Self-Service Effectiveness It's All About the Users

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					          Strategic Consulting for
     Next-Generation Customer Support




Self-Service Effectiveness:
   It’s All About the Users

HDI 2005 Annual Conference
      March 9, 2005
Topics
        • Employee self-help benefits and challenges

        • Best practices for self-service usability:
          User-Centered Design

        • Unique requirements for technical support
          and the help desk

        • Delivering the right knowledge to users




Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support   www.dbkay.com
About DB Kay & Associates                              www.dbkay.com

    • High-technology support / help desk focus
          – Knowledge management
          – Self-service
          – Communities and collaboration

    • Recognized leader
          –   Consortium for Service Innovation “Innovator” Award, 2003
          –   Help Desk Institute—Certified Trainer, Knowledge-Centered Support
          –   Help Desk Institute—Certified Help Desk Manager
          –   Frequent Speaker, Service and Support Professionals Association

    • Packaged offerings
          – Knowledge Management assessments
          – Requirements development; vendor selection
          – HDI Knowledge-Centered Support training and adoption consulting



Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support      www.dbkay.com
Effective Self-Service
      • Benefits
             –   Avoided help desks calls / incidents
             –   Improved enterprise employee productivity
             –   Reduced spikes from new initiatives and system roll-outs
             –   Better insights for problem management
             –   Increased employee satisfaction / demonstrated value

      • To be managed
             – Lower FCR / Higher AHT for help desk (easy calls are gone!)
             – Increased demand (people think you’re great!)

      • Barriers
             –   Content usability, findability, relevance
             –   The telephone habit
             –   Lack of one-stop shopping
             –   Must work the first time


Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support          www.dbkay.com
Creating Effective Customer Service Sites
     • The Result
           –   Users accomplish tasks…
           –   Fewest clicks, time
           –   Least aggravation
           –   No uncertainty (“scent”)
           –   In their own styles

     • The Process
           – Starts with the users
             (personae; task-based design)
           – Connects users and tasks with
             resources and tools
           – Prototype; test early and often
           – Includes an ongoing knowledge process

Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support    www.dbkay.com
Service Websites Need Scent

        • Information foraging theory
              – Peter Pirolli, Xerox PARC
              – Jared Spool, User Interface Engineering

        • Scent: increasing confidence with every step
              – Links, actions set expectations
              – Results meet expectations
              – Next choices: closer to the goal

        • Website “deodorizers”
              – Mismatch between designer, user perspective
                (e.g., websites based on organization charts)
              – Abstract, one dimensional information architecture
              – Overchoice
              – Traditional search: the speakeasy, then game over


Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support       www.dbkay.com
Good or Bad Scent?




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                                                         QuickTime™ and a
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             QuickTime™ and a
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Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support        www.dbkay.com
Good or Bad Scent?




                                          QuickTime™ and a
                                      TIFF (LZW) decompressor
                                   are needed to see this picture.




Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support               www.dbkay.com
Good or Bad Scent?




                                          QuickTime™ and a
                                      TIFF (LZW) decompressor
                                   are needed to see this picture.




Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support           www.dbkay.com
What’s Different About Help Desk Support?
                                   Customer Service               Help Desk
  Content                  Primarily unstructured web Primarily solutions from a
                           pages, dynamic URLs        knowledge base,
                                                      augmented by all forms of
                                                      collateral information
  User                     Has an idea what is             Knows that something
  Capability               needed; may use                 should be different; knows
                           consistent ways of              some parts of the
                           expressing these needs          environment; may be able
                                                           to express symptom or
                                                           activity.
                          Knows what he needs;              Doesn’t know what
                           may know what he                 he needs; doesn’t
                              doesn’t know                    know what he
                                                              doesn’t know
Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support           www.dbkay.com
Technical Support Requirements: Content

        • Task-driven access to content and tools
              – IT vendor and licensed content
              – Internally developed content
              – Password reset and service request tools


        • Easy authoring
              – Suggest or capture in the workflow:
                Support for HDI’s Knowledge-Centered Support
              – Gap analysis
              – No manual tagging or structuring!


        • Automated structuring of unstructured content

Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support    www.dbkay.com
Why KCS?

   With KCS, content is:

   • In the user’s own words
     and context
   • Continuously created                                    QuickTime™ and a
                                                   TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
                                                      are needed to see this picture.
   • Continuously improved
   • Timely
   • Structured for reuse




Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support   www.dbkay.com
Technical Support Requirements: Search

         • Diagnostic process
               – Understanding environments, changes, root causes, etc.
               – Eliciting observables
               – Uncovering root causes

         • Suggested alternatives for users
               – (Same as a good help desk analyst)
               – Getting more information for precise filtering
               – Loosening constraints for recall

         • Dynamic, not hard-coded
               – Users start at many places
               – A static model can’t scale
               – Learning from each interaction


Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support     www.dbkay.com
Technical Support Site Navigation Is All Of

        • Proactive, personalized content delivery
              – Problem avoidance
              – Find once, fix many

        • Task specific work areas

        • Integrated assisted / self-service workflows

        • Search for diagnosis
              – Can constrain by task, environment, product

        • One-shot or “Expert” search

        • Browse / Information architecture

            Each user gets only the appropriate affordances
Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support      www.dbkay.com
What Should You Expect Users to Tell You?

        YES                                       NO
        Their task                                If they need Break-fix vs. How-to
        If a content source is relevant           What content sources they need
        The core product experiencing the         The product at the root cause of the
        exception                                 exception
        The sub-product (model number)            The component inside the product
        Confirm/deny specific symptom             Confirm/deny abstract symptom class
        Their current activity                    Recent changes
        Clicks                                    Pull-downs, radio buttons, check boxes
        Possibly relevant words, specific codes   Meaningful natural language text
        Document relevance based on relevant Document relevance based on title or first
        summary (e.g., Google)               paragraph



Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support          www.dbkay.com
The Task-Based Design Process

        1. Identify the user classes (“personnae”)
        2. Identify tasks for each personna
        3. Prioritize tasks
              – No click
              – One-click
              – Search / navigate
        4. Evaluate for scent
        5. Test early and often
              – Screens only
              – Dynamic system
        6. Evolve and improve
              – Content
              – Experience



Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support    www.dbkay.com
Self-Service Effectiveness: It’s All About the Users

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Strategic Consulting for
Next-Generation Customer Support   www.dbkay.com