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									PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL
  WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY

           (CONTRACT NO. 2005/24/A/P/LT)




      PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY

                     VOLUME I




                        Supplier:




            KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
              K. DONELAIČIO STR. 73, KAUNAS
PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY




PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION
                     PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY
                  (CONTRACT NO. 2005/24/A/P/LT)




                           PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY


                                    VOLUME I




  Contracting Authority:            Environmental Projects Management Agency
  Supplier:                         Kaunas University of Technology

  Date of submission:               12 August 2006
  Project manager:                  Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gintaras Denafas
                                    ..................................




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      KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
  PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY




                                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................ 5
PROJECT SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................... 6
1. BASELINE DATA...................................................................................................................................................... 12
    1.1. REVIEW OF LEGAL ACTS GOVERNING THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE ....................... 12
       1.1.1 General legislation governing waste management......................................................................................... 12
       1.1.2 Legislation governing waste incineration ...................................................................................................... 15
       1.1.6. Review of legislation regulating the use of the EU aid in the period of 2007-2013...................................... 20
       1.1.7. Review of legislation governing the regulation and setting of heat and electricity prices ............................ 21
    1.2. ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK .................................................................. 21
       1.2.1 Identification of waste management regions .................................................................................................. 21
       1.2.2. Assessment of geographical peculiarities of waste management regions ..................................................... 23
            1.2.2.1. Vilnius region ...........................................................................................................................................................23
            1.2.2.2 Kaunas region ............................................................................................................................................................24
            1.2.2.3 Alytus region .............................................................................................................................................................24
            1.2.2.4. Marijampol region...................................................................................................................................................25
            1.2.2.5. Utena region..............................................................................................................................................................25
            1.2.2.6. Panev žys region ......................................................................................................................................................26
            1.2.2.7. Šiauliai region...........................................................................................................................................................27
            1.2.2.8. Telšiai region ............................................................................................................................................................27
            1.2.2.9. Taurag region ..........................................................................................................................................................28
            1.2.2.10. Klaip da region.......................................................................................................................................................28
        1.2.3. Assessment of current institutional framework ............................................................................................. 29
            1.2.3.1 Vilnius region ............................................................................................................................................................29
            1.2.3.2. Kaunas region ...........................................................................................................................................................36
            1.2.3.3. Alytus region ............................................................................................................................................................42
            1.2.3.4. Marijampol region...................................................................................................................................................45
            1.2.3.5. Utena region..............................................................................................................................................................48
            1.2.3.6. Panev žys region ......................................................................................................................................................53
            1.2.3.7. Šiauliai region...........................................................................................................................................................58
            1.2.3.8. Telšiai region ............................................................................................................................................................62
            1.2.3.9 Taurag region ...........................................................................................................................................................65
            1.2.3.10. Klaip da region.......................................................................................................................................................68
        1.2.4. Present waste streams and treatment ............................................................................................................ 72
            1.2.4.1. General evaluation of municipal waste streams ........................................................................................................72
            1.2.4.2. Optimization of municipal waste generation indicators............................................................................................73
            1.2.4.3. Municipal waste composition and its optimisation ...................................................................................................75
            1.2.4.4. Calculation of municipal waste streams....................................................................................................................76
        1.2.5. The assessment of the tariff, fee and charge system ...................................................................................... 76
2. FORECASTS OF WASTE GENERATION AND COMPOSITION..................................................................... 81
    2.1. THE METHODS OF FORECAST PERFORMANCE .......................................................................................................... 81
    2.2. INDICATORS USED IN WASTE GENERATION FORECASTS ...................................................................... 83
    2.3. FORECASTS OF WASTE GENERATION AND COMPOSITION ......................................................................................... 91
3. IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS ..................................................................... 106
    3.1. ASSESSMENT OF PREREQUISITES AND PRECONDITIONS ......................................................................................... 106
       3.1.1. Assessment of energy indicators of regions................................................................................................. 106
            3.1.1.1. Electricity production and consumption in Lithuania .............................................................................................106
            3.1.1.2. Assessment of heat production and consumption in Lithuania ...............................................................................108
            3.1.1.3. Assessment of heat production in Vilnius city........................................................................................................108
            3.1.1.4. Assessment of heat production in Kaunas City.......................................................................................................109
            3.1.1.5. Assessment of heat production in Šiauliai City.......................................................................................................113
            3.1.1.6. Assessment of heat production in Klaip da City ....................................................................................................114
        3.1.2. Assessment of possible waste treatment technologies ................................................................................. 120
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              KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
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      3.1.2.1. Anaerobic digestion ................................................................................................................................................120
      3.1.2.2. Composting.............................................................................................................................................................127
      3.1.2.3. Aerobic mechanical-biological treatment ...............................................................................................................130
      3.1.2.4. Anaerobic mechanical-biological treatment............................................................................................................139
      3.1.2.5. Incineration .............................................................................................................................................................142
      3.1.2.6. Disposal in landfills ................................................................................................................................................150
3.2. SELECTION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS .............................................................................. 156
   3.2.1. Generation and collection of municipal waste in 2010, 2013 and 2020 ..................................................... 156
   3.2.2. Alternatives of applying municipal waste treatment technologies in regions ............................................. 157
   3.2.3. Strategic assessment of the long list of the municipal waste management scenarios.................................. 171
      3.2.3.1. Assessment of the Zero macroscenario...................................................................................................................173
      3.2.3.2. Assessment of the Minimum A macroscenario.......................................................................................................174
      3.2.3.3. Assessment of the Minimum B macroscenario.......................................................................................................176
      3.2.3.4. Assessment of the Medium macroscenario .............................................................................................................177
      3.2.3.5. Assessment of the Maximum A scenario................................................................................................................179
      3.2.3.6. Assessment of the Maximum B scenario ................................................................................................................180
   3.2.4. Technical characteristics of the short list’s scenarios ................................................................................ 181
      3.2.4.1. Characteristics of the Medium scenario considerations ..........................................................................................182
      3.2.4.2. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario considerations ...................................................................................192
      3.2.4.3. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario considerations ...................................................................................194
      3.2.4.4. Capacities of waste incineration plants and produced energy amounts...................................................................196
      3.2.4.5. Waste stream management schemes for scenarios and regions...............................................................................196




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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY




                                     INTRODUCTION

        In November 2005, Kaunas University of Technology won a tender to implement the project
“Preparation of Documentation for Municipal Waste Incineration Pre-feasibility Study”.
On 12 December 2005, Contract No. 2005/24/A/P/LT was signed between Kaunas University of
Technology and the Lithuanian Republic Ministry of the Environment Environmental Projects
Management Agency (APVA). Implementation of the Contract is financed from EU Cohesion Fund
and the state budget.
   The objectives of the project:
   - to prepare a technical and economic pre-feasibility study for the designing of the municipal
       waste management system in Lithuania, whose integral part is waste incineration;
   - to carry out a strategic environmental assessment of the proposed waste management sys-
       tem, based on the results of this study.

       Volume I of this project pre-feasibility study version covers:
   -   an overview of legislation governing the municipal waste management and disposal;
   -   assessment of current institutional structures regulating municipal waste handling;
   -   a forecast of municipal waste generation.

       Volume II of this project pre-feasibility study version covers:
   -   waste management scenarios and their justification;
   -   financial and economic appraisal of the municipal waste management alternativess;
   -   sensitivity analysis;
   -   selection of sites for waste treatment/disposal facilities;
   -   assessment of organizational framework scenarios;
   -   a plan for further development of the municipal waste management systems in Lithuania;
   -   conclusions.

       The project of the pre-feasibility study was worked out by:

       Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gintaras Denafas, Leader of Experts’ Team;
       Assoc. Prof. Dr. Viktoras Račys, Expert in Environment Protection;
       Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kęstutis Buinevičius, Technical Expert;
       Algimantas Venckus, Expert in Finance/Economist;
       Ingrida Rimaityt , Additional Expert;
       Assoc. Prof. Dr. Linas Kliučininkas, Additional Expert;
       Dr. Dainius Martuzevičius, Additional Expert;
       Inga Kavaliauskait , Additional Expert;
       Inga Urniežait , Additional Expert;
       Assoc. Prof. Dr. Egidijus Puida, Ancillary Expert;




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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY




                                    PROJECT SUMMARY

         1. Baseline data
         Chapter 1.1 of the pre-feasibility study first of all presents an overview of legislation regu-
lating the municipal waste management and disposal. All this legislation was analyzed within the
cope of the project objectives, i.e. to prepare a technical and economic pre-feasibility study for the
designing of the municipal waste management system in Lithuania, whose integral part is waste
incineration, and to carry out a strategic environmental assessment of the proposed waste manage-
ment system, based on the results of this study. Taking into consideration the fact that such issues as
waste incineration, recovery of biogases from biodegradable waste and recovery of landfill gases
are connecting links of the waste management and energy systems, several legal acts relating to en-
ergy were analyzed within the same scope.
         Since the majority of proposals given in this project can be implemented by using funds
from the Cohesion Fund, chapter 1.1 analyzed Strategy of the Cohesion Fund for 2004–2006.
When implementing these proposals, i.e. constructing waste incineration plants, installing biode-
gradable waste treatment systems in the territories of regional landfills etc., the Lithuanian Republic
Law on Territorial Planning has to be observed, therefore this law was analyzed together with the
Lithuanian Republic Government Resolution No. 1079 “On the Approval of Regulations on the
Participation of the General Public in the Process of Territorial Planning”.
         When planning any economic, including waste management, it is necessary to carry out en-
vironmental assessment, therefore, apart from the above-mentioned documents, the Lithuanian Re-
public Law No. X-258 amending the Law on the Assessment of Environmental Impact of Planned
Economic Activities of 21 June 2005 was analyzed.
         Since one of the main objectives of this Project is a strategic environmental assessment of
the proposed waste management system, other related documents were also analyzed.
         At the beginning, Chapter 1.2 identifies 10 waste management regions of Lithuania whose
territories, in fact, correspond to the territories of counties except for the case that Prienai District
and Birštonas Town belonging to Kaunas County are included in the waste management region of
Alytus. Every waste management region, in turn, is divided into respective sub-regions, which cor-
respond to the territories of district and town municipalities.
         Further, the Chapter evaluates geographical specific features of each region that might have
influence on the waste management systems of regions; evaluates the current and planned situation
of municipal wastes in regions to be taken into consideration when presenting proposals on the de-
velopment of the municipal waste management system.
         According to the statistics of the Lithuanian Republic Ministry of Environment Agency of
Environment Protection, the streams of municipal wastes generating from the year 1995 are pre-
sented for each region. Having determining that these statistics are not reliable, the proposal is to
use a special calculation method of waste generation per capita according to the GDP that is univer-
sal for all European Union, which was drawn up within the framework of the international research
project funded under EU 5th general programme. Further, the composition of mixed municipal
waste is characterized and optimized for each region.
         This Chapter also evaluates the current system of tariffs, taxes and fees of each waste man-
agement region.

      2. Forecasts of waste generation and composition
      Chapter 2.1 first of all describes the methods of forecasts, presents a brief description of 6
main social-economic indicators related to municipal waste generation (GDP per capita, infant
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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY



death-rate, share of population aged between 15 and 59, the size of a household, average life expec-
tancy), which are introduced into the algorithm of the forecast model, and presents the sorted waste
collection values to be achieved by Lithuania, which will be later also used in forecasts.
        Chapter 2.2 focuses more on the characterization of the above-described social-economic
indicators and presents their forecasts for Lithuania, which later will also be used for the forecasts
of the municipal waste generation.
        Chapter 2.3 presents the results of performed forecasts for each waste management region.
The forecasts of both total municipal waste amount and mixed waste amount were performed for
every region. Separately are presented biodegradable waste generation forecasts by specifying sepa-
rately collectable biodegradable waste and biodegradable waste amount in the content of mixed
waste.

         3. Identification of waste management scenarios
         At the beginning Chapter 3.1 analyzes the energy indicators of waste management regions,
such as electric power production and consumption in Lithuania by specifying Lithuania’s power
plants, their capacities and amounts of energy produced as well as data on heat production, con-
sumption and fuel used. These data are important for further selection of municipal waste incinera-
tion sites since when using already existing electric power and heat production infrastructures the
construction of waste incineration facilities would cost less. This Chapter more widely describes
possible future sites of municipal waste incineration (the most important heat thermal power plants
and boiler-stations) in Lithuania’s major cities Vilnius, Kaunas, Šiauliai, Klaip da and Panev žys.
         Further, based on literary sources, this Chapter describes the most important treatment tech-
nologies of mixed municipal waste and separately collected biodegradable waste that will be pro-
posed to be used for further development of the Lithuanian municipal waste management system,
such as anaerobic digestion, composting, mechanical-biological treatment, anaerobic mechanical-
biological treatment, incineration and landfilling. The descriptions presents the schemes of materi-
als streams in each treatment technology and many important environmental indicators that are later
used for the preparation of a strategic environmental assessment. Finally, based on the findings of
the international research project funded under EU 5th general programme, the dependences of ini-
tial investment and operations costs of waste treatment facilities on the capacity of these facilities
are given. These dependences are later used in waste management scenarios – selection of treatment
facilities.
         At the beginning Chapter 3.2 emphasizes the requirements to the disposal of biodegradable
waste in landfills set out in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan. According to these re-
quirements, the following amounts of landfilled municipal biodegradable waste have to be ensured:
by 2010 – not more than 75 percent of the year 2000 amount; by 2013 – not more than 50 percent of
the year 2000 amount; by 2020 – not more than 35 percent of the year 2000 amount. This is the
primary and essential condition for further formation of waste management scenarios.
         Various waste management alternatives considering the environmental, economic, energy,
technical and legal aspects as well as the current and planned waste management infrastructures are
discussed for each region prior to final formation of waste management scenarios. The discussion
results show that mechanical-biological waste treatment as well as incineration should be consid-
ered for all waste management regions. It is rational to construct incineration plants only in the re-
gions that already have power production infrastructures favourable for waste incineration. The fur-
ther use of landfills should be considered for the regions generating smaller waste amounts.
       The following feasible alternative macroscenarios of municipal waste management in the re-
gions are formed:
       • Zero scenario, according to which, a separate collection (sorting on-site) of biodegrad-
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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY



         able waste is started from the year 2010, while all mixed municipal wastes (including
         biodegradable waste contained therein) are disposed in the regional landfills;
     •   Minimum A scenario, according to which, a separate collection of biodegradable waste
         (sorting on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration and/or mechanical-
         biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied in the regions of Vil-
         nius and Utena from 2013 and in the regions of Kaunas, Alytus and Marijampol from
         2020;
     •   Minimum B scenario, according to which, a separate collection of biodegradable waste
         (sorting on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration and/or mechanical-
         biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied in the regions of Vil-
         nius and Utena from 2013 and in the regions of Klaip da, Telšiai and Marijampol from
         2020;
     •   Medium scenario, according to which, a separate collection of biodegradable waste (sort-
         ing on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration and/or mechanical-
         biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied in the regions of Vil-
         nius and Utena; Kaunas Alytus and Marijampol from 2013; and in the regions of
         Klaip da, Telšiai and Taurag from 2020;
     •   Maximum A scenario, according to which, a separate collection of biodegradable waste
         (sorting on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration and/or mechanical-
         biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied in all the regions from
         2013 except the regions of Panev žys and Šiauliai;
     •   Maximum B scenario, according to which, a separate collection of biodegradable waste
         (sorting on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration and/or mechanical-
         biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied in all the regions from
         2013 including the regions of Panev žys and Šiauliai.

       In the case of all these macroscenarios, considering the data of previously conducted fore-
casts of waste generation, collection and composition, the information on possible disposal of bio-
degradable waste in landfills in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, compared to the situation in the year
2000, is presented. Based on the results of this comparison, the Zero macroscenario and the Mini-
mum A and B macroscenarios are rejected. The alternative of mechanical-biological treatment of
the mixed municipal waste is also rejected since there is a risk that when disposing low calorific
fractions received during treatment in the landfill the share of the disposed biodegradable waste will
approach the limits set out in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan.
       In this way, the cases of 3 scenarios (Medium, Maximum A, Maximum B), the optimum al-
ternativess of the municipal waste management, complying with the set requirements, are:
    - Separate collection of biodegradable waste (22% of the total biodegradable waste amount or
        7.5% of the total municipal waste amount) in every region and its composting and/or an-
        aerobic (starting from the year 2010 in the case of all scenarios);
    - The incineration of the mixed municipal wastes generating in the regions of Vilnius and
        Utena in Vilnius, and the incineration of the mixed municipal wastes generating in the re-
        gions of Kaunas, Alytus and Marijampol in Kaunas (starting from the year 2013 in the case
        of all scenarios);
    - The incineration of the mixed municipal wastes generating in the regions of Klaip da,
        Taurag and Telšiai in Klaip da (from the year 2020 in the case of the Medium scenario,
        from the year 2013 in the case of Maximum A and B scenarios);
    - The incineration of the mixed municipal wastes generating in the regions of Šiauliai and
        Panev žys in Šiauliai (from the year 2013 in the case of the Maximum B scenario).

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 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY



        The capacities and possible amounts or electric and heat power to be produced are given for
each possible waste incineration plant. General municipal waste management schemes are proposed
for the waste management regions for the years 2010, 2013 and 2020.

        4. Financial and economic assessment of alternatives
        This Chapter analyzes the financial-economic parameters of the three scenarios – Medium,
Maximum A and Maximum B. Considering the indicative initial costs of investment in equipment
and costs of operation and maintenance thereof as well as the most probable revenues from sales,
the financial net present value of the actions programmes provided for in the scenarios as well as
the cost per ton of treated waste until 2026 were identified.

         5. Sensitivity analysis
         This Chapter discusses how much the actions programmes of the scenarios’ development
are sensitive to changes in external factors. It should be noted that the measures of these scenarios
are selected taking into consideration daily or seasonal fluctuations but they are comparatively sen-
sitive to changes in the total annual amount of waste.
         The proposed scenarios are coordinated with the expected development of already estab-
lished regional waste management systems; however there are certain external risks in this respect:
a) the approved detailed plans of objects will have to be amended with the emergence of new ob-
jects in the territory or close to it (incineration waste dumps, the sites of anaerobic digestion or
composting); b) the construction of new object might cause a big opposition of the general public
(e.g. installation of incineration plants within city territories) etc.

       6. Alternatives for Possible Sites of Waste Treatment Facilities

         6.1 Review of waste incineration sites
         This Chapter, first of all, describes the factors based on which the most suitable locations for
waste incineration can be selected. These factors include:
    - large amounts of wastes generating on that site all year round (certainly, this is applicable to
         major cities);
    - the proximity of the combustible waste energy potential to the summer heat demands to
         have the efficient operation of an incineration plant in terms of energy all year round;
    - operating infrastructure of heat supply to users;
    - the operation of the existing heat production facilities ensuring uninterrupted heat supply in
         case of discontinuation of operation of waste incineration plant;
    - the possibilities of using the existing infrastructures of power plants and boiler-stations
         (standby fuel systems, waster preparation equipment, network pump-stations, chimneys and
         similar).
         Further is presented a brief description of various technical and organizational alternatives
that restrict the establishment of incineration plants in the territories of thermal power plants by pre-
senting the examples of Kaunas and Klaip da energy sectors and proposing some alternatives.
         Further are presented characterizations of possible waste incineration sites in the territories
of thermal power plants and boiler-stations of Lithuania’s major cities. The most feasible location in
Vilnius was recognized as Vilnius TE-3, in Kaunas –Kaunas TE, in Klaip da – Lypkiai district
boiler-station. In Šiauliai, both the Northern and the Southern boiler-stations would be suitable loca-
tions for the waste incineration plant even though environmental problems might be faced in both
these locations due the proximity of residential houses and an ornithological preserve in the forest
of Gubernija. The situation in Panev žys City, in fact, is considered as an unfavourable for the in-
stallation of a waste incineration plant.
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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY




       6.2 Review of regional landfills and sites for biodegradable waste treatment

        This Chapter mainly characterizes the sites of planned regional landfills by emphasizing the
possibility of treating separately collected biodegradable waste in composting or anaerobic diges-
tion facilities in addition to mixed waste disposal.
        In the case of Vilnius region it is proposed to construct anaerobic digestion facilities with
the recovery of biogases in the territory of the city's waste water treatment plant nearby anaerobic
waste sludge treatment facilities. The territory of the planned Kazokišk s regional landfill may not
be suitable for this purpose, firs of all, due to possible opposition of local population.
        The proposal is to install waste transfer stations for transporting waste to the neighbouring
region for incineration in the territories of regional landfills of Utena, Alytus, Marijampol , Telšiai,
Taurag and Panev žys regions where waste incineration is not planned.

       7. Assessment of organizational framework scenarios

         The links of the proposed waste management organizational framework include producers
of waste (inhabitants, enterprises and organizations), municipalities, waste management enterprises
operating according to contracts with regional waste management centres, regional waste
management centres, energy companies, the Ministry of Environment and its divisions, the Ministry
of Economy.
         The Chapter describes the functions of each of the above-mentioned structural link in the
fields such as temporary storage, collection and transport, disposal in the regional landfill, transfer
prior to transporting to the incineration plant, incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion.
         The scheme of organization framework specifying the streams of materials, energy and
finance as well as governing mechanism is presented. The structural links and their functions are
extensively described in tables.

       8. Plan for further development of municipal waste management system in Lithuania

        A plan for further development of the municipal waste management system in Lithuania
was developed in the case of each acceptable macroscenario (i.e. the cases of the macroscenarios
Medium, Maximum A and Maximum B). The plan sets particular goals and formulates respective
tasks for their implementation.
       The following tasks are set to attain Goal No. 1 “The application of applicable legislation for
for energy recovery from waste and adjustment of tariffs for waste management”:
    - the application of applicable legislation related to energy and renewable energy sources for
        the recover energy from waste;
    - adjustment of tariffs for waste management.
The following tasks are set to attain Goal 2 “Separate collection of treatment of biodegradable
waste”:
    - promotional and educational campaign concerning separate collection of biodegradable
        waste;
    - the development and implementation of the system of separate collection of biodegradable
        waste;
        The following tasks are set to attain Gial 3 “The development and implementation of the
system of mixed municipal waste incineration”:
        the development of the mixed municipal waste incineration system for Vilnius and Utena
regions (the cases of all macroscenarios);
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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
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   -    the development of the mixed municipal waste incineration system for Kaunas, Alytus and
        Marijampol regions (the cases of all macroscenarios);
    - the development of the mixed municipal waste incineration system for Klaip da, Telšiai and
        Taurag regions (the cases of all macroscenarios);
    - the development of the mixed municipal waste incineration system for Šiauliai and
        Panev žys regions (only in the case of the Maximum B macroscenario).
         Measures necessary to implement all these tasks are specified in tables and set out accord-
ing to the timeframe allotted for their implementation. Each measure is described in more detail
outside the table.




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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY




                                      1. BASELINE DATA

1.1. REVIEW OF LEGAL ACTS GOVERNING THE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

       Legal documents are analyzed in the context of energy recovery from municipal waste and
the reduction of landfilled biodegradable waste considering the tasks of this Project. These docu-
ments will be taken into consideration when selecting and assessing the scenarios of municipal
waste management. Based on the assessment results to be presented in the pre-feasibility study, the
decision will be made whether it is necessary to propose amendments to the respective legislation.

1.1.1 General legislation governing waste management


       Council Directive on Waste 75/442/EEC
       15 articles contained in this Directive only roughly regulate the disposal of waste at EU Mem-
ber States, and the Articles 3, 4 and 6 are partially related to the Project and in this way substantiate
the necessity of its implementation in Lithuania.
    Article 3 of the Directive states that EU Member States shall take appropriate measures to en-
courage the prevention, re-cycling and treatment of waste, extracting of secondary raw materials,
the use of waste as a source of energy and other re-use of waste. Article 3 encourages the use of
certain natural resources including energy resources, in the course of which the mentioned resources
could be replaced with recovered materials. Article 4 states that Member States shall take all neces-
sary measures to ensure that waste is disposed of without endangering human health and without
making harm to the environment. According to Article 6, the competent authority or authorities
specified in Article 5 must as soon as possible draw up one or more plans, in particular related to:
    – the type and quantity of waste to be disposed of;
    – general technical requirements;
    – suitable disposal sites;
    – special arrangements for particular wastes.
    Such plan or plans may cover “appropriate measures to encourage rationalization of the collec-
tion, sorting and treatment of waste”. The results of this Projects as well as prepared documents
have to be of similar nature than the previously described plans. In our case the competent institu-
tion is the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania having ordered the Project prepa-
ration.

      The Lithuanian Republic Law on Waste Management (16 June 1998. No. VIII-787,
(Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 1998, No. 61-1726, 2000, No. 90-2776; 2002, No. 13-475;
2004, No. 73-2544; 2005, No. 84-3111)
    The Law on Waste Management presents definitions related to waste management, sets the pri-
orities of waste management, stages of waste management and specific features of hazardous waste
management. The municipal waste is defined as means waste from households, as well as other
waste which, because of its nature or composition, is similar to waste from household.
    Waste management facilities of national importance are deemed operating or newly constructed
waste management facilities complying with the criteria set by the Government. In this way re-
gional waste dumps and feasible future municipal waste incineration plants are such facilities in
Lithuania.
      The project’s special objectives meet the priorities in waste management set out in Article 3 of
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the Law.

     The Lithuanian Republic Minister of the Environment Order No. 217 “On the Approval of
Waste Management Rules” of 14 July 1999 “((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 1999, No. 63-2065,
2001, No.45-1604; 2002, No.100-4461; 2004, No.68-2381)

   These rules set out the procedure of waste collection, storage, transport, utilisation, disposal, re-
cord-keeping, identification, declaration, sorting and marking to be taken into consideration when
proposing waste management alternatives in the Project. The general provisions of the Rules pre-
sent definitions to be followed in the process of waste management as well when implementing this
Project.
   The List of Wastes given in Annex No. 2 of the Waste Management Rules (in compliance with
the European Wastes Catalogue (Commission Decision 94/3/EEC) and List of Hazardous Wastes
(Commission Decision 94/904/EC), municipal wastes are classified under number 20: “municipal
wastes (household and similar commercial, industrial and institutional wastes), including separately
collected fractions”. In the frame of the Project, in the course of planning the development of the
municipal waste management in Lithuania, the wastes classified under sub-group 15 01 are also
evaluated: packaging (including separately collected municipal packaging waste).

      Council Directive 96/61/EC concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

      The purpose of this Directive is to achieve integrated prevention and control of pollution aris-
ing from the activities listed in Annex I. It lays down measures designed to prevent or, where that is
not practicable, to reduce emissions in the air, water and land from the abovementioned activities,
including measures concerning waste, in order to achieve a high level of protection of the environ-
ment taken as a whole. Article 3 has relevance to the project and it regulates the reduction of waste
generation. Annex I to the Directive lays down categories of industrial activities to which this Di-
rective if applied. The activities relevant to the Project are given in the paragraphs 1.1, 5.2, 5.3 and
5.4.

       Lithuanian Republic Law on the Tax on Environment Pollution (13 May 1999 No. VIII-
    1183, (Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 1999, No. 47-1469, (Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 2002, No. 13-
    474, 2002, No. 123-5550, 2003, No. 48-2108, 2004, No. 25-746, 2005, No. 47-1560, 2006, No. 32-1111)

       The purpose of the law is to set the procedure of payment and control of the tax on environ-
ment pollution and, through economic measures, encourage the polluters to reduce the environment
pollution, exercise waste prevention and management, not exceed the rates of pollution emission, and
accumulate means from the tax for the implementation of environmental measures. Article 4 is rele-
vant to the Project, which defines taxing responsibility for the pollution of the environment from
stationary pollution sources. Article 5 sets out taxing advantages for emissions generating through
the use of biofuel, Article 6 sets out the tariffs of the tax on environment pollution and tariffs coeffi-
cients on pollutants and pollutant groups based on their hazardousness to the environment.

       European Parliament and Council Directive 2004/12/EC amending Directive 94/62/EC on
packaging and packaging waste
       Directive 94/62/EC aims to harmonize national measures concerning the management of
packaging and packaging waste in order, on the one hand, to prevent any impact thereof on the en-
vironment of all Member States as well as of third countries or to reduce such impact, thus provid-
ing a high level of environmental protection, and, on the other hand, to ensure the functioning of the
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internal market and to avoid obstacles to trade and distortion and restriction of competition within
the Community. Article 6 of the European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC on packag-
ing and packaging waste (adjusted in pr. 3.6 of 2004/12/EC) regulates the use of the packaging
waste: EU Member States shall, no later than five years from the date by which this Directive must
be implemented in the national law, recover between 50% as a minimum and 65% as a maximum
by weight of the packaging waste; within this general target, and within the same time limit, be-
tween 25% as a minimum and 45% as a maximum by weight of the totality of packaging materials
contained in packaging waste had to be recycled with a minimum of 15% by weight of each pack-
aging material. The Member States who joined the European Union based on Accession Treaty of
16 April 2003, may postpone the attainment of aims set forth in Part 1 (b, d, and e) until the date
selected by themselves, and which for Lithuania shall not be later than by 31 December 2012.

      Lithuanian Republic Law on Packaging and Packaging Waste No. IX-517 (25 September
2001 No. IX-517, (Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 2001, No. 85-2968, 2005, No. 86-3206)
      This Law lays down the main requirements for packaging, the general requirements for record
keeping, marking, collection and use of packaging made in the Republic of Lithuania and imported
into the Republic of Lithuania and of packaging waste, with a view to preventing a negative impact
of packaging and packaging waste on the environment and human health; it shall also establish the
rights and duties of manufacturers, importers, sellers, consumers and users of products and waste
management entities when managing packaging and packaging waste. Article 2 of the Law is rele-
vant to the Project and it classifies the ways of management of combustible packaging waste. Arti-
cle 3 of the Law laying down the priorities in management of packaging and packaging waste
states that economic activity operators must, inter alia, recycle packaging waste in order to obtain
from it products suitable for use or secondary materials suitable for the manufacturing of such
products; use packaging waste for recovery of energy. Article 9 of the Law obligates consumers to
use the organized packaging and packaging waste management systems.

       Council Directive 1999/31/EC on the Landfill of Waste
       The aim of this Directive is, by way of stringent operational and technical requirements on the
waste and landfills, to provide for measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce as far as
possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwa-
ter, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any re-
sulting risk to human health, from land-filling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill.
Article 5 “Waste and Treatment not Acceptable in Landfills” of the Directive has the closest rela-
tion to the Project which has to be taken into consideration when forecasting waste generation and
collection and drawing up and assessing waste management scenarios. The strategy of the reduction
of biodegradable waste going to landfills has to ensure that, when composting, producing biogases
and regenerating materials and energy, biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills must be
reduced to 75 % of the total amount (by weight) of biodegradable municipal waste produced in
1995.

      Lithuanian Republic Minister of the Environment Order No. 444 of 18 October 2000 “On
the Approval of Rules of Landfill Installation, Operation, Closure and After-closure Care” ((Val-
styb s žinios) Official Gazette, 2000, No. 96-3051; 2002, No. 89-3810; 2004, No. 97-3586; 2006, No. 10-
395)
      The Rules set forth the procedure of waste disposal in landfills as well as the requirements of
landfill installation, operation, closure and after-closure care. The criteria of waste acceptance at
landfills established in Chapter VIII of the Order are the most relevant to the project and have to be
taken into consideration when preparing and assessing waste management scenarios in the frame of
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this Project.


      The Lithuanian Republic Government Resolution No. 519 of 12 April 2002 “On the Ap-
      proval of the National Strategic Waste Management Plan” ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette,
      2002, No. 40-1499, 2003, No. 14-584 2006, No. 4-104)
   The main aims of the National Strategic Waste Management Plan are, inter alia, to create a ra-
tional waste management system satisfying the public needs, ensuring good environmental quality
and not infringing the principles of the market economy; to set the tasks, measures and actions of
waste management creating conditions for the implementation of the EU Directives on waste man-
agement in the nearest decade. The waste management system covers the planning and creation or
modernization of waste collection, sorting and recovery systems, the closure and reclamation of old
landfills, the construction of new, modern waste disposal facilities, and the efficient operation and
administration of waste management infrastructure.
      When drawing up the municipal waste management scenarios and assessing them in an eco-
nomic aspect, the principles of the waste management system given in Chapter III have to be con-
sidered.
      Chapter VI describes the operation of the municipal and regional waste management systems,
Chapter VII– management of production and specific waste streams that has to be observed by the
proposed waste management scenarios.
      The most important task of biodegradable waste management set out in this plan is to ensure
the following amounts of landfilled municipal biodegradable waste:
        - by 2010– not more than 75 percent of the year 2000 amount;
        - by 2013– not more than 50 percent of the year 2000 amount;
        - by 2020– not more than 35 percent of the year 2000 amount.
      The most important tasks of secondary raw material management defined in this plan is to
achieve that by the year 2010 the annual collection and preparation for recycling volumes (based on
weight of waste) are not smaller than (in percentage of the total municipal waste):
        - 6 – paper (cardboard);
        - 3 – glass;
        - 2 – plastic;
      The municipal waste management development scenarios proposed in this Project take into ac-
count the above mentioned tasks of biodegradable waste and secondary raw material management.

1.1.2 Legislation governing waste incineration


      The European Parliament and Council Directive 2000/76/EC on waste incineration
      The aim of this Directive is to prevent or to limit as far as practicable negative effects on the
environment, in particular pollution by emissions into air, soil, surface water and groundwater, and
the resulting risks to human health, from the incineration and co-incineration of waste.
      This aim shall be met by means of stringent operational conditions and technical require-
ments, through setting emission limit values for waste incineration and co-incineration plants within
the Community and also through meeting the requirements of Directive 75/442/EEC. This Directive
replaces former directive documents aiming at reducing an adverse impact on the environment by
reducing the emissions of certain pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2),
heavy metals and dioxins and other pollutants from waste incineration plants.
      The Directive regulates the reception of pollution permits by waste incineration plants, deliv-
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ery and reception of waste, conditions of operation, emission limit values for the pollutants, water
discharges from the cleaning of exhaust gases, residue management, control and monitoring, re-
quirements to monitoring and measurements and other procedural issues related to waste incinera-
tion. This Directive is one of the main documents in Project implementation.

      The Lithuanian Republic Minister of the Environment Order No. 699 of 31 December 2002
      “On the Approval of Environmental Requirements for Waste Incineration” ((Valstyb s žin-
      ios) Official Gazette, 2003, No. 31-1290, 2005, No. 147-5366)
    The Lithuanian Republic Minister of the Environment by his Decree approves the Environ-
mental Requirements for Waste Incineration. From 28 December 2005 “this is the main document
of the Republic of Lithuania to be taken into consideration when analysing the possibilities of mu-
nicipal waste incineration in an environmental aspect.
      The Environmental Requirements for Waste Incineration were drawn up taking into consid-
eration the provisions laid down in the European Parliament and the Council Directive No.
2000/76/EC on waste incineration that were commented on in section 2.1.1.1.
       The Requirements set out operation conditions, emission limit values and technical require-
ments to be followed by all enterprises within the territory of the Republic of Lithuania, which op-
erate or plan to operate waste incineration plants or co-incineration plants.

     Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2001
on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants

   This Directive shall apply to combustion plants, the rated thermal input of which is equal to or
greater than 50 MW, irrespective of the type of fuel used (solid, liquid or gaseous). Definitions
given in Article 2 are relevant to the Project. According to the definition of fuel, this Directive can-
not be applied to the municipal waste in a fuel approach. According to the definition of biomass this
Directive could be applied only to that part of the municipal waste which meets the description of
the biomass but under no circumstances could be applied to the regulation of the incineration of the
whole of municipal waste.
      In the Republic of Lithuania this Directive is realized by the Lithuanian Republic Minister of
the Environment Order No. 486 “On the Setting of Standards for Emissions from Large Fuel Com-
bustion Plants and Standards for Emissions from Fuel Combustion Plants LAND 43-2001” of 28
September 2001 ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 2001; No. 88-3100, 2004, No. 37-1210). The
Standards, like Directive 2001/80/EC, cannot be applied to the incineration of general municipal
waste. Selected biomass waste used to prepare biofuel makes an exception.

1.1.3 Legislation governing energy related to the use of waste for energy recovery

       Lithuanian Republic Law on the Heat Sector ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 28 05
       2003, No. 51-2254)

This Law regulates the public administration of the heat sector, the activities of the operators of the
heat sector and their relations with heat users, inter-relations and responsibility. Article 4 of the Law
covers waste utilization: The encouragement of general heat and electric power production and heat
recovery from biofuel and renewable sources of energy. Waste incineration by using waste incinera-
tion heat and supplying it to the heat supply system complies with the public interests and heat pur-
chase is encouraged.

     Lithuanian Republic Government Resolution No. 307 “On the Approval of the Develop-
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     ment Areas of the Heat Sector of 22 March 2004 ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 2004,
     No. 44-1446; 2005, No. 139-5020)

       This Resolution presents the areas providing for the following amounts of heat to be recov-
ered from indigenous renewable energy sources and wastes: 17 percent in the year 2010, 23 percent
in the year 2020 of the total amount of the heat produced.
       Apart from that, the Resolution provides for the construction of 2 or 3 small co-generation
power plants incinerating wood, waste wood, straws and other renewable sources until the year
2010.
       It planned to use municipal waste and waste heat for heat and electric power recovery (if this
is rational from the economic and ecological standpoint), providing for the possible of construction
of waste incineration plants: until the year 2010 in Vilnius (expected annual capacity – around 200
thousand tons of municipal waste); after 2010 – in Alytus, Kaunas and Klaip da.

     Lithuanian Republic Law on Energy ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette., 2002, No. 56-
     2224; 2003, No. 69-3118; 2005, No. 142-5104)

       The Law on Energy regulates general energy activities, the basic principles of energy devel-
opment and management, energy and energy resources efficiency. Peculiarities of activities of indi-
vidual energy systems and of relations between energy enterprises and consumers are established by
other laws. The first section of the Law regulates general energy activities, the basics of energy de-
velopment and management as well as efficient use of energy and energy resources. It is noted that
indigenous energy sources mean energy resources available in the country, except for imported re-
sources and their products. In this aspect waste utilization could be treated as local energy re-
sources. The second section covers the objectives of regulation of energy activities: security of en-
ergy supplies, energy resources and energy efficiency etc., including the promotion of consumption
of indigenous and renewable energy resources. The third section, Development of the Energy Sec-
tor, states that the most important strategic document is the National Energy Strategy determining
energy development trends for a twenty year period. One of the paragraphs – the development of
consumption of renewable and indigenous resources. Article 11 of the Law covers the issues of the
construction of energy facilities, and Article 12 defines energy activities. Article 17 regulates the
activities of the State Control Commission for Prices and Energy. Among other activities it ap-
proves the purchase price for electricity generated from renewable energy resources.

      Lithuanian Republic Law on Electricity ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 2000, No. 66-
      1984, No. 113-3606; 2001, No. 56-1983, 2004 No. 107-3964)
    This Law establishes the basic principles regulating the generation, transmission, distribution,
and supply of electricity in the Republic of Lithuania, the relations between providers of electricity
services and their customers as well as the conditions promoting competition in the electricity sec-
tor.
    Article 9 of this Law is, in fact, relevant to the Project. The article reads that by imposing the
public service obligations the State shall encourage the producers to generate electricity from re-
newable energy sources. The issue of energy recovered from waste is not covered in it. In a certain
sense waste can be treated as renewable sources but there not direct mentioning of this.


     The National Energy Strategy (The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania Resolution No. X-
     1046 “On the Approval of the National Energy Strategy” of 18 January 2007 (Valstyb s žin-
     ios) Official Gazette 26 01 2007, No. 11-430)
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    Chapter XV of the document “The Development of the Centralized Heat Supply Sector” pro-
vides for the encouragement of heat and electricity generation from indigenous and renewable en-
ergy resources as well as combustible waste; the use of the municipal waste collected by munici-
palities for heat and electricity generation if this is rational from the economic and ecological stand-
point. It also provides for the installation of the municipal waste incineration plant in Vilnius until
the year 2010 to burn around 200 thousand tons of this waste per year; and the construction of simi-
lar facilities in Kaunas, Klaip da, Šiauliai and Panev žys until the year 2025.
    Chapter XIX “The Development of the Indigenous and Renewable Energy Resources Sector”
states that “seeking to maximally use indigenous energy resources this way reducing fuel imports
and the use of gas for the generation of electricity and heat supplied in a centralized manner, and to
create new jobs and reduce CO2 emissions, the programme on a rapider use of biofuel for the gen-
eration of heat and electricity will be worked out and implemented, and it, inter alia, will provide
for “the organization of municipal waste sorting and construction of this waste incineration plant in
Vilnius until 2010, and later in Kaunas, Klaip da, Šiauliai and Panev žys, by replacing around 120
thousand tons of organic fuel (the investment will total around LTL 1 billion).
       Thus, according to the National Energy Strategy, the heat of waste will be used for energy
generation. It also sets the energy potential of the waste.


      The European Parliament and Council Directive 2001/77/EC on the promotion of electric-
      ity produced from renewable sources in the internal electricity market
      The purpose of this Directive is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable en-
ergy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a
future Community framework thereof. The Directives sets out national indicative targets for the
consumption of renewable energy sources, support systems, the procedure of administration and
regulates the activities of the grid system.
        According to this Directive, no priority is given to the incineration of non-sorted waste over
the use of renewable energy sources. That encourages the incineration of sorted municipal waste.

1.1.4 Legislation regulating territorial planning and environmental impact assessment

      Lithuanian Republic Law on Territorial Planning No. I-1120 of 12 December 1995
      ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 1995, No. 107-2391, 1997, No.65-1548, 1997, No.96-
      2427, 2000, No.34-953, 2000, No.42-1195, 2000, No.58-1708, 2000, No. 92-2881, 2001, No.
      39-1358, 2003, No. 42-1916, 2004, No. 21-617, 2004, No. 152-5532, 2006, No. 66-2429)

    This Law regulates territorial planning in the Republic of Lithuania as well as rights and duties
of organizers of planning, planners, natural and legal persons, and public and local authorities inn
this process. When implementing the waste management strategy provided for in the Project it
might be necessary to construct new structures and facilities and build communications. Due to this
reason it might be necessary to provide for these changes when drawing up or adjusting master,
special or detailed plans. Chapters II, III and IV are relevant with respect to the master plan, which
define organizations aspects of master, special and detailed plans, respectively.

      Lithuanian Republic Government Resolution No. 967 “On the Approval of Schedule of the
      Assessment of the Effects of Plans and Programmes on the Environment” of 18 August
      2004 ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette 2004, No. 130-4650)

      The Schedule of the Assessment of the Effects of Plan and Programmes on the Environment
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regulates the strategic assessment of the effects of plans and programmes on the environment and
inter-relations of the participants of this process. The procedural aspects of the Schedule relevant to
the project implementation laid down in Chapter IV (participants of the assessment process and
their functions), Chapter VI (the procedure of preparation and coordination of the documents setting
the scope of the strategic assessment of the effects on the environment), and Chapter IX (the proce-
dure of preparation and coordination of the strategic environmental assessment report).

      Lithuanian Republic Minister’s of Environment Order No. d1-455 “On the Participation of
      the General Public in the Procedures of the Strategic Assessment of the Effects of Plans
      and Programmes on the Environment and the Approval of the Schedule of Order of Provi-
      sion of Information to Assessing Entities and European Union Member States” of 27 Au-
      gust 2004 ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette 2004, No.136-4970)

      The procedures the participation of the general public in the strategic assessment of the effects
of plans and programmes on the environment and schedule of assessing entities and procedure of
provision of information to European Union Member States regulates the procedure of the partici-
pation of the general public in the procedures of the strategic assessment of the effects of plans and
programmes on the environment and the order of provision of information to assessing entities and
European Union Member States. The procedural aspects of the Schedule relevant to the Project are
laid down in Chapter IV (Notification of strategic assessment of the effects of plans and pro-
grammes on the environment), Chapter VI (Giving publicity to the report on the strategic assess-
ment of the effects of plans and programmes on the environment and draft programme or project)
and Chapter IX (Informing the general public, entities of strategic assessment of the effects on the
environment and European Union Member States on the adopted decision on the approval of a plan
or programme).

