I N N O C E N T I D E C L A R AT I O N 2 0 0 5
On Infant and Young Child Feeding
n the 15 years since the adoption of the original Challenges remain: poverty, the HIV pandemic, • Implement the HIV and Infant Feeding – Framework practise optimal breastfeeding and
Innocenti Declaration in 1990, remarkable natural and human-made emergencies, globalisation, for Priority Action, including protecting, promoting complementary feeding.
progress has been made in improving infant environmental contamination, health systems investing and supporting breastfeeding for the general • Ensure that all mothers are aware of their rights
and young child feeding practices worldwide. primarily in curative rather than preventive services, population while providing counselling and support and have access to support, information and
gender inequities and women’s increasing rates for HIV-positive women. counselling in breastfeeding and complementary
Nevertheless, inappropriate feeding practices – of employment outside the home, including in the feeding from health workers and peer groups.
sub-optimal or no breastfeeding and inadequate non-formal sector. These challenges must be addressed All governments • Establish sustainable systems for monitoring
complementary feeding – remain the greatest to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and the • Establish or strengthen national infant and young infant and young child feeding patterns and
threat to child health and survival globally. aims of the Millennium Declaration and for the vision child feeding and breastfeeding authorities, trends and use this information for advocacy
Improved breastfeeding alone could save the lives of set out above to become reality for all children. coordinating committees and oversight groups and programming.
more than 3,500 children every day, more than any that are free from commercial influence and • Encourage the media to provide positive images
other preventive intervention. The targets of the 1990 Innocenti Declaration and other conflicts of interest. of optimal infant and young child feeding,
the 2002 Global Strategy for Infant and Young • Revitalise the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative to support breastfeeding as the norm, and to
Guided by accepted human rights principles, Child Feeding remain the foundation for action. (BFHI), maintaining the Global Criteria as the participate in social mobilisation activities such
especially those embodied in the Convention on the While remarkable progress has been made, minimum requirement for all facilities, expanding as World Breastfeeding Week.
Rights of the Child, our vision is of an environment much more needs to be done. the Initiative’s application to include maternity, • Take measures to protect populations, especially
that enables mothers, families and other caregivers neonatal and child health services and community- pregnant and breastfeeding mothers, from
to make informed decisions about optimal feeding, We therefore issue this Call for Action so that: based support for lactating women and caregivers environmental contaminants and chemical
which is defined as exclusive breastfeeding1 for six of young children. residues.
months followed by the introduction of appropriate All parties • Implement all provisions of the International • Identify and allocate sufficient resources to fully
complementary feeding and continuation of • Empower women in their own right, and as mothers Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes implement actions called for in the Global
breastfeeding for up to two years of age or beyond. and providers of breastfeeding support and and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding.
Achieving this vision requires skilled practical support information to other women. resolutions in their entirety as a minimum • Monitor progress in appropriate infant and
to arrive at the highest attainable standard of health • Support breastfeeding as the norm for feeding infants requirement, and establish sustainable enforcement young child feeding practices and report
and development for infants and young children, which and young children. mechanisms to prevent and/or address periodically, including as provided in the
is the universally recognised right of every child. • Highlight the risks of artificial feeding and the non-compliance. Convention on the Rights of the Child.
implications for health and development throughout • Adopt maternity protection legislation and other
the life course. measures that facilitate six months of exclusive All manufacturers and distributors of products
W e who are assembled in Florence, Italy,
on this Twenty-Second Day of November
2005 to celebrate the 15 th Anniversary of the
• Ensure the health and nutritional status of women
throughout all stages of life.
breastfeeding for women employed in all sectors,
with urgent attention to the non-formal sector.
within the scope of the International Code
• Ensure full compliance with all provisions of
• Protect breastfeeding in emergencies, including by • Ensure that appropriate guidelines and skill the International Code and subsequent relevant
Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion
supporting uninterrupted breastfeeding and acquisition regarding infant and young child feeding World Health Assembly resolutions in all
and Support of Breastfeeding declare that these
appropriate complementary feeding, and avoiding are included in both pre-service and in-service countries, independently of any other measures
actions are urgent and necessary to ensure the
general distribution of breast-milk substitutes. training of all health care staff, to enable them to taken to implement the Code.
