFAN       www.ibfan.org/site2005/ (Code Watch, The Reports)                22 November 2005
  cooperation and mutual support.                            measures may be required, as part of a                 • UNICEF UNICEF Adviser, Infant Feeding, smhossain@unicef.org                    Florence, Italy
                                                             comprehensive policy on infant and young child                       www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_breastfeeding.html
• Draw attention to activities which are                                                                            • WHO         Department of Nutrition for Health and Development,
                                                             feeding, to give effect to the principles and aim of
  incompatible with the Code’s principles and aim            the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk                   nutrition@who.int, http://www.who.int/nutrition
  so that violations can be effectively addressed in         Substitutes and to subsequent relevant                               Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development,
                                                                                                                                  cah@who.int, www.who.int/child.adolescent.health
  accordance with national legislation, regulations          Health Assembly resolutions.
                                                                                                                    • WABA        www.waba.org.my/innocenti15.htm
  or other suitable measures.