       Lithuanian Republic Government Resolution No. 1079 “On the Approval of Regulations of
       the Participation of the General Public in the Process of Territorial Planning” of 18 Sep-
       tember 1996 ((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 1996, No. 90-2099; 1997, No. 90-2261;
       2004, No. 112-4189).
       The Regulations of the participation of the general public in the process of territorial planning
regulate the general and simplified procedure of the participation of the general public in the proc-
ess of territorial planning as well as the procedures ensuring the publicity of preparation of the mas-
ter, special and detailed documents of territorial planning. General public participates in the process
of territorial planning. The publicity of territorial planning is ensured by the procedures prescribed
in Clause 7.

      Lithuanian Republic Law No. X-258 amending the Law on the Assessment of Environ-
      mental Impact of Planned Economic Activities of 21 June 2005 (12 07 2005, No. 84-3105)
    This Law regulates the process of assessment of the effects of planned economic activities on the
environment as well as the inter-relationship of the participants of this process. The object of as-
sessment of the effect on the environment means planned economic activities which might have a
significant effect on the environment due to their character, scale or specificity of planned location.
The objects covered by the feasibility study, waste incineration plants, belong to the paragraph 9.7
of the Annex 1 “The construction or installation of structures or facilities intended for the disposal,
incineration or chemical treatment of non-hazardous wastes (when the capacity of the facilities is
100 and more tons per day)”. The process of assessment of the effect on the environment will be
mandatory for these facilities.
    Territorial planning documents and/or technical projects of structures and facilities providing for
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the activities subject to the assessment of the effects on the environment, may be coordinated and
approved only after performing the assessment of the effects of the planned economic activities on
the environment and adopting the decision to authorize the conduction of the planned economic
activities.

1.1.5 Strategy of the Cohesion Fund

     Strategy of the Cohesion Fund for 2004–2006 (Order No. 1k-054/d1-79/3-99 of 20 February
     2004 of the Lithuanian Republic Minister of Finance, Minister of Environment and Minister
     of Transport and Communications, (Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette 2004, No. 33-1071).

    This document lays down the aims of Cohesion Fund support in Lithuania, fields of support, the
criteria of project suitability, etc. The importance of this document lies in the fact that the environ-
mental sector is one of the two fields whose projects are supported by the Cohesion Fund. These
projects must be aimed at the EU environmental aims defined in the EU Treaty; they must be re-
lated to the implementation of the EU environmental directives.
In the field of waste management the Cohesion Fund’s objective is to reduce pollution with house-
hold wastes from the landfills not complying with the specified requirements; in the programming
period of 2004-2006 the priority was and is given to the creation of regional waste management
systems and integrated system of waste collection and sorting. The objectives in the field of air pro-
tection are to reduce NOx, SO2, CO2 emissions from stationary sources, to reduce pollution with
volatile organic compounds; and to reduce pollution with substances destructing the ozone layer.

1.1.6. Review of legislation regulating the use of the EU aid in the period of 2007-2013

         In the period of 2004-2006 EU financial aid was granted to Lithuania according to Lithua-
nia’s Single Programming Document (SPD) for 2004-2006 and the Strategy of the Cohesion Fund.
In the period of 2007-2013 EU financial support to the environment will be provided based on the
following strategic documents: the Strategy for Use of EU Structural Support in Lithuania for
2007–2013; The Action Programme on Cohesion Stimulation for 2007-2013.
        According to the Strategy for Use of EU Structural Support in Lithuania for 2007–2013,
41.2% of funds from Structural Funds or LTL 8.487 million will be allotted to the Action Pro-
gramme on Cohesion Stimulation. (APCS) It is planned to finance the programme’s environmental
activities with the funds of the Fund of Cohesion.
        Priority 3 “Life Quality and Cohesion" of the Strategy for Use of EU Structural Support in
Lithuania for 2007–2013 will be implemented under APCS. One of the priority’s tasks is the devel-
opment of a modern waste management system focusing on regional waste management systems
and handling of biodegradable waste (the investments are planned in the implementation of munici-
pal waste incineration, biogas recovery or composting measures).
        The plan is to allot 25.82% of the priority’s expenses, i.e. LTL 883.80 million to the man-
agement of household and industrial wastes. It is projected to use all these funds for the needs of
regional waste management centres, the development of stage II of regional waste management sys-
tems and waste incineration projects.
In the course of study preparation, no appropriate activities, support schemes, appropriate applicants
or the rules of project implementation and administration were defined and prepared. The assump-
tion is made that general principals of support allocation and administration will be the same as in
the period of 2004-2006.

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1.1.7. Review of legislation governing the regulation and setting of heat and electricity prices

        By the Government’s Resolution No. 1474 “Concerning the Approval of Legislation Neces-
sary for the Implementation of the Lithuanian Republic Law on Electricity” of 5 December 2001
((Valstyb s žinios) Official Gazette, 2001, No. 104-3713 as amended) “The Procedure of Promotion
to Purchase Electricity Generated from Renewable Sources or Waste” was approved. This Resolu-
tion encourages the purchase of electricity generated from renewable (water and wind energy) and
waste (biomass, i.e. biogas) and specifies the maximum volume to which the purchase encourage-
ment procedure is applied. Generation of electricity from the municipal or other waste is not en-
couraged except, as it has been mentioned, biogas1.
        The sales of energy generated according to the encouraged method is ensured by “The Rules
of Assuming Obligations to Provide Services Complying with Public Interests” approved by
Lithuanian Republic Minister’s of Economy Order No. 380 of 18 December 2001. These Rules
govern the requirements and obligations of purchasing this type of energy.
        The purchase prices of electricity generated from renewable energy source and waste are set
the State Price and Energy Control Commission according to the Commission’s Resolution No. 7
“Concerning the Prices of Services Complying with Public Interests in the Electricity Sector” of 11
February 2001. It sets average purchase prices of electricity generated from renewable energy
sources and waste and the conditions of their application (e.g. the average purchase price of 20
ct/kWh is applied to thermal power plants and that of 22 ct/kWh – wind power plants).
        It should be noted that according to the SPD for the period of 2004-2006, private electricity
producers (thermal power plants, wind power plants, and plants consuming biofuel) that are selling
electric power at the price set by the mentioned Commission, were not eligible to apply for support
from EU Structural Funds according to the activity groups “Energy Supply Networks”, Renovation
of Boiler-stations and Their Adaptation for Using Other Types of Fuel”, “The Use of Indigenous
and Renewable Energy Sources for the Generation of Power” of Measure 1.2 “The Ensuring Stabil-
ity and Accessibility of Energy Supply and Higher Efficiency of Energy” of the SPD.


1.2. ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


1.2.1 Identification of waste management regions

     Waste management regions (WMR) practically correspond to Lithuanian counties. Conse-
quently, Lithuania is divided into 10 waste management regions: Vilnius, Kaunas, Alytus, Mari-
jampol , Utena, Panev žys, Šiauliai, Telšiai, Taurag and Klaip da (see Fig. 1.1.)




1
    Biomass power plant means an object intended for the generation of electric power under thermal power mode with combined electric power and heat production cycle
       facilities when the ratio of nominal electric and heat power of the plant is not smaller than 0.23.
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                KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY




                                 Fig. 1.1. Waste management regions in Lithuania

        When forecasting the amount of generating waste, selecting and evaluating waste manage-
ment scenarios, and evaluating the existing and future institutional framework of waste manage-
ment, each of the 10 waste management regions is divided into separate sub-regions, which in fact
correspond to town and/or district municipalities.
        Vilnius region is divided into 8 sub-regions: Vilnius City, Vilnius District, Šalčininkai Dis-
trict, Trakai District, Elektr nai, Širvintos District, Ukmerg District and Švenčionys District.
        Kaunas region includes 6 sub-regions: Kaunas City, Kaunas District, Kaišiadorys District,
Jonava District, K dainiai District and Raseiniai District.
        Alytus region is divided into 7 sub-regions: Alytus City, Alytus District, Lazdijai District,
Var na District, Druskininkai, Birštonas and Prienai District.
        Marijampol region is divided into 5 sub-regions: Marijampol , Kazlų Rūda, Vilkaviškis Dis-
trict, Šakiai District and Kalvarija.
        Utena region is divided into 6 sub-regions: Utena District, Anykščiai District, Mol tai Dis-
trict, Ignalina District, Zarasai District and Visaginas.
        Panev žys region is divided into 6 sub-regions: Panev žys City, Panev žys District, Pasvalys
District, Biržai District, Kupiškis District and Rokiškis District.
        Šiauliai region is divided into 7 sub-regions: Šiauliai City, Šiauliai District, Kelm District,
Akmen District, Joniškis District, Pakruojis District and Radviliškis District.
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        KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY



      Telšiai region will be divided into 4 sub-regions: Telšiai District, Rietavas, Mažeikiai District,
Plung District.
      Taurag region will be divided into 4 sub-regions: Jurbarkas District, Šilal District, Taurag
District, Pag giai.
      Klaip da region will be divided into 7 sub-regions: Klaip da City, Klaip da District, Šilut
District, Neringa, Palanga, Kretinga District, Skuodas District.
      The above division shows that the sub-regions of Prienai District and Birštonas are attributed
to Alytus region but not to Kaunas region.

1.2.2. Assessment of geographical peculiarities of waste management regions

       1.2.2.1. Vilnius region

      Vilnius County occupies a total area of 9.761 square kilometres. It is the largest of 10 counties
of Lithuania, taking 13.3 % of the country’s total territory. Vilnius City is the centre of the county
and the capital of Lithuania. According to data of the Lithuanian Department of Statistics, at the
beginning of the year 2005 the population of Vilnius region totalled 848.6 thousand, including the
population of 553.0 thousand in Vilnius City.
      Apart from the Vilnius City Municipality, the county includes the territories of the municipali-
ties of Elektr nai and the districts of Šalčininkai, Širvintos, Švenčionys, Trakai, Ukmerg and Vil-
nius. Vilnius County is situated in the south-eastern part of Lithuania and borders on the counties of
Alytus, Kaunas, Panev žys and Utena; in the east it has a common border with the Republic of
Belarus. The county is situated in a hilly area. It is rich in natural resources since it boasts the larg-
est underground water resources and sufficiently large prospected potable water wells. It also has
the largest wood resources in the country.
      Compared to the adjacent counties, Vilnius County has a well-developed road network. The
highways A1 Vilnius - Klaip da and A2 Vilnius - Panev žys are close to the Western standards.
The major part of the national and regional roads has asphalt paving and is well maintained.
      Even though the population of Vilnius County is smaller than ¼ of the national population, it
generates 1/3 of the Gross Domestic Product. Thus, the standard of living by GDP per capita is much
higher than in the remaining part of the country.
      The county is dominated by the service sector, which has created nearly 2/3 of the total supply
of jobs. Apart from central authority institutions, this sector is represented by public service enter-
prises.
      The scope of industrial production plays a smaller role since Vilnius County manufactures
only 1/5 the national industrial production. Furthermore, at least 86 percent of industrial products are
made in Vilnius City, consequently industrial production in other municipalities is not significant.
Especially low volumes of industrial production are in Šalčininkai and Širvintos Municipalities. The
county is dominated by textile and wood processing enterprise. A 1800 MW capacity Lithuanian
power plant is located in Elektr nai.
      There is a large variety of protected territories with different statuses within the county’s terri-
tory, including national and regional parks, reserves and others. The area of protected territories
amounts to 137 thousand ha or 14 % of the region’s territory. This percentage is higher that the
mean of Lithuania, 11.5% (755 thousand ha).




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 PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTATION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY



       1.2.2.2 Kaunas region

       The total area of Kaunas County is 8.060 km2 (which accounts for 12.3% of the territory of
Lithuania), and the territory of the Kaunas waste management region covers the area of 6,934 km2.
According to the data the Lithuanian Department of Statistics, at the beginning of 2005 the popula-
tion of Kaunas County amounted to 685.7 thousand, including 364.0 thousand in Kaunas City.
       Kaunas County consists of the territories of the municipalities of Kaunas and Birštonas towns
and the districts of Kaunas, Jonava, Kaišiadorys, K dainiai, Prienai and Raseiniai. The region bor-
ders on the counties of Alytus, Vilnius, Panev žys, Šiauliai, Taurag and Marijampol .
       Road and railway transport is well developed in the County. Kaunas is on the intersection of
the first and ninth trans-European transport corridors. Moreover, a European standard railway from
the border with Poland to Kaunas is under design.
       Numerous programmes and projects are under preparation and implementation in Kaunas
County. Such industries as production of machines and instruments, metal processing, chemical,
building materials, textile and knitwear, paper and printing, furniture, glass and food industries are
well developed in the Region
       In the City of Kaunas, light industry accounts for 36% of the production sector, while machine
building constitutes 22%, food processing 17%, chemical industry 6%, and wood and paper 5%.
Textile, construction, food products and beverages industries are mainly small companies distin-
guished by comparatively small profitability.
       In K dainiai and Jonava Districts the manufacturing fertilizers constitutes the main part of the
local industry.
       There is a dense network of rivers but few lakes in the region. Lithuania’s two largest rivers
the Nemunas and the Neris with its tributaries Nevežis, Dubysa and Šventoji flow across the terri-
tory of the county. The lowest point of the region (21 m ASL) is in the Nevežis river valley, K -
dainiai District.

       1.2.2.3 Alytus region

       Alytus County occupies an area of 5,425 km2, and the Alytus waste management region cov-
ers an area of 6,580 km2. On the 2005 data, the population of Alytus County amounted to 182.9
thousand, including 69.9 thousand in Alytus Town.
       Alytus region is situated in the southern part of Lithuania, it borders on Vilnius and Kaunas
regions, and Poland and Belarus. Alytus County consists of the territories municipalities of Alytus
and Druskininkai towns and the districts of Alytus, Lazdijai, and Var na. Apart from the above-
mentioned municipalities, the Alytus waste management region includes the municipalities of
Birštonas Town and Prienai District.
        The districts of Lazdijai and Var na have a well-developed road network. A railway in Laz-
dijai District links it with Vilnius and Poland, and a railway in Varn District – with Vilnius, south-
western part of Balerus and Poland. The territory of Prienai District is crossed by the roads of state
significance (Kaunas - Marijampol , Kaunas - Alytus, Vilnius - Marijampol ) and the highway Via-
Baltica.
       Despite the fact that the industry still undergoes changes, Alytus County has a number of in-
dustrial enterprises, including a refrigerator production plant, textile enterprises and others. Neither
Druskininkai nor Birštonas has many industrial enterprises but they have a number of health pro-
moting enterprises (sanatoriums spas). The main local industry branches developed in Var na Dis-
trict include agriculture and forestry, processing of agricultural and forestry products, servicing of
residents, construction and repair services, the sphere of residential services, and rural tourism.
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     Alytus County has a number of protected territories, national and regional parks and pre-
serves.

       1.2.2.4. Marijampolė region

       Marijampol County occupies an area of 4,463 km2, according to the 2005 data, the popula-
tion in this county totalled 185.4 thousand, including 69.9 thousand in Marijampol Town.
      Marijampol s apskritis turi ypatingą geografinę pad tį: pietvakariuose ji ribojasi su Kalinin-
grado sritimi (Rusijos Federacija) ir Lenkijos Respublika, o Lietuvoje - su Kauno, Alytaus ir
Taurag s apskritimis. Marijampol s apskritį sudaro: Kalvarijos, Kazlų Rūdos, Marijampol s ir
Šakių bei Vilkaviškio rajonų savivaldyb s.
      Marijampol County boasts a special geographical position: in the south-west it borders on
Kaliningrad Region (Russian Federation) and the Republic of Poland, while in Lithuania it shares
borders with the counties of Kaunas, Alytus and Taurag . Marijampol County includes the mu-
nicipalities of Šakiai and Vilkaviškis districts and the municipalities of Marijampol , Kalvarija and
Kazlų Rūda.
      Two Lithuanian-Polish and two Lithuanian-Russian border crossing points are established in
the county. The county has a well-developed motor road network. Its territory is crossed by impor-
tant highways: A7 - Marijampol -Kybartai, A16 - Marijampol -Prienai-Vilnius, A5 - Kaunas-
Marijampol -Kalvarija, the latter making a part of E67 Via Baltica from Kaunas to the Lithuanian-
Polish border. This highway is an integral part of the trans-European highway system connecting
Nordic states with Central and West Europe. The design of the European standard railway the
Lithuanian-Polish border-Marijampol -Kaunas is in progress. It will join the European railway net-
work.
      Marijampol County traditionally specializes in intensive crop production, meat-milk produc-
tion and cattle husbandry. The county boasts the largest crop and sugar beetroot harvests in Lithua-
nia. Taking only around 7 percent of the national territory with roughly 5 percent of the total popu-
lation the county grows 27 percent of sugar beetroots, 25 percent of flax and 13.5 percent of cereals.
It produces around 9 percent of meat. Milk production accounts for 12 percent of the total national
milk output. By the number of employees, it is predominant with small and medium-sized enter-
prises. Large enterprises are mainly concentrated in Marijampol Town. By kinds of activities, it is
predominant with trade companies with retailers accounting for the major part thereof, other com-
panies are engaged in provision of services and production.
      The basin of the Šešup river, one of the Nemunas tributaries, is distinguished by good soils.

       1.2.2.5. Utena region

       Utena County takes a total area of 7,201 km2. According to the 2005 data, the population of
Utena County totalled 178.98 thousand.
      Utena County is situated in the eastern and north-eastern part of the Lithuanian Republic, in
the north-eastern part of the Aukštaitija ethnographic region. It includes the municipalities of Utena,
Anykščiai, Ignalina and Mol tai districts and Visaginas Town. The county’s territory accounts for
11% of the total national territory. In the north-east the boundaries of Utena County coincide with
the state border of the Lithuanian Republic, and it shares border with Daugavpils District of the
Latvian Republic, in the east it borders on Vitebsk Region of the Republic of Belarus, in the north-
west and the west – on the administrative districts of Rokiškis, Kupiškis and Panev žys of
Panev žys County, and in the south-west, the south and the south-east – Ukmerg , Širvintos, Vil-
nius and Švenčionys districts of Vilnius County.
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       Transit routes to the Republics of Belarus and Latvia and the Republic of Russian Federation
go via the county’s territory. In addition, a transit transport corridor between St. Petersburg and
Warsaw crosses the county. Utena County, like the whole of Lithuania, has a well-developed road
network: the county’s territory is crossed by the transit motor road of international category E
Kaunas - Utena - Daugavpils - Rezekne - Ostraws (E262) going to the Republics of Poland and
Latvia and the Republic of Russian Federation.
       The county also has a well-developed network of the main, national and regional roads. The
main of them are: Vilnius – Utena (A14), Kaunas – Zarasai - Daugavpils (A6), Švenčionys – Ig-
nalina – Zarasai (No.102). The main settlements of the county’s districts are inter-connected by
roads with asphalt paving. Public roads of sufficiently good quality lead to smaller dwelling units.
       The international railway line Warsaw – Vilnius – Daugavpils – St. Petersburg, built in the
second half of the 19th century, goes along the eastern side of the county. The county has a narrow-
gauge railway linking Utena via Anykščiai District with Panev žys County.
       The county is rich in underground water and has sufficient amounts of prospected under-
ground potable water. The fields of sand and quartz sand, gravel and peat are exploited in the
county. The northern part has wood resources.
       The main industries that are developed in the county are those of machine building, metal
processing, construction, metal, textile, knitwear and food (beer, non-alcoholic and alcoholic bever-
ages) production, and the industry of prefabricated structural elements for construction. The only
nuclear power plant of Lithuania is in Visaginas.
       Apart from that, new or reorganized enterprises working in the facilities of former metal proc-
essing enterprises manufacture armed and reinforced strongboxes, contact furnaces, liquid filtering
and treatment plants, and welding electrodes. The largest enterprises are working in Utena,
Anykšiai and Visaginas. The county has a developed wood treatment industry, less developed in-
dustries of furniture, wooden products and the area of services. Agricultural produce accounts for
the major part of the region’s production.
       Utena County is a land abundant with hills, dense forests and picturesque lakes, it has the
largest amount of lakes, 1002, in Lithuania. The county’s landscapes are especially favourable for
the development of tourism and recreation. The most valuable landscape sites are in the Aukštaitija
National Park and the regional parks of Anykščiai, Asveja, Gražut and Labanoras.
       Utena County has no strictly protected territories, i.e. state reservations, where economic ac-
tivities would be fully forbidden.
       The Aukštaitija National Park was established in the territory of Utena County in 1974. Its
present territory makes up 40,570 ha.

       1.2.2.6. Panevėžys region

       According to the data of the year 2005, Panev žys is the fourth county of Lithuania by the
area of its territory, 7,881 km2, and the number of population, 292.4 thousand.
      Panev žys County encompasses the territories of the municipalities of Panev žys City and
the districts of Biržai, Kupiškis, Panev žys, Pasvalys and Rokiškis. It borders on the Republic of
Latvia and on the Lithuanian Counties of Utena, Vilnius, Kaunas and Šiauliai.
      Panev žys County has a convenient geographical location. The Lithuanian capital Vilnius is
easily reached in 1.5 hours by motorway A2. the ice-free Klaip da port is 240 km and Riga (Latvia)
seaport is 150 km away from Panev žys.
      The county’s territory is crossed by a railway line going via the districts of Panev žys,
Kupiškis and Rokiškis and connecting it with Kaliningrad region (Russian Federation), Daugavpils
(the Republic of Latvia) and Moscow (Russian Federation) as well as the highway Via Baltica inte-
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grated into a Trans European motorway system and ensuring a rapid and convenient connection
with Nordic, Central and Western European countries.
      61%, i.e. the greatest amount of the County’s output is produced in the City of Panev žys,
which has more than a half (55 %) of all regional companies. The following industries prevail in
Panev žys region: foodstuff and beverage, electronics, textile, glass, timber processing and wooden
products, textile, electrical equipment and appliances.
      In recent years the service and trade sector have grown and will further grow. Major attention
is allotted to the development of the tourism and service sector, environment protection, and the
development of transport and infrastructure.
      The agricultural sector of Panev žys County is one of the strongest in Lithuania. It grows over
23% of grain cultures, 12 % of sugar beets, 16 % of cattle, 13% of poultry, and produces 14 % of
milk of the total national output.

       1.2.2.7. Šiauliai region

       The county of Šiauliai is located in the northern part of Lithuania and occupies an area of
8,500 km2. According to the 2005 data, its population totalled 360.8 thousand.
       Šiauliai County is located in the north of Lithuania and includes parts of the West Aukštaitija
and Žemaitija ethnographic regions. It borders on the Republic of Latvia.
       Administratively, the county is divided into 7 municipalities: the city of Šiauliai and the dis-
tricts of Akmen , Joniškis, Kelm , Pakruojis, Radviliškis and Šiauliai. The county is dominated by
its centre and the largest city, Šiauliai.
       The region has a mixed, well-developed complex transport system with the international civil-
military aerodrome certified according to ICAO category and a big railway junction in Radvili6kis.
The county of Šiauliai is crossed by the highway attributed to the transport corridor E67 Via Han-
seatica.
       The major part of lands in the region is of good quality therefore the Northern Lithuania is of-
ten referred to as the granary of Lithuania. The region boasts favourable climatic conditions for the
growing of flax, rape, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit and other plants. Apart from that, it has advan-
tageous conditions for the development of animal husbandry product production and processing,
especially of milk ands meat. Traditional industries are developed in the region. The main products
include cement, bicycles, beer, packaging, peat, building materials, and wooden articles. Industries
are concentrated in Šiauliai city and the district of Akmen , which together produce 80% of the in-
dustrial output of the county. Hence, industrial production in other districts is insignificant. In Ši-
auliai City the most important industrial enterprises are within the fields of bicycle and TV set
manufacturing, footwear, furniture, peat extraction, production of concrete, dairy products, bever-
ages and other food processing. In Akmen the most important industry is a cement factory. In the
other districts, typical industries are such as timber production and production of gravel for road
construction.
       The county of Šiauliai is rich in ethnographic cultural heritage. Its attraction centre is Jur-
gaičiai (Domantai) mound better known as the Hill of Crosses.

       1.2.2.8. Telšiai region

      The Telšiai County's area amounts to 4,350 km2 and this accounts for 6.7 per cent of the
Lithuanian territory. According to the 2005 data, the county’s population totalled around 177 thou-
sand, i.e. roughly 5.2% of the country’s population.
      Located in the northwest of Lithuania Telšiai County encompases the northern part of Že-
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maitija (Samogitia) ethnographic region. In the north the county borders on the territory of the Re-
public of Latvia, in the west – Klaip da County, in the east – Šiauliai County, in the south –
Taurag County. The county of Telšiai includes the municipalities of Mažeikiai, Plung and Telšiai
districts and Rietavas Town.
       The territory is crossed by the first class highway Vilnius – Klaip da and international trans-
port corridor TINA (Vilnius – Šiauliai – Klaip da) as well as the international railway Minsk – Vil-
nius – Šiauliai – Klaip da. Road density in Telšiai County is the biggest of all Lithuanian counties.
The distance from Telšiai to Klaip da is 72 km, to Šiauliai – 65 km, to Vilnius – 285 km.
       The major part of county’s population are working in the service sector, i.e. 39.4%, the indus-
try sector including construction, i.e. 36.6%, and agriculture –24%. The county has well-developed
networks of the primary healthcare and social infrastructure. The county has many textile, knitwear,
leather, artwork production plants, furniture industries, a number of construction organizations but
food, oil refining and building materials industries are predominant ones. Personal enterprises are
predominant in the county, however, their industrial scopes are not big.
       The county boasts a beautiful landscape with small hills, abundance of lakes, meandering riv-
ers and small towns, which is favourable for tourism development. The Varniai and Venta regional
Parts are established in the county.

       1.2.2.9. Tauragė region

      Taurag County takes a total area of 4,411 km2, according to the 2005 data, its population to-
talled 131.5 thousand.
      The county is located in the western part of Lithuania, it borders on the counties of Marijam-
pol , Šiauliai, Telšiai and Klaip da and Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation. Taurag
County is divided into four municipalities: Taurag , Šilal , Jurbarkas and Pag giai districts.
Taurag Town is the centre of the region.
      The county boasts a favourable geographical location: it is crossed by the Radviliškis-Sovetsk
(the Russian Federation) railway, has good connection with Latvia – it is in 230 km distance from
the Latvia’s capital Riga. The distance to Kaliningrda is 180 km. The Vilnius-Klaip da highway
goes along the county’s northern boundary, the Nemunas river flows along the southern boundary
of the county which makes it suitable for the development of river navigation. The county’s centre
in the north-south-western direction is crossed by the motor road St. Petersburg- Šiauliai-Taurag -
Kaliningrad, which is important for communication as well as historically as a Hanza merchants’
road.
      The county of Taurag is a land of agriculture. Forests cover roughly one third of the territory.
As far as production and export volumes are concerned, the most important industries in Taurag
County are those of textile and clothing manufacture, food and beverages, wooden products and
wood treatment.
      The county is rich in historical sites and archaeological findings.

       1.2.2.10. Klaipėda region

      Klaip da County takes a total area of 5,209 km2, and according to the 2005 data, its popula-
tion totalled 382.2 thousand.
      The county of Klaip da is situated in the western part of the Republic of Lithuania being the
only region of the country on the Baltic seacoast. In the north the county borders on the Republic of
Latvia, in the south – Kaliningrad Region (the Russian Federation). Inside the country, Klaip da
Ciunty shares borders with the regions of Telšiai and Taurag . The county of Klaip da consists of
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Klaip da, Palanga, Neringa towns and the municipalities of Klaip da, Kretinga, Skuodas and Šilut
districts.
       The county has an especially well developed transport infrastructure. The trans-European cor-
ridors No. IX together with their branch B (Klaip da-Vilnius-Minsk-Kiev) are extended from East
to West through the county of Klaipeda together with other two European highways E272
(Klaip da-Palanga-Šiauliai-Panev žys-Vilnius) and E85 (Klaip da-Kaunas-Vilnius-Lvov-Bukarest-
Aleksandropol). Klaip da is a connection where transit shipment makes up about 80% of all ship-
ment flows. At the moment there are three working airports in the Klaip da County where medium
and small liners and air-freighters can land.
       The specific economic features of Klaip da County are mainly conditioned by the Klaip da
seaport, which is the only distant port in the North and which never freezes all year round in the
East side of the Baltic sea. The Klaip da seaport has big shipment capabilities compared to other
ports in its neighbourhood. The capacity reaches 25-30 million tons per year.
       The most prospective industries in Klaipeda District are food industry, shipbuilding and re-
pairs, timber and light industry. More than 8,700 economic operators are registered in the county of
Klaip da. At the moment around 59% of existing enterprises in the district are small or medium-
sized enterprises. The infrastructure of home trade is well developed in Klaipeda County. The
county has 80% of all fish recourses in Lithuania and also the biggest fishing business infrastruc-
ture and qualified working power.
       The coast of Lithuania along the Baltic Sea extends 99 kilometres. There are well preserved
sandy beaches that kept their primeval origin. The county of Klaip da is distinguished by unique
water resources. The Nemunas is the biggest river of Lithuania flowing through the whole country
and disgorging into the Curonian Bay, that is an integral part of nature and which is extended to the
seacoasts in the East and Neringa peninsula in the West. The river Minija is the biggest river of the
region flowing from the North to the East and disgorging into the Curonian Bay.


1.2.3. Assessment of current institutional framework

      When evaluating the present situation in waste management regions, the following data are
presented: currently generating amounts of municipal waste, municipal waste handling enterprises,
the main landfills of mixed municipal waste operating in a region, and information about separately
collected fractions of municipal waste.
      Recently the operation of the major part of small landfills, having serviced wards not long
ago, has been discontinued since the municipal waste collected in the districts is disposed in the
largest landfills of the districts for the extension of operations of which (until the year 2009) the
permits of integrated pollution control and prevention are still being prepared. Therefore, in this
assessment it is still difficult to exactly specify the number of currently operated small landfills and
the major attention is allotted to the largest landfills of districts.

       1.2.3.1 Vilnius region


       1.2.3.1.1. Amounts of municipal waste

       The statistics on the municipal waste generated in Vilnius region in 2004 are given in Table
1.1. In the year 2004, the municipalities of Vilnius region generated 480,640 tons of municipal
waste. Presently, roughly 75% of the total municipal waste generating in the region are landfilled,
the remain part is disposed of in other ways. In fact, nearly 100% of the total mixed municipal
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waste are disposed in the landfills.

Table 1.1. Municipal waste generation in Vilnius region in 2004, t/year
                                                       Širvin- Švenčio-                                            Total
                  Vilnius     Vilnius       Elek-                            Šaltinin-    Trakai   Ukmerg
 Municipality                                             tos        nys                                           waste
                    City      District      tr nai                           kai Distr.   Distr.    Distr..
                                                        Distr.      Distr.
 Paper and
 cardboard
                 15381.91    6330.814       284.4        1.33       10.86                  3.9     121.115
 packaging
 (15 01 01)                                                                                                    22134.33
 Plastic
 packaging       4514.136     1172.64      40.172      31.221       41.49     74.304      272.16    20.081
 (15 01 02)                                                                                                    6166.204
 Metallic
 packaging        234.882     171.821                   9.212       0.109                  10.7     4.381
 (15 01 04)                                                                                                        431.105
 Glass pack-
 aging (15        805.995      658.28
 01 07)                                                                                                        1464.275
 Paper and
                                                                                          793,56
 cardboard        21281,7    2270,425                   5,823        7,77                            0,47
                                                                                            1
 (20 01 01)                                                                                                    24359.75
 Metals (20                                                                               5245.2
                 13312.91    1476.843       0.595        101       922.503   538.278               1427.475
 01 40)                                                                                     31                 23024.84
 Glass (20
                  47.728        47.5
 01 02)                                                                                                             95.228
 Plastics (20
                  25.478       33.66                               212.169
 01 39)                                                                                                            271.307
 Biodegrad-
 able waste       6832.95                                                       20
 (20 02 01)                                                                                                        6852.95
 Biodegrad-
 able kitchen
 and canteen      1268.06                                0.33
 waste (20
 01 08)                                                                                                            1268.39
 Mixed mu-
 nicipal                                                           19541.9                2368.7
                 342542.1    9610.865 8587.428          4.144                 7419.5               4509.12
 waste (20                                                             2                    8
 03 01)                                                                                                        394583.9
 Total mu-
 nicipal
                  406.25       21.77         8.91        0.15       20.74      8.05        8.69      6.08
 waste
 (1,000t/y.)                                                                                                        480.64
 Municipal
 waste
 amount per
 capita
 (kg per
 capita)             734.90     238.18       312.16        7.57     640.62      208.20    234.08     127.56


        1.2.3.1.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


     In the city of Vilnius the municipal waste collection and transport services are mainly pro-
vided by UAB Vilniaus Specialus Autotransportas, and UAB Vienituras. In the Grigišk s sub-
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district this role is performed by UAB Grigiškių Komunalinis Ūkis“.
       In the territory of Vilnius District these services are provided by UAB Avižienių Komunalin-
inkas. The company’s activities extend to the territories of Avižieniai, Bukišk s, Žemoji Rieš ,
Suderv and Zujūnai.
       In the district of Širvintos these services are provided by UAB Širvintų Komunalinis Ūkis, in
the district of Šalčininkai – UAB Tvarkyba and UAB Merkio Vingis, in the district of Švenčionys,
the towns of Švenčionys and Švenčion liai – UAB Švenčionių Švara, in the town of Pabrad –
UAB Pabrad s Komunalinis Ūkis.
       In the district of Ukmerg thse services are provided by 3 companies: UAB Ukmerg s Butų
Ūkis, UAB Ukmerg s Paslauga and UAB service Ukmerg s Versm .
       In the district of Trakai these services are provided by UAB Trakų r. Komunalinių Įmonių
Kombinatas and UAB Lentvario Komunalinis Ūkis.
       In the town of Elektr nai of Elektr nai Municipality these services are provided by UAB
Elektr nų Komunalinis Ūkis, and in Vievis Ward – UAB Gelvita.
      Recyclable materials (paper and cardboard, metals, glass, plastics) are collected from residents
and transported by a number of enterprises, such as AB Vilniaus Specialus Autotransportas, UAB
Švarus Miestas, UAB Vienituras, UAB Atliekų Tvarkymo Tarnyba, UAB Cleanaway, UAB Švari
Aplinka.
        In the region of Vilnius biodegradable waste is collected by such companies as AB Vilniaus
Zunda, L.Juknevičius' compost production enterprise (plantation waste).


       1.2.3.1.3. Temporary storage of waste


      1,100-litre containers are used for interim storage municipal waste. They meet the European
Union standards. Containers of other volumes are also employed.
       Apart from collecting mixed municipal waste, a special procedure of collecting recyclable
and bulk waste has been worked out. Special containers for recyclable wastes are placed in Vilnius
City. These containers are of two main types: small and big. Small containers are not used accord-
ing to their purpose since residents throw all types of waste into them. Apart from that, they are not
efficient due to their size. Big containers, especially those adapted for a certain type of the waste,
are more efficient where recyclable waste is cleaner. Partially this is preconditioned by the fact that
open structures (e.g. in the case of containers intended for PET) are used for their production. Sepa-
rate collection of recyclable waste outside Vilnius has not been widely spread yet even though some
municipalities have already assumed this initiative and have acquired containers intended for this
purpose.

       1.2.3.1.4. Collection and transport


       Presently, the whole region is dominated by a container collection system.
        Vehicles with a compaction system are used for the collection of municipal waste.
        As a rule, waste from containers is collected from 5 to 7 times per week in Vilnius City and
1-2 times per week (or even rarer) in other places of the region. Waste collection schedules are pre-
pared according to contracts concluded between a waste holder and a waste management enterprise.
The route of a vehicle is planned considering the places of container positioning, technical charac-
teristics of the vehicle and a waste collection schedule.
        There are several sites for bulk waste in Vilnius City. They also accept waste for recycling. In
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other locations bulk waste is transported to the nearest landfill.
       Waste is not collected from all sites where it generates. In Vilnius City the scope of collection
accounts for around 99 per cent. In the remaining part of the region this percentage is lower.

       1.2.3.1.5. Waste sorting

      Presently, only a small part of the recyclable waste from the municipal waste stream is col-
lected separately in Vilnius region. The major part of secondary raw materials (paper and card-
board, glass, metals and plastics) is collected in Vilnius Region. Residents can conclude contracts
for the collection and transport of both the municipal and secondary raw materials with certain sec-
ondary raw material collection enterprises.
       The system of separate collection of biodegradable waste in Vilnius Region is still in the
phase of establishment. A part of biodegradable waste from commercial enterprises is collected and
treated by the enterprises engaged in this activity.

       1.2.3.1.6. Waste treatment


The major part of collected secondary raw materials is transported to the enterprise Vienituras. It
holds utilisation facilities for the on-site sorted waste. These facilities sort and partially treat waste.
For instance, PET bottles are sorted according to their colour, then crushed and washed. PET gran-
ules are packed in big sacks and sold to plastic production plants outside Vilnius Region.
      Paper brought to the treatment facilities is sorted and packed into packages. Such paper pack-
ages are sold to one of the 3 paper mills using scrap paper. Two of them are located in Vilnius
County, one is based in Klaip da.
      Apart from that, polyethylene, tins (mainly packaging materials purchased from enterprise)
are sorted and packed at the enterprise. Polyethylene and cans are sold to enterprises outside Vilnius
Region.
       Not much glass is utilised at Vienituras facilities since Lithuania practically does not have the
market of used glass.

       1.2.3.1.7. Waste disposal in landfills


        So far Vilnius Region has used the only means of the municipal waste disposal, i.e. disposal
in landfills. The treatment of landfilled waste is limited to crushing and compacting, which is done
only in big landfills.
       Waste in disposed in city landfills by both waste handling companies and residents. In some
places private companies disposed trade and non-hazardous wastes. The number of residents using
these landfills varies from several thousand to 30,000 in the case of Ukmerg . In the majority of
cities and towns certain handling of waste is performed in landfills where it is inspected and regis-
tered.
       In city landfills, like in ward landfills, no environment protection means are installed. None
of the landfills, except for Kariotišk s landfill, has a weighing-machine. No monitoring (e.g. gen-
eration of the leachate, ground and surface water quality) is performed. In the landfills of some
towns (e.g. Ukmerg ) a certain sorting of waste is performed by persons who make their living from
wastes found in landfills.
       Vilnius region has a few big landfills. In fact the only big operating landfill of municipal

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waste is the Kariotišk s landfill in Trakai Municipality, in 27 km to the south of Vilnius. The
Kariošišk s landfill is operated and owned by Vilnius Municipality but the waste coverage area also
includes Trakai Municipality. The landfill will be finally closed in 2009, and the plan is to start clo-
sure works in 2007.
      Mainly municipal waste (nearly 90 per cent) is disposed in the Kariotišk s landfill. It is oper-
ated by UAB Vilniaus Sąvartynas. This company holds 5 bulldozers, 2 scrapers, 2 compressors, 2
excavators and 1 truck. The landfill has a weighing-machine that has weighted all the waste
brought to the landfill since 1999. Some environment protection systems, i.e. leachate collection
devices, have been installed in the landfill.
      Apart from the Kariotišk s landfill, Vilnius region presently has a number of small operating
landfills in wards and the following medium-sized district landfills for municipal waste disposal:

   -     Beržut landfill sąvartynas (Ukmerg District);
   -     Eišišk s landfills (Šalčininkai District);
   -     Dumbliai, Pabrad and Pliauškiai landfills (Švenčionys District Municipality);
   -     Papiškiai, Pakryžiai, Marnišiai, Zujūnai landfills (Vilnius District;
   -     Šniponiai landfill (Širvintos District),
   -     Kazokišk s landfill (Elektr nai Municipality),
   -     Rūdišk s (Trakai District).

        The closure of these landfills is scheduled for June 2008, and small landfills in wards – Au-
gust.

       Some treatment of waste is performed on waste generation sites. In the majority of rural areas
waste composting in farms is widely spread. In some places organic (kitchen) waste is used as fod-
der for animals.

         1.2.3.1.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges

      The majority of municipalities in Vilnius Region, by the municipal council resolutions, set the
sizes of maximum payments for the handling of a certain waste amount (m3, t), i.e. waste manage-
ment tariffs. Some municipalities have not adopted legislation setting the sizes of tariffs and their
resolutions cover only the handling of mixed municipal waste. Currently applicable waste manage-
ment tariffs adopted in some municipalities were approved in the period of 2001-2003 and have not
been changed ever since (except for Elektr nai, Švenčionys and Trakai municipalitie). Part of mu-
nicipalities do not control whether waste management companies observe the tariffs approved by
municipalities. The municipal councils approve the sizes of waste management tariffs based on cal-
culations of waste management companies. The municipal councils also determine the amount
(theoretical) of waste generating per year for different groups of waste holders, i.e. the so-called
waste generation amounts (annual). In this pay the payment for waste management for the holders
of waste is determined based on fixed theoretically calculated amount of generating waste (volume,
weight) but not on the amount of really handled waste.
       The group of residents, most often, is divided into four sub-groups: the residents of multi-
family apartment houses in rural areas and in towns, and the residents of private houses in rural ar-
eas and in towns for whom different norms of waste generation are set, for other holders of waste
(economic operators, institutions) waste generation norms are calculated using other criteria (e.g.
trade areas, the number of beds or employees). The size of payment for a particular holder of waste
is calculated by multiplying waste generation norms by a waste management tariff. The waste man-
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agement tariff for residents is most often set as a monthly fee per person, while for enterprises – as a
fee per ton or m³. Elektr nai Municipality has set a tariff for the residents of multi-family apartment
houses according to the area of an apartment. At multi-family apartment houses payments for resi-
dents are distributed by a company administrating the house or the association of the owners of
multi-family apartment houses. The fee for waste management for the residents of private houses as
well as separate economic operators using individual containers is set according to the volume of a
container and the frequency of its emptying.
        The municipal waste management services to all holders of the waste are provided on a con-
tract basis. The residents of multi-family apartment houses receive these services according to con-
tracts concluded with building administrators or associations, the residents of private houses – con-
tracts concluded with the house owners. In some locations of municipalities, despite the fact that
fees are set for waste management and these services are provided, residents do not pay for these
services/do not conclude contracts with the waste manager (the expenses of utilities companies are
covered from a municipal budget). Payments for provided services are effected every month, and
the payments are administered by the waste manager itself or companies/associations administering
the buildings.
       In summary, it can be stated that there is a large variety of payment calculation methods, often
it is not clear what method was used to set the size of a tariff and whether the tariff size is observed.
One resident of Vilnius region for waste management pays, on average, LTL 1.5 - 3 per month. Ta-
ble 1.2 shows the average size of monthly payments per capita in separate municipalities of Vilnius
Region.

Table 1.2. Residents' payments for municipal waste management in Vilnius region in 2005.
   Municipality          Municipal waste management       Average monthly payment          Price of municipal waste
                                   companies                    per capita, LTL                  management
                                                                                                    LTL/t
Šalčininkai District             UAB Tvarkyba,                      1.0 – 2.2
                              UAB Merkio Vingis
 Širvintos District      UAB Širvintų Komunalinis Ūkis                1.37
Švenčionys District    UAB Švenčionių Švara; UAB                     1.2 - 3
                       Pabrad s Komunalinis Ūkis
  Trakai District      UAB Trakų r. Komunalinių Įmo-                0.64 – 2.1
                       nių Kombinatas, UAB Lentvario
                       Komunalinis Ūkis                                                            ~20-30
 Ukmerg District       UAB Ukmerg s Butų Ūkis, UAB                  1.76 – 3
                       Ukmerg s Paslauga, UAB service
                       Ukmerg s Versm
    Vilnius City       UAB Vilniaus Specialus Auto-                    2.3
                       transportas, UAB Vienituras, UAB
                       Grigiškių Komunalinis Ūkis
  Vilnius District     UAB Avižienių Komunalininkas                 1.2 – 2.8


        1.2.3.1.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

      According to the data of Vilnius Region Waste Management Centre, the plan is to install
composting facilities in 2007, implement waste collection and sorting in 2008 and to expand the
regional landfill in 2013 in Vilnius region.
      The tasks of Vilnius region waste management are set according to provisions of the National
Strategic Waste Management Plan and the Law on Waste Management, Financial memorandum
concerning the investment project “The Creation of Vilnius Region Waste Management System”
and further agreements of Vilnius region municipalities (e.g. Agreement of the Shareholders of Vil-
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nius County Waste Management Centre).
      According to the time of implementation these tasks are divided into short-term (2006-2009)
and long-term (2010-2016) tasks.
      With the help of ISPA project, a proper regional waste collection and disposal infrastructure
(a regional landfill, waste reception sites (WRS) and container sites (CS) in rural areas will be cre-
ated, and the landfills not complying with the set requirements will be closed. For the implementa-
tion of the ISPA project, together with the Environmental Projects Management Agency, will be
responsible the Vilnius County Waste Management Centre (VCWMC) that will become the owner
of the new regional infrastructure. In this way, the issue of mixed municipal waste disposal will be
solved by operating regional waste facilities, WRSs and CSs will help to partially implement the
tasks of specific waste stream collection and the development of providing the waste management
service, and the municipal landfills will be closed. The collection of municipal waste (cording to
conditions prescribed by municipalities), utilisation (recycling) of secondary raw materials as well
as operation of regional infrastructure on a contract basis will be entrusted to the private sector.
      VCWMC’s task within the framework of the ISPA project is to ensure the installation of the
following waste management infrastructure’s facilities :
    - construction of a new regional landfill in Kazokišk s ward;
    - installation of 13 waste reception sites;
    - installation of 100 container sites;
    - closure of Kariotišk s landfill;
    - closure of 13 mid-sized landfills (regional) in 13 municipalities;
    - closure of 110 small landfills in rural areas.