best start in life for our children, for the
implement infant and young child feeding policies • Ensure that all processed foods for infants and
achievement of the Millennium Development
and to provide a high standard of breastfeeding young children meet applicable Codex
Goals by 2015, and for the realisation of the
1. Exclusive breastfeeding means that no other drink or food is management and counseling to support mothers to Alimentarius standards.
human rights of present and future generations. given to the infant; the infant should feed frequently and for
The Global Strategy The Innocenti Declaration 2005 was adopted by participants at
for Infant and Young Child Feeding the event, “Celebrating Innocenti 1990-2005: Achievements,
Four operational targets from the 1990
Challenges and Future Imperatives”, held on 22 November 2005,
in Italy, co-organised by the following organisations: INNOCENTI
Multilateral and bilateral organisations and
1. Appoint a national breastfeeding coordinator with
appropriate authority, and establish a multisectoral
international financial institutions
• Recognise that optimal breastfeeding and comple-
mentary feeding are essential to achieving the
national breastfeeding committee composed
of representatives from relevant government
departments, non-governmental organisations,
and health professional associations. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
long-term physical, intellectual and emotional
2. Ensure that every facility providing maternity
health of all populations and therefore the attain- services fully practises all the “Ten steps to
ment of the Millennium Development Goals and successful breastfeeding” set out in the WHO/
other development initiatives and that inappropriate UNICEF statement on breastfeeding and maternity On Infant
feeding practices and their consequences services.
are major obstacles to poverty reduction and 3. Give effect to the principles and aim of the
International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk
and Young Child
sustainable socio-economic development.
• Identify and budget for sufficient financial
Substitutes and subsequent relevant Health
Assembly resolutions in their entirety.
Consultants Association Feeding
resources and expertise to support governments 4. Enact imaginative legislation protecting
in formulating, implementing, monitoring and the breastfeeding rights of working women
evaluating their policies and programmes on and establish means for its enforcement.
optimal infant and young child feeding, including Five additional operational targets:
revitalising the BFHI. 5. Develop, implement, monitor and evaluate a
• Increase technical guidance and support for comprehensive policy on infant and young child
national capacity building in all the target areas feeding, in the context of national policies and
programmes for nutrition, child and reproductive
set forth in the Global Strategy for Infant and
health, and poverty reduction.
Young Child Feeding.
6. Ensure that the health and other relevant sectors
• Support operational research to fill information protect, promote and support exclusive breastfeeding
gaps and improve programming. for six months and continued breastfeeding up to
• Encourage the inclusion of programmes to two years of age or beyond, while providing women
improve breastfeeding and complementary access to the support they require – in the family,
community and workplace – to achieve this goal.
feeding in poverty-reduction strategies and health
7. Promote timely, adequate, safe and appropriate
sector development plans. World Alliance for
complementary feeding with continued Breastfeeding Action
Public interest non-governmental organisations
8. Provide guidance on feeding infants and young
• Give greater priority to protecting, promoting and children in exceptionally difficult circumstances, Further information can be obtained from:
supporting optimal feeding practices, including and on the related support required by mothers, • Innocenti +15 www.innocenti15.net • ABM www.bfmed.org
relevant training of health and community families and other caregivers. • ILCA www.ilca.org • LLLI www.llli.org
workers, and increase effectiveness through 9. Consider what new legislation or other suitable • IBFAN www.ibfan.org/site2005/ (Code Watch, The Reports) 22 November 2005
cooperation and mutual support. measures may be required, as part of a • UNICEF UNICEF Adviser, Infant Feeding, email@example.com Florence, Italy
comprehensive policy on infant and young child www.unicef.org/nutrition/index_breastfeeding.html
• Draw attention to activities which are • WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development,
feeding, to give effect to the principles and aim of
incompatible with the Code’s principles and aim the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk firstname.lastname@example.org, http://www.who.int/nutrition
so that violations can be effectively addressed in Substitutes and to subsequent relevant Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development,
accordance with national legislation, regulations Health Assembly resolutions.
• WABA www.waba.org.my/innocenti15.htm
or other suitable measures.