       Upon constructing the infrastructure facilities, VCWMC will be their owner and organizer
of operations. In this way, to develop the waste management infrastructure, the task described in
Table 1.3 has been set.

Table 1.3 Work tasks for the construction of the regional infrastructure objects
 N.    Description                                             Completion of construction - start of operation

 1.    Kazokišk s regional landfill                          07 2007
 2.    Closure of landfills:
       2.1. Kariotišk s landfill;                            06 2008
       2.2. Mid-sized landfills                              06 2008
       2.3. Small landfills                                  08 2007
 3.    Waste reception sites                                 10 2007
 4.    Container sites                                       08 2007


      A new regional landfill will be installed in Kazokišk s, Elektr nai Municipality. The regional
landfill will have to receive around 100-150 refuse collection vehicles per day. To deliver such
amount of waste a good access road will be necessary. The landfill will be held under the ownership
right by UAB VAATC (VCWMC).
      The leachate formed in the new regional landfill will be treated at Vievis Waste Water Treat-
ment Plant.
      Municipal waste collected from households and industries can be either transported directly to
the landfill or temporarily stored at municipal transfer stations for later transportation to the landfill.
      In the case of direct transport waste will be carried in 8.5 t trucks. In the case of installation of
transfer stations, waste from collection sites also would be carried in 8.5 t trucks. At transfer sta-
tions waste will be offloaded for temporary storage and later will be taken to the landfill by waste
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collection vehicles of 25 t capacity. The transfer stations will be installed in all the municipalities
including Elektr nai municipality. The average distance to transfer stations will be 10 km in Vil-
nius, and 5 km in all the other municipalities. However, no installation of the transfer stations in
Vilnius region is planned for the nearest future.
      The amounts of gases generating in the new regional landfill could be sold. However, taking
into consideration the fact that no heat users are present in the environs of the landfill the only tech-
nically reasonable alternative of the gas utilisation is the electric power plant of the landfill.
       Waste reception sites are intended for the collection of specific municipal waste streams (i.e.
household waste) from residents. In this way, residents will have the possibility to deliver (for free)
their waste that is not allowed to be disposed together with mixed municipal (household) waste.
The waste received on these sits will be further transferred to waste managers for treatment or other
kind of utilisation. Based on calculations of waste amounts presented in the previous regional waste
management plan, every resident, on average, will deliver 10 kg of different wastes to these sites.
       WRS will consist of 3 different areas: waste reception, transport and container storage. Each
site will be serviced by one employee, and the sites will be open 8 hours per day, 5 days per week.
The following municipal wastes will be received from residents on these sites:
      • secondary raw materials (packaging and other glass, plastic, paper and cardboard, and metal
      wastes);
      • green waste (tree and bush trimming waste, mowed grass, leaves, shaving and similar);
      • construction and demolition household waste;
      • product waste (including hazardous);
      • other hazardous municipal waste;
      • other bulky waste.
      The waste reception sites will be long to UAB VAATC (VCWMC) under the right of owner-
ship.
      Waste management activities will be carried out by private companies that will be selected by
a service tender. VCWMC will conclude contracts concerning waste collection, landfill operation
and similar issues with the successful tenderers.
      The plan is to install 11 composting sites taking the total area of 3.7 ha in Vilnius region. Bio-
degradable waste generating in Vilnius City will be handled using the capacities of private compa-
nies, burning biofuel and in the future composting at sludge treatment facilities of Vilnius Waste
Water Treatment Plant.
      The recommendation for municipalities is to encourage the holders of waste to compost their
green and food wastes in home conditions. The municipalities should provide information to the
holders of these wastes about possible ways of composting (“in home conditions”), installation of
items necessary for composting (receptacles, boxes) and maintenance of composted waste.
      A municipal waste incineration feasibility study has been worked out separately for Vilnius
region, and the key implementing institution of this project is UAB Ekostrategija.

       1.2.3.2. Kaunas region


       1.2.3.2.1. Municipal waste amounts

The statistics on the municipal waste generated in Kaunas region in 2004 are given in Table 1.4.
The total amount of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Kaunas region in 204 is
436,630 tons.


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        Table 1.4. Generation of municipal waste in Kaunas region in 2004, t/year
                               Kaunas       Kaunas      Jonava Dis-      Kaišiadorys      K dainiai   Raseiniai     Total
        Municipality
                                  City      District        trict           District       District    District     waste
Paper and cardboard pack-
                              20651.91     2387.265         137
aging (15 01 01)                                                                                                  23176,175
Plastic packaging (15 01
                              3684.787      507.352       246.856            57.27        337.983       6.45
02)                                                                                                                4840,698
Metallic packaging (15 01
                               406.879
04)                                                                                                                 406,879
Glass packaging
                               3609.43      19173.9                                        14.05      1420.64
(15 01 07)                                                                                                         24218,02
Paper and cardboard (20 01
                              8243.195       39.254        2.667                           78.472        10
01)                                                                                                                8373,588
Metals (20 01 40)             5326.802     1268.582        38.328           77.968        138.713      5.445       6855,838
Glass (20 01 02)                 48.46      77.207                            0.21                       4          129,877
Plastics (20 01 39)            482.795       22.008                                         9.87                    514,673
Biodegradable waste (20
                                 5473                       1314                           107.25        10
02 01)                                                                                                              6904,25
Biodegradable kitchen and
                                59.988
canteen waste (20 01 08)                                                                                               59,988
Mixed municipal waste (20
                              253455.4     51758.64      15420.17         5666.237        16535.82    18321.52
03 01)                                                                                                            361157,79
Total municipal waste
                                301.44       75.23         17.16              5.80         17.22       19.78
(1,000t/year)                                                                                                          436,63
Municipal waste amount
per capita
(kg/capita)                       817.10      894.49          328.08             155.87      264.72     455.03


                1.2.3.2.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


           In Kaunas region municipal waste management services are provided by the enterprises:
           • In Kaunas City – the municipal enterprise UAB Kauno Švara;
           • In Kaunas District – UAB Dzūtra (but in Lap s ward the services are provided by UAB
               Kauno Švara);
           • In Kaišiadorys District – UAB Dzūtra;
           • In K dainiai District - UAB Skongalis;
           • In Jonava District – UAB Jonavos Paslaugos;
           • In Raseiniai District – UAB Vidukl s Komunalinis Ūkis, UAB Raseinių Komunalin s
               Paslaugos , UAB Pagojukų Komunalinis Ūkis, UAB Ariogalos Komunalinis Ūkis.

                1.2.3.2.3. Temporary storage of waste

             The container system of waste storage and collection is the most widely spread in the major
       part of the region. Waste is collected in containers of different capacities by enterprises providing
       services to separate sub-regions. Containers of the following capacities are used for municipal waste
       collection in Kaunas region:
           • plastic containers of 0.12 m3, 0.14 m3, 0.19 m3, and 024 m3 capacities;
           • wheeled containers of 0.6 m3 and 0.66 m3 capacities;
           • wheeled metal containers of 0.66 m3 capacity;
           • zinc-plated containers of 1.1 m3 capacity;
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   •   metal containers of 0.75 m3, 4 m3 and 6 m3 capacity.
       The most widely spread way of collecting secondary raw materials is the collection in con-
tainers for glass, paper, plastics and metals placed on container sites between residential houses, in
close proximity to shopping centres and other accessible locations of people accumulation. The con-
tainers are replaced by taking full containers with trucks and transporting to the locations of treat-
ment or recycling. To collect secondary raw materials (paper, glass, plastics and metals) containers
of 0.75 or 2.3 m3 capacity are used. However, UAB Kauno Švara is replacing them with the con-
tainers of bigger capacity.
       Two bulky waste and secondary raw material sites, taking 1,561 m2 and 2,437 m2 areas, are
installed in Ašigalio Street and in Aleksotas sub-district of Kaunas City and they are operated by
UAB Kauno Švara. Different open and closed containers for various wastes and secondary raw ma-
terials and spent oils are placed on the sites. This waste is accepted from residents free of charge.
Bulky waste collection sites accept housewares, domestic appliances, furniture, TV sets etc. Apart
from that, end-of-life car tyres, luminescence tubes, accumulators, spent oils and their packaging
are accepted from residents for free.

       1.2.3.2.4. Collection and transport


      In Kaunas city waste is collected from containers and transported to a waste transfer station,
where it is pressed to 0.4 t/m3, reloaded into 24 m3 capacity containers and transported to Lap s
landfill. Where the waste is collected in the districts it is exported directly to the landfill.
         The company Kauno Švara holds 43 refuse collection vehicles of which 26 collect waste
within the city every day according to the set routes. The municipal waste transfer station holds 3
trucks. A secondary raw material sorting and pressing line operates in the transfer station. One truck
is regularly working in the transfer station, the other two with trailers transport containers contain-
ing pressed municipal waste from the transfer station to Lap s landfill.
      Recently the company has been rapidly upgrading its vehicles.
      In Kaunas City the services of mixed municipal waste collection and export are provided for
all residents of multi-family apartment houses, and the amount of waste collected from private
houses is growing.
      Based on the data of waste managers, presently waste handling services are provided to
around 81% of Kaunas region population. In urban areas the public municipal waste collection ser-
vices are provided to the majority of population (92%) but in rural areas only 44% of residents re-
ceive these services.

       1.2.3.2.5. Waste sorting


      In Kaunas City so far mixed municipal waste has been poorly sorted on site, the majority of
city’s locations lack containers for the sorting of secondary raw materials.
      The company handling waste in Kaunas City Kauno Švara as well as the waste transfer station
have secondary raw material (paper and cardboard, and plastics) sorting lines. Apart from that, the
company operates special glass sorting equipment.
      The quality of secondary raw materials collected in the city is gradually improving. However,
so far the financing of secondary raw material collection has not been properly regulated. The types
of unprofitable secondary raw materials are practically not collected.

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       1.2.3.2.6. Waste treatment


       The major part of collected secondary raw materials (paper and cardboard, glass and plastics)
is transferred for recycling to secondary raw material recycling companies.
       To improve the treatment of waste from construction and demolition, it is planned to acquire
new equipment and vehicles that will replace the old ones on Kaunas construction and demolition
waste treatment site. Taking into consideration the fact that these technical facilities are mobile,
when necessary, they will be used for the on-site crushing of this waste in districts. The product of
construction and demolition waste can be used as a raw material for building internal roads within
the landfill.
       The secondary production in landfills is related to the use of gas generating therein. The pro-
duction is possible when all waste storage fields are full and the landfill gases are emitted during the
process of decomposition. The cases of secondary production include additional treatment of sec-
ondary raw materials, for instance, additional treatment of the product that generates during com-
posting.
       The gas usage systems can be installed in fully filled storage fields that are not used any more.
As far as Lap s landfill is concerned, the plan has already been worked out to use gas generating in
the 1st field of storage. However the investments provided for in this project and the application to
receive support from Fund of Cohesion do not cover the gas usage project. Thus, the social-
economic benefit of gas usage is not relevant to this project.
       Taking into consideration the amounts of green waste (around 4,000 m3/m) generating in
Kaunas region, one facility is enough for the whole region. The proper facility is already operating
in Kaunas City. Its operation could be improved by constructing a new composting installation. The
recommendation is to reduce the amounts of green waste generating in regions by promoting the
composting in homer conditions in rural areas. Green waste in the region will be collected in large
containers (20 m3 ) placed at waste reception points.
       Kaunas City Municipality holds a green waste composting site that is operated by UAB
Kauno Švara. This site is installed nearby Lap s landfill. Around 4,000 m3 of green waste are ac-
cumulated on the site in a year, and around 180 t of compost are sold. Composting residues (sift-
ings) are transported to Lap s landfill.
       In Kaunas City food waste is collected from public catering enterprises and stores. UAB
Kauno Švara transports the meat, fish and diary waste collected from stores for treatment to the
Rietavas organic waste handling company. So far the organic waste has not been separated from the
total waste stream.
       A separate plot is allotted for green waste composting in the territory of Zabieliškis landfill,
but waste there is not crushed.

       1.2.3.2.7. Waste disposal in the landfill

      Presently, the mixed municipal waste collected in Kaunas region is disposed in the landfills of
Lap s (waste of Kaunas city and Kaunas district), Budnikai (Kaišiadorys District), Zabieliškis (K -
dainiai District), Jonalaukis (Jonava District), Andriušaičiai, G luva, Vidukl and Pajaročiai (all
districts of Raseniai).
      All these landfills, except for Lap s and Zabieliškis, are characteristic of big problems related
to fencing, protective embankments, leachate collection and treatment systems, waste registration
and control, waste management within the landfill and environmental state monitoring.
      Two of the mentioned landfills (Lap s and Zabieliškis) will become regional landfills.
       The Lap s municipal waste landfill is installed to the north of Kaunas, in nearly 2 kilometres
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to the north of the settlements of Lap s. The northern border of the landfill coincides with the
southern border of the neighbouring Lap s Geomorphological Preserve. The landfill takes the total
area of 37.4 ha. The landfill’s existing areas will be sufficient to accept all the waste that will gener-
ate in the region within the planned period, therefore no new territories will have to be connected to
the landfill.
       There are 2 operated and 1 prospective waste storage fields in the landfill. The first field, tak-
ing the area of 12.5 ha, has been used for waste disposal since 1973. Around 2.5million tons of non-
hazardous municipal waste have already been accumulated there. The operation of this storage field
is drawing to an end. It will be discontinued when the waste pile reaches the design level (126 m
above the sea level). No special screening layer is installed under this field and the present drainage
system collects only part of leachate. Due to technical reasons, leachate treatment facilities are not
efficient to the required extent, therefore part of leachate is discharged to the rivulet of Maril with-
out sufficient treatment. Upon discontinuation of operation of the storage field No. 1 waste will be
accumulated in the storage field No. 3 whose design capacity amounts to 0.4 million tons. This
waste accumulate field was designed and installed considering all environmental requirements.
       The Zabieliškis municipal waste landfill is in 6 km distance to the southeast of K dainiai
Town centre, in Pel dnagiai Ward, Zabieliškis Village.
       The landfill takes a total area of 9.98 ha and contains 3 waste storage fields (occupying the to-
tal area of 7.59 ha). Presently, only the 1st accumulation field is operated. The municipal waste is
compacted and filled with a soil layer every 2 days. To collect the formed leachate a drainage sys-
tem is installed from which leachate gets into a pump-station and is re-pumped to the city’s waste
water treatment plant.
       In both these landfills waste is weighted and recorded. Apart from that, a vehicle disinfecting
pit is installed in Lap s landfill.

        1.2.3.2.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges

      The majority of companies handling waste in Kaunas region set tariffs for residents according
to the principle of a tariff per capita based on fixed, theoretically calculated volumes of waste or
amounts generating per year, and the fixed density of municipal waste (t/m3).
      Waste generation norms and respective tariffs are set separately for urban and rural residents
taking into consideration the type of housing (private house or multi-family apartment house). As a
rule, the tariffs for rural residents are lower compared to those set for town population. The tariffs
are approved by municipal councils according to Waste Management Rules.
      The amounts of waste management payments and the prices of municipal waste management
in Kaunas region are given in Table 1.5.

Table 1.5. Residents’ payments for the management of municipal waste in Kaunas region in 2005.
       Municipality            Municipal waste manage-     Average monthly payment       Municipal waste manage-
                                    ment companies              per capita, LTL                ment price
                                                                                                  LTL/t
       Kaunas City           UAB Kauno Švara                      1.61 – 2.31                   ~120-140
      Kaunas District         UAB Dzūtra, UAB Kauno                0.35-1.73
                                         Švara
   Kaišiadorys District      UAB Dzūtra                            0.32-1.39
      Jonava District        UAB Jonavos Paslaugos                 0.46-1.38
    K dainiai District       UAB Skongalis                          1.5-2.25




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    Raseiniai District    UAB Vidukl s Ko-                  2.08-2.27
                          munalinis Ūkis, UAB
                          Raseinių Komunalin s
                          Paslaugos, UAB Pagojukų
                          Komunalinis Ūkis, UAB
                          Ariogalos Komunalinis
                          Ūkis



The tariffs set for the majority of enterprises, agencies and organizations are by 10 - 30% higher
than those set for residents. In the majority of districts, the holders of waste are authorised to dis-
pose waste in district landfills by themselves without charging any fee.
       1.2.3.2.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

       According to the data of Kaunas Region Waste Management Centre, the plan is to implement
waste sorting and collection in 2008-2010; the composting of green waste in 2009 and to construct a
regional landfill in Kaunas region.
       In the Kaunas waste management region the aims of the National Strategic Waste Manage-
ment Plan have to be achieved until 2007 by providing public services of municipal waste manage-
ment to at least 85% of the region’s population. Apart from that, the municipalities of districts have
to expand the provision of the existing waste management services to the extent that
       • 98% of town residents and 85 % of rural residents are serviced until 2007,
       • 100% of town residents and 90% of rural residents are serviced until 2024.
       The servicing of Kaunas private house residents should increase from 95% in 2007 to 100% in
2024.
       According to the National Strategic Waste Management Plan, the municipalities, when orga-
nizing and developing the municipal waste management systems, must organize separate collection
of hazardous household waste and small lots of hazardous waste that might get into the municipal
waste from organizations, enterprises and agencies (except enterprises where hazardous waste is
generated during production process). Therefore, the Kaunas Region Municipal Waste Management
Strategy provides for separate collection of hazardous household waste from organizations, enter-
prises and agencies (except enterprises where hazardous waste is generated during production proc-
ess).
       According to the Kaunas Region Municipal Waste Management Strategy, it is planned to in-
crease the separate collection of secondary raw materials according to the tasks set in the National
Strategic Waste Management Plan.
       The plan of Kaunas region is to install 5 composting sites in municipal centres, 6 small com-
posting sites inwards and acquire composting equipment. Separate collection and home composting
of the green waste generating in gardens and parks will be promoted, and the measures of usual
composting in piles will be implemented. In the long range more efficient means to reduce the
amount of landfilled biodegradable waste will be selected on the level of a feasibility study accord-
ing to the aims set in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan. Composting in home condi-
tions will be promoted by the region’s municipalities, mobile composting machinery will be ac-
quired and the regional composting site will be installed in the territory of the planned Zabieliškis
landfill.
       The Kaunas Region Waste Management Strategy provides for the implementation of the
waste management solution being the most feasible for the region by installing one or two landfills
complying with the requirements of legislation and closing other operating as well as illegal dump
sites.
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              Two regional landfills are planned: Lap s landfill situated in 19 km to the north-east of Kau-
        nas City and Zabieliškis landfill being in 7 km to the south-east of K dainiai Town. The monitoring
        of disposed waste is carried out in these landfills. The potential territories of Natura 2000 are not
        closer than in 1.7 km from Lap s landfill.
              Lap s landfill will service Kaunas City, and the districts of Kaunas and Kaišiadorys until
        2014-2015.
              Waste generating in the municipalities of K dainiai, Jonava and Raseiniai will be disposed in
        the Zabieliškis landfill. The possibility for the Zabieliškis landfill to service the whole region after
        the closure of the Lap s landfill is under consideration. This landfill will operated until 2024.
              Presently operated landfills in districts and wards will be closed until 2008, i.e. until the start
        of operation of the regional landfills.


                    1.2.3.3. Alytus region


                    1.2.3.3.1. Amounts of municipal waste

        The statistics on the municipal waste generate din Alytus region in 2004 are given in Table 1.6. The
        total 59,430 tons of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Alytus region in 2004.

         Table 1.6. Generation of municipal waste in Alytus region in 2004, t/year
                                         Druskin-                                                                          Total
                            Alytus                      Alytus       Lazdijai      Var na      Prienai    Birštonas
      Municipality                         inkai                                                                           waste
                             City                      District       District     District    District    Town
                                          Town
Paper and cardboard
                            129.67         11.5
packaging (15 01 01)                                                                                                        141.17
Plastic packaging (15
                            73.319        75.397         6.72          0.69        13.713       0.405
01 02)                                                                                                                     170.244
Metallic packaging (15
                            62.101
01 04)                                                                                                                      62.101
Glass packaging (15 01
                           294.817                       2.55
07)                                                                                                                        297.367
Paper and carboard (20
                            50.066         2.27
01 01)                                                                                                                      52.336
                                                                                                                           2656.02
Metals (20 01 40)            965.211       4.375       138.264       644.689       170.275     733.208
                                                                                                                                 2
Glass (20 01 02)                             2.72         15           0.04           11                                     28.76
Plastics (20 01 39)           1.104                                                  4.66                                    5.764
Biodegradable waste
                                          1345.9                                                 10.8
(20 02 01)                                                                                                                  1356.7
Biodegradable kitchen
and canteen waste (20         0.526
01 08)                                                                                                                       0.526
Mixed municipal waste                                                                                                      54660.4
                            26322.67      10777        1152.119      10701.2       4329.2      1378.268
(20 03 01)                                                                                                                      57
Total municipal waste
                              27.90        12.22         1.31         11.35          4.53        2,12       0.00
(1,000t/year)                                                                                                                59.43
Municipal waste
amount per capita
(kg/capita)                    394.53        487.96         40.72       428.54        149.04      60.54        0.00



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       1.2.3.3.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


   In Alytus region municipal waste handling services are provided by the following enterprises:
   • In the city and district of Alytus – UAB Dzūtra, SP UAB Eisrega;
   • In Druskininkai Town - SP UAB Druskininkų Komunalinis Ūkis;
   • In Var na District – UAB Varkoma;
   • In Lazdijai District – UAB Lazdijų Komunalinis Ūkis;
   • In Birštonas Town – UAB Birštono Komunalinis Ūkis;
   • In Daugai Ward – Daugai Utilities Service;
   • In Prienai District – UAB Dzūtra.


       1.2.3.3.3. Temporary storage of waste


      Municipal waste is collected in district centres and larger settlements. Waste in mainly col-
lected in containers. The following containers are used for municipal waste collection: plastic con-
tainers of 120, 140 or 240 litre capacity for waste collection from private houses; plastic or metal
containers of 1,100, 770 or 660 litre capacity or large reservoirs, i.e. 2 - 8 m3 containers – from
multi-family apartment houses.


       1.2.3.3.4. Collection and transport


     Waste collection and transport vehicles and equipment used for waste management are being
upgraded. Waste transported to landfills is not weighted.


       1.2.3.3.5. Waste sorting


      Secondary raw materials (paper and cardboard, glass, metals, plastics) are collected only in
bigger towns (e.g. Alytus, Druskininkai, Var na). The amounts of collected secondary raw materi-
als are growing when implementing secondary raw material collection systems; no secondary sort-
ing of this waste is performed.
      Presently, a biodegradable waste composting site is operating in Druskininkai. In other loca-
tions the biodegradable waste, including green waste, is practically not separated from the total
stream of waste and is disposed in landfills.


       1.2.3.3.6. Waste recycling


     The major part of collected secondary raw materials (paper and cardboard, plastics, glass and
others.) is transported for further treatment to specialized companies.


       1.2.3.3.7. Waste disposal in the landfill

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      Among the landfills registered in Alytus District the most important is Takniškiai landfill
which accepts waste from Alytus Town. The Alytus regional hazardous waste handling site is under
construction in this landfill. Another landfill worth mentioning is a small landfill of Simnas that was
installed not long ago and has an insulating membrane and a leachate treatment facility but due to
improper start of operation it was damaged.
      The Lazdijai Town landfill accepting waste from Lazdijai Town is the most important of the
landfills registered in Lazdijai District.
      In the territory of Druskininkai Municipality, the Balain landfill located in around 10 km
from Druskininkai Town by the border with Belarus (around 1 km) is operated. A landfill of local
importance is installed in Leipalingis environs.
      Among the landfills registered in Prienai District the most important is the Prienai Town land-
fill that accepts waste from the towns of Prienai and Birštonas. The landfill is installed in a forest.
After performing the required research it is recommended to close the landfill due its adverse effect
on the surrounding forest.
      The Var na Town landfill receiving waste from Var na Town is the most important of all the
landfills officially operating in Var na District.
      None of the landfills of the region complies with the Lithuanian or European Union require-
ments for landfill management.

       1.2.3.3.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges


       The municipal capital is predominant in waste management enterprises. In the majority of
these companies 100% of shares are owned by town or district municipalities (Prienai, Birštonas),
other companies are of mixed capital (Var na District), the others – private capital (Alytus Town,
Lazdijai District) Two waste management companies in Alytus District have the status of a district
municipality budgetary agency. Privatized companies are working with municipalities on a contract
basis. The larger share of waste management companies operate landfills according to agreements
with municipalities.
       The majority of the region’s enterprises calculate tariffs on provided services according “The
Method of Calculating Tariffs for Solid and Liquid Municipal Waste Export” approved by the Or-
der of the Construction and Town Planning Minister No. 97 of 20 April 1995 or the similar methods
worked out by companies themselves. A part of companies, especially in districts, do not have any
tariffs calculation methods, they calculate them based on incurred factual expenses recorded in their
accounting and a certain profit rate that is rather diverse. The Alytus Region Waste Management
Centre has set the maximum possible tariff on waste collection, which LTL 184 /t.
       The amounts of waste management payments and municipal waste handling prices in Alytus
region are given in Table 1.7.




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Table 1.7. Residents’ payments for municipal waste handling in Alytus region in 2005
       Municipality            Municipal waste handling     Average monthly payment    Municipal waste manage-
                                      enterprises                 per capita, LTL            ment price
                                                                                                LTL/t
       Alytus Town           UAB Dzūtra,
                             SP UAB Eisrega
      Alytus District        UAB Dzūtra,
                             SP UAB Eisrega
     Var na District         UAB Varkoma
   Druskininkai District     SP UAB Druskininkų
                             Komunalinis Ūkis
                                                                    2.51                        184
     Lazdijai District       UAB Lazdijų Komunalinis
                             Ūkis
     Birštonas Town          UAB Birštono Ko-
                             munalinis Ūkis
      Prienai District       UAB Dzūtra


        1.2.3.3.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

      According to the data of the Alytus Region Waste Management Centre, the following main
works are planned in Alytus region: waste sorting and collection implementation – 2007-2008;
composting implementation – 2008-2009; start of operation of the regional landfill – 2007; closure
of the old landfills – 2007-2011.
        The plan is to install the required network of facilities for the management of collected
waste:
• one regional non-hazardous waste landfill in the area of 28.4 ha within the Alytus Town landfill
    operating in Takniškiai Village of Alytus District;
• installation of a biodegradable waste compositing site in the mentioned landfill to suit the needs
    of Alytus Town and its environs;
• The biodegradable waste of Druskininkai Town and its environs is already composted on the
    Druskininkai Town green waste composting site; it would be rational to install green waste
    composting sites in Prienai, Var na and Lazdijai even though this is not planned for the nearest
    future;
• the installation (expansion) of bulk waste collection sites in 5 towns (Alytus, Druskininkai,
    Prienai, Var na and Lazdijai) to which the residents and small enterprises of these municipali-
    ties will deliver their waste suitable for recycling as well as the hazardous waste originating in
    households.

       Non-recycled and non-composted wastes will be disposed in the regional landfill. The land-
fill’s design and installation will comply the national and the EU requirements.

        1.2.3.4. Marijampolė region
        1.2.3.4.1. Municipal waste amounts

     The statistics on the municipal waste generated in Marijampol region in 2004 are given in ta-
ble 1.8. The total of 48,510 tons of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Marijampol
region in 2004.



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Table 1.8. Generation of municipal waste streams in Marijampol region in 2004, t/year
                                                          Marijampol       Šakiai     Vilkaviškis    Total waste
       Municipality        Kalvarija     Kazlų Rūda
                                                             Town          District     District
 Paper and cardboard
                                                            220.355         0.03          0.3
 packaging (15 01 01)                                                                                    220.685
 Plastic packaging (15
                                            3.114            47.497        11.303       13.108
 01 02)                                                                                                   75.022
 Metallic packaging (15
 01 04)                                                                                                        0
 Glass packaging
 (15 01 07)                                                                                                    0
 Paper and cardboard
                                                             160.67         27.68
 (20 01 01)                                                                                              188.35
 Metals (20 01 40)          87.303           32.66          278.145         2.273      1510.311        1910.692
 Glass (20 01 02)                                                           3.98                           3.98
 Plastics (20 01 39)                                          7.57             6           1              14.57
 Biodegradable waste
                                                             440.62
 (20 02 01)                                                                                               440.62
 Biodegradable kitchen
 and canteen waste (20                                                        33
 01 08)                                                                                                       33
 Mixed municipal waste
                             1468           1727.3         32892.43       9522.25         3.1
 (20 03 01)                                                                                            45613.08
 Total municipal waste
                             1.56            1.76            34.05          9.61         1.53
 (1,000t/year)                                                                                             48.51
 Municipal waste
 amount per capita
 (kg per capita)              114.04            118.27            484.32    252.23           30.74


        1.2.3.4.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


     Every municipality has one waste management company that is responsible for the collection
of mixed or sorted waste, waste management and/or operation of landfills. The main municipal
waste handling companies in Marijampol region are:
     • UAB Marijampol s Švara – services private and multi-family apartment houses in the mu-
     nicipalities of Marijampol , Vilkaviškis Districts, Kalvarija, Kybartai, Virbalis (its area of
     waste management covers around 80% of the Marijampol Region’s territory);
     • UAB Kazlų Rūdos Paslauga – services private and multi-family apartment houses in Kazlų
     Rūda Town;
     • UAB Paslaugos Šakiečiams – services private and multi-family apartment houses in Šakiai
     Town (a subsidiary of UAB Dzūtra);
     • UAB Kazlų Medis – manages green waste in Kazlų Rūd Municipality.

        1.2.3.4.3. Temporary storage of waste


      The multi-family apartments houses in Marijampol District are provided with 1.1m3 and
0.24m3 capacity containers are serviced at least once a week; private houses are supplied with 0.08,
0.12, 0.24 and 0.14 m3 capacity containers that are emptied at least once four weeks. The enter-
prises and organizations are supplied 1.1 and 0.24 m3 capacity containers that are emptied according
to an individual schedule agreed upon with the management of these enterprises and organizations.
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       1.2.3.4.4. Collection and transport


       The major part of collected waste consists of mixed municipal waste (various fractions of
non-hazardous waste), including hazardous waste generating in households. Waste from residents is
collected in towns and the suburbs. In the majority of rural areas waste collection services are not
provided.
       Municipal waste is collected and transported by a waste handling company responsible for
this. Such structure is used in towns and urban territories. Municipal waste collection and transport
in scarcely populated (rural) areas is not developed.

       1.2.3.4.5. Waste sorting


      Secondary raw materials are collected only in bigger towns. A part of waste collected in the
towns and suburbs of Marijampol region is sorted but transported to other regions for recycling
and/or reuse. According to long-term waste management plans, the separation of organic and inor-
ganic waste fractions will be started in 2013.

       1.2.3.4.6. Waste treatment


       The reuse of waste in Marijampol region is not carried out. The collection of recyclable
waste is carried out by the same waste handling companies (see section 1.2.3.4.2), but the paper and
cardboard, plastics and glass waste is transferred for recycling to UAB Policiklas. Hazardous waste
is collected and transferred to UAB Toksika.
       Since 1997 UAB Marijampol s Švara has collected bulky waste (furniture, refrigerators etc.).
The bulky waste is collected from residents on site at the address: Vasaros Str. 16, Marijampol .

       1.2.3.4.7. Waste disposal landfills


      Landfills in Marijampol region belong to municipalities. In the majority of cases landfills are
operated by waste collecting enterprises. Waste is not registered or weighed prior to landfilling.
Presently, the largest landfills operating in the regions are:
- Marijampol landfill in Marijampol s Municipality,
- Kalvarija landfill in Kalvarija Municipality,
- Kazlų Rūda landfill in Kazlų Rūda Municipality,
- Šakiai landfill in Šakiai District;
- Kudirkos Naumiestis landfill in Šakiai District;
- Pavembrai landfill in Vilkaviškis District;
- Virbalis landfill in Vilkaviškis District.
       1.2.3.4.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges

      Every municipality of the region has set municipal waste management tariffs for the residents
of individual holdings and multi-family apartment houses as well as organizations based on munici-
pal council resolutions. The price of waste removal varies depending on a container capacity and
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the frequency of transport for the residents of private houses and organizations. The amount of
payment for waste handling for the residents of multi-family apartment houses depends on the
number of residents in an apartment or the size of the apartment.
      The amounts of waste management payments and municipal waste handling prices in Mari-
jampol region are given in Table 1.9.

Table 1.9. Residents’ payments for municipal waste management in Marijampol region, 2005
       Municipality            Municipal waste manage-    Average monthly payment      Municipal waste manage-
                                    ment companies              per capita, LTL              ment price
                                                                                                LTL/t
 Marijampol Municipality UAB Marijampol s Švara                       1.61                      54.59
  Kalvarija Municipality     UAB Marijampol s Švara                   1.61                      54.59
 Kazlų Rūda Municipality     UAB Kazlų Rūdos                      1.77-2.53                       -
                             Paslauga
   Vilkaviškis District      UAB Marijampol s Švara                   1.61                      54.59
      Šakiai District        UAB Paslaugos Šakiečiams                3.19                         -

        1.2.3.4.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

       According to the data of the Marijampol Region Waste Management Centre, the following
main tasks are planned in Marijampol region: 2008 – closure of presently operating landfills, start
of operation of the regional landfill presently constructed in the place of the present Marijampol
landfill, 2008-2013 – installation of a biodegradable waste composting site; 2008-2013 – imple-
mentation of waste sorting and collection.
       A biodegradable waste composting site will be installed in the regional landfill composting
sites in municipalities.
       The old landfills of the region will be closed until the year 2008.

        1.2.3.5. Utena region


        1.2.3.5.1. Municipal waste amounts

      The statistics about municipal waste generated in Utena region in 2004 are given in Table
1.10. The total of 43,540 tons of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Utena region in
2004.




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    Table 1.10. Municipal waste generation in   Utena region in 2004, t/year
                               Anykščiai        Ignalina      Mol tai        Utena                 Zarasai     Total
         Municipality                                                                  Visaginas
                                District        District      District      District               District    waste
Paper and cardboard pack-
                                285.382                                     140.48     165.403     129.857
aging (15 01 01)                                                                                               721.122
Plastic packaging (15 01 02)     25.341          4.594         26.546       329.329     45.878     18.732       450.42
Metallic packaging
                                                                            24.284
 (15 01 04)                                                                                                     24.284
Glass packaging
(15 01 07)                                                                                                             0
Paper and cardboard (20 01
                                 27.339          13.11          7.577       534.553     120.73      2.175
01)                                                                                                            705.484
Metals (20 01 40)                98.743         85.793        340.113      1843.869                125.685    2494.203
Glass (20 01 02)                    7             18            30         414.452      51.275                 520.727
Plastics (20 01 39)               3.5           0.082                       19.68       19.495                  42.757
Biodegradable waste
                                                                            357.72                   35
 (20 02 01)                                                                                                     392.72
Biodegradable kitchen and
                                                                                         0.05        11
canteen waste (20 01 08)                                                                                         11.05
Mixed municipal waste
                               11140.38         2826.5          1790       10032.82    6685.099    5701.38
(20 03 01)                                                                                                    38176.18
Total municipal waste
                                 11.59            2.95          2.19         13.70       7.09       6.02
(1,000t/year)                                                                                                    43.54
Municipal waste amount per
capita
(kg per capita)                    339.86          133.94         89.14       277.30     246.14     271.06


            1.2.3.5.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations

         Nine utilities companies, i.e. waste operators, of different sizes and having different capacities
   collect and transport waste in the region of Utena. One of them is a private capital company, the
   remaining – municipal enterprises.
         Municipal waste management services in Utena region are provided by the following enter-
   prises:
       • in Visaginas Town – UAB Visagino Būstas;
       • in Anykščiai Town and neighbouring settlements – SP UAB Anykščių Komunalinis Ūkis;
       • in Didžiasalis Town –UAB Didžiasalio Komunalin s Paslaugos;
       • in Ignalina Town, Dūkštas Town and neighbouring settlements – UAB Kompata;
       • in Mol tai Town, Alanta and Suginčiai small towns – SP UAB Mol tų Švara;
       • in Utena Town and neighbouring settlements – UAB Utenos Komunalininkas;
       • in Zarasai Town and neighbouring settlements – UAB Zarasų Komunalininkas.
         The temporary storage of secondary raw materials and hazardous waste in Utena region is or-
   ganized by UAB Utenos Antrinis Popierius. The temporary storage of bulky waste in Utena region
   is organized by UAB Utenos Komunalininkas.


            1.2.3.5.3. Temporary storage of waste


         In Utena region, to collect mixed municipal waste from private houses in urban and rural ar-
   eas, 0.12 – 0.24 m3 capacity containers are most often used, to collect waste from multi-family
   apartment houses 0.7 – 1.1 m3capacity, rarer 13 m3 capacity, containers are used.
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      Utena region uses the total of 646 plastic containers of 0.12 m3 capacity, 1,508 plastic con-
tainers of 0.24 m3 capacity and 70 metal containers of 1.1 m3 capacity.
      Zarasai District uses 370 plastic containers of 1.1 m3 capacity and 35plastic containers of 0.24
  3
m capacity.
      Visaginas uses 250 containers of 0.75 m3 capacity, 40 containers of 0.77 m3 capacity and 250
containers of 1.1 m3 capacity. All these containers are metal ones.
      Ignalina District (excluding Didžiasalis Ward) uses 1,409 plastic containers of 0.12 m3 capac-
ity, 92 plastic containers of 0.24 m3 capacity and 79 containers of 1.1 m3 capacity that are mainly
metal ones.
      Mol tai District uses 1,175 plastic containers of 0.24 m3 capacity, 279 metal containers of
0.75 m3 capacity and 150 plastic containers of 1.1 m3 capacity.
      Didžiasalis and, in part, Visaginas (as far as 5-storeyd family apartment houses are concerned)
do not use containers for waste collection, in these places waste is collected directly into refuse col-
lection vehicles that are going by pre-set routes to subscribers (holders of waste) according to
schedules approved in advance.

       1.2.3.5.4. Collection and transport


      Waste collected in containers is handled in two ways. Waste handling enterprises collect
waste from containers by multi-family apartment houses at agreed frequency (as a rule, 2-3 times
per week). Waste from private houses is collected according to agreements with the holders of
waste. Waste generating in companies is most often taken away according to schedules appended to
agreements and in other cases – according to the waste holder’s request.
      The container collection of waste is not evenly developed in all municipalities. In sub-districts
of private houses of bigger towns the container system is nearly fully implemented. Waste is col-
lected in containers in settlements and small towns located by big towns. But here, as a rule, waste
is collected only from the residents who have agreements with a waste management company.
There are frequent cases when only around twenty agreements are concluded in towns having the
population of several hundred (Ignalina District). This is preconditioned not only by the unwilling-
ness of residents to conclude agreements with waste managers but also by the fact that without hav-
ing free working capital waste managers are not capable of acquiring waste collection containers
and submit them for residents’ use. It is exactly the companies’ financial condition that predeter-
mines the fact that waste managers are suggesting the residents or enterprises to acquire containers
in different forms (to become owners thereof) and the waste managers themselves would like only
to be suppliers of these containers which does not always meet the interests of residents and other
holders of waste.
      Bulky waste from the municipalities of Utena district is collected on a special site.

       1.2.3.5.5. Waste sorting

       So far separated collection of recyclable waste from residents and enterprises has been poorly
organized in Utena region. Only small amounts of glass, paper and plastics waste and PET packag-
ing are collected. As a rule, collected secondary raw materials are transferred or sold for reuse to
other enterprises specializing in this activity.
      0.75 – 1.1 m3 capacity containers are used for the collection of comparatively small amounts
of secondary raw materials (plastics, glass, paper) in the region.
      In Utena District glass fractions and plastic fractions are separately collected in 122 metal
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containers of 0.75 m3 capacity, and another 64 metal containers of 0.75 m3 capacity are used for the
collection of paper (only by Utenos Komunalininkas).
      In Visaginas, Visagino Būstas uses 21 metal containers of 1.1 m3 capacity separately for the
collection of glass and plastics.
      In Ignalina District, 0.7 m3 capacity containers are used for the collection of raw materials: 13
containers for glass and 13 ones for paper, and 26 containers for plastic.
      In Mol tai District (only in the town of Mol tai) 3 plastic containers of 1.1 m3 capacity are
used for each of the waste: glass, paper and plastics.
      Presently, secondary raw materials are not collected in containers in Zarasai District Didžiasa-
lis Ward of Ignalina District.

       1.2.3.5.6. Waste recycling


       The major part of recyclable waste reaches UAB Utenos Antrinis Popierius. The activities of
this company cover the whole territory of the region, it services nearly 200 bigger enterprises and
by its vehicles collects recyclable waste from residents in the biggest towns of the region. This
company collects secondary raw materials, performs its primary sorting in the simplest manual
manner, prepares it for transport (presses or crushes) and delivers to recyclers inside the country and
outside the country (paper) (Germany, Ukraine). Apart from that, UAB Utenos Antrinis Popierius
collects textile waste, end-of-life car tyres and luminescence tubes to be exported for recycling in
Latvia, as well as oil filters and oily cloths, alkaline and acid car accumulators, voltaic cells and
other hazardous wastes.
      UAB Utenos Antrinis Popierius holds few equipment for waste and secondary raw material
handling even though it is often obsolete and imperfect. However, the activities of this company are
most often limited to the preparation of secondary raw materials, such as paper scrap, glass, poly-
ethylene and other packaging, for reuse, i.e. sorting by kinds and colours, pressing into bundles and
transfer to processing companies outside the region.
      There are several companies recycling small amounts of secondary plastic materials in the ter-
ritory of the region. UAB Nagisa (in Utena) recycles polyethylene and plastic waste into film, plas-
tic buckets for paint and other articles. UAB Umaras recycles polyethylene film waste into polyeth-
ylene film for peat packaging, construction needs etc.
      The processing of organic waste has just started in Utena region. In the territories of operated
landfills in Utena (UAB Utenos Komunalininkas), Anykščiai (UAB Anykščių Komunalinis Ūkis)
and Ignalina (UAB Kompata), there are separate areas free of waste that are intended for separate
composting of organic waste: disposal of plantation and trimming waste, branches, leaves, grass
mowed in the territories of public use, oilcake generated during juice production at a winery
(Anykščiai) in the hope that the organic mass accumulated there will turn into compost by self-
biodegradation. A branch crushing facility is operating in Mock nai landfill in Utena District. No
special composting equipment has been used in any municipality yet.




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1.2.3.5.7. Waste disposal in the landfill


       Recently, 70% of the waste amount generating in the region have been disposed in the re-
gion’s landfills. So far, landfilling has been the main and the only way of handling mixed municipal
waste generating in Utena region – the entire generated amount of this waste reaches landfills
(around 53 thousand tons per year). The landfilled wastes include construction and demolition
waste, street cleaning residues and other non-composted waste, a small part of wood treatment
waste (the one not burned in boiler-houses), ash, asphalt residues and other types of waste that may
be disposed in landfills.
       Presently, the region has over one hundred municipal and construction waste landfills nearly
even distributed over all districts.
       Every municipality of Utena region has the main operating landfill: in Utena District– Mock-
 nai landfill, Ignalina District – Kazitiškis landfill, Visaginas Town – Karlai landfill, Zarasai Dis-
trict – Riešutin landfill, Anykščiai district – Paelm landfill, Mol tai district – Stacijava landfill.
The major part of waste landfilled there consists of the municipal waste generating in major towns
of the region. One landfill of this type, on average, services 16,000 individuals. The highest indica-
tor in this respect is in Utena Town where one landfill (Mock nai) services 33.9 thousand residents.
       In the landfills waste is mainly pushed or pressed with caterpillar tractors DT-75, T-74, T-130
and DZ-110, while in Didžiasalis landfill of Ignalina District – wheeled loaders TO-28.
       There are 42 landfills of small towns or wards in Utena region. One district has from 7 to 10
landfills. One landfill, on average, services 2,000 residents. The total area taken by small town and
ward landfills is 45 ha. The largest by area small town and ward landfills are in Anykščiai district
where the smallest landfill takes the area of 0.4 ha, and the biggest – 4.3 ha.
       The region has 61 rural landfills owned by rural wards. One district has from 8 (Mol tai and
Utena districts) to 16 (Ignalina District) such landfills. One landfill, on average, services 1,500 rural
residents.

        1.2.3.5.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges

       Was management tariffs are prepared by waste management companies and approved by mu-
nicipal councils.
       Municipal enterprises are managed and controlled by the municipality’s administration via
appointed representatives to the boards of these enterprises where the municipality holds 100 per-
cent of shares. Only in Zarasai District Municipality the system of waste management is operated
by a private company, UAB Zarasų Komunalininkas, which was appointed by the municipal coun-
cil by public tender. The municipalities allot funds to these enterprises to acquire containers or land-
fill operation machinery, to plan and implement the systems of landfill monitoring, and sometimes
for the works of town landfill operation. Apart from that, the municipalities pay for the handling
works of landfills in wards and small landfills as well as street sweepings that are ordered by war-
dens.
       Waste management companies conclude agreements on waste handling with all holders of
waste except for the residents of multi-family apartment houses. Only UAB Mol tų Švara and UAB
Zarasų Komunalininkas make agreements with the residents of multi-family apartment houses.
       The amounts of waste management payments and municipal waste handling prices in Utena
region are given in Table 1.11.



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Table 1.11. Residents’ payments for the handling of municipal waste in Utena region in 2005.
       Municipality           Municipal waste handling      Average monthly payment       Municipal waste handling
                                       companies                  per capita, LTL                  price
                                                                                                   LTL/t
                             SP UAB Anykščių Ko-
    Anykščiai District                                                  1.18
                             munalinis Ūkis
                             UAB Kompata
     Ignalina District       UAB Didžiasalio Ko-                        0.47
                             munalin s Paslaugos
     Mol tai District        UAB Mol tų Švara                           0.58                      ~42. 5
                             UAB Utenos Komunalin-
      Utena District                                                    1.47
                             inkas
     Visaginas Town          UAB Visagino Būstas                        2.82
                             UAB Zarasų Komunalin-
      Zarasai District                                                  0.69
                             inkas


        1.2.3.5.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

      According to the data of Utena Region waste Management Centre, the following main tasks
are planned in Utena region:
       - not later than in 2009 – start of operation of the regional landfill and closure of old landfills;
       - 2011-2012 – implementation of the system of waste sorting and collection.
      The waste management system of Utena region will include a big number of objects in all
municipalities of the region. The project provides for the following:
      - installation of the regional landfill in Mock nai by closing the town’s landfill being in the
         territory of the planned regional landfill and installing waste reception and composting sites,
      - closure of Visaginas Town landfill in Karlos and installation of a green waste composting
         site there;
      - building of 5 waste reception sites (in Anykščiai, Ignalina, Mol tai, Visaginas and Zarasai)
      - closure and cleanup of 68 landfills, liquidation of 35 landfills by transporting waste from
         them top regional landfills before their closure,
      - purchase of mobile waste collection, handling and transport machinery.

        1.2.3.6. Panevėžys region


        1.2.3.6.1. Municipal waste amounts
The statistics on the municipal waste generated in Panev žys region in 2004 are given in Table
1.12. The total of 108,490 tons of municipal waste generated in Panev žys region municipalities in
2004.




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       Table 1.12. Generation of municipal waste in Panev žys region in 2004, t/year

                                           Biržai      Kupiškis       Panev žys        Pasvalys   Rokiškis     Total
    Municipality        Panev žys City
                                           Town        District        District        District   District     waste
Paper and cardboard
                          3798.378        109.003                       64.29                     238.569
packaging (15 01 01)                                                                                           4210.24
Plastic packaging (15
                           622.052        38.817                       319.112          0.65      34.819
01 02)                                                                                                         1015.45
Metallic packaging
                            6.346
 (15 01 04)                                                                                                      6.346
Glass packaging
                          4341.265                                      474.99                     43.1
(15 01 07)                                                                                                    4859.355
Paper and cardboard
                           295.732                                      179.86                     1.15
(20 01 01)                                                                                                     476.742
Metals (20 01 40)         2697.704        10.246         6.779         226.605          4.542      6,059      2951.935
Glass (20 01 02)            627                                                                                    627
Plastics (20 01 39)        72.772          2.99                         6.812                      4.326          86.9
Biodegradable waste
                           1562.39
 (20 02 01)                                                                                                    1562.39
Biodegradable
kitchen and canteen
waste (20 01 08)                                                                                                       0
Mixed municipal
waste                     54839.66       10717.05        12516                          6500      8120.28
(20 03 01)                                                                                                    92692.99
Total municipal
                            68.86          10.88         12.52           1.27           6.51       8.45
waste (1,000t/year)                                                                                             108.49
Municipal waste
amount per capita
(kg per capita)                585.58       312.34         517.91           29.49        189.87      205.04


                1.2.3.6.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


       In Panev žys region municipal waste is handled by the following enterprises:
           • In Rokiškis District – UAB Rokiškio Komunalininkas;
           • In Biržai District – UAB Biržų Komunalinis Ūkis;
           • In Kupiškis District –UAB Kupiškio Komunalininkas;
           • In Pasvalys District – UAB Pasvalio Gerov ;
           • In Panev žys City and part of Panevežys District –AB Panev žio Specialus Autotransportas;
           • In Panev žys District –UAB Švaros Komanda.

            AB Panev žio Specialus Autotransportas transports solid and liquid municipal waste as well
       as minor construction scrap, collects secondary raw materials, and accepts potentially hazardous
       waste. Over-dimensioned waste such as furniture, household equipment (TV sets, refrigerators,
       washers etc.) can be transported to the bulky waste site.
            Other companies, for instance, UAB Rokiškio Komunalininkas and UAB Pasvalio Gerov ,
       handle not only mixed municipal waste but also bulky waste, secondary raw materials and dis-
       carded electronic and electric equipment (DEEE).
             Apart from the above-mentioned enterprises, secondary raw material and hazardous waste
       management companies in Panev žys region are as follows: UAB Antraža, UAB Triglis, UAB Ka-

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gris, UAB Eko Group, AB Panev žio Stiklas, UAB Virbant , Ž. Rauduv ’s Enterprise, Ž.Šulskis’
Enterprise and UAB Veeko.
      In Panev žys region two companies take care of biodegradable waste collection and transport:
AB Panev žio Specialus Autotransportas and UAB Biržų Komunalinis Ūkis.

        1.2.3.6.3. Interim storage of waste


      Waste is collected from containers that are supplied by enterprises but in separate cases resi-
dents empty waste directly into a waste transport vehicle. Standard containers of the European type
and old ones of local production are used.
      Containers used for the collection of municipal waste:
      To collect waste from private houses – 2-wheeled plastic containers of 120, 140 or 240 litre
capacity; several owners of private holdings may place a collective container of 1,100 litre or 2-8
m3 container; to collect waste from multi-family apartment houses – 4-wheeled plastic or metal
containers of 1,100, 770 or 660 litre capacity; they are used as collective containers; large contain-
ers of 2 - 8 m3 capacity can also be used; at enterprises, agencies and organizations – 4-wheeled
plastic or metal containers of 1,100, 770 or 660 litre capacity are used; where big amounts of waste
generate, large containers of 2 - 8 m3 or 0,75 m3capacity can be used; waste from small enterprises,
agencies and organizations can be collected in 2-wheeled plastic containers of 120, 140 or 240 litre
capacity (where waste amounts are not big);
      Presently used non-standard containers are gradually being replaced with the standard ones
according the schedule set by the municipality administration.
       Recently, a bulky waste site was installed in Panev žys City. The following types of waste
are accepted from residents to the bulky waste site: furniture, household equipment (TV sets, refrig-
erators, washing machines etc.). Waste is stored in separate containers according to its type.

        1.2.3.6.4. Collection and transport


      Presently, not more than 40 refuse collection vehicles are operated in the region, some of them
are reserve ones are not used every day.
      Presently, waste collection services are not provided to all households. The level of service
provision is shown in Table 1.13.

Table 1.13. Provision of waste collection services in Panev žys region.
                           In towns In rural areas         Total:
    Panev žys City           95%               -            95%
  Panev žys District         90%        Less than 50%       61%
        Pasvalys             80%             19%            44%
         Biržai              70%             20%            44%
        Rokiškis             96%             54%            80%
        Kupiškis             80%             20%            46%
         Total:              91%             34%           72%

     Most often municipal waste from households in urban areas is collected from 1 to 3 times per
week (sometimes more often). Waste from households in rural areas is collected much rarer. No
separate collection of biodegradable waste or hazardous waste from households is carried out.

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       1.2.3.6.5. Waste sorting


      Separate collection of secondary raw materials has just been started and the developed of this
activity is limited. Presently waste collecting companies are not financially interested in the provi-
sion of such service. The implementation of the infrastructure intended for separate collection of
paper, glass and plastic was started two years ago. So far it has not been widely spread. In some
places the system of containers and garbage cans made in Lithuania and marked with colours has
been implemented.

       1.2.3.6.6. Waste recycling


      The region has no secondary raw material recycling companies and this factor limits the scope
of activities related to secondary raw materials, therefore the majority of collected raw materials are
stored. Some part of collected raw materials is transported for recycling to other regions.

       1.2.3.6.7. Waste disposal in the landfill


        Waste collected in municipalities is most often disposed in landfills located in respective dis-
tricts. Each district has one main landfill and a number of small landfills in rural areas. According to
the collected data, the region has nearly 100 landfills. In fact, none of the territories used for land-
fills is properly prepared and in the majority of landfills no engineering works were carried out even
though some main landfills were formed by enclosing them by soil embankments.
        The biggest operating landfills servicing towns and every district are enumerated below. In
every district, the main collecting company operates all the equipment related to the landfill.
        Waste in Panev žys town and district is disposed in the landfill operating for over 30 years.
Presently, waste takes 9 ha. The landfill taking the total area of 24 ha still has free space for waste
disposal in the future. Presently, the main type of waste disposed in this landfill is the municipal
waste. Previously, industrial waste (meat processing, sludge from waste water treatment) was also
disposed there. Presently, the main system of re-pumping leachate to Panev žys waste water treat-
ment plant is being installed. A new weighing-machine has been installed.
        There is a 4-ha landfill being operated for around 15 years in Pasvalys District. The municipal
waste is piled in two piles close to each other which are around 5 m high. There are no engineering
installations in this landfill but the territory is distinguished by watertight clayey soil. Ground wa-
ters are relatively high. The surface water/leachate pool has accumulated at one end of the landfill
can be .
        The main landfill in Biržai District taking the total area of 3 ha has been operated for over 20
years. This dump-site above the ground is nearly full but the present 4-meter thickness layer of
waste can be raised. There are no engineering means installed in the landfill but the findings of the
performed analysis show that a thick layer of clay is under it.
        The Kupiškis District landfill has been operated for over 20 years and it still has capacities for
several more years. There are no engineering means in this landfill installed above the ground.
        The Rokiškis District landfill is in good conditions and properly maintained. It was installed
in the place of a former gravel quarry. The landfill has no engineering installations. According to
the available data, it can be stated that the landfill may be operated for another 3-4 years.

       1.2.3.6.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges
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      The tariff levels applicable in the year 2005 are:
       • from LTL 70 per ton (Panev žio Specialusis Autotransportas) to LTL 120 per ton (in
    Pasvalys) for households;
       • as a rule, the owners of private house sin towns pay bigger fees. These fees can reach LTL
    140 per ton of waste;
       • still higher fees are applied to households in rural areas where the price of waste collection
    service can reach LTL 160 per ton.
      However, these tariffs practically do not include the costs of secondary raw materials (only a
small part is included) and the costs of bulky waste management and composting. These costs ac-
count for around 35% of the fixed average costs (including reconstruction) and are equivalent to 47
LTL per ton. Without including these components the average fixed costs would approximately
reach LTL 100 per ton.

Table 1.14. Residents’ payments for municipal waste management in Panevežys region in 2005
       Municipality           Municipal waste manage-     Average monthly payment       Municipal waste manage-
                                    ment companies              per capita, LTL            ment price LTL/t
      Panev žys City         AB Panev žio Specialus
                                                                      2,09                        65
                             Autotransportas
    Panev žys District       AB Panev žio Specialus
                             Autotransportas                         2,09                         72
                             UAB Švaros Komanda
     Pasvalys District       UAB Pasvalio Gerov                      2,50                         72
      Biržai District        UAB Biržų Komunalinis
                             Ūkis
                                                                     2,50                         71
     Rokiškis District       UAB Rokiškio Komunalin-
                             inkas
                                                                     2,17                         80
     Kupiškis District       UAB Kupiškio Komunalin-
                             inkas
                                                                     3,54                         67


      Waste management companies have directly concluded agreements with households and col-
lect payments according to the tariffs approved by municipalities.
      The owners or tenants of multi-family apartment houses, the owners of private holdings using
collective containers as well as the owners of garden plots and garages effect payments for waste
collecting, transport and handling according the tariff set by the municipal council (for collection,
transport and handling of 1m3 of non-compressed waste) and accumulation rates.
      The owners of private houses using individual containers pay for the collection, transport and
handling of municipal waste according to factual amounts of generated waste, however not less than
according to the set accumulation rates, following the tariff set by the municipal council (for col-
lection, transport and handling of 1m3 of non-compressed waste).
      Legal persons not having their own waste management system pay for municipal waste collec-
tion, transport and handling according to the factual amount of generated waste however not less
than it is set according to the set accumulation norms.
      The transport of separately collected or sorted secondary raw materials in containers (or spe-
cial plastic sacks) is charged based on conditions of collection and a reduced tariff that is approved
by the municipal council.
      The tariff of municipal waste collection, transport and handling (per 1 m3 of loose non-
pressed municipal waste ) is set by the municipal council following information presented by the
selected operator as well as cost estimates performed by municipality administration’s specialists.
The tariff of waste collection, transport and handling is reviewed (adjusted) annually, following
information about the costs of waste collection, transport and handling as well as income received
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from these activities submitted by the operator of the municipal waste management system.

       1.2.3.6.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

       According to the data of Panev žys Region Waste Management Centre, the following tasks
are planned in Panev žys region:
       by the end of 2008 – start of separate collection of biodegradable (green) waste and installa-
tion and launching of composting sites in every district;
       the end of 2009– start of operation of the regional landfill and final closure of operating land-
fills, implementation of waste sorting and collection, installation and start of operation of 5 waste
reception sites in every municipality;
       start of 2012 – development of the regional landfill by constructing an additional unit for
waste disposal;
       start of 2013 – start of operation of the additional unit of the regional landfill.
       The majority of regional population live in Panev žys town or district territory, therefore the
regional landfill will be installed near the present Panev žys City landfill.

       1.2.3.7. Šiauliai region


       1.2.3.7.1. Municipal waste amounts
     The statistics on waste generated in Šiauliai region in 2004 are given in Table 1.15. The total
of 128,300 tons of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Šiauliai region in 2004.




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    Table 1.15. Municipal waste generation in Šiauliai region in 2004, t/year
                         Šiauliai     Akmen       Joniškis      Kelm       Pakruojis   Radviliškis   Šiauliai   Total waste
    Municipality
                           City       District    District     District     District    District     District
Paper and cardboard
                        3835.623                                              90.3
packaging (15 01 01)                                                                                             3925.92
Plastic packaging
                         936.521        0.16         2.12       3.961        10.97       2.333       401.57
(15 01 02)                                                                                                       1357.64
Metallic packaging
                           0.6
 (15 01 04)                                                                                                        0.60
Glass packaging
                         176.638                                                         12,84        1.54
(15 01 07)                                                                                                        191.02
Paper and cardboard
                        2540.289                                                                     105.14
(20 01 01)                                                                                                       2645.43
Metals (20 01 40)       2081.155       0.235                                             10.258                  2091.65
Glass (20 01 02)                                                                                                  0.00
Plastics (20 01 39)        0.57                                                           5.02                     5.59
Biodegradable waste
                         544.62                                 1.235                     596
 (20 02 01)                                                                                                      1141.86
Biodegradable
kitchen and canteen
waste (20 01 08)                                                                                                   0.00
Mixed municipal
waste                   50733.76      5421.5     11991.75 11539.3            5940      21541.46      9767.89
(20 03 01)                                                                                                      116935.66
Total municipal
                          60.85         5.42        11.99       11.54         6.04       22.17        10.28
waste (1,000t/year)                                                                                               128.29
Municipal waste
amount per capita        463.86       183.69       381.14       287.34      208.56       431.93      199.69
(kg per capita)


            1.2.3.7.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


        In Šiauliai region municipal waste is collected and handled by the following enterprises:
        • AB Specializuotas Transportas, UAB Švarinta (in Šiauliai City and part of Šiauliai District),
        • UAB Naujosios Akmen s Komunalininkas (Akmen District),
        • UAB Joniškio Komunalinis Ūkis (Joniškis District),
        • SĮ Kelm s Vietinis Ūkis (Kelm District),
        • UAB Kurš nų Komunalinis Ūkis (part of Šiauliai District, mainly in Kurš nai Ward),
        • UAB Pakruojo Komunalininkas (Pakruojis District),
        • UAB Radviliškio Komunalin s Paslaugos (Radviliškis District).

          AB Specializuotas Transportas collects mixed municipal waste and transports it for disposal
    to Kairiai landfill, collects paper and glass from residents offering to use specialized containers,
    collects bulky and raw waste offering holders of this waste to independently bring this waste to a
    special site and organizes educational and information campaigns for the population.
          Other waste management companies operate in Šiauliai region too. UAB Kuusakoski collects
    and transports discarded electrical and electronic equipment and hazardous chemical substances.
    UAB Triglis collects, stores and transports metal waste. In Šiauliai region septic tank sludge is col-
    lected and transported by N. Remeniukas’ Personal Enterprise, UAB Valumina, UAB Toi-Toi
    Sanitarin s Sistemos, UAB Euromobilis and UAB Gūžtv . UAB Šiaulių Tauro Transportas is en-
    gaged in the transport of municipal waste in Šiauliai region and neighbouring districts, UAB Ūrus ir
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Ko stores cytotoxic and cytostatic medicines in its storage facility. Recyclable waste and packaging
are handled by UAB Šiaulių Antrin s Žaliavos, UAB Sauduva, UAB Šulcas ir Ko and UAB Antro-
celas. Šiauliai-based UAB Žalvaris collects and stores plastic, metallic and glass packaging, fluo-
rescent tubes and other mercury-containing waste as well as batteries, accumulators and discarded
electrical and electronic equipment. UAB Torlina collects and stores metallic packaging and metals,
UAB Elektroninių Mašinų Perdirbimas collects and transports for further treatment scrap metal
containing precious metals as well as alkaline and other batteries.

       1.2.3.7.3. Temporary storage of waste


       The method applied for waste collection presently depends on the level of population in the
serviced territory as well as economic activities predominant therein. The most widely applied
method is waste collection in containers. The container system is being expanded: the region had
17,151 containers in 2001, and 28,531 containers in 2005. Presently, municipal waste from private
holdings is collected in plastic containers of 120, 140 or 240 litre capacity. Waste from multi-
family apartment houses is most often collected in 4-wheeled plastic or metal containers of 750 or
1,100 litre capacity. In some places containers of bigger capacities, 7.5 m3, are used. They are
placed on special sites. As a rule, waste from enterprises, agencies and organizations is collected in
4-wheeled plastic or metal containers of 750 or 1,100 litre capacity; when necessary, containers of
large capacity (8 m3) may be used; smaller enterprises generating small amounts of waste use 2-
wheeled plastic containers of 120, 140 or 240 litre capacity. Waste from private houses is trans-
ported 2 times per month or more frequently according to a separate agreement. Containers by mul-
tifamily apartment houses are emptied 3 times per week. 750-litre containers, placed on special
sites, are used for the collection of secondary raw materials.

       1.2.3.7.4. Collection and transport


      Waste is collected from residents in the entire region. Waste from containers by multi-family
apartment houses is collected at the agreed frequency (as a rule, 2-3 times per week). Waste from
private holdings is collected according to agreements with the holders of waste.
      The route of special refuse collection vehicles is formed according to location of containers
and the approved schedule. Waste collection coverage varies from 90% of households and enter-
prises in Šiauliai to 30% in rural areas.

       1.2.3.7.5. Waste sorting


       The major towns of Šiauliai region are not supplied with secondary raw material containers to
the full extent, therefore part of waste holders have no possibility to sort waste. Secondary raw ma-
terials from residents are collected in collective of individual use containers but, most frequently, by
taking a circuit of waste holders or by means of purchase (exchange).
       No separate system of biodegradable waste collection has been implemented in Šiauliai re-
gion yet. When using the traditional separate waste collection scheme it is very much difficult to
ensure that all residents separate kitchen waste from the general municipal waste stream. Better re-
sults in this respect could be attained when applying mechanised sorting of the municipal waste
stream even though the price of special service is higher (~ 2-3 times). compared to the collection of
mixed waste. The new landfill has technical possibilities of mechanised sorting of the total munici-
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pal waste stream. At least 2 special sorting lines should be installed for this purpose.

       1.2.3.7.6. Waste recycling


       The region has no big secondary raw material recycling companies which limits activities re-
lated to secondary raw materials, therefore the major part of collected secondary raw materials is
stored.
       Secondary raw materials (paper, cardboard, glass, plastics, metals), hazardous waste (spent
oils, luminescence tubes, end-of-life accumulators, spent oil products or materials polluted with
them, wastes from fur and leather industries containing chromium) and sludge from waste water
treatment are handled by specialized enterprises and companies; clinical waste is handled by medi-
cal and pharmaceutical enterprises. Paper, cardboard and glass are collected on sites of secondary
raw material containers in Šiauliai City and some districts. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals are col-
lected at Šiauliai and Joniškis enterprises. Even though Šiauliai region has some enterprises manag-
ing hazardous waste, part of the waste from the total waste stream goes to the municipal waste land-
fills (such wastes include waste generating in every household, such as voltaic cells, accumulators,
spent oils, oil filters, mercury-containing waste). Clinical waste is collected and incinerated in a
solid fuel boiler-house, in Šiauliai City. Packaging waste collecting will be implemented in the
scheme of secondary raw material collection.
       Separate collection of kitchen waste from residents was started in 2006 and it is treated at
composting sites. Separate collection of biodegradable waste was also started and it will be ex-
panded upon installing a composting site in Kairiai landfill. This composting site will be able to
employ mobile waste crushing machinery and compost sieving equipment. The plan is to promote
individual composting of green and similar waste by disseminating respective technological infor-
mation and providing for respective reduced payments.

       1.2.3.7.7. Waste disposal in the landfill


       Waste collected in Šiauliai region is mainly disposed in landfills (or illegal landfills). Pres-
ently, there are around 160 small illegal landfills in wards and 5 big regional landfills: Pašakarniai
landfill (Akmen District, Joniškis landfill (Joniškis District), Kupr landfill (Kelm District),
Pagulianka landfill (Pakruojis District), Žironai landfill (Radviliškis District) and Šiauliai City land-
fill in Kairiai. These landfills differ by the place of installation, size, age, amount and composition
of waste disposed in them, and the manner of installation and operation.
       All regional landfills of municipal waste take the total area of around 207 ha and have accu-
mulated around 3.8 million m3 of waste. The majority of present landfills are in poor condition, and
only some them can be evaluated as those meeting certain landfill installation and operation re-
quirements.

       1.2.3.7.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges

Table 1.16 presents presently applicable waste collection tariffs for residents in the municipalities of
Šiauliai region. The fee for landfilling one ton of waste in Šiauliai City is LTL 19.54, in other mu-
nicipalities– LTL 20.20.



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Table 1.16. Residents’ payments for municipal waste management in Šiauliai region, 2005
       Municipality           Municipal waste manage-     Average monthly payment       Municipal waste manage-
                                    ment companies              per capita, LTL               ment price
                                                                                                 LTL/t
                             AB Specializuotas
       Šiauliai City         Transportas", UAB                        2.53                       48.85
                             Švarinta
                             UAB Naujosios Akmen s
     Akmen District                                                   3.00
                             Komunalininkas"
                             UAB Joniškio Komunalinis
     Joniškis District                                                3.34
                             Ūkis
      Kelm District          SĮ Kelm s Vietinis Ūkis                  3.34
                             UAB Pakruojo Komunalin-
    Pakruojis District                                                3.34                       50.50
                             inkas
                             UAB Radviliškio Ko-
   Radviliškis District                                               2.00
                             munalin s Paslaugos
                             UAB Kurš nų Komunalinis
     Šiauliai District       Ūkis, AB Specializuotas                  1.79
                             Transportas, UAB Švarinta


        1.2.3.7.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

      According to the data of Šiauliai Region Waste Management Centre, the plan is in 2007 to
continue stage I of Kairiai landfill closure that was started in May 2006, to close other old landfills
and start operating the regional landfill in Aukštrakiai; in the period of 2007-2008 to implement
waste sorting and collection; in 2008 to complete stage I of Kairiai landfill closure.
      The plan is to use compost, to be produced from generating green waste that has to be han-
dled, for the re-cultivation of landfills. To have in due time the required amount of compost neces-
sary for the landfill closure, one composting site is already installed by the Kairiai landfill being
closed. In subsequent stages a composting unit will be installed in Aukštrakiai landfill (25thousand
tons of waste) and composting sites in the centres of districts.
        With the aim to increase the amount of collected secondary raw materials to the maximum
extent, a separate collection of secondary raw materials by multi-family apartment houses, shopping
centres and other appropriate places will be implemented by placing there containers for glass, pa-
per and cardboard, and plastics. One container will be intended for 800-1,000 residents. Secondary
raw materials will also be separately collected from trade and industrial.
        Seeking to improve the waste of waste transport and reduce the cost of colleting, district
transfer stations may be established.

        1.2.3.8. Telšiai region


        1.2.3.8.1. Municipal waste amounts

The statistics on waste generated in Telšiai region in 2004 are given in Table 1.17. The total of
39,910 tons of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Telšiai region in 2004.




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Table 1.17. Municipal waste generation in Telšiai region in 2004, t/year
                                               Mažeikiai       Plung       Telšiai                Total
                 Municipality                                                         Rietavas
                                                District       District    District               waste
 Paper and cardboard packaging (15 01 01)       796.161         783.5                            1579.66
 Plastic packaging (15 01 02)                     10.03        250.414      21.135               281.58
 Metallic packaging                                                                               14.45
                                                  0.05          14.4
  (15 01 04)
 Glass packaging                                                                                 1665.92
                                                1623.57         42.35
 (15 01 07)
 Paper and cardboard (20 01 01)                                   13         12.9                25.90
 Metals (20 01 40)                               24.641          1.55                            26.19
 Glass (20 01 02)                                                           56.31                56.31
 Plastics (20 01 39)                             17.105          0.68        2.24                20.03
 Biodegradable waste                                                                             149.00
                                                   18                        131
  (20 02 01)
 Biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste                                                          0.00
 (20 01 08)
 Mixed municipal waste                                                                           36094.6
                                               14815.05       9195.124     10616.96   1467.54
 (20 03 01)                                                                                         7
 Total municipal waste (1,000t/year)              17.30         10.30       10.84      1.47       39.91
 Municipal waste amount per capita
 (kg per capita)                                259.09         233.56       191.06    139.56


        1.2.3.8.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


         In Plunge District waste is collected by UAB Valda, in Telšiai District – UAB Telšių Keliai.
Waste in Mažeikiai District is collected by 2 companies – UAB Mažeikių Komunalinis Ūkis and
UAB Valauvis.
         Since there is no local waste collecting company in Rietavas, UAB Valda and UAB Valau-
vis, i.e. the companies servicing other districts, collect waste there.

        1.2.3.8.3. Temporary storage of waste


        The container waste collection system was implemented in all the districts of Telšiai region
6-7 years ago. The region has 12.3 thousand containers. Waste handling companies use containers
of different capacities: from 0.12 m3 to 7.5 m3. As a rule, private houses use 0.12 m3 and 0.24 m3
containers, multi-family apartment houses – 1.1 m3 containers.
        Containers for municipal waste are placed by multi-family apartment houses or private
houses on sites intended for that. The number of containers on container sites depends on the num-
ber of residents, generating waste amounts and waste collection frequency.
        Waste management companies provide their services to enterprises and organizations too.
The capacity on containers depends on agreements. The capacity of 1.1m3is most often used.

        1.2.3.8.4. Collection and transport


       The frequency of waste collection in the municipality’s territory is set in Waste Manage-
ment Rules of the municipality. As a rule, containers of collective use in towns are emptied twice a
week, and those of private house or organizations – once per 2 weeks; in rural areas/settlements
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with the population of 500 and more: containers of collective use are emptied once per 2 weeks,
individual containers – once a month; in the remaining settlements – once a month.
        Presently, the region has 33 refuse collection vehicles (some of them are reserve ones).
When evaluating the machinery servicing the region it should be noted that 30 percent of vehicles
collecting waste in Telšiai region are made in former USSR or Russia. The remaining vehicles are
of western origin, mainly of MAN, MB make. The average age of vehicles is 17 years. The total of
34 vehicles is servicing the region (excluding landfill handling and servicing vehicles).

       1.2.3.8.5. Waste sorting


        Nearly all waste collecting companies in Telšiai region supply residents with collective use
containers for secondary raw materials – paper, glass and plastics. The most widely used size of
containers for secondary raw materials is 0.75 m3. The amounts of collected recyclable waste are
not big (it should be taken into account that recycling companies purchase only some kinds of plas-
tics).
        Mažeikiai Town has a bulk and hazardous municipal waste collection site which in 2004 re-
ceived and transferred to respective waste operators 124 tons of hazardous and non-hazardous waste
(115 t of end-of-life tyres, 1 ton of accumulators, over 600 units of used luminescence tubs and 2.7
tons of spent oils). Telšiai and Plung have mobile hazardous municipal waste collection stations
however they are not operated either in Telšiai or Plung . Rietavas has neither a site nor a station.

       1.2.3.8.6. Waste recycling


        Telšių region residents are conscious of glass reuse therefore they willingly sort this type of
waste. The glass is sold to AB Aleksotas (Kaunas) and AB Panev žio Stiklas. The collected paper
waste is sold to AB Grigišk s or AB Klaip dos Kartonas.
        The region has two waste recycling enterprises – the animal-origin waste utilisation enter-
prise UAB Rietavo Veterinarin Sanitarija (reconstructed according to the latest technologies in
2004. In the year 2004 it utilised 18,069 t of animal carcasses and 305 t of food products unsuitable
for use from the whole country. Apart from that, it incinerated 344 tons of fats and 1,607 t of bone
meal generated during processing of carcass waste), AB Mažeikių Nafta’ sludge treatment facility
(UAB Ekoring, operating in the territory of AB Mažeikių Nafta treated 47,028 t of sludge in the
year 2004. On 25/06/2004 the operation of AB Mažeikių Nafta’s oil sludge centrifuge was started.
The average capacity of this equipment is 7.5 m3/h, the plan to treat 59,400 t of sludge per year
when working at the average capacity).
        Separate collection of biodegradable waste and green waste from municipality’s gardens and
parks is practically not carried out even though the region has several places offering conditions for
the composting of biodegradable waste: branches, leaves or mown grass. Compositing of municipal
waste and incineration of waste is more widely spread in rural areas. Apart from that, kitchen waste
there is used as fodder for animals.

       1.2.3.8.7. Waste disposal in the landfill


        Nearly all streams of municipal waste collected in Telšiai region are disposed in landfills.
Every of the four municipalities of Telšiai region has one main landfill where the major part of mu-
nicipal waste is disposed. The main operating landfills and waste reception sites in the region are:
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        - Jerubaičiai landfill in Jerubaičiai Village of Plung District, located in 6 km to the south-
east from Plung Town. This is the only landfill of the region that almost meets the set require-
ments. It services Plung District and Rietavas Municipality;
        - Dargiai landfill, 10 km to the east from Mažeikiai, is the main landfill of Mažeikiai Dis-
trict;
        - Kaln nai landfill, 5 km to the north from Telšiai, is the main landfill of Telšiai District.
        The remaining landfills are mainly in rural areas where waste is accumulated without any
control and they have no even the elementary environmental facilities. Every year the municipality
allots funds from the Environmental Protection Fund/Special programme on Environment Support
for the maintenance works of the landfills.

        1.2.3.8.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges

      Table 1.18 presents waste collection tariffs for residents presently applicable in the munici-
palities of Telšiai region.

Table 1.18. Residents’ payments for municipal waste management in Telšiai region in 2005.
       Municipality           Municipal waste manage-     Average monthly payment         Municipal waste manage-
                                    ment companies             per capita, LTL.                 ment price
                                                                                                   LTL/t
                             UAB Mažeikių Ko-
    Mažeikiai District       munalinis Ūkis, UAB                     ~2.20
                             Valauvis
      Plung District         UAB Valda                               2.80                         ~55.98
      Telšiai District       UAB Telšių Keliai                       2.32
                             UAB Valda
         Rietavas                                                 1.00 – 2.50
                             UAB Valauvis


        1.2.3.8.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

         The main components of the regional waste management system development are:
         - installation and operation of the regional landfill (in the present location of Jerubaičiai
landfill) and the closure of old landfills – from the end of 2008 m.;
         - installation of 4 waste reception sites (1 site in each municipality)– from quarter III 2007;
         - installation of 2 transfer stations in Telšiai and Mažeikiai – from the end of 2008;
         - installation of 4 composting sites for biodegradable waste– from quarter III 2007 (1 site in
each municipality).
         In Plung Municipality, in the territory of Jerubaičiai regional landfill, a composting site for
the kitchen waste from the whole region and composting of green waste from Plung Municipality
will be installed. Other sites will be intended only to compost green waste and will operate in the
territories of the closed landfills.

        1.2.3.9 Tauragė region


        1.2.3.9.1. Municipal waste amounts

      The statistics on municipal waste generated in Taurag region in 2004 are given in Table
1.19. The total of 48,270 tons of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Taurag region.

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Table 1.19. Municipal waste generation in Taurag region in 2004, t/year
                                            Jurbarkas     Taurag          Šilal      Total
 Municipality                               District      District        District   waste
 Paper and cardboard packaging (15 01 01)                                                0
 Plastic packaging (15 01 02)                                 22.39         1.472     23.862
 Metallic packaging
  (15 01 04)                                                                            0
 Glass packaging
 (15 01 07)                                                                             0
 Paper and cardboard (20 01 01)                              234.42                   234.42
 Metals (20 01 40)                             12.016         3.72                    15.736
 Glass (20 01 02)                                                                       0
 Plastics (20 01 39)                                                                    0
 Biodegradable waste
  (20 02 01)                                                                            0
 Biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste
 (20 01 08)                                                                             0
 Mixed municipal waste
 (20 03 01)                                   24300.25      12741.3       10955.88   47997.43
 Total municipal waste (1,000t/year)           24.31          13.00        10.96      48.27
 Municipal waste amount per capita
 (kg per capita)                               656.23        248.42        350.41


        1.2.3.9.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


Unlike in other regions, the waste management system is simple, i.e. one company services one
municipality:
UAB Dunokai – Taurag District Municipality;
UAB Šilal s Komunalinis Ūkis – Šilal District Municipality;
UAB Jurbarko Komunalininkas – Jurbarkas District Municipality;
UAB Pag gių Komunalinis Ūkis – Pag giai Municipality.

        1.2.3.9.3. Temporary storage of waste


      The waste of Taurag region is collected in district centres and bigger settlements. Municipal
waste is mainly collected in containers. The following containers are used for waste collection: by
individual holdings – plastic containers of small capacities (120, 140 or 240 litres); by multi-family
apartment houses – plastic or metal containers of bigger (1,100, 770 or 660 litres) or large (2 - 8 m3)
capacity.
      In towns multi-family apartment houses are serviced from 2 to 5 times per week, private
houses – from 2 to 4 times per month. Private houses in rural areas are serviced from 1 to 2 times
per month.

        1.2.3.9.4. Collection and transport


In Taurag region municipal waste is collected in district centres and bigger settlements. Waste is
collected in containers. The waste management system in the region covers around 80 percent of
urban population and 60 per cent of rural/settlement residents and only around 20 per cent of resi-
dents in separate farmsteads. The frequency of container emptying slightly differs in different mu-
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nicipalities. The majority of companies use old waste collecting and sorting technical equipment
that is not suitable for modern waste handling – around 90 per cent of vehicles are made in Russia
and they 19-20 years old.

        1.2.3.9.5. Waste sorting


    The collection of secondary raw materials (plastic bottles, paper, cardboard) was started in the
region in 2004 but these materials are not recycled there. The amounts of collected secondary raw
materials are continuously growing but no secondary sorting of the waste has been implemented in
the region. Some part of collected raw materials is delivered/sold for recycling to other regions.
    Bulky and clinical wastes are not collected in the region. Bulk waste collection sites were
launched in Taurag , Jurbarkas, Pag giai and Šilal on 1 April 2006.


        1.2.3.9.6. Waste treatment


The major part of collected secondary raw materials (paper and cardboard, plastics, glass) is trans-
ported for further treatment to specialized companies.
Presently, organic waste, including green waste, is not separated from the total waste stream and is
disposed in landfills. It can be stated that presently all waste is disposed in landfills.

        1.2.3.9.7. Waste disposal in landfills


    3 big, 5 medium and 55 small landfills are registered in Taurag region. Taurag District has 14
landfills including Ližiai landfill where municipal waste from Taurag Town is disposed; Šilal
District has 21 landfills including Panerotis landfill where waste from Šilal Town is disposed;
Jurbarkas District has 21 landfills including Jokymiškiai landfill where waste from Jurbarkas Town
is disposed; Pag giai Municipality holds 8 landfills including Plaušvariai landfill where waste from
Pag giai Town is disposed.
    None of the mentioned landfills meets the requirements set for landfills. Smaller landfills are be-
ing closed and re-cultivated.

        1.2.3.9.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges


      Table 1.20 shows waste management tariffs for residents presently applicable in the munici-
palities of Taurag region.

Table 1.20. Residents’ payments for municipal waste handling in Taurag region in 2005
    Municipality         Municipal waste management com-        Average monthly pay-    Municipal waste manage-
                                      panies                    ment per capita, LTL          ment price
                                                                                                 LTL/t
 Jurbarkas District    UAB Jurbarko Komunalininkas                 1.92 – 2.43               60.63 – 76.98
  Taurag District      UAB Dunokai                                 0.42 – 3.72               41.80 – 74.35
   Šilal District      UAB Šilal s Komunalinis Ūkis                   1.59                       36.75
Pag giai Municipal-    UAB Pag gių Komunalinis Ūkis
                                                                   0.67 – 2.08               50.00 – 62.50
         ity

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       1.2.3.9.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

        According to the data of Taurag Region waste Management Centre, the following tasks are
planned in Taurag region: 2009-2010 – implementation of waste collection and sorting system;
2012 – development of the regional landfill; 2013 – implementation of composting system.
        The plan is to develop a network of facilities necessary for the municipal waste manage-
ment:
        1) a regional non-hazardous waste landfill in Leikiškiai Village of Taurag District (from
2009);
        2) the installation of a secondary raw material sorting line in the regional landfill of
Leikiškiai for the sorting of waste from the whole region;
        3) installation of a composting site in the regional landfill of Leikiškiai for the composting
of the green waste of Taurag District;
        4) installation of green waste compositing sites in the territories of district landfills being
closed in Šilal , Jurbarkas and Pag giai towns;
        5) installation of waste transfer stations in Taurag , Jurbarkas, Šilal and Pag giai.
        Presently operating landfills (first of all, Taurag District landfill in Ližiai) will be closed
and re-cultivated (from 2009).
       1.2.3.10. Klaipėda region
       1.2.3.10.1. Municipal waste amounts
    The statistics about municipal waste generated in Klaip da region in 2004 are given in Table
1.21. The total of 276,610 tons of municipal waste generated in the municipalities of Klaip da re-
gion in 2004.




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    Table 1.21. Municipal waste generation in Klaip da region in 2004, t/year
                         Klaip da     Klaip da     Kretinga                 Palanga   Skuodas    Šilut        Total
     Municipality                                               Neringa
                            City       District     District                 Town     District   District     waste
Paper and cardboard
                         10001.72       23.46       33.718
packaging (15 01 01)                                                                                        10058.90
Plastic packaging (15
                          833.274       4.41        10.999                             7.407      12.978
01 02)                                                                                                       869.07
Metallic packaging
                           29.265                   25.154
 (15 01 04)                                                                                                   54.42
Glass packaging
                           543.49
(15 01 07)                                                                                                   543.49
Paper and cardboard
                         4196.595                   421.77                            144.715      257
(20 01 01)                                                                                                  5020.08
Metals (20 01 40)         43255,6                                                                           43255.60
Glass (20 01 02)            0.95                     35.4                              97.9                  134.25
Plastics (20 01 39)        40.009                                                                 0,682      40.69
Biodegradable waste
                           280.19        118          6,2        326
 (20 02 01)                                                                                                  730.39
Biodegradable
kitchen and canteen          27          9.1         55.6
waste (20 01 08)                                                                                              91.70
Mixed municipal
waste                    147879.4     9618.38       8276.2       2273        5028      5470      37256.78
(20 03 01)                                                                                                  215801.76
Total municipal waste
                           207.09        9.77        8.87        2.60         5.03     5.72       37.53
(1,000t/year)                                                                                                276.61
Municipal waste
amount per capita         1088.88      207.70       192.52      988.97      285.75    227.38      687.82     1088.88
(kg per capita)


            1.2.3.10.2. Waste management enterprises and organizations


       Municipal waste management services in Klaip da region are provided by the following enter-
   prises:
       • UAB Gargždų Komunalinis Ūkis – in Klaip da District;
       • UAB Švarinta – in Kretinga District;
       • UAB Švaros Projektai – in Kretinga District;
       • UAB Kretingos Komunalininkas – in Kretinga District;
       • UAB Palangos Komunalinis Ūkis – in Palanga Town;
       • UAB Skuodo Komunalinis Ūkis – in Skuodas District;
       • UAB Neringos Komunalininkas – in Neringa Town;
       • UAB Švaros Diena – in Klaip da Town;
       • UAB Specialus Autotransportas – in Klaip da City;
       • UAB Vienituras – in Šilut District.


            1.2.3.10.3. Temporary storage of waste


        In Klaip da region, to collect mixed municipal waste from private houses and in rural areas
   0.12 – 0.,24 m3 capacity containers are mainly used, to collect this waste from multi-family apart-
   ment houses 0.66 – 1.1 m3 capacity containers are used. Waste collection containers are placed at
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the minimum distance from residential houses. Presently, to collect mixed municipal waste in
Klaip da region around 6,000of 0.66, 0.77 and 1.1 m3 are used. Waste from multi-family apartment
houses is transported at least twice per week. During the holiday season a more frequent transport
of waste from Neringa and Palanga municipalities is necessary.

       1.2.3.10.4. Collection and transport


      Waste collection and transport services in the region are provided by a number of small com-
panies the largest of which is UAB Specialusis Autotransportas. The major part collection vehicles
is outdated and of unsuitable quality. As a rule, organized waste collection services are provided
only in towns and bigger settlements, while smaller municipalities themselves take care of waste
disposal.
      The efficiency of waste collection in Klaip da Town is around 85per cent, in other municipali-
ties of the region it varies from 70 to 99 per cent, and in rural areas it hardly reaches 50per cent.
Waste is weighed only in the landfill of Klaip da City, therefore waste collection data in the mu-
nicipality of Klaip da City may be treated as reliable. On the other hand, information on municipal
waste covers construction and demolition waste as well as some production wastes. In the remain-
ing municipalities the quantity of waste is evaluated according to volume by using the selected con-
version coefficient.
      Two resort localities, Palanga and Neringa, belong to Klaip da County. In these municipalities
the quantity of waste considerably increases during the summer season due to incoming holiday-
makers, therefore in the summertime the frequency of waste collection is adjusted considering the
flows of incoming holiday makers.


       1.2.3.10.5. Waste sorting

      Waste (glass, plastics and paper) is sorted in an organized manner for reuse (recycling) only in
Klaip da City and some bigger towns of the region, however, comparatively small amounts of col-
lected secondary raw materials are processed. Seeking to improve this situation, the plan is to install
waste reception points (WRP) in every municipality.


       1.2.3.10.6. Waste treatment


The major part of collected secondary raw materials (paper and cardboard, plastic, glass and oth-
ers), are transported for reuse to specialized companies whose geography covers the entire Lithua-
nia and some foreign countries. Since the market situation is constantly changing it is difficult to
enumerate all the recycling companies.

       1.2.3.10.7. Waste disposal in landfills


      According to the generalized data of Klaip da landfill inventorying, all the landfills are di-
vided into three groups: 1) the main landfills of districts; 2) the main landfills of wards; 3) rural
landfills. Local municipal institutions together with the operators of existing landfills as well as
economic operators holding and operating landfills have to prepare the claring-up plans of present

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landfills and receive respective approvals from the Regional Environment Protection Departments
under the Ministry of the Environment.
      The largest landfills presently operating in the region of Klaip da are:
      - Kišk nai landfill in Dovilai Ward, Klaip da District (servicing Klaip da District);
      - Glaud nai landfill in Klaip da District (servicing Klaip da City)
      - Puodkaliai landfill in Puodkaliai Village, Skuodas District;
      - Ankštakiai landfill in Kretinga District;
      - Joskaudai landfill in Kretinga District (servicing Palanga Town);
      - Neringa Town landfill by the road Smiltyn -Nidos;
      - Rumšai landfill by Šilut Town (servicing Šilut District).

        1.2.3.10.8. The systems of waste management tariffs, fees and charges

      The financial basis of the entire municipal waste management system in Klaip da region is the
implementation of the principle “the polluter pays”, which is realized through the introduction of a
local charge for the collection of municipal waste from the holders of waste and waste management
by region's municipalities.
      The collection of local charges is organized by municipalities. The amount of the local charge
for waste handling has to compensate for the costs of the waste management system administration,
the collection, sorting and transport of waste, the collection of local charges as well as landfill’s
operation, infrastructure development, closure and after-closure care.
      With the aim to ensure the homogenety of the entire regional waste management system and
the application of the principle of the equal charge amount, when approving waste management
plans and rules and calculating the amount of the charge, the municipalities of Klaip da region use
the same methods and standards. Separate municipalities of the region (with regard to resorts, na-
tional parks and similar) may set stricter waste management requirements taking into consideration
the seasonal character of waste generation.

Table 1.22 The summary of municipal waste management prices in Klaip da region, 2006
     Municipality            The amount of local         Local charge amount           2006 monthly tariff
                             monthly charge per                 LTL/t                      per capita
                                 capita, LTL

     Klaip da City              5.8                              130.07                       1.72
    Klaip da District                  2.56                      143.58                       1.96
    Kretinga District                  2.84                      145.57                       2.25
        Neringa                       54.94                      181.52                       3.43
      Palanga Town                    13.73                      145.56                        2.1
     Skuodas District                 2.66                       155.44                        2.3
      Šilut District                  3.05                       148.53                       2.41

        1.2.3.10.9. The assessment of the regional waste management system development

       According to the data of Klaip da Region Waste Management Centre, the implementation
of waste sorting and collection is planned in Klaip da region in 2011.
     The strategic action programme should devote more attention to recyclable waste. The stream
of packaging waste is constantly growing with the improvement of living standards. The major part
of packaging waste as well as secondary raw materials could be recycled and reused. So far
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waste has been sorted only in Klaip da City, Kretinga and Palanga. To improve this situation, the
plan is to install waste reception points (WRP)in every municipality.
       According to the plan, Klaip da regional landfill in Dumpiai should be launched on 1 July
2007, and with the start of operation of this regional landfill all the other presently operating land-
fills will be closed.
       The plan is to install green waste composting sites in all municipalities in 2007.

1.2.4. Present waste streams and treatment

      Information on current municipal waste generation and composition in Lithuania is important
for the forecast of municipal waste accumulation in the future and the reorganization the municipal
waste management systems in waste management regions and sub-regions.

       1.2.4.1. General evaluation of municipal waste streams

      Generation of the municipal waste in 1995-2004 in each waste management sub-region of
Lithuania was first evaluated by summing up the amounts of all fractions of collected solid munici-
pal waste whose values were taken from the annual statistics of the Environment Protection
Agency. At the time of drawing up this report, information on waste generation in 2005 was not
published by the Environment Protection Agency.
      The project evaluated the following main groups of municipal wastes:
    – mixed waste and sorting residues;
    – paper and cardboard;
    – glass;
    – metals;
    – plastics and composites;
    – biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste;
    – biodegradable garden and park waste;
      Data on waste generation in 2000-2004 for every sub-region are presented according to the
codes used in Waste Management Rules.
      In the course of evaluation, the fractions of paper and cardboard, glass, metals and plastics and
the fractions classified under group 20 that meet them were supplemented with unused packaging
made of these materials and belonging to the group 15 01 “Packaging (including separately col-
lected municipal packaging waste)”. In this way:
      a paper and cardboard fraction consists of 20 01 01 (paper and cardboard) and 15 01 01 (paper
and cardboard packaging);
      a glass fraction consists of 20 01 02 (glass) and 15 01 07 (glass packaging);
      a metal fraction consists of 20 01 40 (metals) and 15 01 04 (metal packaging);
      a plastic and composite fraction consists of 20 01 39 (plastics) and 15 01 02 (plastic packag-
      ing);
      a biodegradable waste fraction consists of 20 01 08 (biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste)
      and (20 02 01) biodegradable garden and park waste.
      To the mixed waste was attributed waste of the code 20 03 01, which, under current insignifi-
cant degree of separate collection of secondary raw materials and biodegradable waste, makes up
the main part of the municipal waste.
      To deal with the problem related to different code of municipal waste used in the period of
1995-1999 and 2000-2004 the following equivalents of the old and new codes were used in the pro-
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ject:
     A.07 “Food Waste” and A.07.01 Food waste suitable for fodder” are equivalent to 20 01
08 “biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste”;
     A.12 “Paper and cardboard waste” and A.12.01 Paper scrap” are quivalent to 20 01 01 Paper
and cardboard”;
     A.13.01 Thermoplastics” is equivalent to 20 01 39 “Plastics”;
     A.15 “Glass waste” is equivalent to 20 01 02 ”Glass”;
     A.22 “Unsorted household waste” corresponds to 20 03 01 “Mixed municipal waste”.
     Fig. 1.2 shows changes in municipal waste amounts in Lithuania in 1995-2004 by waste
management regions




        Fig. 1.2   Change in municipal waste amounts in Lithuania in 1995-2004 by waste manage-
ment regions


          1.2.4.2. Optimization of municipal waste generation indicators

      The evaluation of official data of municipal generation in sub-regions shows that some of the
data do seem reliable and some them even unreal, as for instance, 153 t/year in Širvintos District
Municipality (2004) (see Appendix 1-1). In addition, such data for the year 2004 for some sub-
regions as, for instance, Pag giai Municipality, are missing. On the other hand, the mass of col-
lected municipal waste is recorded with the help of weighing-machines only in Vilnius and Kaunas
waste management systems, while other sub-regions calculate the mass of collected waste by the
volume of filled containers, frequency of filling and approximate bulk density of waste.
      The optimum value of annual municipal waste generation per capita can be calculated accord-
ing to the dependence of this generation on the gross domestic product on the regional scale. Such
dependencies were established during the international research project GCV-IAT (more informa-
tion on: www.lca-iwm.net). The dependence was obtained after the analysis of the municipal waste
collection in a number of European cities.
The Figure below shows the dependence of municipal waste generation per capita in a European
city on the national and regional GDP.


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   Fig. 1.3 Dependence of the municipal waste generation per capita in a European city on the gross domestic product
(GDP) on the national and regional scales [Deliverable, 2003].

      Waste generation in kg/year per capita, based on the national/regional GDP is calculated as
follows:
              • on the national scale

      MSW(per capita) = 225+0.0119*GDP                                                 ( 1.1)

                 •   on the regional scale

      MSW(per capita) = 218+0.0123*GDP                                                 (1.2)

       This dependence illustrates the situation when the generated waste is collected by a hundred
per cent. When forecasting municipal waste streams it was assumed that based on the National Stra-
tegic Waste Management Plan, the municipal waste management service will be provided to all
natural and legal persons in 2007.
      Table in Appendix No. 1-1 shows statistics and annual municipal waste amounts per capital
calculated according to the regional GDP.
      It is assumed that due to a more precise recording of secondary raw materials and biodegrad-
able waste, the statistical data on the amounts of these wastes are reliable and suitable for further
use in calculations. The following formula was used to calculate the amount of mixed municipal
waste per capita per:

      MSW (1 cap.)mixed = MSW (1 cap.) - MSW (1 cap.)Sec..+Bio.                        (1.3)

     MSW (1 cap.) – annual municipal waste amount per capita generated in a region (from for-
mula 1.2), MSW (1 cap.)mixed – annual mixed municipal waste amount per capita generated in a re-
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gion, MSW (1 cap.)Sec.+Bio – annual secondary raw material and biodegradable waste amount per
capita generated in a region.

      Taking into consideration the fact that the statistics on mixed municipal waste generation are
not objective due to various reasons, the results obtained according to the formula 1.3 will be used
for further calculations.

            1.2.4.3. Municipal waste composition and its optimisation

      Since the year 1995, AB Kauno Švara every year conducts the analysis of municipal waste
composition. Fig. 1.4 shows changes in municipal waste composition in Kaunas City in the period
of 1995-2004. The annual analysis of composition was carried out by Kauno Švara specialists
[Kauno Švara, 2005]. The tendency towards the decrease of the biodegradable waste fraction share
in the total municipal waste is visible however this is predetermined by increasing amounts of pack-
aging but not the decreasing amount of this fraction.


  60

  50


  40

  30
 %




  20

  10

     0
     1995          1996       1997        1998        1999       2000        2001       2002        2003        2004

       Paper and cardboard                       Biodegradable waste
       Glass                                     Hazardous waste
       Metal                                     Other combustible waste
       Plastics and composites                   Other non-combustible waste

            Fig. 1.4. Change in mixed waste composition in Kaunas city from 1995 to 2004, in percentage [Kauno Švara,
                                                           2005]

Based on the above-presented data set by Kauno Švara and given in waste management feasibility
studies of regions, it can be stated that the composition of mixed municipal waste in Lithuania was
changing in the period of 1995-2004 as given in Figure 1.5.




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Fig. 1.5. Change in mixed waste composition in percentage in Lithuania from 1995 to 2004

        1.2.4.4. Calculation of municipal waste streams

     The total annual amount of municipal waste generated in a region is calculated by multiplying
an annual municipal waste amount per capita by total population in the region:

      MSW = MSW (1 cap.) × PopNum,                                                         (1.4)

     where MSW – the annual waste amount generated in a region, MSW (1 cap.) – the annual
waste amount per capita in a region, PopNum – the number of population in a region.

1.2.5. The assessment of the tariff, fee and charge system

1.2.5.1. Factual and planned sizes of regional tariffs, fees and changes

       The tariff of municipal waste collection, transport and handling is set by the council of each
municipality following information submitted by the waste manager and calculations of costs per-
formed by the specialists of municipality’s administration as well as results of competition to select
the operator of the municipality’s waste management system (the price of municipal waste collec-
tion and transport offered by the operator).

        Waste handling tariffs for residents. Waste generation norms in municipalities are differen-
tiated according to the type of residential area: separate tariffs are set for the residents of towns,
small towns and rural areas taking into consideration the type of housing (private house or multi-
family apartment house). As a rule a monthly tariff per capita is set for the residents of multi-family
apartment houses, and a fee for container emptying as a monthly fee per person or a household
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(housing) is set for the residents of private houses. Tariffs applied in every region are itemized in
the subsection 1.2.3 when discussing every waste management region.

        There was observed a general tendency towards the increase of waste generation norms for
residents with the growth of concentration of serviced persons and the level of urbanisation, i.e. the
norm is lower in small municipal towns compared to bigger towns and in small villages (less than
200 residents) it is the lowest.
        The comparison of residents’ (households’) expenses for waste management and the aver-
age amount of income disposable by a household member (according to the year 2005 data) shows
that expenses for waste handling do not exceed the limit of 1% recommended in the National Stra-
tegic Waste Management Plan – in different counties this indicator varies in the range of 0.1-0.3%.
        Despite the fact that the National Strategic Waste Management Plan, approved back in 2002,
suggests a gradual transition from the payment per resident to the payment for container emptying
depending on its size and the frequency of emptying when setting the amount of payments (tariffs
or local charges) for municipal waste handling services, in fact all the municipality that approved
their rules later have not implemented this recommendation or implemented only in part (only with
respect to private houses or legal persons).
        Waste management tariffs for enterprises, agencies and organizations. The tariffs of waste
management methods for enterprises, agencies, organizations, garage holdings and garden plot
members approved in the period of 2004-2006 are set as a payment for the emptying of a certain
capacity container, however in the former still unchanged methods the tariffs are set based on waste
generation norms2.
        Usually municipal council set bigger waste management tariffs for legal persons than for the
category of residents (the different might reach 30% talking of the price of 1 m3).
        The amounts of payment based on a container capacity and the frequency of emptying
greatly differ in different municipalities. For instance, Rokiškis District Municipality charges LTL
127.44 for the emptying of 120 (or 140) litre container 52 times per year (every week), while Vil-
kaviškis District Municipality − LTL 192 per year showing the difference 1.51 times.

         Tariffs of waste reception in landfills. Natural and legal persons, having not concluded con-
tracts on waste collection, have the possibility to deliver it by their own transport to the landfills
within the territories of their municipalities. Waste can be accepted in the landfill according to a
waste management agreement concluded with the company operating the landfill while in case of
single deliveries – the payment is effected straight away in the landfill. Many small landfills receive
waste from residents free of charge.
         The size of payment for waste disposal in the landfill is set by a municipal council. Taking
into consideration economic and other conditions, municipalities have set very diverse tariffs. Some
tariffs applicable in counties and municipalities in the middle of 2006, in fact, showing the general
situation in Lithuania, are given in Table 1.23.




2
    the minimum annual municipal waste generation norms for legal persons (enterprises, agencies and organizations) are set according to the number of employees, the area
        of premises and other criteria.
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Table 1.23. Tariffs of waste reception in landfills
Municipality                                                               Tariff
                                                      For residents           For organizations
Vilnius City Municipality (Kariotišk s landfill)      LTL/t 18.96             LTL/t 18.96
Rokiškis District Municipality (Šemetai landfill)     LTL /t 21.00            LTL/t 21.00
Šiauliai City (Kairiai landfill)                      LTL/t 19.54             LTL/t 19.54
Kaunas City (Lap s landfill)                          LTL/t 30.09             LTL/t 30.09
Jonava District Municipality (Jonalaukis landfill)    LTL/t 28.89             LTL/t 28.89

1.2.5.2. Assessment of economic instruments

        The Lithuanian Republic Law on Pollution Tax should be considered as an instrument of
economic character for natural and legal persons that encourages the reduction of waste generation
or directing of the waste to required treatment or disposal facilities.
        The purpose of the Law on Pollution Tax is, inter alia, to apply economic instruments to
encourage the polluters to reduce environmental pollution. According to the Article 5 Tax Reliefs,
natural and legal persons implementing environmental measures aimed at reducing the emission of
pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary sources of pollution by at least 5 per cent calculating
from the determined maximum allowable pollution level shall be exempted from taxes for those
pollutants whose amount has been reduced by 5 per cent in accordance with the procedure laid
down by the Government or an institution authorised by it, except for the cases when the funds from
the state budget are used for the implementation of the measure. The tax exemption shall be valid
for a time period not exceeding 3 years from the beginning of the implementation of the measure.
Manufacturers and importers shall be exempted from the pollution tax for polluting the environment
with goods and/or packaging waste in the total amount of goods and/or packaging, if they fulfil the
tasks related to recovery and/or recycling of goods and packaging waste set by the Government.
(see section 1.1).
        To enhance residents’ motivation in the field of waste management the only economic lever
is applied, i.e. a payment for municipal waste management that is approved by municipal councils
that was analysed above (see section 1.2.7.1). A waste management company can increase waste
management tariffs for separate territories if, for instance, due to decreased on-site waste sorting
(e.g. separation of plastics from the total waste stream or similar) the density of container filling
decreases but the frequency of container emptying increases. In practice, the increase of this fee
reaches 10-15% and does not have major influence on the behaviour of residents, especially those
of multi-family apartment houses. The need of environmental education and consciousness of resi-
dents has been clearly identified.
        Economic sanctions for the infringements of waste management rules are provided for in
Article 51(3) Failure to Obey the Requirements of Waste Management Rules of the Lithuanian Re-
public Code of the Administrative Violations of Law.
        It provides for the administrative penalties for the environment pollution with waste:
        a) waste disposal infringing the requirements of Waste Management Rules that causes envi-
ronment pollution with non-hazardous waste is subject to the penalty from LTL 100 to 300 for citi-
zens, and from LTL 300 to 600 for officers; the same activities that cause environment pollution
with hazardous waste is subject to the penalty from LTL 300 to 500 for citizens, and from LTL 400
to 800 for officers.
        b) waste disposal in sanitary protective areas, protected territories, roadside of the state-
importance roads is subject to the penalty from LTL 200 to 400 for citizens, and from LTL 400 to
800 for officers; the same activities causing environment pollution with hazardous waste in the
mentioned areas is subject to the penalty from LTL 400 to 700 for citizens, and from LTL 700 to
1,000 for officers.
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         Apart from the mentioned penalties the person recognized as guilty has to compensate for
financial damage (compensate for the damage made to the environment). Compensations for the
environmental damage are calculated based on the Methods of Estimating the Amount of Environ-
mental Damage approved by the Minister of the Environment Order No. 471 “On the Approval of
Methods of Estimating the Amount of Environmental Damage” of 9 September 2002.
         The Lithuanian Republic Minister of the Environment by his Order No. 198 “On the Ap-
proval of the Methods of Estimating Loss Made to Nature by Destructing or Damaging the Com-
plexes and Objects of Natural Landscape” of 14 December 1995 (Valstyb s Žinios (Official Ga-
zette), 1996, No. 39-973; 1998, No. 26-706; 1999, No. 95-2756; 2002, No. 38-1404, No. 115-5162;
2003, No. 122-5548) approved The Methods of Estimating Loss Made to Nature by Destructing or
Damaging the Complexes and Objects of Natural Landscape, however, it does not analyze the esti-
mation of the loss sustained specifically because of improper disposal of waste .
         The control of compliance with the above-mentioned requirements of waste disposal is by
legislation entrusted to regional environment protection departments whose main aim is to organize
and implement the state control of environment protection and the use of natural resources in a re-
gion seeking to ensure the lawfulness and law and order in the field of environment protection.
When implementing its tasks, the department executes different functions including control of pol-
lutant emissions accounting, checking for the correctness of calculation of pollution taxes. The ma-
jority of departments prioritize waste generation prevention and waste handling control.

1.2.5.3. Assessment of waste handling funding sources

        At the municipalities of the country waste management is funded from two sources: charges
for waste management services (charge for waste management services payable by residents, enter-
prises, agencies and organizations; the amount of the charge is set by a municipal council) and in-
come of enterprises of the municipal waste management system received for services and sold
goods (secondary raw materials and similar).
        It is necessary to set such waste management tariffs that the collected proceeds would cover
the total costs of the municipality’s waste management system including waste management ad-
ministration, investment, and the operation, closure and after-closure care of municipality’s public
waste management facilities. Taking into consideration the fact that the majority of municipalities
worked out and approved their waste management rules prior to the development of regional waste
management system’s feasibility studies and business plans of regional waste management centres,
it should be noted that the set tariffs and charges do not estimate or insufficiently estimate all possi-
ble costs. This is the reason why it is recommended to update waste management rules of munici-
palities. Some municipalities have already started doing this.
        So far a fair amount from of municipal budget funds has been used for waste management
(as a rule, Environment Protection Support or similar funds)3. The Council Directive 75/442/EEC
on waste clearly states that “the proportion of the costs not covered by the proceeds of treating the
waste must be defrayed in accordance with the "polluter pays" principle.”, therefore waste man-
agement should be funded from a municipal budget only in a certain part but not in the entire terri-
tory of the municipality upon providing a clear justification.
        All holders of waste receive mixed municipal waste management services on a contractual
basis. Residents of multi-family apartment houses are serviced according to agreements concluded
with house administrators or communities, residents of private houses – agreements with house
owners. Despite the fact that in some places of municipalities waste management fees are set for

3
    For instance, according to the decision of Mažeikiai District Municipality Council, the charge paid by residents for municipal waste management amounts to LTL, 1.65,
       and another LTL 0.64 are compensated for from the funds provided for the Environmental Fund in the municipality‘s budget.
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residents and these services are provided, residents fail to pay for the provided services/conclude
agreements with waste managers (for instance, residents themselves dispose waste in the majority
of operating ward landfills without paying any charges, fees for waste disposal are set only in major
(district and regional) landfills). Such expenses of utility enterprises are covered from the municipal
budget line provided for this purpose every year.
         Part of costs of the municipal waste management system might be compensated for from the
state budget, international funds (including the European Union Fund of Cohesion (see section
1.1), the European Regional Development Fund (INTERREG IIIA initiative4, and before Lithuania
joined the EU – from PHARE ESC, PHARE CBC, ISPA programmes). However, the general rule
is that these external funding sources are intended for long-term investment and shall not be used to
cover current expenses.




4
    Measure 1.3 of Lithuania, Poland and Kaliningrad Region of Russian Federation Neighbourhood Programme “Environmental protection and growth of energy efficiency
      and promoting renewable energy sources”; measure 1 “Environment protection in border region” of Baltic sea region INTERREG III B Neighbourhood Programme
      INTERREG IIIA priority Latvia-Lithuania-Belarus (Southern priority) programme
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      2. FORECASTS OF WASTE GENERATION AND COMPOSITION

2.1. THE METHODS OF FORECAST PERFORMANCE

Waste generation forecasts in this study were performed by the prognostic model formed in the
course of GCV-IAT project and are based on the analysis of the dependence of social-economic
conditions on generating waste amount (for more information: www.lca-iwm.net). The modelling
was performed on the assumption that this dependence for towns and regions is similar in the previ-
ous and modelled periods. Unlike usually employed methods (e.g. extrapolation of tendencies) this
model is characteristic of regional and national indicators. Demographic, social and economic con-
ditions of a region were taken into consideration.
       During GCV-IAT project, data on general amounts of solid municipal waste in the most im-
portant 55 cities of 15 old EU Member States and 10 cities of new or candidate states of the EU
were collected. Based on the developed statistical database and using respective dependences it was
possible either to confirm or reject the influence of analysed factors on waste generation (total mu-
nicipal waste generation per capita and municipal waste composition according to the main frac-
tions (% of the mass). Over 35 potential factors of influence were selected for the mentioned re-
search. Since some data were insufficient or partially unreliable (e.g. non-standardized definitions)
on the city and regional levels, only 6 indicators appeared to be suitable for forecasting waste gen-
eration and they were further assessed (see Table 2.1):
        1. Gross domestic product: this indicator showing region’s economic power was often used
            to evaluate the change of waste stream. By additional research this relationship was con-
            firmed for very rich cities (Deliverable 2.1);
        2. Social indicators: during previous evaluations of waste streams, social indicators of lux-
            ury were not defined. However, in this model such indicators as infant mortality, average
            life expectancy and share of persons employed in agriculture, appeared to have signifi-
            cant influence, especially in rapidly developing states of Eastern Europe. These indica-
            tors are suitable due to their availability, precision of data and accurateness of prognoses
            in the future;
        3. Age: a positive relationship between the number of people aged 15-59 (the most active
            group of population in the economic aspect) and waste generation confirms previous ex-
            perience (Sircar et al., 2003);
        4. Household size: a small number of people living in medium-sized housings also shows
            larger amounts of generated waste (Dennison et al., 1996).
The above-mentioned factors were entered into the model’s algorithms.

Table 2.1. The factors influencing municipal waste generation used as the model’s parameters
                  Factor                                                  Unit
                                              Purchasing power parity of the US dollar at the prices
    Gross domestic product per capita
                                                                    of 1995
           Infant mortality rate                            Deaths per 1,000 births
     Share of population aged 15-59                    Percentage of the total population
             Household size                       Average number of residents in a household
         Average life expectancy                                        Year
 Share of population employed in agricul-
                   ture
                                                   Percentage of the total number of employed

Unlike usually employed methods (e.g. extrapolation of tendencies) this model is characteristic of
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regional and national indicators. Demographic, social and economic conditions of a region were
taken into consideration.
The degree of separate collection of sorted waste (e.g. the percentage of collected paper of the total
generated paper) is influenced by a number of factors. In the course of LCA-IWM project the
analysis of how sorted waste is collected in European cities was made. In reality, it is better to de-
termine the achieved on-site collection of sorted recyclable materials based on known experience
than theoretically. It was assumed that experiences of improving waste collection in well-tried col-
lection systems (e.g. in Germany or Austria) can be applied for the development of the collection
systems where the collection of separate fractions, in fact, is low. It has been proved that the on-site
collection of sorted waste in cities clearly depends on the general social-economic position. Based
on the grouping of cities according to the level of standard of living, the assumption was made that
the average collection value typical of all the cities classified as the cities of highest welfare (the
cities of Germany, France, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Italy and the Netherlands) could serve as
“a target value” for other cities that could achieve it after implementing the scheme of sorted waste
collection. Table 2.2 presents the calculated “value to be achieved” for four groups of waste ex-
pressed in mass percent or generation per capita.

Table 2.2. Recommended target collection values of sorted waste
                                 Recommended degree of sorted waste collection, i.e. “value to be
       Type of waste                                         achieved”
                                           Mass %                      Kg per capita per year
    Paper and cardboard                       45                                 50
            Glass                             50                                 22
  Plastics and composites                     33                                 19
   Biodegradable waste                        22                                 35

In experts’ opinion, the analysis of changes in separate waste collection situation and indicators
achieved in Lithuania in the period of 1995-2004 as well as infrastructures of separate collection
and sorting of waste fractions to be developed as described in feasibility studies of waste manage-
ment regions shows that the values specified in Table 2.2 can really be achieved in the nearest
years. As far as biodegradable waste is concerned, the achievement of these values has to be en-
sured by: full separate collection and composting of green waste, mandatory full collection of
kitchen and canteen waste from commercial facilities, encouragement of private house residents to
compost biodegradable waste, and the establishment of a proper network of biodegradable waste
containers in residential districts. In this way, as a multi-year research into collection of separate
fractions shows, the average value separate biodegradable waste collection achieved by European
cities with model waste management is 22percent (the highest value – 51percent). As maintained by
European waste management experts, 22 percent is the target to be pursued by regions with fast
growing economies.

      A simplified procedure of waste generation forecast is as follows:
    1.  Entry of present data on waste generation and composition;
    2.  Entry of social-economic indicators typical of this year;
    3.  Entry of social-economic tendencies up to the last year covered by the assessment;
    4.  Based on the entered parameters, the model computes the prognosis of municipal waste gen-
        eration.
      The operation of this model was tested according to the database formed in the previous pe-
riod. The model allows to forecast the municipal waste generation per capita with the accuracy of
8% at the square error of R2=0,65. With an increase of the forecast’s horizon and waste amounts,
the error of the obtained forecasts (the average value)
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                     a. 4% for the period from 5 to 10 years, and
                     b. 7% for the period from 11 to 22 years, and further.

2.2. INDICATORS USED IN WASTE GENERATION FORECASTS

    Gross domestic product (GDP) means the total revenues created within the country’s territory
as well as the revenues received by foreign production factors in a particular country less the reve-
nues of this country’s citizens received abroad. In other words, GDP means revenues received in-
side the country (when the balance of economic foreign relations is not accounted for).
    Gross domestic product at the prices of 1995 – the value of the gross domestic product at cur-
rent prices having eliminated the impact of inflation.
    Gross domestic product at the purchasing power parity – the value of the gross domestic prod-
uct at current prices by assessing the differences in the purchasing power of the national currency,
the Litas, and the US dollar (via the conversion factor of the purchasing power). This indicator is
calculated as follows: GDP per capita at current prices in the litas is divided by GDP deflator (the
year 1995 base) and divided by the conversion factor of the purchasing power parity in 2005. Fur-
ther forecasts are made on the assumption that the factor will be of the same level.

        At the comparative prices of 2000, the gross domestic product increased by 7.5 percent in
the year 2005 compared to the year 2004, i.e. it exceeded the target5. Table 2.3 presents information
about the change of GDP and other related indicators in the period of 1995-2005.
        Based on the Lithuanian Republic Ministry of Finance forecast, in the medium-term period
Lithuania will maintain a rapid economic growth: in 2005 the GDP growth may reach 7%, in 2006
– 6%, 2007 – 5.3% and 2008– 6.8%. According to AB SEB Vilniaus Bank, the national economy
should grow by 6.5% and 6.2% in 2006 and 2007, respectively.
         The following annual growth rate of GDP was forecast in the National Long-term Devel-
opment Strategy until 2015: optimistic – 7 percent, average – 6 percent, pessimistic – 5 percent.
         The indicator of GDP per capita was calculated on the assumption that the number of popu-
lation, having decreased by 15-20 thousand people every year in the period of 2001-2005, will con-
tinue decreasing by 10 thousand every year during the analysed period.
        When forecasting macroeconomic development of regions in the period of 2006-2020 we
did not have official forecasts since neither the Department of Statistics nor other official institu-
tions make these forecasts, therefore it was assumed that regions will continue maintaining similar
rates of growth that will be respectively equal to general national growth rates (GDP in regions will
change in proportion to the change of the national GDP). Thus, when drawing up the forecasts, we
state that the optimistic alternative of the average annual growth of the real GDP will be 7%, the
alternative of medium growth rate will stay at 6%, and the alternative of low growth – 5%. It is as-
sumed that GDP growth indicators for all the alternatives are the same and are equal to 7.3% in
2005. Table 2.3 shows the change of the forecast GDP indicators according to the three above-
mentioned scenarios.




5
    The Lithuanian Republic Ministry of Finance forecast a 7-percent growth of GDP in 2005, commercial banks – a 6.5-6.8-percent growth. International experts were more
       pessimistic forecasting a slowdown in the growth of Lithuania’s economy. (At the beginning of the last year, experts from United Nations Economic Commission for
       Europe (UNECE) forecast a 5.8-percent growth of Lithuania’s GDP in 2005).
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Table 2.3. The dynamics of the gross domestic product and derivative indicators in the period of 1995-2005
Indicator                       1995    1996     1997     1998      1999     2000      2001     2002     2003       2004     2005
GDP per capita at current       6.88    8.90 11.00       12.50     12.30      13.1      13.9 14.95      16.40      18.12    20.82
prices, thousand LTL
GDP at current prices, bil-    25.57 32.29 39.38         44.38     43.36 45.85 48.56 51.95              56.77      62.44    71.08
lion LTL
Purchasing power conver-        1.10    1.30     1.45      1.51      1.48     1.46      1.43     1.40    1.38       1.38     1.38
sion factor, LTL for the US
dollar
Annual inflation, %            39.50 24.70        8.80     5.10      0.70     1.00      1.30     0.30   -1.20       1.20      2.5
GDP deflator (basis – the      100.0 124.6 135.7 142.64 143.63 145.0 146.9 147.3 145.63                           147.36   151.05
year 1995), %                      0       8         1                           2         4        6
GDP per at the prices of       25.57 25.90 29.02         31.11     30.19 31.62 33.05 35.25              38.98      42.37    47.06
1995, billion LTL
GDP per capita at the prices    6.88    7.14     8.11      8.76      8.56     9.03      9.46 10.14      11.26      12.30    13.78
of 1995, thousand LTL
GDP per capita at the pur-      6.28    5.51     5.58      5.80      5.79     6.17      6.63     7.22    8.18       8.88     9.99
chasing power parity at the
prices of 1995, thousand US
dollars

Table 2.4. Forecast of changes in GDP in the period of 2006-2020
Indicator             2005    2006      2007       2008      2009      2010      2011      2012          2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2018     201
Forecast change      47.06     50.35     53.88      57.65     61.68     66.00     70.62     75.57         80.86    86.52    92.57    99.05   105.99   113.40    121
in the large
growth GDP at
the prices of
1995, billion
LTL (the
growth of 7
percent)
Forecast change      47.06     49.88     52.88      56.05     59.41     62.98     66.75     70.76        75.00    79.51    84.28    89.33     94.69   100.37   106
in the medium
growth GDP at
the prices of




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1995, billion
LTL (the
growth of 6
percent)
Forecast change    47.06   49.41    51.88    54.48    57.20    60.06    63.06    66.22         69.53    73.00    76.65    80.49     84.51    88.74     93
in the low
growth GDP at
the prices of
1995, billion
LTL (the
growth of 5
percent)
Indicator          2005    2006     2007     2008     2009     2010     2011     2012          2013     2014     2015     2016     2017     2018     201
Population         3.411    3.401    3.391    3.381    3.371    3.361    3.351    3.341         3.331    3.321    3.311    3.301    3.291    3.281     3.
(mean of the
period), million
Forecast change            14.81    15.89    17.05    18.30    19.64    21.08    22.62         24.27    26.05    27.96    30.01     32.20    34.56     37
in GDP per
capita, thousand
LTL, at the
prices of 1995
(large growth)
Forecast change            14.67    15.59    16.58    17.62    18.74    19.92    21.18         22.52    23.94    25.45    27.06     28.77    30.59     32
in GDP per
capita, thousand
LTL, at the
prices of 1995
(medium
growth)
Forecast change            14.53    15.30    16.11    16.97    17.87    18.82    19.82         20.87    21.98    23.15    24.38     25.68    27.05     28
in GDP per
capita, thousand
LTL, at the
prices of 1995
(low growth)




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Forecast change        10.73   11.51   12.36   13.26   14.23   15.27   16.39        17.59   18.88   20.26   21.74   23.34   25.05   26
in GDP per
capita at the
prices of 1995
at the purchas-
ing power par-
ity, thousand
USD (large
growth)
Forecast change        10.63   11.30   12.01   12.77   13.58   14.44   15.35        16.32   17.35   18.44   19.61   20.85   22.17   23
in GDP per
capita at the
prices of 1995
at the purchas-
ing power par-
ity, thousand
USD (medium
growth)
Forecast change        10.53   11.09   11.68   12.30   12.95   13.64   14.36        15.13   15.93   16.78   17.67   18.61   19.60   20
in GDP per
capita at the
prices of 1995
at the purchas-
ing power par-
ity, thousand
USD (low
growth)




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      Share of population aged 15-59 (able-bodied population) being the most active group of
population in the economic aspect. More information about the influence of this age group on the
forecasts of municipal waste amounts and composition is available in literary sources (Sircar et al.,
2003).
      Figure 2.1 shows changing tendencies of the share of population aged 15-59 of the total popu-
lation in the regions of Lithuania in the period of 2001-2005.

 66

 64

 62

 60

 58

 56

 54

 52
                     2001                               2002                             2003                             2004                                2005

         Lithuania                      Alytus re.                     Kaunas reg.                 Klaip da reg.                Marijampol s reg.             Panev žys reg.

         Šiaulių reg.                   Taurag s reg.                  Telšių reg.                 Utena reg.                   Vilnius reg.




      Fig. 2.1. Change in share of population aged 15-59 in Lithuania in the period of 2001-2005 [Statistics Lithuania,
                                                       2006].

      When forecasting municipal waste amount and composition for the period of 2006-2020 refer-
ence was made to the tendencies of change in population distribution by age given in the publica-
tion “Forecasts of Lithuanian Population for 2005-2030” (2004) of the Lithuanian Department of
Statistics. See Fig. 2.2.

 68


 66


 64


 62


 60


 58


 56
  2010                                                                                  2014                                                                              2019

                            Lithuania                   Alytus re.                   Kaunas reg.                Klaip da reg.                  Marijampol s reg.
                            Panev žys reg.              Šiaulių reg.                 Taurag s reg.              Telšių reg.                    Vilnius reg.



Fig. 2.2. Forecast changes in the share of population aged 15-59 in Lithuania for the period of 2010-2019 [Lithuanian
                                                  population, 2004].

          Average household size – the number of residents in a household. According to the 2004
  data of the Lithuanian Department of Statistics, the average number of residents per household
  was 2.6. The biggest average number of persons in a household was recorded the segment of
  households with the lowest earnings – 3.6 persons per household, the smallest, 1.9 persons per

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   household, in the households with the highest earnings. A smaller number of persons per house-
   hold is the sign of bigger waste amounts generating. Fig. 2.3 presents the Lithuanian Department
   of Statistics the data about the average size of a household in regions.

3,50

                                                                                                                                                                           2,90                    2,92               2,94
3,00                                                                                                                                                     2,85
                                                                                               2,65               2,71                2,71
                                   2,50                2,52                 2,54
2,50          2,30


2,00


1,50


1,00


0,50


0,00
               .                    .                   .                     .               ia                   .                    .                  .                 .                      .                 g.
         r   eg
                             sr
                                  eg              r   eg                  r eg              an               r   eg                  reg              sr
                                                                                                                                                        eg              sr
                                                                                                                                                                          eg                  r   eg              i re
      na                                      tus                  ž io                   hu              as                 uli ų                                                         da                 lšia
   Ute                   ni u             Al y                                        Li t              un               Ši a
                                                                                                                                                  g                  ol
                     Vi l                                       ev                                    Ka                                       ura                 mp             Kl a
                                                                                                                                                                                      ip                    Te
                                                            Pan                                                                              Ta              r ij a
                                                                                                                                                           Ma




                                    Fig. 2.3. Average household size in regions in 2004 [Lithuanian statistics, 2006].

       To forecast the change of this indicator, the databases of international organizations, such as
   the United Nations (UN-Habitat, UN-ESA), OECD, EU as well as the World Data Bank, are
   used. See Fig. 2.4

  3



 2,9



 2,8



 2,7



 2,6



 2,5



 2,4



 2,3



 2,2
        2006           2007             2008           2009          2010           2011           2012          2013        2014             2015             2016     2017           2018               2019         2020


       Alytus reg.          Kaunas reg.           Klaip da reg.              Marijampol reg.          Panev žys reg.        Šiauliai reg.            Taurag reg.        Telšiai reg.         Utena reg.            Vilnius reg.




                                    Fig. 2.4 Forecasts of average household size in Lithuania [United Nations, 2002]




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        Probable life expectancy is a probability indicator showing the average length of survival
of every human being if the mortality rate in every age group of the population does not change
within the entire future life of the generation being analysed. This indicator reflects environmental
conditions in a city, human health condition, the level of healthcare and living conditions. Even
though the average life expectancy in Lithuania increases the difference between men’s and
women’s life expectancy is big. The more developed is a country the smaller is this difference. In
Lithuania the length of women’s survival is by 11 years longer than that of men.
    Fig. 2.5 presents the Lithuanian Department of Statistics data about the probable life expec-
tancy in Lithuania for the period of 1990 – 2004.


                                     73



                                     72
   Probable life expectancy, years




                                     71



                                     70



                                     69



                                     68



                                     67
                                            1990      1995     1996      1997      1998      1999      2000     2001      2002      2003       2004



                                           Fig. 2.5. Probable average life expectancy in Lithuania, 1990-2004 [Lithuanian statistics, 2006].

     The tendencies of change of the average life expectancy presented in the Lithuanian Depart-
ment of Statistics publication “Forecasts of Lithuanian Population for 2005-2030” (2004) was used
for the forecast of the municipal waste amount and composition for the period of 2006-2020. See
Fig. 2.6.




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                                     77


                                     76
   Probable life expectancy, years




                                     75


                                     74


                                     73


                                     72


                                     71


                                     70
                                            2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014     2020



 Fig. 2.6. Forecasts of change of average life expectancy in Lithuania for the period of 2006-2020 [Lithuanian popula-
                                                       tion, 2004].

        Share of population employed in agriculture is the percentage of persons employed in ag-
riculture of the total employed population.
        Municipal waste consists not only of household waste but other wastes that by their nature
or composition are similar to municipal waste. This category of waste includes municipal waste
from the service sector’s enterprises and municipal waste from rural territories. A relationship be-
tween the intensity of agricultural activities (expressed by the number of agricultural workers) and
the amount of generated municipal waste (Pearson’s correlation coefficient >0.45, when the signifi-
cance is 0.1%) was noticed in the developed countries with a steady GDP and infant mortality rate.
Due to this reason, the influence of small farms on the generation of municipal waste cannot be un-
derestimated.
      Fig. 2.7 presents the Lithuanian Department of Statistics data about the change of population
share employed in agriculture in the period of 1990-2004.




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          Fig. 2.7. Change of population share employed in agriculture, 1990-2004 [Lithuanian statistics, 2006 ].

     To forecast the change of this indicator, the databases of international organizations, such as
the United Nations (UN-Habitat, UN-ESA), OECD, EU as well as the World Data Bank, are used.
See Fig. 2.8.




     Fig. 2.8. Forecast change of the population share employed in agriculture in Lithuanian regions [Food and, 2006]

Current data about waste generation and composition

        The amount of generated municipal waste was calculated using the method and formula
(1.4) described in the section 1.2.4. The expression of municipal waste composition being used in
given in Table 1.26.

2.3. FORECASTS OF WASTE GENERATION AND COMPOSITION

        The following forecasts of waste generation were made in this project stage:
-    according to the optimistic scenario of the GDP growth for every region for the period of 2006-
     2020;
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-    according to the medium scenario of the GDP growth for every region for the period of 2006-
     2020;
-    according to the pessimistic scenario of the GDP growth for every region for the period of 2006-
     2020;

     Figures 2.9 – 2.19 present forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste (sec-
ondary raw materials + municipal waste + biodegradable waste) in the cases of optimistic, medium
and pessimistic scenarios.




      Total municipal (av)               Mixed waste (av)
      Total municipal (optim.)           Mixed waste (optim.)
      Total municipal (passim.)          Mixed waste (pessim.)


        Fig. 2.9. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Alytus waste management region for
                                                      2006-2020.




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  Total municipal (av)                Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)            Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)           Mixed waste (pessim.)

    Fig. 2.10. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Kaunas waste management region for
                                                   2006-2020




  Total municipal (av)                Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)            Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)            Mixed waste (pessim.)
    Fig. 2.11. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Klaip da waste management region
                                                 for 2006-2020
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  Total municipal (av)               Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)           Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)             Mixed waste (pessim.)
    Fig. 2.12. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Marijampol waste management re-
                                              gion for 2006-2020




  Total municipal (av)               Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)           Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)            Mixed waste (pessim.)
   Fig. 2.13. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Panev žys waste management region
                                                for 2006-2020
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  Total municipal (av)                Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)            Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)            Mixed waste (pessim.)
   Fig. 2.14. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Šiauliai waste management region for
                                                  2006-2020




  Total municipal (av)                Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)            Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)             Mixed waste (pessim.)
   Fig. 2.15. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Taurag waste management region for
                                                   2006-2020
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  Total municipal (av)                Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)            Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)            Mixed waste (pessim.)
   Fig. 2.16. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Telšiai waste management region for
                                                  2006-2020




  Total municipal (av)                Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)            Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)             Mixed waste (pessim.)
    Fig. 2.17. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Utena waste management region for
                                                   2006-2020
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  Total municipal (av)                  Mixed waste (av)
  Total municipal (optim.)              Mixed waste (optim.)
  Total municipal (passim.)            Mixed waste (pessim.)
   Fig. 2.18. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Vilnius waste management region for
                                                  2006-2020




            Total municipal (optim.)          Mixed waste (optim.)
            Total municipal (av)              Mixed waste (av)
            Total municipal (passim.)         Mixed waste (pessim.)

          Fig. 2.19. Forecast quantities of mixed waste and total municipal waste in Lithuania for 2006-2020


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      Annex 2.1 presents charts showing forecasts of municipal waste generation (including secon-
dary raw materials, mixed and biodegradable wastes) per capita per year for separate regions for
2006-2020.
      Annex 2.2 shows the change of the mixed municipal waste composition in separate regions
for 2006-2020.
      The report of the pre-feasibility study used forecast data according to the scenarios of the most
probable medium growth of the GDP in every waste management region for 2006-2020.
      The Figures below show forecast amounts of biodegradable waste contained in mixed waste
and collected separately in regions.




            Separately collected biodegradable waste       Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
          Fig. 2.20. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Alytus waste management region for 2006-2020




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         Separately collected biodegradable waste       Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
       Fig. 2.21. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Kaunas waste management region for 2006-2020




         Separately collected biodegradable waste       Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
      Fig. 2.22. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Klaip da waste management region for 2006-2020




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          Separately collected biodegradable waste      Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
     Fig. 2.23. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Marijampol waste management region for 2006-2020




          Separately collected biodegradable waste      Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
      Fig. 2.24. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Panev žys waste management region for 2006-2020




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         Separately collected biodegradable waste        Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
       Fig. 2.25. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Šiauliai waste management region for 2006-2020




         Separately collected biodegradable waste        Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
      Fig. 2.26. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Taurag waste management region for 2006-2020




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         Separately collected biodegradable waste       Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
       Fig. 2.27. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Telšiai waste management region for 2006-2020




         Separately collected biodegradable waste       Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
       Fig. 2.28. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Utena waste management region for 2006-2020




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            Separately collected biodegradable waste       Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
         Fig. 2. 29. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Vilnius waste management region for 2006-2020




            Separately collected biodegradable waste       Biodegradable waste content in mixed waste
                    Fig. 2. 30. Forecast amounts of biodegradable waste in Lithuania for 2006-2020



      Kaunas city, where the weight of waste is established with the help of a weighing-machine (it
can be stated that the data are reliable), was selected for the analysis of reliability of the forecast
results for Lithuania. Fig. 2.35 presents the chart representing municipal waste generation per capita
per year in the period of 1995-2004.
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       900

       800

       700

       600

       500

       400

       300

       200
         1995             2000               2005               2010               2015      2020

                        Fig. 2.31. Change of municipal waste amount per capita, 1996-2020.

       As the chart shows, waste amounts differ in the periods of 1995-1999 and 2000-2004. These
inaccuracies might have occurred because of different classification of the waste. The curve made
of the statistical data for 2000-2004 and forecasts for the period of 2005-2020 shows a similar char-
acter of growth. This gives us the grounds to state that the performed municipal waste forecasts are
real. According to the Grubs test of limit value, the value of municipal waste generation per capita
is attributed to the limit (the most distant) value at the probability of >95%, and is rejected.

      When implementing the tasks of this project, the amounts of biodegradable waste disposed in
the landfills will be compared to the amounts of biodegradable waste disposed in the landfills in
2000. The data about the composition of mixed municipal waste determined by researches are
available only for the years 1995, 1997 and 2004. By using values obtained during these researches
we have derived dependences showing the tendencies of change of every fraction’s composition
from 1995 to 2005. The approximate composition of every fraction in 2000 was calculated using
equations corresponding to these dependencies (see Fig. 2.32)




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 Mixed waste composition, %




                                   Paper                     Log. (Paper)
                                   Glass                     Log. (Glass)
                                   Metal                     Log. (Metal)

                    X              Plastics                  Log. (Plastics)

                    *              Biodegradable             Log. (Biodegradable)
                              Fig. 2.32. Dynamics of mixed municipal waste composition from 1995 to 2004




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3. IDENTIFICATION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS

3.1. ASSESSMENT OF PREREQUISITES AND PRECONDITIONS


3.1.1. Assessment of energy indicators of regions

        International practice shows that the process of municipal waste incineration is always ac-
companied by the production of electricity and heat, therefore when choosing waste management
scenarios (incineration first) in the Lithuanian waste management regions and assessing related ef-
fects on the environment, it is necessary to take into account energy indicators of the regions, i.e.
existing and/or future character of electric power and heat production and consumption as well as
the primary energy used for this purpose.

       3.1.1.1. Electricity production and consumption in Lithuania

       Presently, the installed capacity of power plants of the Lithuanian energy system amounts to
4,956 MW. Until 2005, the main power source was Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP), which,
depending on a season, produced from 80 to 93% of the total electric power generated in Lithuania.
After the shutdown of Unit I, the installed capacity of INPP is 1,300 MW. Upon having evaluated
the own needs of this power plant, it can supply around 1,183 MW capacity to the system. The plan
is to shutdown Unit II by 2010. Decommissioning of INPP reactors was predetermined by political
reasons but the construction of a new nuclear power plant has to be based on its competitiveness in
the domestic and international electric power markets. Recently, discussions on the possibility to
construct a new modern nuclear reactor have been held in Lithuania but so far no specific forecasts
can be made. After the shutdown of INPP Unit I, other Lithuanian power plants using fossil fuel do
not perform reserve power functions any more but have to satisfy energy demands. This situation is
facilitated by the Kruonis Pumped Storage Power Plant whose maximum short-term generated ca-
pacity under full loading of its upper reservoir may reach up to 900 MW.
       Presently, by electric power consumption per capita/year (less than 3,000 kWh) Lithuania
takes nearly the last position among EU states (the European Union average approaches 8000
kWh). In recent years electric power consumption in Lithuania has been rapidly growing (more than
4.5 % year by year). In 2005, Lithuania produced nearly 14.7 TWh and exported more than 2.96
TWh. It is forecast that with a rapid economic growth the electric power consumption will also in-
crease in the future. In the case of the main scenario, in the period until 2010 the demands for elec-
tric power in economic sectors will, on average, increase by 4.3% every year. According to this
scenario, in 2020, compared to 1990, the consumption of electric power would be 1.1 times higher
[National, 2002].
       Balances of power plants, electric power production and consumption are given in Tables 3.1-
3.2. The distribution of the main power plants within the territories of waste management regions is
given in Fig. 3.1.




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Table 3.1 Lithuanian power plants and their capacities, 2005. [Lithuanian heat, 2005]
Power plants                                                       Installed/used capacity
Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant                                                           1300/1300
Lithuanian Power Plant (PP)                                                            1800/1732
Mažeikiai PP                                                                             160/148
Vilnius PP                                                                               384/367
Kaunas PP                                                                                170/161
Kauno Energija                                                                             8/7
Klaip dos Energija                                                                        10,8/9
Total in thermal power plants                                                         2532.8/2424
Kaunas Hydro Power Plant (HPP)                                                          100,8/90
Kruonis Pumped Storage Power Plant                                                       900/760
Small HPP                                                                               24,8/24,8
Total HPP                                                                               920.5/875
Industrial enterprise and other electric power plants:                                   74.1/46
Biomass                                                                                    3,5
Wind                                                                                       1,1
Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant                                                           4966/ 4557



 Table 3.2. Electric power balance in Lithuania in 2003–2005, GWh [Lithuanian energy, 2005]
                                                                2003          2004           2005
Total production                                               19488         19274        14784,3
  Ignalina NPP (Utena region, Visaginas)                       15484         15102        10337,6
  Thermal power plants (TPP)                                    3019          3229           3425
    Lithuanian Power Plant (Vilnius region, Elektr nai)          724           745          1072.8
    Vilnius TPP (Vilnius region, Vilnius)                       1187          1211          1246.5
    Kaunas TPP (Kaunas region, Kaunas                            675           689           694.6
    Petrašiūnai PP (Kaunas region, Kaunas)                         -             2             3.7
    Klaip da PP (Klaip da region, Klaip da)                       28            34            27.9
    Mažeikiai PP (Telšiai region, Mažeikiai)                     190           179           159.6
    Šiauliai TPP (Šiaulių regionas, Šiauliai)                      -             4            13.8
    Panev žys TPP (Panev žys region, Panev žys)                   13            13            14.2
    Druskininkai (Alytus region, Druskininkai)                     3             1             1.3
    Power plants of industrial enterprises                       199           351           390.7
  Kruonis PSPP (Kauno region, Kaišiadorys District)              660           522           369.1
  Hydro Power Plants (HPP)                                       325           421            450
Import                                                          4144          4293          5641.2
Export                                                         11674         11488          8607.4
Total consumption                                              11958         12079        11818.1
Consumed at energy enterprises                                  3361          3146          2620.9
  Peat extraction and agglomeration                                3             4
  Crude oil extraction                                            19            19
  Production of refined oil products                             623           639           664,5
  Electric, gas, steam and hot waster supply                    2716          2484
    Input to raise water at PSPP                                 890           719           511,6
    Own needs of electricity producing plants                   1610          1568          1200.5
    Own needs of other power plants                              215           196
Consumption at electrode boiler plants                            13            10
Transport and distribution loss                                 1405          1273          1219,8
Final consumption                                               7179          7650          7977.4
Industry                                                       26293         2743.6         2832.7
Transport                                                        90.2          92,0          103.5
Agriculture                                                     166,3         181.3          192,6
Trade and services                                             2398.3        2566.9         2707.2
Households                                                    1895. 0       2066. 2         2141.4


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Fig. 3.1. Locations of the main electric power plants within the territories of Lithuanian waste management regions
                                           [AB Lietuvos Energija, 2006]



        3.1.1.2. Assessment of heat production and consumption in Lithuania

      Data about centralized heat production, consumption and fuel used for this purpose in waste
management regions are given in the Annexes 3-1 and 3-2. It is evident that no waste is used as a
primary source of energy at larger facilities. The only exceptions are the use of biogases recovered
from organic agricultural waste at the company Kauno Energija and the use of wood waste (mainly
sawdust) in a number of other heat production plants. However, when burning these types of fuel,
usual rates of pollution concentration in fume but not those applied for waste incineration are used.
        3.1.1.3. Assessment of heat production in Vilnius city


       Vilnius Power Plant-3 (VE-3) is a thermal power plant. It is located in the western part of the
city in Jočionių Str. 13.
      The power plant has 2 power production units (PPU), consisting of a high-pressure steam
boiler Ep-670-13,8-545GMN (model TGME-206) with intermediate steam overheating and a ther-
mal power steam turbine T-180/210-130-1, operating in three modes: thermal energy, condensation
and mixed. The nominal capacity of one energy production unit at thermal power mode is 180 MW,
and thermal capacity – 302 MW. The total installed electric capacity amounts to 360 MW (420 MW
at condensation mode), and thermal capacity – 604 MW.
       The boiler station of the power plant also has 3 steam boilers DKVR-10/13 (15 t/h capacity,
13 bar, 10 MW) to set PPU for operation and meet its own demands.
       VE-3 is Lithuania’s fourth plant by capacity with the total electric capacity of 360/420 MW (it
follows Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Lithuanian Power Plant and Kruonis Pumped Storage Power
Plant and first by capacity in heat production (together with 2nd Vilnius Thermal Power Plant (VE-
2) the total heat capacity is 1,516 MW).
       VE-3 has two energy production units with auxiliary equipment. The energy production unit

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consists of: a steam boiler, a steam turbine with process water heaters, a generator and a trans-
former. Auxiliary equipment includes an above-ground pump-station, chemical facilities, fuel facili-
ties, a launching boiler-house, a combined boiler-house etc. The main sources to produce energy are
water, air and fuel (natural gas or fuel oil).
         The main technical specifications of energy production units are given in the Table below.

Table 3.3. Technical specifications of boilers [Lithuanian heat, 2005 ]
                                                                  Ca-
                                                                  pac-
   No.             Boiler                     Type                        Status*        Installation year
                                                                   ity
                                                                  MW
                                     Ep-670-13,8-545GMN
    1.       Steam boiler No. 1                                   550       Main               1984
                                       (model TGME-206)
                                     Ep-670-13,8-545GMN
    2.       Steam boiler No. 2                                   550       Main               1986
                                       (model TGME-206)
               P.K. Steam boil-
    3.                                   DKVR-10/13                10     Standby              1982
                    erNo.1
              P.K. Steam boiler
    4.                                   DKVR-10/13                10     Standby              1983
                     No.2
              P.K. Steam boiler
    5.                                   DKVR-10/13                10     Standby              1983
                     No.3
                  Total installed capacity                       1,130
* main, standby

Table 3.4. Technical specifications of turbines [Lithuanian heat, 2005]
                                             Electric capacity,      Thermal capacity,   Beginning of opera-
    No.               Equipment
                                                     MW                   MW                    tion
     1.            T-180/210-130-1                180/210**               302                   1984
     2.            T-180/210-130-1                180/210**               302                   1986
** - at condensation mode.

VE-3 operation principle. The pumps of the ground pump-station take water from the Neris river
and supply it to the chemical facilities and cooling towers. Chemically treated water from chemical
facilities is supplied to energy units and heat network pipeline to cover loss. Air and fuel are sup-
plied to the steam boiler. The boiler can burn both gas and fuel oil at the same time. Fume generated
during the process of burning is discharged by exhauster through a chimney that is 250 m high.
Every steam boiler can produce 700 t/h of overheated steam, pressure 140 bar and steam tempera-
ture 545°C. Overheated steam from boilers reaches the high-pressure section of the turbine. Part of
steam from a high-pressure cylinder returns to the boiler where it is re-heated to 540°C. This steam
of 25 bar is directed to the medium-pressure section of the turbine and afterwards – low pressure
section.
The water of heat network is heated with the steam taken from the turbine. At the condensation
mode (when energy unit produces only electric power) steam from turbine’s low-pressure section
gets to the condenser. Steam from the condenser is cooled with circulating water, and the circulat-
ing water is cooled in the cooling towers. Presently VE-3 is mainly operating at the thermal power
mode, i.e. steam from the turbine heats water of the heat network.


         3.1.1.4. Assessment of heat production in Kaunas City


       In 1997, after decentralization of the monopolistic enterprise, AB Lietuvos Energija, having
included heat supply companies among others, the thermal sector was transferred to the ownership
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of municipalities. In this way, Kaunas Thermal Power Plant (hereinafter – Kaunas TPP) went to AB
AB Kauno Energija.
        AB Kauno Energija is the main supplier of heat and steam to Kaunas city. The main activity
of AB Kauno Energija’s Department of Heat Networks is the transmission of thermal power. Apart
from the main activities, small facilities (in isolated network, Kaunas district, household boiler-
houses) produce and supply to users around 8% of the heat transmitted by AB Kauno Energija. En-
ergy is supplied by steam, heating and hot water.
        Heat is supplied from several types of heat sources:
        1. Heat sources connected to an integrated network. Presently, heat is supplied to heat net-
works by Kaunas TPP being the main source of heat that produces around 80 percent of heat neces-
sary for the city. Other sources include Petrašiūnai Power Plant, Šilkas and Pergal district boiler-
stations. Inkaras boiler-station is a standby one.
        2. Heat sources servicing Kaunas District. These are heat sources mainly located in the set-
tlements nearby Kaunas and servicing their users (the district boiler-houses of Garliava, No-
reikišk s, Raudondvaris, Neveronys, Domeikava, Girionys, Ežer lis and Paliai district boiler-house
in Marijampol District.
        3. Isolated networks and sources. These are 13 boiler houses of medium or small capacity in
the urban districts of Aleksotas, Šančiai and Panemun where centralized heat networks are not de-
veloped. The heat supply scheme is a boiler-house with its local heating and hot water networks
servicing from 2 to 30 houses. Presently the automation of these boiler-houses is in progress by
adapting them for operation without a regular supervision of staff and controlling their operations
from the switchboard. On 01 01 2003, 11 boiler-houses were automated and are operating without a
regular supervision of the servicing staff.
        4. Local boiler houses. These are small heat sources (from 20 to 200 kW capacity), servicing
and supplying heat to separate residential houses not connected to the centralized or local heat net-
works. Since the beginning of 2003, 56 gas (of 3.6 MW total capacity) and 10 solid fuel (1.15 MW)
local boiler houses have been operated.
        The main type of fuel used by the mentioned boiler houses is natural gas followed by fuel
oil. Apart from these main types of fuel, the boiler houses burn peat and sawdust, and in 2001 the
Noreikišk s district boiler house started combusting biogas. In 2005, a combined cycle biogas plant
supplied with biogas by Kaunas waste water treatment plant was launched in Noreikišk s boiler
house. The total capacity of the plant will reach 750 kW of electricity and 1,050 kW of heat.




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                                    1%         7%
                           8%

                 8%




                6%

                                                                                            70%


                             Residents
                             Industry
                             Budgetary organizations maintained from the municipal budget
                             Budgetary organizations maintained from the state budget
                             Agencies from territorial patient funds
                             Others

        Fig. 3.2. Distribution of AB Kauno Energija users by heat consumption, in percent. [AB Lietuvos Energija,
                                                     2006]

        In the initial stage of development, the length of heat networks operated by the company
amounted to 8.18 km. Presently, AB Kauno Energija holds:
        385 km of heating water networks in Kaunas city and district,
        including 98.1 km of heat-mains,
        286.9 km of district network,
        10.76 km of hot water networks,
        16.45 km of steam networks.
        Heat networks are dominated by underground tracks mainly in inaccessible channels, but
they also have some canal-free pipelines and pipelines in header pipes and technical corridors. The
diameters of pipes in the main pipelines are 400–1000 mm, in district networks– 50–350 mm.
        Kaunas Thermal Power Plant is the main supplier of heat to the city. Heating water is sup-
plied to the centralised heat supply network of AB Kauno Energija. The electricity produced in the
plant is supplied to the electric power network of Vakarų Skirstomieji Tinklai (VST). Technological
steam produced in the plant is supplied to industrial enterprises and part of it is consumed for own
needs.
        The power plant has 3 steam boilers BKZ-420 and 5 water heating boilers (four of them are
PTVM-100 and one – KVGM-180). The total installed capacity of the boilers is 1586 MW, that of
steam boilers – 873 MW, water heating boilers – 673 MW. Apart from that, the plant has an elec-
trode water heating boiler of 40 MW capacity. Parameters of energy steam boiler (BKZ-420-
140NGM): capacity – 420 t/h, steam pressure – 135 bar, temperature – 550 °C.
        To produce electricity, two steam turbines are installed in the power plant. Turbine No.1 PT-
60 with hydrogen-cooled generator of 60 MW capacity has the off-takes for heating and industrial
(13 bar, 250 °C) steam. Steam turbine No.2 T-100 with hydrogen-cooled generator of 110 MW ca-
pacity has the off-take only for heating steam.
        The power plan burns natural gas and fuel oil. Gas is the main fuel while fuel oil is the re-
serve one.
        To prepare heating water from steam, 3 heat exchangers (boilers) are installed. The main
technical parameters are given in the tables 3.5 and 3.6.

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Table 3.5. Technical parameters of boilers at Kaunas Thermal Power Plant [Lithuanian Energy, 2005]
                                                            Capac-
 No.             Boiler                       Type            ity,            Status           Start of operation
                                                             MW
  1.       BKZ-420-140NGM                     steam           291              Main                   1975
  2.       BKZ-420-140NGM                     steam           291              Main                   1976
  3.       BKZ-420-140NGM                     steam           291              Main                   1984
  1.           PTVM-100                       water           116              Main                   1972
  2.           PTVM-100                       water           116              Main                   1973
  3.           PTVM-100                       water           116              Main                   1980
  4.           PTVM-100                       water           116              Main                   1981
  5.          KVGM-180                        water           209              Peak                   1990
             EK 40 electrode                  water            40            Standby                  1995
                Total installed capacity                     1586

Table 3.6. Technical parameters of turbines at Kaunas Thermal Power Plant [Lithuanian Energy, 2005 ]
                                         Quantity,     Electric ca-    Thermal capacity,
 No.             Equipment                                                                      Start of operation
                                            units      pacity, MW              MW
 1.          Steam turbine PT-60              1             60                                         1975
 2.          Steam turbine T-100              1            110                                         1976
                 Electric capacity                         170                  389




Fig. 3.3. General view of Kaunas Thermal Power Plant. One boiler, KVGM-180, is connected to a higher smoke-stack
                     (180 m high). All the other boilers are connected to the smaller smoke-stack.



Main equipment:
   1 Three steam boilers BKZ-420, 420 t/h;
   2 Two steam turbines: the first is of 60 MW capacity having interim steam removals, indus-
      trial and heating; the second is of 110 MW capacity with heating steam removal;
   3 Four water heating boilers PTVM-100, whose certificate capacity is 100 Gcal/h;
   4 One water heating boiler KVGM-180, whose certificate capacity is 180 Gcal/h;
   5 One electrode boiler 40 MW.




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                       Fig. 3.4. Kaunas TPP’s turbo unit and circulating contour cooler.

A new building was constructed for the Kaunas TPP water heating boiler KVGM-180 and the plan
was to installed several boilers of this type there. A higher smoke-stack (180 m high) was con-
structed for this purpose. Presently, the boiler KVGM-180 is scarcely operated and a big space there
is unoccupied. From the technical aspect this place is perfectly suitable for municipal waste incin-
eration since high-diameter heating water pipes as well as fuel and power lines are laid to the build-
ing.

       3.1.1.5. Assessment of heat production in Šiauliai City


              1) Šiauliai city is supplied with thermal power from two main boiler-houses: Northern
       and Southern boiler house being the main one in Šiauliai city.
      The Northern boiler house (address: Marijampol s Str. 22) was designed taking into consid-
eration the future development of Šiauliai’ industrial district of Gubernija.




                              Fig. 3.5. A general view of Šiauliai Northern boiler house

       It was launched in 1992. Until 2001, it operated two steam boilers E 25-1,4-225 GM, whose
total capacity was 50 tons of steam per hour.
       The plan was to use fuel oil in the boiler house therefore fuel oil tanks for the reserve of 100
days were installed and a 120 m high r/c smoke-stack was constructed.
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      The Northern boiler house was connected to other city’s boiler-houses by a ring main and
steam pipelines extending from it to the main enterprises were built.
      Heating water was prepared in the steam-water heating unit of 30.5 MW total capacity. In
2003, these facilities were transferred to the electric station of the Southern boiler-house to service
turbogenerators In 2001, two water heating boilers Turbomat RN-2900 of 2.9 MW capacity each
from the German company Wiessmann heated with gas were installed in the Northern boiler-house.
A heat-insulated smoke-stack of light structures, 24 m high, was also built.
      In a year, the boiler house produces 10 GWh of thermal power that is supplied to residential
houses and institutions of the Gubernija urban district. Below are presented technical characteristics
of the boiler house.
Table 3.7. Technical characteristics of the Northern boiler house
Boiler house            Number of boil- Thermal power, MW              Required power, MW
                        ers
Northern                2                    5.80                      3.00

     Presently this boiler house is a standby one but it is connected to the city heat supply network.
The city is supplied with heat from the city’s Southern boiler-house and separate small gas boiler-
houses that service one or several multi-family apartment houses.


        3.1.1.6. Assessment of heat production in Klaipėda City

       AB Klaip dos Energija supplies heat to Klaip da City in a centralized manner. Presently,
the company produces hot water and steam and sells them to residents and enterprises, and sells to
residents and enterprises hot water, and sells electric power to the public limited company Vakarų
Skirstomieji Tinklai.
       AB Klaip dos Energija is the main supplier of heat to Klaip da City.
        Heat is supplied from several main sources:
    1   Klaip da Power Plant (centralised supply of heat and electric power);
    2   Klaip da district Boiler house (centralised supply of heat);
    3   Lypkiai District Boiler house (centralised supply of heat);
    4   Gargždai District Boiler house (centralised supply of heat);
    5   Small local network boiler houses (centralised supply of heat).

         Klaip da Power Plant.
         Klaip da Power Plant is located in the central part of the city by the Dan river. It is city’s
first centralised heat supply source that was the main one for many years.
         The enterprise is located by the river of Dan disgorging into the Curonian Lagoon. There
are no resorts, sanatoriums or hospitals nearby it. On the other bank of the Dan , in the distance of
370 m, is located a secondary school and there are two kindergartens in 150 m and 225 m. distance
from the enterprise. The power plant takes the total area of 6.7114 ha. It employs 230 employees.

       Steam boilers of energy parameters supply steam to steam turbines that rotate generators
producing electricity. The power plant is installed with equipment 324 MW thermal power capacity
and 10.8 MW of electric power capacity. The main types of fuel are natural gas and fuel oil.
       Heat in the form of steam is produced by four steam boilers, while heat for heating water is
produced by three water heating boilers that burn natural gas, fuel oil and hazardous waste. Electric
power is produced two thermal power turbines. Part of electric power produced in the plant is con-
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sumed for own needs (for heat and electric power production), the remaining part is sold to an elec-
tric network enterprise. in Summer, when turbines are not operated, electric power is purchased
from Klaip da electric grid, a branch of AB VST.
        Water from the Dan river and industrial water-supply network is used in production while
water from potable water-supply system is sued for household purposes. If the quality of water from
the Dan river and industrial water-supply system does not meet water preparation requirements,
then potable water is used for industrial purposes.
        Fuel oil is stored in four above-ground tanks of oil fuel.

       Klaip da District Boiler-house.

       With city’s development to the south and the lack of thermal power, a Klaip da District
Boiler-house of 560 MW thermal capacity was constructed on Šilut s road in 1965.




                                 Fig. 3.6. Klaip da District Boiler-house

        Klaip da district Boiler-house produces thermal energy. Heat in the form of steam is
produced by five steam boilers, while heat by heating water is produced by four water heating
boilers that burn natural gas, fuel oil and hazardous waste.
        Potable water from a water-supply system is used in production. Around 20% of water used
in production for own needs is consumed by the chemical shop, and the remaining part is consumed
for steam production and to supplement the heat network.
        Fuel oil is stored in seven above-ground tanks.

       Lypkiai District Boiler-house

        With further development of the city, Lypkiai District Boiler-house was constructed in the
industrial district in 1989, and the first water heating boiler of 116 MW was installed. The plan was
to extend this boiler-house up to 460 MW capacity by constructing another 3 boilers but it was
abandoned.
        Lypkiai District Boiler-house uses two types of fuel: natural gas and fuel oil.
        Potable water from a water-supply system is used in production. The major part of the water
is used to supplement the heat network.
        Fuel oil is stored in six above-ground tanks.
        Heating water is heated in the water heating boiler KVGM-100-150M of 116.3 MW capac-
ity.



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                                     Fig. 3.7. A view of Lypkiai District Boiler-house.

         Lypkiai District Boiler-house has a well-developed infrastructure, including big premises
that were designed for a big boiler-house and developed auxiliary facilities (fuel, water). A modern
structure chimney, 150 m high, is built. There are no residential buildings around the boiler house
since it is built in an industrial district. There is a good access to the boiler house, it is not necessary
to go via Klaip da city, standby source of heat, a geothermal station, of 35 MW heat capacity, is
nearby it.


Table 3.8. Main equipment of Klaip da Electric Power Plant

No.     Boilers                Installed capacity                          Disposed capacity
                              thermal                electric             thermal               electric
                       t/h    Gcal/h    MW            MW           t/h    Gcal/h    MW           MW
 1         2            4        5       6              7           8        9        10           11
 1.   GT No.3         25.0     13.7     15.9           3.8        25.0     13.7      15.9         3.8
 2.   GT No.4         45.3     24.0     27.9           7.0        45.3     24.0      27.9         7.0
       Total GT       70.3     37.7     43.8           10.8       70.3     37.7      43.8         10.8
 3.   GK No.4          12      7.48     8.7             -          12      7.48       8.7           -
 4.   GK No.5          35     22.75    26.45            -          35     22.75     26.45           -
 5.   GK No.7          50      32.5     37.8            -          50      32.5      37.8           -
 6.   GK No.8          75     48.75     56.7            -          75     48.75      56.7           -
      Total GK      172      111.48   129.65        -           172      111.48   129.65       -
 7.   VŠK No.1          -       50     58.15            -           -       45     52.335           -
 8.   VŠK No.2          -       50     58.15            -           -       50      58.15           -
 9.   VŠK No.3          -       50     58.15            -           -       45     52.335           -
      Total VŠK     -        150      174.45        -           -        140      162.82       -
      Total         172      261.48   304.1         -           172      251.48   292.47       -
      GK+VŠK

Acronyms: VŠK – water heating boiler, GK – steam boiler, GT – steam turbine, KJ – co-generation power plant




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Table 3.8. Main equipment of Klaip da Electric Power Plant (continued)
No.      Boiler                  Installed capacity                           Disposed capacity
                                                           elec-
                                 thermal                                     thermal                  electric
                                                            tric
                       t/h         Gcal/h        MW        MW          t/h    Gcal/h     MW            MW
 1         2            4             5            6         7          8        9        10           11
10. GK No. 1           25           16.25        18.9         -        25     16.25      18.9           -
11. GK No. 2           25           16.25        18.9         -        25     16.25      18.9           -
12. GK Nr. 3           25           16.25        18.9         -        25     16.25      18.9           -
13. GK No. 9           10            6.5          7.6         -        10       6.5       7.6           -
      Viso GK      85             55.25       64.3       -         85        55.25     64.3       -
14. VŠK No.             -            100        116.3         -         -       90      104.67           -
      4
15. VŠK No.             -            100        116.3         -         -      100       116.3           -
      5
16. VŠK No.             -            100        116.3         -         -      100       116.3           -
      7
17. VŠK No.             -            100        116.3         -         -      100       116.3           -
      8
            Total       -            400        465.2         -         -      390      453.57           -
            VŠK
           Total:      85          455.25       529.5         -        85     445.25    517.87           -



Table 3.9. Main equipment of Lypkiai District Boiler-house
No.     Boiler                  Installed capacity                            Disposed capacity
                                 thermal                 electric            thermal                  electric
                        t/h        Gcal/h       MW        MW           t/h    Gcal/h     MW            MW
18.    VŠK No.           -           100        116.3       -           -      100       116.3           -
       1


       Acronyms: VŠK – water heating boiler, GK – steam boiler, GT – steam turbine, KJ – co-
generation plant.

        3.1.1.7. Assessment of heat production in Panev žys City

        AB Panev žio Energija is a regional enterprise supplying centralised heat not only to
Panev žys city but also to several Panev žys District settlements, Pasvalys, Kupiškis, Rokiškis,
Zarasai, K dainiai.
          AB Panev žio Energija employs around 700 people, operates 35 boiler houses and 109
boilers of different types. The majority of boilers are water heating (90), the others – steam (19)
boilers. The total capacity of these boilers amounts to 693.3 MW. In 2004 around 913 326 MWh of
heat power were supplied to city networks. Heat energy supply by heating water accounts for 85.8
percent, steam supply –14.2 percent. Thermal energy from heat sources is supplied to users by heat
network, 324.6 km long.




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Table 3.10 Dynamics of energy supply in Panev žys city
Indicator                             Measuring unit     2002         2003          2004     2005
 Heat supply production               Thou. MWh          825.6        814.1         773.8    769.9
 Amount of purchased heat energy      Thou. MWh          154.2        150.4         139.5    139.6
 Total supply to networks             Thou. MWh          979.8        964.5         913.3    909.5
 Electricity production               Thou. MWh          8.5          13.4           13.04   13.9

        AB Panev žio Energija produces and supplies thermal energy to the residents, industrial en-
terprises and agencies of Panev žys, K dainiai, Pasvalys, Kupiškis, Rokiškis, Zarasai towns and
districts. In 2001, a combined electric and heat production cycle was implemented in Panev žys
District boiler-house-1 (RK-1). Two steam turbogenerators of 2.5 MW total capacity were installed.
        From the standpoint of waste incineration site selection, the Panev žys heat supply network
is more prospective since smaller towns are not distinguished by sufficient heat consumption in the
summertime. Thus, further consideration will be given to the feasibility of selecting a site for waste
incineration plant by connecting to the Panev žys heat supply network.
        Panev žys city is characterised by a high degree of heat supply centralisation – around 80 %
of residential houses are covered by the centralised heat supply. The length of heat network lines
amounts to around 150 km, including pipelines of 80 mm and bigger diameter.
         The enterprise’s heat sources supply heating water and steam for industrial purposes.




                           Fig. 3.8. A view AB Panev žio Energija District Boiler-house

General characteristics of energy production sources

    Panev žys city has two main largest district boiler-houses: Panev žys District Boiler-house-1
(RK-1) and Panev žys RK-2.

Panev žys RK1
      This boiler-houses generates heat and electricity. The boiler-house has steam boilers intended
for the supply of steam to industrial enterprises. The steam boilers can supply steam of energy pa-
rameters, therefore there was a possibility to install steam turbines. In recent years, 2 heating steam
turbines with electricity generators of the total generated electric power of 2.5 MWe were installed.
Natural gas and fuel oil are the main types of fuel.
Part of electricity generated at RK1 is used for own purposes (production of heat and electric
power), while the remaining part is sold to an electric grid enterprise.




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Table 3.11 Main equipment of Panev žys RK1

  No.      Equipment      Equipment                 Installed capacity                     Fuel
                                                   thermal               electric
                                           t/h       Gcal/h    MW         MW
   1            2             3             4           5        6          7        12           13
   1.      GK No. 2      B-25-15GM         25        16.25      18.9        -        d            m
   2.      GK No. 3      B-25-15GM         25        16.25      18.9        -        d            m
   3.      VŠK No. 4     PTVM-50            -          50      58.15        -        d            m
   4.      VŠK No. 4     PTVM-50            -          50      58.15        -        d            m
   5.      GK No. 7      GM-50-1           50         32.5      37.8        -        d            m
   6.      VŠK No. 8     Cochran            -         13.7      16.0        -        d
  7/8      GT No 1/                         -           -        -         2,5        -           -
           No.2
                         TOTAL:                                207.9       2,5
  Acronyms: VŠK – water heating boiler, GK – steam boiler, GT – steam turbine with an electric generator,

        Panev žys RK2




                                           Fig. 3.9. Buildings of Panev žys RK2.
        Panev žys District Boiler-house No. 2 produces only heat energy. Natural gas and fuel oil
   are the main types of fuel.
Table 3.12. Main equipment of Panev žys RK2
  No.           Į             Į                     Installed capacity                     Fuel
                                                   thermal               electric
                                           t/h       Gcal/h    MW         MW
   1          2               3             4           5        6          7         12              13
   1.      GK No. 1      B-25-15GM         25        16.25      18.9        -         d               m
   2.      GK No. 2      B-25-15GM         25        16.25      18.9        -         d               m
   3.      VŠK No. 3     PTVM-50            -          50      58.15        -         d               m
   4.      VŠK No. 4     PTVM-50            -          50      58.15        -         d               m
   5.      VŠK No. 4     PTVM-50            -          50      58.15        -         d               m
   6.      GK No. 5      GM-50-1           50         32.5      37.8        -         d               m

                         TOTAL:                                 250         -




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3.1.2. Assessment of possible waste treatment technologies


       3.1.2.1. Anaerobic digestion

       Digestion is a process during which biodegradable materials are decomposed with the help of
microorganisms. The process of decomposition occurs under anaerobic conditions during which
biogases, mainly containing methane and carbon dioxide, are emitted Sludge from waste water
treatment plants, organic and other wastes and manure can be treated by digestion. Apart from that,
a combined digestion when wastes of different origins are digested together is widely applied.
       The processes of digestion can be classified as dry, damp, thermophilic or mesophilic diges-
tion or the processes of one or two stages. Thermophilic dry single-stage digestion of biodegradable
waste is most widely spread in the old-timers of the European Union [Fricke, 2002a; Kern, 1999,
Vogt, 2002].
        Prior to digestion, separately collected biowaste has to undergo mechanical treatment to sepa-
rate non-degradable fractions that harm the process. Biogases, waste water and digestion residues
are discharged during digestion. Gas is used to generate electricity and heat. The digestion residues
are further treated to obtain industrial compost under anaerobic conditions. Waste water is released
to a waste water treatment facility. The obtained compost, together with sludge, can be used as a
fertiliser since it contains many nutrients.
       Fig. 3.10 shows the main directions of substance flows in a digestion facility.




            Fig. 3.10. Scheme of substance streams in the thermophilic single-phase digestion facility.

        Characteristics of digested waste. The main characteristics of biodegradable waste treated
during the process of digestion are given in Table 3.13. These values were obtained after perform-
ing analysis of separately collected kitchen and green waste in Germany. Despite the fact that easily
degradable waste, such as green waste, is more suitable for composting, it can be collected and di-
gested, especially by using a dry method. When degrading, such materials do not discharge large
amounts of biogas but have a positive influence on the quality of the end-product. During digestion
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it is possible to mix kitchen waste with garden and park waste but if the latter is predominant it is
more worth while composting it.
         The quantity of different elements in garden-park and kitchen wastes varies in a wide range
(see Table 3.13).
    Table 3.13. The main characteristics of separately collected garden/park waste and biowaste [Fricke, 2002a; Vogt,
2002]
                    Parameter                    Measuring unit         Biowaste        Garden/park waste
                Dry substance (SM)                      %                  45%                   43%
          Organic dry substance (OSM)                 %SM                87.00%                84.00%
           Biodegradable dry substance                %OSM                100%                  100%
                         C                            %OSM               51.90%                49.80%
                  Total nitrogen                      %SM                 1.70%                 1.20%
                 Total phosphorus                     %SM                 0.40%                 0.50%
                         K                            %SM                 0.90%                 1.50%
                        Mg                            %SM                 0.80%                 0.50%
                        Ca                            %SM                 2.20%                 4.40%
                        Cd                          mg/kg SM                0.1                   0.3
                        Cr                          mg/kg SM                1.8                   4.6
                        Cu                          mg/kg SM                9.2                   0.1
                        Hg                          mg/kg SM              0.004                   0.2
                        Ni                          mg/kg SM                1.3                   3.7
                        Pb                          mg/kg SM                2.6                   4.8
                        Zn                          mg/kg SM               30.6                   60

         Primary mechanical treatment. During primary mechanical treatment, separately collected
kitchen waste, and garden and park waste is prepared for digestion. The fractions that are non-
biodegradable are sorted and transported to a landfill or an incineration plant. It is assumed that
such type of waste accounts for 5% of the total mixture mass. Water from subsequent process
phases is partially returned for primary mechanical treatment since it is easier to treat such sub-
strate. The input of energy consumed during this phase is included into the total amount of energy
consumed during the process of digestion.
         Digestion. Biogas recovery. During digestion the substrate reaches the temperature of 50-
60oC (thermophilic conditions). The generated amount of biogases has a determinant influence on
the calculations of the entire process. Different sources of literature show different amounts of gases
generating from 1 kilogram of organic dry substance (OSM): 0.20 m3/kg OSM [Fricke, 2002a];
0.34 m3/kg OSM [Loll, 2001] and 0.40 – 0.50 m3/kg OSM [Hupe, 1998].
       Based on the average waste characteristics given in Table 2.39 but at the presence of 5% of
impurities, the generated amount of biogas, on average, is equal to 141 m3/t of biowaste.
         Water generation during digestion. Water for the most part is generated during the process
of fermentation. A part of heavy metals and biogenic materials is leached out of substrate, another
part remains until the formation of the end-product – industrial compost. According to the coeffi-
cients of leaching given in Table 3.14, the pollution of final residue with heavy metals is calculated.




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Table 3.14. Coefficients of leaching during the process of fermentation
                 Pollutants                      Coefficients of elimination
     Carbon in water/Carbon in biogas                 0.10kg Cv/kg Cb
                         1
                  NH4-N                                     13%
                 Organic N1                                0.03%
                 Other N1                                   2%
                Phosphorus                                  5%
                Potassium                                   50%
                 Calcium                                    10%
                Magnesium                                   10%
                 Cadmium                                     5%
                Chromium                                     5%
                  Copper                                    5%
                 Mercury                                    5%
                  Nickel                                     5%
                   Lead                                      5%
                   Zinc                                      5%
    2) % of the total N participating in the process of fermentation

       Energy recovery. The formed biogas is used to recover energy, i.e. in the production of heat
 and electricity. According to Vogt, 2002, in Germany, in this way obtained heat is not supplied to
 other users, in the majority of cases, due to unfavourable location.
       The energy consumption given in Table 3.15 is common to the entire digestion facility. If a
power plant is supplied with a catalytic-oxidation air treatment equipment, based on the quantity of
methane and the coefficient of oxygen excess λ, the amount of emissions from 1 ton of biogas can
be calculated. According to this value and data given in Table 2.42, the amount of pollution emis-
sions per unit of energy amount can be determined.




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Table 3.15. Average values of energy recovery from biogases and values of emissions [Vogt, 2002; Soyez, 2000]
Parameter                        Value                       Measuring unit
Methane quantity                                      58% % of biogas volume
Methane calorific value                               37,8      MJ/m3
Power plant’s electric capacity                       30%       %
Power plant’s thermal capacity                        56%       %
Power plant’s λ                                        1,6      -
Electricity consumption                                 80      kWh/t of biowaste
Heat consumption                                        90      kWh/t of biowaste
Emissions into the atmos-
phere                             Value                         Units
NOx                                                    430      emissions mg/m3
Dinitrogen oxide N2O                                    10      emissions mg/m3
Methane                                                 15      emissions mg/m3
Sulphur dioxide                                         56      emissions mg/m3
Carbon monoxide                                        610      emissions mg/m3
Solid particles                                            5    emissions mg/m3
Hydrogen chloride                                      1,5      emissions mg/m3
Hydrogen fluoride                                      0,9      emissions mg/m3
Benzene                                             6*10-5      emissions mg/m3
                                                           -3
Toluene                                           6,1*10        emissions mg/m3
Ethylbenzene                                      1,8*10-3      emissions mg/m3
m,p - Xylene                                      6,8*10-3      emissions mg/m3
o - Xylene                                        1,8*10-3      emissions mg/m3
                                                           -6
Benzopyrene                                         5*10        emissions mg/m3
Tetrachloroethylene                               8,1*10-5      emissions mg/m3
Dichlormethane                                   6,50*10-5      emissions mg/m3
Polychlorbiphenyls                                2,1*10-5      emissions mg/m3
                                                           -6
Hexachlorbenzene                                    4*10        emissions mg/m3
Dioxines                                          3,2*10-11     emissions mg/m3
Furans                                            1,8*10-11     emissions mg/m3
Arsenic                                             4*10-3      emissions mg/m3
                                                           -5
Beryllium                                           5*10        emissions mg/m3
Cadmium                                             9*10-4      emissions mg/m3
Chromium                                            6*10-4      emissions mg/m3
Mercury                                           4,2*10-3      emissions mg/m3
                                                           -4
Nickel                                              2*10        emissions mg/m3

        Maturation. During the process of maturation digestion residues are further treated aerobi-
cally. In the digestion facility the phase of maturation occurs under open conditions [Vogt, 2002].
During maturation substrate in composting piles is kept, on average, for 4 weeks and then it reaches
the digestion rate IV-V rate of digestion typical of matured compost [Kehres, 2002]. Gas discharged
during this process is simply dispersed. Table 3.16 presents the parameters of the maturation proc-
ess, while electric power consumption is already included into the total amount of consumption (see
Table 3.15). According to Vogt, 2002, as a rule, water is not discharged in this phase.


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Table 3.16. Average parameters of the maturing process
                Parameter                                              Value
    Water content in Matured compost                                   40%
              Water demand                                22.5 l/t of matured substrate
                 Sewage                                                  0
         Diesel fuel consumption                           2.2 l/t of matured substrate
             C decomposition                         30% (of the total C amount in substrate)
             N decomposition                         17% (of the total N amount in substrate)

     Table 3.17 shows values of emissions generating during the process of maturation. During the
process heavy metals and biogenic substances remain in the formed compost.

Table 3.17. Emissions into the atmosphere in the phase of maturation
         Parameter                    Value                          Measuring unit
                                                      % of the total N decomposed in the phase of
        N emissions                   100%                             maturation
                                                      % of the total C decomposed in the phase of
        C emissions                   100%                             maturation
         Ammonia                       96%                           % of N emission
          N 2O                         2%                          % of N emission
        Methane                        3%                          % of C emission
Non-methane volatile organic
       compounds                       2%                          % of C emission

       In this process a biofilter is not applied because of good dispersion of pollutants. All the sub-
stances given in Table 3.17 get into the environment.
       Sewage treatment. Sewage treatment.
 When operating a biowaste digesting unit, generating sewage may be treated or not treated. In the
 latter case all pollutants remain in water and are discharged to the environment.
        Two alternatives are possible when constructing a waste water treatment plant: with phospho-
 rus removal option or without it.
        In the majority of cases phosphorus is removed chemically by adding iron-containing precipi-
 tant to the sewage. As a rule, the required amount of the precipitant is 2.7 kg Fe/kg of removed P
 [Vogt, 2002]. Consequently, when eliminating phosphorus additional pollution with heavy metals
 occurs. Table 3.18 shows an average amount of heavy metals in Fe-precipitant.
Table 3.18. Quantity of heavy metals in the reagent necessary for P removal [Vogt, 2002].
                Parameter                       Amount in Fe-precipitant, mg/kg Fe
                Cadmium                                            5
                Chromium                                         144
                  Copper                                         609
                 Mercury                                           4
                   Nickel                                         75
                    Lead                                         209
                    Zinc                                         2403




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    Table 3.19. Efficiency of pollutant elimination from sewage [Vogt, 2002]
                                                             Elimination coefficients
                                Primary sedimenta-
            Pollutant                    tion                Active sludge phase                Phosphorus removal
                           1
      Total organic carbon               33%                         90%
             ChDS1                       30%                         82%                               54%
              BDS1                       30%                         90%                               75%
                      1
           Organic N                     30%
            Total N1                     10%                         72%
                       1
          Phosphorus                     10%                                                           90%
           Potassium1                    10%
            Calcium1                     10%
          Magnesium1                     10%
            Cadmium2                                                   12%                             38%
            Chromium2                                                  12%                             38%
             Copper2                                                   19%                              1%
             Mercury2                                                   7%                             63%
             Nickel2                                                   14%                             26%
              Lead2                                                     2%                             88%
              Zinc2                                                    14%                             26%
    1) % of the quantity of this substance getting into a respective phase of the sewage treatment process
    2) % of the total quantity of this substance getting into the process of sewage treatment

       It is considered that 20% of nitrogen (N), removed during primary precipitation, is discharged
into the atmosphere in the form of ammonia while the remaining part remains in the sludge. Later
50% of N, including 2% as in the form of ammonia, is removed in the phase of active sludge. Of the
total organic carbon amount removed in a primary precipitation tank 0.2% is discharged into the
environment as methane, and 0.1% – as volatile organic compounds. After primary precipitation and
the phase of active sludge 30% of removed total organic carbon is discharged into the atmosphere,
the remaining part remains in the sludge. All removed heavy metals and non-nitric biogenic sub-
stances also accumulate in the sludge.
       Electric power consumed by waste water treatment plants amounts to around 0.23kWh/m3.
The recalculation of electric power expenses for waste water treatment per 1 ton of waste shows that
they account for 1% of electric power expenses for the entire process of digestion.
       Sludge stabilization. Sludge generating from sewage treatment is stabilized by anaerobic di-
gestion. The discharged biogas is used for energy recovery. Stabilized sludge, like compost, can be
used as a fertilizer or stored on sludge storage sites. Prior to usage, the sludge has to be dewatered.
The two main techniques of dewatering are centrifuging by adding polyelectrolytes, and using press
filters together with iron (III) chloride and calcium hydroxide. In Germany 20% of waste water
treatment plants use press filters [Vogt, 2002]. The dewatering agent iron (III) chloride contains
heavy metals that get into the sludge being dewatered. The pollution of this reagent with other met-
als per kilogram of iron is considered the same as that of the reagent precipitating phosphorus (see
Table 3.19). Other auxiliary reagents do not contaminate sludge with heavy metals.
        Sludge stabilization is characteristic of low energy demand and this demand is partially com-
 pensated for by evolved biogases.




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Table 3.20. Average values of the parameters sludge generation and stabilization processes.
                  Parameter                                  Value                       Source
               Sludge formation                        1.3 kg SM/kg BDS                Vogt, 2002
       C amount in active sludge /biomass           0.5 kg C/ kg SM sludge           Hultman, 1998
    Sludge formation (P precipitation phase)        2.5 kg SM/kg of used Fe            Vogt, 2002
      C amount in P removal phase’s sludge               0 kg C/ kg SM                 assumption
      Biogas output (fermentation process)              0.45 m3/kg OSM                 Vogt, 2002
           Methane amount in biogases                    62% of volume                 Vogt, 2002
                                                      0.016 kg FeCl3/kg of
         Average consumption of FeCl3                     SM’s sludge                  calculation
   SM – dry substances, OSM – organic dry substances

      When using values given in Tables 3.20 and 3.13 emissions into the atmosphere can be calcu-
lated. Additional contamination of sludge can be determined according to the amount of the con-
sumed adsorbent FeCl3. Based on the data given in Table 3.20 the amount of carbon remaining in
sludge can be determined.

      Usage of industrial compost. One of the main quality requirements to compost is the content
of heavy metals in it. To use compost as a fertiliser it has to meet quality requirements that are dif-
ferent in different European countries. Compost quality indicators, based on the quantity of heavy
metals, are applied only in Austria (class I and II) and the Netherlands.

Table 3.21. Norms of heavy metals in compost in the EU (mg/kg SM) [Eunomia, 2002]
    Country               Quality standard          Cd       Crtotal     Cu         Hg      Ni        Pb     Zn
   EC/"eco label"             488/98 EEC             1        100        100         1       50       100    300
   EC/"eco agric"            2092/91 EEC            0.7        70        70         0.4      25        45    200
  EC/"sew sludge"              lower limit          20          -       1000        16      300      750    2500
                               upper limit          40          -       1750        25      400      2500   4000
         AT               ON S 2200 I klas 1        0.7        70        70         0.7      42       70     210
                         ON S 2200 Class II1         1         70       100          1       60      150     400
                         ON S 2200 Class III 1       4        150       400          4      100      500    1000
     BE (Fland)         Ministry of Agriculture     1.5        70        90          1       20       150    300
        DK              Ministry of Agriculture     0.4         -         -         0.8      30      120      -
                        Directive on biodegrad-
          D                 able waste (I)2          1         70         70        0.7     35       100     300
                        Directive on biodegrad-
                            able waste (II)2        1.5       100        100         1      50       150     400
         NL                     Compost3             1        50          60        0.3     20       100     200
                         Compost (very clean)       0.7        50         25        0.2     10        65      75
     1) when the amount of organic dry substances (OSM) > 30%
     2) when the usage of compost is equal to 20 - 30 t of dry substance (SM) per 1 ha
     3) when the amount of organic dry substances (OSM) >20%

      The quality of industrial compost (and sludge) depends on the level of contamination of pri-
mary biodegradable waste and additional pollutants emerging in different phases of the process. The
amount of heavy metals in industrial compost also depends on the leaching coefficients Table 3.14.
Quality of the sludge generating in waste water treatment facilities can be calculated according to
the data given in tables 3.18, 3.19 and 3.20.

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   Table 3.22. Emissions into the air when using industrial compost and sludge.
             Pollutants                      Value                                      Units
             Ammonia                           37                % of ammonium nitrogen in compost and sludge
                                                                % of non-ammonium nitrogen amount in compost
             Ammonia                           4                                     and sludge
                                                                  % of the total nitrogen amount in compost and
                N 2O                           1                                       sludge

      Biogenic substances, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, reaching soil, in fact, can predetermine
the emergence of the eutrophication phenomenon.
      Advantages of anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digestion of biogases has a number of advan-
tages. The main of them is energy recovery from generated gases. The use of industrial compost
(and sludge) as a fertiliser boasts several positive aspects:
      1 soil is enriched with nutrients;
      2 the amount of organic substances increases;
      3 carbon sequestration occurs.

       3.1.2.2. Composting

      Composting of biodegradable waste is an alternative to digestion. Generated industrial com-
post is used for the same purposes, i.e. soil fertilisation and improvement of other soil properties.
The process occurs under aerobic conditions (unlike during digestion) therefore the waste allowing
the penetration of oxygen is more suitable for it. Other necessary conditions include a sufficient
amount of humidity and a respective carbon/nitrogen ratio, which under ideal conditions has to be
between 20 and 40. The optimum humidity of composted waste is around 65% [Bidlingmeier,
1998].
      A number of composting technologies have been developed. All of them are based on the ho-
mogenisation and mixing of waste, followed by aeration and additional humidification. The most
widely applied composting techniques at centralised composting facilities are:
      1 composting in piles;
      2 aerated composting in piles;
      3 tunnel composting;
      4 rotating drum/tumbler;
      5 composting in boxes.
      Open composting is the cheapest method of treating biodegradable waste. Unfortunately, it
has serious shortcomings such as unpleasant smell and demand for a large area. The duration of
composting may last from 3 to 6 months [Vogt, 2002].
      Close composting equipment allows to significantly reduce the spreading of odour because
the gases evolving during the process are filtered via a biofilter. Another advantage of such equip-
ment is an automated control of humidity and oxygen which allows to accelerate the process.
      A composting box is presently one of the most modern technologies. Here the process takes
place in two phases, i.e. the first phase represents intensive decomposition, the second one – com-
post maturation. Due to full automation, the first phase is shortened up to 10-14 days. Another ad-
vantage is that this method requires much less space compared to composting in piles and the sys-
tem can be adapted to the changing amount of biowaste. But this composting technique has a short-
coming, i.e. often waste mineralization takes place instead of waste humidification, therefore the
second phase, maturation, is necessary. During maturation odour practically does not spread there-
fore it can be implemented in piles in the open air. Presently the tendency of composting technolo-
gies in an enclosed space is predominant. In Germany, the technology of intensive composting to-
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gether with a separate maturation phase as well as composting in piles indoors are most widely ap-
plied [Kern, 2000].
       Further, the description of the technology most suitable for the composting of biodegradable
waste of big cities, i.e. fully enclosed facilities capable of treating large waste amounts – the system
of composting in boxes and subsequent maturation in enclosed piles will be described.
       First of all, biodegradable waste has to undergo mechanical treatment to separate non-
degradable fractions that might harm the process. Further, gases generated during the first phase of
composting are transferred to a biofilter, and sewage is collected. In the second phase of the process
fresh industrial compost is matured. Sewage from both phases is treated in a waste water treatment
facility and formed sludge, like compost, is used as a fertiliser. Fig. 3.11 shows the main phases of
the process.




     Fig. 3.11. Scheme of the main substance streams in a modelled composting facility.

      Characteristics of biodegradable waste. The main characteristics of biodegradable waste used
in the process of composting are given in table 3.13. These values were obtained after performing
research into separately collected fractions of biowaste and garden waste in Germany.
      Primary mechanical treatment. During mechanical treatment metals and other non-
biodegradable fractions are separated from the total stream of biodegradable waste and transported
to a landfill or an incineration plant. Such type of waste accounts around 5% of the total mixture
mass. Primary mechanical treatment is performed in a closed room the air extracted from which is
treated with a biofilter. The Table below shows energy input.

     Table 3.23. Electricity demand during primary mechanical treatment
                        Process                    Electricity demand per kWh/t of waste
                     Air cleaning                                   8.1
                        Sifting                                     3.0
              Electromagnet to separate
                       Fe                                           0.5
                        Milling                                     2.6
                         Total:                                     14.2

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        Composting in boxes. The first phase of the process, intensive degradation, takes place in an
enclosed container. Table 3.24 shows average values based on the study performed by Vogt, 2002.
Intensive composting lasts for around 11 days, during which humidity and the amount of oxygen
are controlled.

      Table 3.24. Average value of composting in a box [Vogt, 2002]
                             Parameter                                          Value
                         Electricity demand                                   10 kWh/t
                   Water content in fresh compost                               50%
                           Water demand                             2% of the original waste mass
                           Formed sewage                                    125 l/t waste
                          C decomposition                        16% of the original total C amount
                          N decomposition                         11% of the original total nitrogen

      The degradation or organic substances results in emissions into the atmosphere and water. The
degraded carbon mainly evolves as gas. Based on the study performed by Vogt, 2002, it can be stat-
ed that only around 1.3% of carbon of the original content of organic carbon is discharged to sew-
age. The content of nitrogen that gets into sewage depends on pH value of the substrate as well as
the amount of sewage. Table 3.25 shows the factors of carbon and nitrogen emissions. Since wash-
ing out of heavy metals occurs to a very small extent it is considered that all heavy metals contained
in biowaste fully remain in compost [Vogt, 2002].

Table 3.25. Emissions from the process in the composting box [Vogt, 2002]
              Emission                     Value                                Units
         to the atmosphere
         C – carbon dioxide                 95%                  % of the total C amount to the atmosphere
             C - methane                     3%                  % of the total C amount to the atmosphere
    C – other carbon compounds               2%                 % of the total C amount to the atmosphere.
            N - ammonia                     96%                 % of the total N amount to the atmosphere
              N - N 2O                     2%                    % of the total N amount to the atmosphere
          N – nitrogen gas                 2%                    % of the total N amount to the atmosphere
              to water
            C - Organic                   100%                        % of the total C amount to water
           N - ammonia                     47%                        % of the total N amount to water
          N – organic form               52.50%                       % of the total N amount to water
          Other forms of N               0.50%                        % of the total N amount to water

      Taking into consideration the fact that these CO2 emissions occur during waste digestion, it is
considered that they do not have influence on the global warming. Analogously, emissions resulting
from compost maturation are disregarded.
      The product formed in the composting box, the so-called “fresh compost”, digestation rates II
and III, while fully matured compost – rates IV and V [Kehres, 2002]. The options of using fresh
compost are limited since it has a big ratio of C/N and low pH, which creates conditions for ammo-
nia emissions and unpleasant smells. Further treatment of compost, maturation, fully stabilizes it
and makes it suitable for use.
      Compost maturation. During maturation, fresh compost generating in the 1st phase is further
treated to obtain the end-product. The process itself does not greatly differ from the one described
in the section 3.1.2.1. The essential difference between the maturation process during digestion and
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the similar process in composting technology is the speed of decomposition of organic substances.
digestion rates IV and V are reached in 8 weeks [Kehres, 2002]. Gases evolved during maturation
get into a biofilter.
Table 3.26. Average parameters of the maturation process [Vogt, 2002]
                           Parameter                                                 Value
              Electricity input for air purification                       19.3 kWh/t of substrate
              Electric power consumer by a mixer                                   10kWh/t
               Water content in matured compost                                       40%
                         Water demand                                 20% of the original substrate mass
                        Formed sewage                                         165 l/t of substrate
                        C decomposition                              52% of the original total amount of C
                        N decomposition                              29% of the original total amount of N

        Treatment of discharged gases. Prior to discharging gas to the atmosphere generating during
biowaste composting, it has to be treated. The most frequently employed treatment equipment is a
biofilter. The biofilter efficiency differs depending on the type of emissions. The treatment effi-
ciency for N and C emissions is given in Table 3.27.

Table 3.27. Biofilter efficiency [Schwing, 1999]
                   Parameter                       Biofilter treatment efficiency
                    Methane                                     33%
           Other carbon compounds                               82%
                   Ammonia                                      80%
                      N2O                                        0%

        Sewage treatment. During biowaste composting sewage generates in both phases of the
process – fresh compost production and maturation. Sewage amounts are given in tables 3.24 and
3.26. Sewage is treated using the same method as described in digestion technology (see the section
3.1.2.1).
        Compost utilisation. Advantages. The formed compost together with sludge from sewage
treatment are used to improve the fertility and structure of soil. However, prior to using it in agricul-
ture, the amount of heavy metals in compost must considered.

        3.1.2.3. Aerobic mechanical-biological treatment

      Primary mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) is an alternative method to the incineration of
mixed waste or sorting residues prior to landfilling. MBT has been applied in Europe for around 10
years, in particular in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In Germany, roughly 1.8 million tons of
35 million tons are treated in 29 MBT units [Soyez, 2001]. The operation principle biological
treatment aerobic equipment of the MBT process is similar to that of the composting process. The
aim of MBT is mitigate the impact of waste landfilling on the environment and receive benefit from
metals and energy recovered from waste. The main MBT technologies are based on the principles
of “separation” or “stabilization”. During “separation” waste is separated mechanically and the ob-
tained fractions undergo biological treatment. In the case of “stabilization” all waste is treated bio-
logically, and subsequently materials suitable for recycling are mechanically separated (mainly
metals) and combustible materials (fuel from municipal waste).
      MBT consists of the phases of mechanical and biological processes and combination thereof.
The mechanical phase (depending on the type of the facility) separates metals and high calorific
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fractions: plastics, paper, wood, composites; and mainly consists of sieves and crushing equipment.
      Either aerobic or anaerobic degradation takes place in the phase of biological treatment. The
aerobic waste digestion is based on the same principles as composting, however it should be noted
that the end-product is not compost. A process similar to that of compost maturation here is also
defined as aerobic stabilization.
      Aerobic processes are much more widely applied [Soyez, 2001]. The equipment necessary for
these processes includes containers, drums, tunnels, piles with additional aeration or without it.
During anaerobic MBT biogas is also recovered. The following sections will discuss aerobic me-
chanical-biological treatment of waste. Anaerobic MBT is discussed in the 3.1.2.4.
      The technologies of aerobic MBT vary from simple piles to automated 2-phase processes in-
cluding intensive digestion and stabilisation. In the first case MBT can be performed straight on the
landfill’s territory since it does not require sophisticated mechanisms. However, to obtain stable
products, 5 to 15 months are necessary. The majority of contemporary modern MBT facilities have
enclosed phases of controlled intensive digestion (Soyez and Plickert 2001). Evolved gases get into
a biofilter. As a rule, the stabilisation following the intensive phase, is without additional aeration.
Technologies with a separate intensive digestion phase are not frequently used in MBT facilities
operating according to the principle of separation”. The process of “stabilisation” in MBT facilities
most frequently occurs in an enclosed system where waste is treated aerobically for only around a
week but by employing intensive aeration. This results in a dry substrate with a small content of
organic, which ensures high calorific value.
      The selected technological process has been minimised to the possible extent and consists of
primary mechanical treatment by separated high calorific fractions, and biological treatment of the
remaining waste prior to landfilling. Biological process, i.e. intensive digestion and aerobic stabili-
sation, takes place in the same pile. The speed of aeration is regulated automatically by changing
the pile’s temperature. This ensures the completion of intensive digestion in the first three weeks,
and subsequently the intensity of digestion is gradually decreasing. Having assumed that the process
occurs under the optimum conditions, chemical composition of low calorific fractions stabilises
after 14-16 weeks. In the optimum case intensive digestion, when around 80 percent of the total
biodegradable substances are digested, is achieved in 4-6 weeks [Müller, 2001]. The end-products
of these processes, stable low calorific fractions, can be disposed in landfills or used (if suitable) for
the re-cultivation of damaged soils. High calorific fractions evolved during the process can be used
as fuel for cement burning or for energy generation in incineration plant.




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                     Fig. 3.12. Scheme of the main substance streams in simulated aerobic MBT.

      Characteristics of waste. Average characteristics of mixed waste fractions are given in Tables
3.28 and 3.29.
      Primary mechanical treatment. The following fractions are separated from the total waste
stream during primary mechanical treatment:
     1   light fraction of high calorific value
     2   metals
     3   low calorific fractions for biological stabilisation
      4 inert substances
      During mechanical treatment, inert substances and metals are separated first of all. Over-
dimensioned waste is comminute and mixed with the stream of the remaining waste. Ferromagnet-
ics are separated in the course of magnetic separation. As a rule, there are several steps of ferro-
magnetics separation. The efficiency of metals separation from non-sorted waste is 62%, and the
that of high calorific fraction reaches even 76% [Fricke, 2003]. The separation of aluminium and
copper by centrifuging in the Eddy separator is also possible. As a rule, the separation of large inert
and hazardous waste is carried out manually.
      After separation of inert waste and metals, the waste is crushed and screened. The size of par-
ticles for the most part depends on the type of crushing equipment. The most efficient is a ham-
mermill.




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Table 3.28. Characteristics of mixed wastes [Fricke, 2002b; Dehoust, 2002]
                                                                 biol.           biogenic
               Waste fraction                  SM       OSM      OSM        C        C          H       O           N     Cl     S
                                               [%] [%SM] [%OSM] [%OSM]            [%C]      [%OSM]    [%OSM]    [%OSM] [%OSM] [%OSM]
 Paper                                    62.5%         87%      98%       49%     99%        6.40%      44%      0.2%   0.3%    0.2%
 Glass                                    95.0%          0%       0%       47%     98%       10.00%      40%      3.0%   0.0%    0.0%
Iron                                      90.0%          0%       0%       48%     98%        6.30%      44%      0.5%   0.7%    0.1%
 Aluminium                                90.0%          0%        0%      48%     98%        6.30%      44%      0.5%   0.7%    0.1%
 Copper                                   90.0%          0%       0%       48%     98%
 Plastics                                 85.0%         95%       5%       83%      5%      13.30%        4%     0.1%    0.1%    0.0%
 Packaging waste                          75.0%         91%       78%      59%     60%       6.70%       39%     2.7%    0.7%    0.5%
 Composites                               85.0%         80%      58%       58%     20%       6.70%       39%     2.7%    0.7%    0.5%
 Kitchen waste                            45.0%         87%      100%      51%    100%       6.20%       44%     0.5%    0.1%    0.1%
 Garden and park waste                    43.0%         84%      100%      50%    100%       7.90%       32%     0.0%    0.7%    0.0%
 Wood                                     80.0%         90%      50%       49%    100%      7.60%        33%     0.5%    1.5%    0.1%
 Diapers                                  50.0%         50%      25%       57%     90%      7.70%        31%     3.6%    0.8%    0.3%
 Inert substances                         90.0%          0%       0%       48%     98%       6.30%       44%     0.5%    0.7%    0.1%
 Textile                                  70.0%         85%       60%      51%     65%       6.90%       37%      4.3%   0.4%    0.4%
 Leather                                  70.0%         85%       50%      47%     90%       6.40%       40%     2.0%    0.7%    0.3%
 Medium-sized fraction                    56.0%         49%       88%      47%     65%       6.50%       40%    250.0%   0.5%    0.6%
 Fine fraction                            66.0%         39%       88%      49%    100%       7.00%       33%     13.0%   0.0%    0.0%
Hazardous waste                           75.0%         50%      25%       70%      0%      9.90%        19%     0.4%    0.7%    0.1%
       SM – dry substance
       OSM – organic dry substance




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Table 3.29. Quantity of heavy metals in waste fractions [Morf, 1999]
           Waste fraction              As             Cd            Cr             Cu       Hg       Ni     Pb      Zn
                                                                          mg/kg SM
 Paper                                 5.0           0.7            9.8              44.8     0.2     6.8    23.0   295.0
 Glass                                 0.0           0.0            1.3               0.0     0.0     0.0   329.0    82.0
 Iron                                 20.0          21.0          156.0             265.0            68.3   582.0   507.0
 Aluminium                            20.0          21.0          156.0             265.0            68.3    58.0   507.0
 Copper                               20.0          21.0          156.0          1.0E+06             68.3   582.0   507.0
 Plastics                              5.0          66.0           28.6              60.4     0.2     4.3    50.0   627.0
 Packaging waste                       5.0           1.0           36.0              68.0     0.2     7.4    30.0   388.0
 Composites                            5.0           1.0            7.3              37.5     0.2     9.0    14.0    90.0
 Biodegradable waste                  30.0           1.0           55.0             153.0     0.5    28.0    90.0   500.0
 Garden and park
 waste
 Wood                                  5.0           0.4            5.5             17.9      0.1     3.8    21.0   158.0
 Diapers                               5.0           0.5           27.0             23.2      0.2    11.3    10.0   313.0
 Inert substances                     10.0           0.5           80.0             35.0      0.1    45.0    50.0    70.0
 Textile                               5.0           1.0           16.8             55.0      0.1     7.3    35.0   170.0
 Leather                               5.0           3.0          900.0             43.0      0.1     5.1   112.0   4.438
 Mid-sized fraction
 Fine fraction                        35.0           2.0           75.0            715.0      1.1    43.8   190.0   780.0
 Hazardous waste                      12.0          53.0           17.5           1690.0    127.0   347.0    10.8   106.0




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The efficiency of waste sieving after crushing it by a hammermill is given in Table 3.30. The values
show the amounts of large fraction after sieving with 40mm, 80mm, and 100mm sieves.

Table 3.30. Size of particles after shredding [Fricke, 1999]
                                                               Size of particles
             Fraction                        >40mm                >80mm            >100mm
 Paper                                          10%                   13%               30%
 Glass                                           0%                    0%               12%
 Iron                                           22%                   30%               67%
 Aluminium                                      22%                   30%               67%
 Copper                                         22%                   30%               67%
 Plastics                                       30%                   40%               60%
 Packaging waste1                               15%                   20%               40%
 Composites1                                    30%                   40%               60%
 Kitchen waste                                   4%                    5%               20%
 Garden and park waste                           4%                    5%               20%
 Wood1                                           4%                    5%               20%
 Diapers                                        40%                   53%              100%
 Inert substances1                              10%                   15%               20%
 Textile                                        70%                   80%               80%
 Leather                                        70%                   80%               80%
 Medium-sized fraction                           0%                    0%                0%
 Fine fraction                                   0%                    0%                0%
 Hazardous waste1                               10%                   15%               20%
      1) values were determined indirectly, according to other fractions

      Fractions separated during mechanical pre-treatment are treated further: metals to scrap metal,
treated; fuel is derived from refuse of high calorific fraction (RDF); inert and hazardous fractions
are transported to a special landfill; and low calorific fraction undergoes further biological treat-
ment.
      Biological digestion and stabilisation. In this phase of the process the decomposition of bio-
degradable substances, accounting for 80% – 90% of the mass of low calorific fraction, takes place.
      The entire biological process takes place in an aerated pile and extends for around 14-16
weeks. The most intensive aeration occurs during the first three weeks (intensive digestion). The
average demand for air within the period is 20000 m3 air/t of BMT waste [Fricke, 1999]. To create
optimum conditions for biological degradation water has to be supplied additionally. Under the op-
timum conditions of biological activity the rate of degradation of biodegradable organic matter of
65-75% is reached [Fricke, 2002a; Soyez, 2001a].

Table 3.31. The parameters of biological degradation and stabilisation process
                Parameter                             Value                     Source
 Total biodegradation rate of OSM
 (organic dry substance)                            65%                    Fricke,1999
 Waster content in MŠFr after MBT                   35%                   Fricke, 2002b
                                         130 l/t of MBT original
 Sewage amount                                   substrate                Fricke, 2002b
      MŠFr –low calorific fraction

      Air emissions. Emissions from biological treatment processes can be classified into 4 groups:
      1    carbon dioxide and methane;
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      2    organic substances emerging during biological processes;
      3    evolving volatile organic compounds;
      4 microbiological contamination [Soyez, 2001].
      Heavy metals contained in waste mainly remain in solid fractions (of low and high calorific
value) therefore their emissions together with gases are insignificant.
      It is considered that evolving carbon dioxide does not have any influence on the global warm-
ing since it is of biological origin.

      Water emissions. Water pollutants from MBT facilities originate from:
      1    leachate
      2    leachate and condensate originating during biological treatment
     3 condensate from biofilters [Fricke, 1999]
     However, due to relatively small water content in waste, the amount of sewage generating
during MBT processes is very small. Such amount of sewage can be returned back to the biological
process and in this way sewage does not generate at all.

      High calorific fraction. The sieving and crushing performed during the primary mechanical
treatment are described above. The efficiency of iron separation from the fraction of high calorific
power can reach 76% [Fricke, 2003]. Metals can be separated in several steps. Inert substances are
removed in the air separator. Table 3.32 shows the content of separate materials remaining in the
high calorific fraction, i.e. the efficiency of separation.

Table 3.32. The efficiency of air separator for different materials [Fricke, 2003]
                  Material                             Separation efficiency %
 Paper                                                           97.2
 Metals                                                          13.6
 Plastics                                                        94.6
 Composites                                                      84.8
 Biowaste                                                        95.9
 Inert waste                                                     56.3
 Textile                                                         72.1
 Leather                                                         72.1
 Fine fraction <8mm                                              99.7
 Other                                                           95.8

      Refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high calorific substances can be used at cement kilns, power
plants or waste incineration facilities. In recent years attempts have been made to develop a uniform
standard of such fuel, which would set the minimum energy value and restrict the amounts of heavy
metals and chlorine. The proposed quality standards are given in Table 3.33. The last column shows
heavy metal content in carbon for the purpose of comparison.




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Table 3.33 Review of REF quality standards [Bilitewski, 2003] and average content of heavy metals in coal [Flamme.
2002]
       Element                LAGA1 mg/MJ         BUWAL2 mg/MJ BGS3 mg/MJ Coal4 mg/MJ
       Antimony                                                                                         0.03
       Arsenic                       1.9                     0.6                   0.5                  0.49
       Beryllium                     0.1                     0.2                  0.13
       Cadmium                       0.3                     0.1                   0.5                  0.01
       Cobalt                        1.2                     0.8                  0.75                  0.61
       Chromium                      3.7                     4.0                 15.09                  0.96
       Copper                        3.7                     4.0                 35.21                   1.2
       Lead                                                  5.0                 12.58                  2.47
       Mercury                       0.0                    0.02                  0.05                  0.01
       Nickel                        3.5                     4.0                  7.55                  1.64
       Selenium                      0.2                     0.2                   0.5
       Tin                           0.4                     0.4                  7.55
       Tellurium                     0.0                                           0.4
       Thallium                      0.2                    0.12                  0.15                  0.01
       Vanadium                      6.7                     4.0                  1.51                  2.73
       Zinc                          8.0                    16.0
       Chlorine                  1% of mass                                                          0.0002%20
       Sulphur                                                                                         1.40%
      1 from working Group on Waste by the German Bundesländer: Criteria for energetic utilisation in
      cement kilns
      2 from Federal Office for Environment, Forest and Landscape: Swiss guideline of waste disposal in
      cement kilns
      3 from German Quality Association for Secondary Fuels: Quality standards for substitute fuels.
       4 the content of heavy metals was calculated by assuming that the calorific value of coal is 27.5 MJ/kg
       [Flamme, 2002]

     Presently, the restrictions on refuse derived fuels in chemical and cement industries applicable
in Germany are higher than the proposed ones [Fricke, 2003].
     Energy demand. Energy demand for primary mechanical-biological treatment (including me-
chanical pre-treatment, intensive digestion and stabilisation) is 40 – 70 kWh of electric power and
around 0.5 l of fuel per waste undergoing BMT [Wallmann, 2002].




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      Table 3.34. Energy demand for separate MBT processes
                                                      Electricity demand
       Mechanical treatment                                                  %
       Fine crushing                                                       15-25
       Coarse crushing                                                      5-10
       For belt conveyors                                                   3-7
       Magnetic separation                                                  2-4
       Pressing                                                             1-3
       Homogenisation                                                       1-2
       Sieving/Air separation                                               1-2
       Aeration                                                             1-2
       Other                                                                1-5
       Total for mechanical treatment                                      30-60
       Biological treatment
       Material mixing                                                     15-23
       Aeration                                                            12-20
       Pile aeration                                                        8-14
       For treating evolved gases                                           2-25
       For material transportation                                          2-3
       Other                                                                1-5
       Total                                                               40-70

        Advantages of refuse derived fuel (RDF). Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is used as a fuel addi-
tive. Thus, the utilisation of refuse derived fuel is the process of energy regeneration. If there is no
need to generate RDF, the fractions of high calorific value waste can be directly incinerated by re-
generating energy. For instance, in cement kilns RDF can replace even 50% of the usual fuel de-
mands [Wiemer, 2002]. The biggest problem is caused by the amount of heavy metals in RDF.
Emissions into the air during waste incineration are restricted by the EU directive setting the same
emission values in waste incineration facilities and industrial enterprises using RDF.

Table 3.35. Ratios of heavy metal emissions from combusting RDF in cement kilts to the amounts of heavy metals
getting into the process of incineration [BZL, 2000]
         Heavy metals                       Emission into the air
                                            kg into air /kg to incineration
         Antimony                                         4*10-4
         Arsenic                                          2*10-4
         Cadmium                                         1.3*10-3
         Cobalt                                           2*10-4
         Chromium                                        1.3*10-3
         Copper                                           9*10-5
         Lead                                            1.4*10-3
         Iron                                              0.52
         Nickel                                          1.3*10-4
         Tin                                              4*10-4
         Thallium                                        8.6*10-3
         Vanadium                                         5*10-4
         Zinc                                              10-4




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Table 3.36. Ratios of Cl, F, S and C emissions from combusting RDF in cement kilns to the amounts of heavy metals
getting into the process of incineration [Teller, 1999]
Parameter                                 kg into air kg into Measuring unit
                                     incineration
HCl                                  0.0340              kg HCl into air //kg Cl to incineration
HF                                   6.6*10-3            kg HF into air //kg F į to incineration
SO2                                  0.062               kg SO2 into air //kg S to incineration
CO2 of fossil materials              3.63                kg CO2 into air //kg to incineration

      Refuse derived fuel can replace coal. The average calorific value of coal is 27.5 MJ/kg
[Flamme, 2002]. The average energy demand of coal extraction is 40MJ for 1000MJ of coal as a
fuel [Büchl, 2002]. Emissions into the atmosphere from both processes (usual fuel and RDF burn-
ing) are calculated according to the amount of heavy metals (Table 3.33) and coefficients of transfer
(Tables 3.35, 3.36). The increase of heavy metal content in cement, as a side effect using RDF, is
not evaluated in the environmental aspect.

         3.1.2.4. Anaerobic mechanical-biological treatment

      The facility of anaerobic mechanical-biological pre-treatment treats sorting waste and mixed
waste. Like in the case of aerobic mechanical biological treatment, first of all waste is treated me-
chanically by separating unsuitable high calorific fractions. Finally, the waste of low calorific value
undergoes biological treatment. Biological treatment includes the processes of fermentation where
organic substances degrade under anaerobic conditions evolving biogases. Further, the fermented
waste is stabilised aerobically.
      So far, the method of anaerobic mechanical-biological primary treatment has not been widely
applied even though the number of related facilities is presently growing [Kern, 2001].
      Compared to the aerobic MBT method, the aerobic MPT has a number of advantages:
    •    generation of final energy;
    •    shorter period of biological treatment;
    •    less emissions of offensive odours (that require biological treatment of the air) compared to
         biogas combustion.

      On the other hand, anaerobic technologies are more complicated and require more investment
[Zeschmar-Lahl, 2000].
      Characteristics of primary waste. The characteristics of primary waste in both aerobic and an-
aerobic MBT are the same.
        Mechanical pre-treatment. Mechanical treatment of primary waste is identical to aerobic
MBT (section 3.1.2.3). In anaerobic MBT a light fraction of high calorific value includes all wastes
larger than 80 mm. The size of wastes getting to the phase of biological treatment is smaller than
80mm. The process of metal separation is the same as in the aerobic MBT.




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         Fig. 3.13. The scheme of the main substance flows in the modelled process of anaerobic MBT.

         Biological pre-treatment. Two models are possible in this process:
     •     total fraction <80 mm undergoes anaerobic treatment (Model A);
     •     fraction <40 mm undergoes anaerobic treatment, fraction of 40-80 mm undergoes aerobic
           treatment (Model B).

      Anaerobic treatment: <80 mm (Model A)
      Low calorific fractions are treated biologically. The process of biological treatment includes
the process of fermentation where organic substances are decomposed under anaerobic conditions
and biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) is generated. Table 3.37 presents the parameters of a sin-
gle-step process of dry fermentation.

Table 3.37. Parameters of single-step thermophilic process of dry fermentation
       Parameter                   MBT facility             Value                             Source
Biogas recovery             Bassum                  125 - 135 Nm3/t of waste             Zeschmar – Lahl, 2000
                                                    380 Nm3/t of organic dry sub-
Biogas recovery             Quarzbichel              stances (ODS)                       Soyez, 2000
Degradation ratio           -                       58% of biol. ODS                     Fricke, 2002a
Degradation ratio           Bassum                  47-53% of ODS                        Soyez, 2000
Degradation ratio           Quarzbichel             50% of ODS                           Soyez , 2000
                                                    5% of the total amount of primary
Degradation ratio           Vagron                   waste                               Zeschmar – Lahl, 2000

       Residues from the fermentation phase are further stabilised aerobically. This process of stabi-
lisation is identical to the stabilisation after intensive digestion during the aerobic MBT. The rate of
degradation during the process is 20% of ODS [Soyez, 2000]. Water content in the stabilised low
calorific fraction accounts for 35% [Fricke, 2002a].
       Anaerobic treatment when fraction <40 mm, aerobic treatment when fraction is 40-80 mm
(Model B)
Anaerobic treatment of the fraction <40mm is identical to the above-described process of fermenta-
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tion when the fraction <80 mm.
      Aerobic treatment of the fraction of 40-80 mm is practical since this fraction contains sub-
stances that are difficult to degrade under anaerobic conditions but are degraded aerobically (e.g.
lignin). Separate aerobic treatment of such fraction ensures better overall degradation/digestion.
However this process requires more time and the presence of both facilities (aerobic and anaerobic)
in a single MBT plant.
      Aerobic treatment of the fraction sized 40 – 80mm is similar to the phase of intensive diges-
tion during aerobic MBT (see section 3.1.2.3)
      Emissions into the air. Emissions into the air in the anaerobic MBT process occur: during
combustion of biogas in the aerobic process and aeration during the process of aerobic stabilisation.
In Model B, emissions into the air occur during intensive digestion. The following techniques are
used to calculate the sources of these emissions:
   •   biogas combustion: emission is identical to that of combusting biogas evolved during an-
       aerobic digestion. The content of methane in biogas is 61% [Soyez, 2000].
   •   aerobic stabilisation of fermented waste: emissions from a kilogram of decomposed carbon
       in this phase is considered equal to those emitted from a kilogram of decomposed carbon in
       the phase of intensive digestion and stabilisation during MBT; the total rate of carbon de-
       composition during aerobic MBT is 71%.
   •  aerobic treatment of the fraction sized 40 – 80mm in model B: emissions from a kilogram of
      decomposed carbon in this phase are considered equal to those from a kilogram of decom-
      posed carbon in the phase of intensive digestion and stabilisation during aerobic MBT; the
      total rate of carbon decomposition during aerobic MBT is 71%.
     Emissions into water. According to Fricke, 2002a, mechanical-biological treatment facilities
may not generate sewage at all.
     High calorific fraction. The same as described in the section above.
     Energy balance. Values of energy balance for anaerobic MBT are given in table 3.38.




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Table 3.38. Values of energy consumption and recovery during anaerobic MBT
Parameter        Process phase      Value                                                          Source
                 Mechanical pre-                                                                    Wallmann,
                                                       25kWh/t of MBT waste
                   treatment                                                                         2002

                   Fermentation,         ferment.atliekos Abudas
                                                                 *138kWh / tMBPatliekų             Schade, 1999
                    Method A             ferment.atliekos Bbudas
                   Fermentation,
                                                      138 kWh/t of MBT waste                       Schade, 1999
                    Method B
                   Stabilisation of       C − suirusi stabilizac.
                                                                           * 30kWh / tMBPatliekų    Wallmann,
                    fermentation
                                       C − suirusi pi ln as − aerobinisMBP                           2002
                        waste
                    Full aerobic
                  treatment of the        C − suirusi 40−80 mm
                                                                           * 30kWh / tMBPatliekų    Wallmann,
                 fraction sized 40 -
                                       C − suirusi pi ln as − aerobinisMBP                           2002
                   80mm (Method
                          B)
                   Fermentation,         ferment.atliekos A.būūda
                                                                  * 79kWh / tMBPatliekų            Schade, 1999
                    Method A             ferment.atliekos B.būūda
                   Fermentation,
                                                       79kWh/t of MBT waste                        Schade, 1999
                    Method B
  Diesel fuel                                                                                       Wallmann,
                       MBT                               0,5 l/t of MBT waste
     input                                                                                           2002
   Methane
                      Biogas                               61% of volume                            Soyez, 2000
    amount
 Energy value        Methane                                 37,8 MJ/m3                             Vogt, 2000
  Electric ca-
                    Gas turbine                                  35%                                Soyez, 2000
     pacity
   Thermal          Gas turbine
                                                                 42%                                Soyez, 2000
   capacity

      Utilisation of refuse derived fuel. The utilisation of high calorific fraction from anaerobic
MBT is the same as the one from aerobic MBT.

       3.1.2.5. Incineration

        Substances contained in waste are oxidised during the process of incineration. Incinerated
waste is converted into gaseous substances, while the fractions of inert waste turn into solid residues
in the form of slag and ash. The amounts of municipal waste incinerated by EU old-timers and other
West European countries are very diverse ranging from 0 per cent in Greece to 95 per cent in Lux-
embourg and nearly 100 per cent in [Johnke, 2003]. Waste incineration provides much benefit to
the environment: reduction of finally handled waste amounts, energy recovery from waste and re-
duction of emissions from the process of final waste handling.
        Incineration technologies. As it was mentioned, one of disposal methods of municipal waste
containing a fair amount of combustible fractions (40-60 % of the mass, according to Johnke, 2003)
is incineration, which is applied in parallel with such methods as biodegradable waste composting
and/or anaerobic digestion and recycling. When it is not possible to recycle combustible fractions it
is better to incinerate them.
      The European Commission IPPC Reference Document on BAT, Waste Incineration, of Au-

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gust 2006 states that several techniques can be applied for thermal waste treatment, i.e. waste incin-
eration, gasification and pyrolysis. These are very different processes. During incineration, thermal
oxidation at high temperature, ranging between 850 and 1450 0C, takes place. During gasification
compounds are decomposed through the participation of an oxidising agent and water vapours, the
process occurs at lower temperature, typically in the range of 500 and 1000 0C. During pyrolysis
organic compounds are decomposed in the environment without an oxidising agent. These proc-
esses are selected taking into consideration the composition of waste.
        The European Commission’s document “Waste Incineration” recommends the following
municipal waste incineration techniques: fire grate incineration, waste incineration in rotary fur-
naces, and in fluidised bed furnaces. The technology of waste incineration in fluidised bed furnaces
requires that incinerated particles are of the same size. In the case of municipal waste, a special
waste pre-treatment would be necessary – crushing or sifting or waste sorting. This burdens waste
incineration and makes it more expensive, therefore this method has not received a wide applica-
tion. Waste incineration in rotary furnaces is widely applied for the incineration of clinical waste.
However, this technique has limited control possibilities of the air amount and furnace capacity, it
requires an additional, secondary combustion chamber, and furthermore, it is difficult to avoid the
problems of slag generation on surfaces, therefore, it is more often used to incinerate specific
wastes. Of the above-mentioned technologies, the most widely applied and the most reliable is fire
grate incineration. The same opinion is given in the conclusions of the Vilnius Municipal Waste
Incineration Study [Municipal, 2006]
       Fire grate incineration technology (waster-cooled fire grate, fume recirculation) meets the
best available technology of municipal waste incineration and ensures low water supply and
smaller amounts of generating fume. The slag generating after such treatment can be used as build-
ing material for road building. Energy recovered from waste is used to produce electricity and heat.
       Fume cleaning consists of the following stages: (I) separation of dust and fly ashes in an elec-
trostatic precipitation tank (further disposal as hazardous waste) (II) removal of hydrogen fluoride,
hydrogen chloride and heavy metals with the help of fume scrubber intended for acid compounds;
(III) removal of sulphur dioxide in the scrubber with neutralisation calcium hydroxide suspension;
(IV) removal of dioxins and furans in the filter with the coke absorber; and (V) removal of nitrogen
oxides by selective catalytic reduction (SCR-catalyser). Separation of metals from the slag can be
modelled according to a simple mechanical treatment technology where Fe, Cu and Al are separated
(Hellweg 2000). Upon extracting metals the slag can be used for road building. Apart from that, the
slag can be disposed in landfills. Fig. 3.14 shows the scheme of fire grate installation, Fig. 3.15 –
the scheme of the main substance streams in the process of incineration.




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       Fig. 3.14. Scheme of fire grate incineration installation with a steam boiler and fume cleaning equipment [Mu-
nicipal, 2006]




      Fig. 3.15. Main material streams in a waste incineration plant.

      Thermal characteristics of combustible waste. A wide range of municipal waste can be incin-
erated, including kitchen, commercial, over-dimensioned and other wastes. In the systems of com-
bined waste handling incineration is applied along with other waste management techniques such as
composting, sorting and others. In this case only the waste unsuitable for recycling is incinerated.
Energy value of waste is important for the calculations of the incineration plant since waste of low
calorific value requires additional fuel.
      The key factor describing the suitability of waste for incineration is its calorific value. In
Germany, the calorific value of mixed municipal waste, as a rule, varies in the range of 7.5 and 11
MJ/kg [Johnke, 2003]. The calorific value is calculated according to the composition of waste by
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fractions and the calorific value of these fractions. The calorific value of fractions in MJ/kg is calcu-
lated according to the chemical composition. One of the formulas used for this purpose is as follows
[Cerbe, 1994]:

     HU = 0.34·C + 1.016·H + 0.063·N – 0.191·S – 0.098·O – 0.025·W,            (3.1)

     where:
     HU – calorific value of waste, MJ/kg;
     C – carbon amount, % according to the mass;
     H – hydrogen amount % , according to the mass;
     N – nitrogen amount %, according to the mass;
     O – oxygen amount %, according to the mass;
     W – humidity amount %, according to the mass.

     Chemical composition of separate waste fractions is given in Tables 3.28 and 3.29.

      When calculating caloricity of the waste, the chemical composition of its fractions is first re-
calculated according to the total mass. For instance, the following formula is used to calculate car-
bon amount:

     C = CODM·ODMDM·DM/10000,                                  (3.2)

     where C – carbon amount in the total waste mass, %
     CODM – carbon amount in the dry part of organic waste, %
     ODMDM – amount of organic dry waste part in dry waste part, %
     DM – dry part of waste,

     The humidity of waste fraction is determined as follows:

     W = 100 – DM,                                     (3.3)

     The calorific value of incinerated waste is calculated as follows:


      HU =
             ∑m H i       Ui

              ∑m      i
                               ,                               (3.4)

      Where HUi – calorific value of i-fraction of waste, mi – share of waste fraction in the total
stream of incinerated waste.
      The process of incineration. During the process of incineration substances contained in waste
are oxidised. In this way incinerated waste is converted into gaseous substances and the factions of
inert waste remain in slag and ash. Hot gas is directed to a boiler where heat is transformed into
thermal and electric energy suitable for use.
      The mass balance of a waste incineration plant is calculated according to the composition of
original waste. Substances generating in a waste incineration facility are as follows:
     a) Exhaust gas
     b) Slag and bottom ashes
     c) Filter ashes
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      d) Cleaning residues of emitted gas
      Gas emissions. The amount of gas emissions is calculated according to the composition of in-
cineration waste. The minimum air amount necessary for the incineration process is determined ac-
cording to the contents of C, H, O and S in waste. The real air amount is obtained after evaluating
the coefficient of excess, which, as a rule, is equal to 1.5.
      Emissions of the following substances are evaluated at a waste incineration plant:
       a) CO2, H2O, N2, and O2 are calculated according to the composition of original waste;
       b) other components of emissions, SO2, HCl and HF, are calculated according to the compo-
             sition of original waste and the efficiency of emission cleaning given in Table 3.39.
Table 3.39. Average emission cleaning efficiency [ifu and ifeu, 2001]
       Pollutants               Gas cleaning efficiency
       HCl                                       99.95%
       SO2                                       99.87%
       HF                                        95.74%

         Emissions of heavy metals are also calculated according to the original composition of
waste. Discharges of heavy metals into emissions, ash, slag and waste from gas cleaning are defined
by the empirical coefficients of transfer. It is considered that metals contained in an inert fraction
get into slag. Table 3.40 presents these coefficients that are typical of modern waste incineration
facilities. Data about emissions into the atmosphere are taken from 12 incineration plants in Ger-
many’s Nordrhein-Westfalen federal land [Lall, 2001]. The coefficients of transfer to solid residues
are based on the data from Switzerland [Hellweg, 2001].

Table 3.40. Distribution of heavy metals between residues from incineration processes in modern incineration plants
[Lahs 2001, Hellweg 2001]
                                                             Ash and residues from filter emission cleaning
 Metal             Emissions Slag           Boiler ash       facilities
                          %           %            %                 %
    Arsenic           0.03%      55.00%             3.00%                              42.00%
    Cadmium           0.00%       0.30%             0.00%                              99.60%
    Chromium          0.01%      45.50%             3.20%                              51.10%
    Copper            0.00%      81.00%             0.00%                              20.00%
    Mercury           4.37%       0.60%             0.20%                              99.10%
    Nickel            0.06%      90.10%             3.60%                               6.30%
    Lead              0.01%       6.60%             0.00%                              93.30%
    Zinc              0.01%       0.30%             0.00%                              99.70%




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Table 3.41. Average concentrations of pollutants and allowable limits at waste incineration plants.
                                                                                                             EU Directive
                                                                                                      on the incineration
                          Average emissions based on data of German incineration plants                     of waste
                           [Dehoust, 2002]                    [ifu and ifeu, 2001]                           (2000/76/EC)
                              mg/m3 of emis-                                                                   mg/m3 of
         Emission              sions                          kg/kg of emissions                           emissions

 N 2O                            2.00             2.3*10-7
 HCl                             1.97                                                                      2.17
 HF                              0.11                                                                      0.160
 SO2                             6.19                                                                      6.72
 NOx (as NO2)                    94.1             6*10-5                                                   111
 NH3                              0.5             3*10-6
 CO                                               10-5
 BOA                                              10-6                                                     1,37
 PCDD, PCDF                                       5*10-15                                                  10-8
 PCB                                              5*10-11
 Chlorphenol                                      10-10
 Chlorbenzene                                     5*10-11
 Benzopyrene                                      7*10-13
 Hg                                                                                                        6*10-3
 Cd, Tl                                                                                                    4*10-3
 Heavy metals                                                                                              0.04
      BOA – Total organic carbon
      PCDD, PCDF –polychlordibenzodioxines, polychlordibenzofurans, respectively
      PCB – polychlorbiphenils

      Cleaning of emissions. Emission cleaning facilities at a waste incineration plant:
      a) Electrostatic precipitation tank where solid particles and ashes are caught. The amount of
             ash remaining in the filter approximately accounts for 6% of the inert waste fraction
             (ifu and ifeu 2001)
      b) 2-step scrubber: In step I, hydrogen chloride (HCl), fluorhydrocarbons, and heavy metals
             are removed. In step II, SO2 is removed with the help of calcium hydroxide.
      c) Active coke filter for the absorption pf dioxins/furans.
      d) SCR – selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides.

      Table 3.42 shows auxiliary substances necessary for the cleaning of emissions. The amount of
calcium hydroxide necessary for the removal of SO2 and HCl may be calculated stoichiometrically
according to the contents of S and Cl in waste. The table below shows average inputs of coke and
ammonium hydroxide at modern waste incineration plants [ifu and ifeu, 2001]
Table 3.42. The amount of additional reagents necessary to clean emissions
                  Substance                                       Amount
          Ca(OH)2 (for SO2 binding)                      1.2               kg Ca(OH)2/kg SO2
          Ca(OH)2 (for HCl binding)                      1.4               kg Ca(OH)2/kg HCl
                                                                            kg coke/kg emis-
                    Coke                              0.0005                   sions
                                                                             kg NH4OH/t of
                   NH4OH                              0.0002                emissions
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      The amounts of solid waste generated from the cleaning of emissions are calculated according
to the amounts of auxiliary substances given in Table 3.42. The resulted calcium salts have by
around 1.2 times bigger mass than the initial Ca(OH)2. These salts can be recycled or disposed in
landfills.
      Treatment of solid incineration waste. Around 94% of the original mass of the inert substance
fraction turn into slag, 6% – ashes that deposit in filters [ifu and ifeu, 2001]. Heavy metals con-
tained in the slag are considered immobilised and those in ashes – mobile due to their physical
condition (a fine and well soluble in waster fraction).
      Solid residues resulting from incineration at incineration plants have a high concentration of
heavy metals. The calculation of heavy metal amounts in solid residues is based on the ratio of their
amount in incinerated waste to its amount emitted into the air (Table 3.40). A potential range of
amounts of separate metals is given in Table 3.43.

Table 3.43. Concentrations of metals in solid residues of waste incineration. [Chandler, 1997; van der Sloot, 1997;
Cossu, 1998; ABF-BOKU, 2001]
       Elements             Slag (mg/kg)          Boiler ashes (mg/kg)        Ashes caught in filters (mg/kg)
         Immobilised
       Chromium               100 - 1000                200 - 800                       100 - 1000
         Copper               250 - 5000               300 - 1500                        50 - 5000
          Iron             30000 - 150000            20000 - 50000                    20000 - 60000
       Manganese              400 - 1700               700 - 1200                       800 - 1700
         Nickel                50 - 800                 100 - 300                        100 - 500
        Titanium             3500 - 8000                  6500                         7000 - 12000
        Volatile
         Arsenic                20 - 80                  20 - 80                         40 - 300
       Cadmium                 <0,5 - 40                 50 - 150                       200 - 1000
          Lead                500 - 5000              2000 - 10000                     2500 - 19000
       Antimony                 10 - 80                  20 - 60                          40 - 120
        Selenium               0,4 - 10                   5 - 30                           10 - 30
           Tin                100 - 1000                   500                         1000 - 2000
           Tl                    <0,5                      <0,5                             1-5
          Zinc                800 - 6000              5000 - 20000                     5000 - 20000
    Highly volatile
           Hg                 < 0.01 - 3                    <5                             1 - 30

      Filter ashes, prior to being disposed in landfills, as a rule, are treated with cement and around
500 kg of cement and 500 litres of waster per one ton of ashes are necessary. The obtained solid
mixture is disposed in the landfill of hazardous waste since there is no a unanimous opinion on its
impact on the environment. Table 3.44 shows the results of solubility test. Landfill leachate is col-
lected and treated. However, part of soluble pollutants are transferred to the environment in case of
an accident via cracks and splits, therefore, when installing a landfill, it is very important to ensure
high quality in order to avoid such effects.




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Table 3.44. Soluble amount of pollutants per ton of ashes bound with cement [Ecobilan, 2003]
                                Soluble amount (g/ton of bound
       Pollutants        ashes)
       Arsenic                                       0
       Cadmium                                       82
       Cl, Chlorides                              135240
       ChDS                                          0
       Chromium (IV)                                8,58
       Copper                                      78,26
       Cyanides                                      0
       Dioxins                                   0.00165
       Mercury                                     3584
       Magnesium                                   1908
       Lead                                         232
       Phenols                                     0,003
       Zinc                                       3685.7

      The slag may be further treated in order to: a) separate valuable metals; b) use it as building
material (mainly for road building). The majority of incineration plants separate only ferrous met-
als. The average efficiency reached when using the most widely applicable mechanical means to
obtain metals is 40% [Dehoust, 2002]. The advantage of mechanical slag treatment techniques lies
in the fact that they need little energy – roughly 0.017 MJ/kg of slag [Hellweg, 2001]. It is possible
to employ more advanced technologies allowing to reach higher efficiency.
      The part of slag remaining after mechanical treatment is either disposed in landfills or used for
road building. Both mentioned cases may produce heavy emissions the amount and hazardousness
of which is difficult to predict. Tables 3.45 and 3.46 show possible amounts of pollutants in
leachate, based on modelling [Ecobilan, 2003].

Table 3.45. Amount of soluble pollutants in a ton of slag used for road building. [Ecobilan, 2003]
                                Soluble amount (g/t of
       Pollutants        slag)
       Arsenic                                0
       Cadmium                                12
       Cl, Chlorides                        5170
       ChDS                                   0
       Chromium (IV)                         5,2
       Copper                              105.7
       Mercury                                0
       Magnesium                            1632
       Lead                                  272
       Sulphates                              0
       Zinc                                682.2




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Table 3.46. Amount of soluble pollutants in a ton of slag disposed in the landfill [Ecobilan, 2003]
                                                             Soluble amount (g/t of
       Pollutants                                     slag)
       Arsenic                                                            0
       Cadmium                                                            8
       Cl, Chlorides                                                    4010
       ChDS                                                               0
       Chromium (IV)                                                      6
       Copper                                                           79,8
       Mercury                                                            0
       Magnesium                                                        1717
       Manganese                                                        81,1
       Lead                                                            370,5
       Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons                               0,00362
       Polychlorbiphenols (PCB)                                        0,0075
       Zinc                                                            790,4

         Energy balance. Energy is recovered during waste incineration at modern waste incineration
facilities. Several kinds of energy recovery are possible: only electricity generation, only heat gen-
eration or combined generation of heat and electricity (cogeneration). Since the method of cogene-
ration allows utilising waste derived energy to the best extent it has been most widely applied.
         Heat generation efficiency of the modern waste incineration boilers is approximately 80%.
The efficiency of electricity generation can be increased by installing steam boilers operating with
higher parameters, e.g. when a boiler produces the steam of 60 bar and 420 0C, electricity genera-
tion efficiency can reach around 20%. When steam parameters are increased to 80 bar and 500 0C,
the efficiency of electricity generation can rise to 27%.
         The European Commission’s document “Waste Incineration” presents indicative values of
the waste incineration heat conversion into heat and electric energy that were obtained upon analys-
ing data from a number of waste incineration plants. The findings of research into 50 operating
waste incineration plants show that the lowest boiler efficiency was 72%, the highest – 84%, and
the average – 81%. The analysis of cogeneration efficiency shows that the total conversion of heat
from waste incineration accounted for around 59.4%, and energy export (i.e. generated energy less
energy input for waste incineration technology) – 49.3%.

         3.1.2.6. Disposal in landfills

        Waste disposal in landfills is an inevitable means of waste disposal in every waste manage-
ment system. This method can be related to all wastes entering waste streams. The application of
other waste handling methods, such as for instance mechanical-biological treatment or incineration,
also results in generation of wastes that can be disposed in landfills. Landfilling is the cheapest and
simplest way of waste disposal. In some European countries (Great Britain, Ireland, Spain) waste
disposal in landfills is the main way of waste disposal (McDougall et al. 2001). The new EU coun-
tries practically do not use any other ways of waste disposal. Objective of the modern waste man-
agement system is to minimise the amount of waste disposed in landfills. The key aim of the mod-
ern landfill is safe and long-term management of waste from the standpoint of healthcare and envi-
ronment protection. Landfill gases and leachate generating in landfills also have to be controlled
and handled as much as possible. (McDougall et al. 2001). Fig. 3.15 shows the main material and
energy flows in a landfill.

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Fig. 3.15. The flows of the main materials and energy in a landfill

      Different kinds of municipal waste, including untreated municipal waste, waste from commer-
cial enterprises, over-dimensioned waste as well as mechanically-biologically treated waste, can be
disposed in landfills.
      Anaerobic biological decomposition of organic wastes takes place in a landfill, which results
in the generation of landfill gases.
      The amount of landfill gases generating during waste decomposition is calculated using the
following formula (Tabasaran 1987):
Ge = 1.869 * Co * (0.014 ϑ + 0.28) [m3/t of waste]                            (3.5)
čia
Ge           long-term potential characteristic of landfill gas, [m3/t of waste];
C0           content of organically degradable carbon in waste [kg C0/t of waste]. For the munici-
             pal waste this value varies in the range of 170 and 220 kg/t. Here Co is calculated ac-
             cording to the amount of carbon in biodegradable waste.
1,868        gas amount generating during degradation of a kilogram of Co [m3 gas/kg Co] [(22.4 l
             gas/mol)/(12 g C/mol) = 1.868 l gas/gC];
(0.014 ϑ + 0.28) the rate of degradation depending on temperature [ϑ, °C]; in the case of municipal
waste ϑ varies from 30 to 35 °C.
Literary sources present different data about the formation of landfill gases:
• Ehrig (1986) 180-240 m3/t of SM (dry substance) (limit values 60 and 413 m3/t of SM, obtained
during laboratory analysis in semi-technical level);
• Leikam and Stegmann (1996) 250 m3/t of SM;
• Stegmann (1982) 120 – 180 m3/t of waste;
• Tabasaran and Rettenberger (1984) 150 – 170 m3/t of waste.
    Landfill gases generating from mixed/residue waste mainly contain 99% of methane and carbon
dioxide (roughly 55% and 45%, respectively). Apart from these substances, landfill gases contain
oxygen, nitrogen, inorganic compounds (e.g. H2S), organic compounds and metals (Rettenberger
and Urban-Kiss 2000). Average amounts of pollutants contained in landfill gases are given in Table
3.47.

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Table 3.47. Average amounts of pollutants in landfill gases
 Pollutant                           Schwing 1999 mg/m3       Tabasaran 1987 mg/m3
 1,1,1-trichlorethane                         10                        2.3
 1,1-dichlorethane                            25
 1,2-dichlorethane                           0.5
 Benzene                                      8                        3.5
 Butane                                                                12
 Cadmium                                    5.6*10-3
 Tetrachlormethane                                                     0,3
 Chlorine                                      65
 Chlorobenzene                                                        0,1
 Chloroethane                                                         130
 Trichloromethane                              10                      1
 Chromium                                   6.6*10-4
 Dichloromethane                               80                       3
 Dichlordifluoromethane (CFC-
 12)                                           40                     62
 Ethane                                                               24
 Ethylbenzene                                  20                     120
 Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-
 11)                                           10
 Fluorine                                      1.3
 Hexane                                        3.6                     11
 Hydrogen sulphide                            200
 Mercury                                    4.1*10-5
 Lead                                       5.1*10-3
 Polychlorbiphenils (PCB)                   1.6*10-3
 Pentane                                                               6
 Propane                                                               5
 Tetrachloroethylene                            10                     71
 Toluene                                       100                    310
 Xylene isomers (total)                         77                     4
 Trichloroethylene                              20                     91
 Vivyl chloride                                 20

The following emissions from landfill into the air are evaluated:
 1   dispersed landfill gas emissions into the air;
 2    emissions into the air from gas combustion.
     Dispersed landfill gas emissions depend on the efficiency of gas collection system during land-
fill operation and after closure of a landfill cell (phase A and phase B, respectively). In the phase of
operation the rate of collection is 30%, and after the closure of the landfill cell – 70%. Methane and
CO2 emissions are calculated according to forecast average amounts of substances in landfill gases,
while the emissions of other pollutants are based on forecast values given in table 3.47. It is as-
sumed that after the closure of a landfill cell, 30% of generated gas are transferred to the atmos-
phere: roughly 25% are emitted through the landfill cover, another 5% – through the cracks and
leaky places in the cover. 60% of methane contained in gas emitted through the landfill cover are
oxidised to CO2 (Schwing 1999). Other components remain unchanged. The total carbon dioxide
emitted from the landfill is of organic origin and is disregarded when calculating the potential of the
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global warming.
      Collected landfill gas is either used for energy generation or combusted in a special burner.
Calculations of electric energy generation of biogas are described in the section 3.1.2.1. The same
method of calculation, taking into consideration different amount of methane, is used for the calcu-
lation of energy recovery from landfill gases. The amount of regenerated electric energy, the total
amount of fume and carbon dioxide emissions are also calculated in the same way. The composition
of other materials in based on forecast values for fume from the turbine of the landfill gas energy.
To calculate emissions generating when combusting landfill gas in an appropriate burner the same
values as in the case of the energy generation turbine are used. Table 3.48 shows average composi-
tion of fume from the landfill gas turbine.

Table 3.48. Average composition of fume from the landfill gas turbine, mg/m3
                                               Franke et al.       Dehoust et al.   Haigh et al.   Gillet et al.
                    Pollutant                      1992                1998            2002           2002
 1,1,1-trichloroethane                           8.8*10-4
 1,2-dichloroethane                              8.3*10-4
 Benzene                                         5.2*10-3
 Carbon monoxide                                                        650            1300           1000
 Chlorine                                          0.11                                                0.0
 Chloroform                                      8.3*10-4
 Chromium                                        1.1*10-6
 Dichloromethane                                 8.3*10-4
 Ethylbenzene                                    1.8*10-2
 Fluorine                                        2.1*10-2
 Hydrogen chloride                                                       30          5.5*10-3          4.9
 Hydrogen fluoride                                                      1.0          3.5*10-3          2.1
 Hydrogen sulphide                                 0.33                               0.083
 Mercury                                         6.9*10-8
 Volatile organic compounds except meth-
 ane                                                                                    23             50
 Nitrogen oxides                                    100                 500            1200            810
 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons                                                       0.3           0.014
 Lead                                            8.5*10-6
 Polychlorbiphenils (PCB)                        2.7*10-6
 Dioxins                                           10-7                 10-8         1.2*10-6       7.1*10-9
 Solid particles 10                                                                  6.8E+00        1.8E+01
 Sulphur dioxide                                     25                 230            210            280
 Tetrachloroethane                               3.3*10-4
 Trichloroethane                                 5.0*10-3
 Vinyl chloride                                  2.0*10-3

      When modelling a landfill, heavy landfill emissions can be grouped in two periods: landfill
operation (phase A) and after the closure of a landfill cell (phase B). Leachate generation is mod-
elled for a period of 100 years. The amount of leachate in both phases depends on the average an-
nual quantity of precipitation and water content in landfilled waste. The probable amount of
leachate in the phase of landfill operation accounts for 10-50% of the annual precipitation amount
(Schwing, 1999). After the closure and cover of the landfill, the amount of leachate may decrease to
5-10% of the annual precipitation amount. The calculation of leachate generating from water con-
tained in waste is based on the assumption that the residual amount of water in waste accounts for
15% of the waste weight (Schwing 1999).
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    Leachate collection. Modern landfills have the systems of leachate collection. But despite this
system part of leachate may enter the environment (e.g. through the cracks in landfill cover). The
amount of overspread leachate is difficult to forecast. The collected leachate is handled in a landfill
or nearby it, the treated lechate is discharged to surface waters.
    Composition of leachate. Table 3.49 shows data about leachate composition in landfills of dif-
ferent ages. These data are based on the long-term research into landfill leachate composition, per-
formed in Germany (Krümpelbeck 1999). The composition of leachate changes in the course of
time and the concentration of pollutants therein gradually decreases. After the closure of a landfill
cell, the quality of leachate generated therein gradually improves. However, there are no data about
the leachate generating within a long time. Krümpelbeck (1999) study analyses leachate samples
from the landfills closed 20 years ago. The analysis covered several parameters: the amounts of
ChDS, ammonia, halogenated hydrocarbons, chlorides and zinc. In all the cases a significant reduc-
tion in concentrations was recorded compared to the concentrations in leachate immediately after
the landfill closure. The following reductions were recorded for separate measurements:
1    ChDS – 75%;
2    ammonia – 25%;
3    halogenised hydrocarbons – 75%;
4    chlorides – 50%;
5    zinc – 80%.




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Table 3.49. Composition of leachate in landfills of different ages
                                                  6-10
 Landfill age                       1-5 years     years         11-20 years 20-30 years
                                                     mg/l of landfill leachate
 pH                                    7.30          7.50            7.60       7.70
 BDS5                                  2258           800            275        185
 ChDS5                                 3810          2485           1585       1160
 Ammonia                                405           600            555        445
 Nitrates                              3.60          7.60           12.00       9.00
 Nitrites                              0.06          0.63            0.50       0.80
 Total nitrogen                         409           608            568        455
 Total phosphorus                                                      3          3
 Adsorbable halogenated com-
 pounds (AOX)                         2.77        1.93          1.51           1.13
 Chlorides                            1300        2135          1760           1025
 Sulphates                              98         146           93             83
 Sulphides                             5.60       6.10          2.00           1.10
 Sodium                                815        1125          905            645
 Potassium                            1220         910          695            595
 Magnesium                             290         205          145            115
 Calcium                               375         465           325            155
 Boron                                5.90        6.00          5.60           9.00
 Manganese                             3.90      105.00         1.10           0.90
 Iron                                 50.00      15.00          9.90           8.70
 Arsenic                               0.02       0.02          0.04           0.01
 Cadmium                               0.01       0.00          0.00           0.00
 Chromium                              0.16       0.22          0.16           0.18
 Copper                                0.71       0.07          0.06           0.04
 Mercury                               0.00       0.00          0.00
 Nickel                                0.20       0.15          0.14           0.12
 Lead                                  0.16       0.06          0.07           0.03
 Zinc                                  1.10       1.50          0.53           0.54



  The table shows that the amounts of organic pollutants and heavy metals are decreasing. The re-
duction of inorganic compound concentration is not so obvious. As a rule, the concentrations of
heavy metals in lechate are very low compared to their total content in waste. In the case of genera-
tion of usual amount of leachate the transfer of all metals generated in waste would extend from
several hundred to several thousand years, depending on the type of metal (Szpadt 1999).
  The landfill leachate is sewage highly polluted with complex pollutants. With growing require-
ments to water quality the requirements to leachate cleaning are also increasing. In the global prac-
tice a number of leachate treatment technologies are applied, among them are: biological treatment
(in aerated fields, with activated sludge, in rotating biological contractors, different filters etc.),
chemical oxidation and absorption (activated carbon), physicochemical processes (reverse osmosis,
flocculation/sedimentation) (Heyer and Stegmann 2001). With the aim to ensure the proper quality
of treated waste water, a combination of several above-mentioned technologies is often applied.
Recently in Germany, leachate has been most efficiently treated with the help of biological treat-
ment combined with ultra filtration and absorption with activated carbon (Heyer and Stegmann
2001).
  Table 3.50 presents summarised data from literary sources about the efficiency of leachate treat-
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ment. The average amount of solid waste, generating when applying the above-described leachate
treatment technology, is 0.1-2.6 kg/m3 of treated leachate (Heyer and Stegmann 2001). Sludge from
leachate treatment is transferred back to the landfill having dewatered it before that.

Table 3.50. Data given in literature about the efficiency of leachate treatment
                                    Cleaning de-
 Parameter                          gree
 BDS5                                    94%
 ChDS5                                   90%
 Ammonia                                 97%
 Adsorbable halogenated com-
 pounds (AOX)                            75%
 Arsenic                                 70%
 Copper                                  50%
 Chromium                                30%
 Nickel                                  20%
 Zinc                                    70%

Emissions into water
In summary, the main landfill emission into water are as follows:
1    dispersed heavy emissions;
2    emissions from leachate treatment installations in the treated water discharged to surface water
     bodies;
3    emissions from waste water treatment plants in the treated water discharged to surface water
     bodies;
4    emissions after completion of landfill leachate treatment (up to 100 years from the beginning of
     landfill operation).

Landfill energy demands are given in Table 3.51.

Table 3.51. Landfill energy demands
 Energy/process                                Value        Measuring units
 Electric power demand for landfill                2         kWh/t of waste
 Electric power demand for gas collection         0,15         kWh/m3 of gas
 Electric power demand for leachate
 treatment                                         22       kWh/m3 of leachate
 Diesel fuel demand                                1           l/t of waste


3.2. SELECTION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS



3.2.1. Generation and collection of municipal waste in 2010, 2013 and 2020
        The formulation of municipal waste management scenarios and respective selection of
waste treatment technologies, and the determination of capacities for technological installations re-
quire the forecast data about waste generation, composition and collection in every region, which
are given in Tables 3.57 – 3.67 of this pre-feasibility study.

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        The tables present the forecast of municipal waste collection by fractions an the forecasts of
mixed waste composition for every region in 2010, 2013 and 2020, which, according to the Na-
tional Strategic Waste Management Plan, significantly increase requirements concerning the
amounts of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills. Until 2010 these amounts should account for
no more than 75 per cent of the biodegradable waste disposed in landfills in 2000, until 2013– no
more than 50 percent, and until 2020 – no more than 35 per cent. This is the primary and essential
condition for further formation of waste management scenarios.
        The amount of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills in 2000 was established according
to the changing tendencies of mixed waste composition from 1995 to 2004, described in the section
2.3.
3.2.2. Alternatives of applying municipal waste treatment technologies in regions

      Prior to final formation of waste management scenarios in regions and sub-regions, it is nec-
essary to consider different alternatives of treatment technologies for every region and either accept
or refuse them considering the following aspects:
      • environmental;
      • economic;
      • energy;
      • present and/or planned infrastructure;
      • social;
       • technological;
      • legal.

       The alternative to dispose mixed municipal waste only in regional landfills for all the regions
should be rejected since it creates preconditions for the violation of the EU and Lithuanian Republic
legislation limiting the amounts of landfilled biodegradable waste for Lithuania, according to which
until 2010 these amounts should account for no more than 75 per cent of the biodegradable waste
disposed in landfills in 2000, until 2013– no more than 50 percent, and until 2020 – no more than
35 per. The negative aspects also include a negative impact on the environment because of the
greenhouse gas emissions, offensive smells etc. In this case the energy effect is not big since energy
can be generated only in the form of landfill gas whose best application is energy production. One
of the positive aspects includes presently operating landfills, which, in fact, will be transformed into
regional landfills, e.g. in Kaunas or Utena, or new landfills being planned or constructed. However,
in some cases the construction of new landfills encounters resistance from the general public, as for
instance, the construction of Kazokišk s regional landfill in Vilnius County. Comparatively low
operational costs of landfills and a relatively simple technology of disposal are not these positive
aspects that overweight the above-mentioned negative aspects.
       The alternatives to construct one or several mechanical-biological pre-treatment (MBT) fa-
cilities are worth considering due to a smaller local environmental impact, compared to that of land-
fills, possibilities of obtaining high thermal power fractions that can be used as fuel, and condition-
ally small investments. Since in the case of MBT, at least 80 per cent of biodegradable wastes are
stabilised and their entering into a landfill is significantly reduced, this meets the applicable EU and
Lithuanian Republic legislation and also bears an important environmental because this reduces the
emissions of the landfills gas into the environment. Taking into consideration the fact that the size
of the installation depends on the stream of treated waste, in some region it is more rational to in-
stall several smaller installations in different locations instead of one larger installation.
       Compared to waste disposal in landfills, the fire grate incineration of both mixed municipal
waste (still containing a fair amount of biodegradable waste) and high calorific fractions obtained
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after MBT, and with a normal functioning of the fume cleaning system, has the smaller impact on
the environment (which is testified by results of environmental assessment obtained within the
framework of this project), produces a sufficiently high energy effect, and in the aspect of biode-
gradable waste disposal, this technology perfectly meets the EU and Lithuanian Republic, and of all
incineration technologies it is attributed to the Best Available Technique (BAT). However, when
incinerating high calorific fractions obtained from MBT, there is lower probability of calorific value
and humidity as well as the probability of energy effect fluctuation than in the case of mixed mu-
nicipal waste incineration. Therefore, in the latter case the mechanical pre-treatment by separating
larger incombustible fractions and/or bigger separate collection and composting of biodegradable
waste or anaerobic digestion with gas recovery become important. On the other hand, the construc-
tion and operation of such installations requires big investment and operation costs since the com-
plex fume cleaning equipment, intended for the removal of solid particles, sulphur dioxide, nitric
oxides and volatile organic compounds, takes nearly 70 per cent of the total size of the incineration
system.
      Taking into consideration the above-mentioned positive aspects as well as the fact that there
are conditions and free space to construct larger fire grate installations at Vilnius TE-3, Kaunas
Thermal Power Plant (TE), and Klaip da and Šiauliai central boiler houses, the options of mixed
municipal waste incineration in these cities and power plants are worth while being considered.
However, this version is not suitable for the remaining regions due to the lack of space and insuffi-
cient infrastructure. The alternative of incinerating high calorific fractions obtained from MBT may
be considered in each region not only because of technical possibilities to construct fire grate instal-
lations in Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaip da and Šiauliai but also due to the fact that present solid fuel
boiler houses with fire grate in other regions can be used for this purpose.
      In many West European countries, high calorific fractions obtained from MBT are often in-
cinerated as fuel in cement kilns. This technology of waste incineration is distinguished by insig-
nificant impact on the environment in case fume cleaning facilities are properly operated. When
applying cement kilns for the said type of incineration investment might be necessary only in fume
cleaning equipment, which is much cheaper and simpler than in the case of fire grate incineration,
e.g. SO2 removal equipment is not necessary because the total SO2 and other acid pollutants fully
react with cement. The process does not influence the quality of produced cement and fully meets
the EU and Lithuanian Republic legislation. On the other hand, in this case the energy effect is not
big since the total energy contained in the waste is used only for the production of cement. Under
Lithuania’s conditions, such waste incineration technique might be resisted by the general public.
This alternative may be considered only for Šiauliai region because AB Akmen s cementas operat-
ing in Akmen District has cement kilns.
      The impact on the environment caused by the incineration of high calorific fractions after
MBT in fluidised bed furnaces would be insignificant if the fume cleaning equipment is operated
properly. The incineration of high heating power fractions in such installation complies with the
applicable EU and Lithuanian Republic legislation. As it was mentioned, such installation is suit-
able only for the incineration of high heating power materials. The opposition of the society to the
construction of such installation is also probable. Such alternative of incineration may be considered
only for Vilnius region because a fluidised bed furnace intended for the incineration of biomass and
peat, whose amounts may be insufficient, is being designed in Vilnius TE-2. This alternative tech-
nically is also possible in Šiauliai region, i.e. in Šiauliai central boiler house.
      At first glance, the gasification of high calorific fractions and combustion of the obtained
combustible gas in operating liquid and/or gaseous fuel boilers might seem attractive for every re-
gion since they require much less investment to install a gas generator as well as simpler fume
cleaning equipment compared to the installation of fire grate incineration. However, due to more
complicated regulation of the gasification process and a lower energy effect this alternative should
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not be considered.
      The tables below show mixed municipal waste disposal alternatives to be considered or re-
jected in various aspects for every region.




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Table 3.52 The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Vilnius region

                                                                                 Aspects
                                                                                                                                                                  Decision
              Environmental         Economic             Energy                Infrastructure       Social                   Technological       Legal
Landfills     Negative impact       Low operational      Low energy effect     Under installa-      Society’s opposition     Simple technol-     Does not         Rejected
              on the environ-       costs                (only from gas        tion                                          ogy, does not       comply with      because of
              ment with regard                           recovery)                                                           depend on waste     LR and EU        legal as-
              to the green-                                                                                                  amount and          legislation      pects and
                                                                                                                                                                  big waste
              house gas emis-                                                                                                composition
                                                                                                                                                                  amount
              sions
MBT 1         Insignificant local   Relatively small     None                  None                 Lower opposition of      The plant size      In compliance    To be
plant         impact on the en-     investment and low                                              the society com-         depends on                           consid-
              vironment             operational costs                                               pared to the cases of    waste stream                         ered
                                                                                                    landfills and incin-
                                                                                                    eration
MBT >1        Insignificant local   Average invest-      None                  None                 Lower society’s          The plant size      In compliance    To be
plant         impact on the en-     ment and opera-                                                 opposition compared      depends on                           consid-
              vironment             tional costs                                                    to the cases of land-    waste stream;                        ered
                                                                                                    fills and incineration   more intensive
                                                                                                                             treatment than in
                                                                                                                             the case of 1
                                                                                                                             facility
Fire grate    Insignificant im-     Big investment       Significant energy    Available within     Society’s opposi-        Waste must          Complies         To be
incinera-     pact on the envi-     and operational      effect                the infrastructure   tion is expected         meet quality        with LR and      consid-
tion with-    ronment in case of    costs                                      of the operating                              (calorific value    EU legislation   ered
out MBT       proper operation of                                              power plant (Vil-                             and humidity)       and BAT
              emissions cleaning                                               nius TE3)                                     and quantity
              equipment                                                                                                      parameters




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                                                                                   Aspects
                                                                                                                                                                 Decision
              Environmental         Economic               Energy                Infrastructure        Social                 Technological      Legal
Fire grate    Insignificant im-     Big investment         Significant energy    Available within      Society’s opposi-      Higher calorific   Complies        To be
incinera-     pact on the envi-     and operational        effect                the infrastructure    tion is expected       fractions are      with LR and     consid-
tion after    ronment in case of    costs                                        of the operating                             obtained after     EU legisla-     ered
MBT           proper operation of                                                power plant (Vil-                            MBT                tion, and BAT
              emissions cleaning                                                 nius TE3)
              equipment


Incinera-                                                                           None                                                                         Rejected
tion in
cement kiln
after MBT


Fluidised     Insignificant im-     Upon utilising the     Significant energy    Biomass incin-        Society’s opposi-      Only high calo-    Complies        To be
bed incin-    pact on the envi-     present incinera-      effect                eration facility at   tion is expected;      rific fractions    with LR and     consid-
eration       ronment in case of    tion installation,                           the power plant       present infrastruc-    can be inciner-    EU legisla-     ered
after MBT     proper operation of   investment is nec-                           TE-2 is under         ture is close to the   ated               tion but does
              emissions cleaning    essary only in                               construction          city centre                               not comply
              equipment             emissions cleaning                                                                                           with BAT

Gasifica-     Insignificant im-     Investment only in     Smaller effect com-   Available within      Society’s opposi-      The technologi-    Complies        Rejected
tion after    pact on the envi-     MBT and gasifica-      pared to direct       the infrastructure    tion is expected       cal process re-    with LR and
MBT           ronment               tion (without clean-   waste incineration    of the operating                             quires optimum     EU legisla-
                                    ing equipment)                               power plant (Vil-                            conditions of      tion but does
                                    equipment                                    nius TE3)                                    operation          not comply
                                                                                                                                                 with BAT




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     Table 3.53 The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Kaunas region
                                                                                Aspects
                                                                                                                                                               Decision
             Environmental         Economic             Energy                Infrastructure       Social                Technological       Legal
Landfills    Negative impact       Low operational      Low energy effect     Operating land-      None                  Simple technol-     Does not com-     Rejected
             on the environ-       costs                (only from gas        fill                                       ogy, does not       ply with LR       because of
             ment with regard                           recovery)                                                        depend on waste     and EU legis-     legal as-
             to the green-                                                                                               amount and com-     lation            pects and
                                                                                                                                                               big waste
             house gas emis-                                                                                             position
                                                                                                                                                               amount
             sions
MBT 1        Insignificant local   Relatively small     None                  None                 Lower opposition      The plant size      In compliance     To be
plant        impact on the en-     investment and low                                              of the society com-   depends on                            consid-
             vironment             operational costs                                               pared to the cases    waste stream                          ered
                                                                                                   of landfills and
                                                                                                   incineration
MBT >1       Insignificant local   Average invest-      None                  None                 Lower opposition      The plant size      In compliance     To be
plant        impact on the en-     ment and opera-                                                 of the society com-   depends on                            consid-
             vironment             tional costs                                                    pared to the cases    waste stream;                         ered
                                                                                                   of landfills and      more intensive
                                                                                                   incineration          treatment than in
                                                                                                                         the case of 1
                                                                                                                         plant
Fire grate   Insignificant im-     Big investment       Significant energy    Available within     Society’s opposi-     Waste must          Complies with     To be
incinera-    pact on the envi-     and operational      effect                the infrastructure   tion is expected      meet quality        LR and EU         consid-
tion with-   ronment in case of    costs                                      of the operating                           (calorific power    legislation and   ered
out MBT      proper operation of                                              power plant                                and humidity)       BAT
             emissions cleaning                                               (Kaunas TE)                                and quantity
             equipment                                                                                                   parameters




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 Fire grate    Insignificant im-     Big investment         Significant energy    Available within     Society’s opposi-    Higher calorific     Complies with      To be
 incinera-     pact on the envi-     and operational        effect                the infrastructure   tion is expected     fractions are ob-    LR and EU          consid-
 tion after    ronment in case of    costs                                        of the operating                          tained after MBT     legislation, and   ered
 MBT           proper operation of                                                power plant                                                    BAT
               emissions cleaning                                                 (Kaunas TE)
               equipment



Table 3.53 (the end) The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Kaunas region
                                                                                  Aspects                                                                           Deci-
               Environmental        Economic             Energy                  Infrastructure       Social               Technological        Legal               sion
 Incinera-                                                                         None                                                                             Re-
 tion in                                                                                                                                                            jected
 cement kiln
 after MBT


 Fluidised     Insignificant im-     Upon utilising the     Significant energy    Available within     Society’s opposi-   Only high calo-      Complies with       Re-
 bed incin-    pact on the envi-     present incinera-      effect                the infrastructure   tion is expected    rific fractions      LR and EU           jected
 eration       ronment in case of    tion installation,                           of the operating                         can be inciner-      legislation but
 after MBT     proper operation of   investment is nec-                           power plant                              ated                 does not com-
               emissions cleaning    essary only in                               (Kaunas TE)                                                   ply with BAT
               equipment             emissions cleaning
 Gasifica-     Insignificant im-     Investment only in     Smaller effect com-   Available within     Society’s opposi-   The technologi-      Complies with       Re-
 tion after    pact on the envi-     MBT and gasifica-      pared to direct       the infrastructure   tion is expected    cal process re-      LR and EU           jected
 MBT           ronment               tion (without clean-   waste incineration    of the operating                         quires optimum       legislation, and
                                     ing equipment)                               power plant                              conditions of        BAT
                                     equipment                                    (Kaunas TE)                              operation




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     Table 3.54 The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Klaip da region
                                                                                Aspects
                                                                                                                                                            Decision
             Environmental         Economic             Energy                 Infrastructure       Social                Technological       Legal
Landfills    Negative impact       Low operational      Low energy effect      Under installa-      None                  Simple technol-     Does not      Rejected
             on the environ-       costs                (only from gas         tion                                       ogy, does not       comply with   because of
             ment with regard                           recovery)                                                         depend on waste     LR and EU     legal as-
             to the green-                                                                                                amount and com-     legislation   pects and
                                                                                                                                                            big waste
             house gas emis-                                                                                              position
                                                                                                                                                            amount
             sions
MBT 1        Insignificant local   Relatively small     None                   None                 Lower opposition      The plant size      In compli-    To be
plant        impact on the en-     investment and low                                               of the society com-   depends on          ance          consid-
             vironment             operational costs                                                pared to the cases    waste stream                      ered
                                                                                                    of landfills and
                                                                                                    incineration
MBT >1       Insignificant local   Average invest-      None                   None                 Lower opposition      The plant size      In compli-    To be
plant        impact on the en-     ment and opera-                                                  of the society com-   depends on          ance          consid-
             vironment             tional costs                                                     pared to the cases    waste stream;                     ered
                                                                                                    of landfills and      more intensive
                                                                                                    incineration          treatment than in
                                                                                                                          the case of 1
                                                                                                                          plant
Fire grate   Insignificant im-     Big investment       Significant energy     Available within     Society’s opposi-     Waste must          Complies      To be
incinera-    pact on the envi-     and operational      effect                 the infrastructure   tion is expected      meet quality        with LR and   consid-
tion with-   ronment in case of    costs                                       of the operating                           (calorific power    EU legisla-   ered
out MBT      proper operation of                                               Klaip da central                           and humidity)       tion and
             emissions cleaning                                                boiler house                               and quantity        BAT
             equipment                                                                                                    parameters

Fire grate   Insignificant im-     Big investment       Significant energy     Available within     Society’s opposi-     Higher calorific    Complies      To be
incinera-    pact on the envi-     and operational      effect                 the infrastructure   tion is expected      fractions are ob-   with LR and   consid-
tion after   ronment in case of    costs                                       of the operating                           tained after MBT    EU legisla-   ered
MBT          proper operation of                                               Klaip da central                                               tion, and
             emissions cleaning                                                boiler house                                                   BAT
             equipment


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Table 3.54 (the end) The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Klaip da region
                                                                                 Aspects                                                                       Deci-
               Environmental        Economic            Energy                  Infrastructure        Social               Technological     Legal             sion
 Incinera-                                                                        None                                                                         Re-
 tion in                                                                                                                                                       jected
 cement kiln
 after MBT


 Fluidised     Insignificant im-     Upon utilising the     Significant energy    Available within     Society’s opposi-   Only high calo-   Complies with     Re-
 bed incin-    pact on the envi-     present incinera-      effect                the infrastructure   tion is expected    rific fractions   LR and EU         jected
 eration       ronment in case of    tion installation,                           of the operating                         can be inciner-   legislation but
 after MBT     proper operation of   investment is nec-                           power plant                              ated              does not com-
               emissions cleaning    essary only in                               (Klaip da TE)                                              ply with BAT
               equipment             emissions cleaning
 Gasifica-     Insignificant im-     Investment only in     Smaller effect com-   Available within     Society’s opposi-   The technologi-   Complies with     Re-
 tion after    pact on the envi-     MBT and gasifica-      pared to direct       the infrastructure   tion is expected    cal process re-   LR and EU         jected
 MBT           ronment               tion (without clean-   waste incineration    of the operating                         quires optimum    legislation but
                                     ing equipment)                               power plant                              conditions of     does not com-
                                     equipment                                    (Klaip da TE)                            operation         ply with BAT




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     Table 3.55 The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Šiauliai region
                                                                                  Aspects                                                                        Deci-
             Environmental         Economic              Energy                Infrastructure       Social                Technological       Legal              sion
Landfills    Negative impact       Low operational       Low energy effect     Under installa-      None                  Simple technol-     Does not com-      To be
                                   costs                                                                                  ogy, does not                          consid-
             on the environ-                             (only from gas        tion                                                           ply with LR
                                                                                                                                                                 ered
             ment with regard                            recovery)                                                        depend on waste     and EU legisla-    due to
             to the green-                                                                                                amount and com-     tion               smaller
             house gas emis-                                                                                              position                               waste
                                                                                                                                                                 amount
             sions
MBT 1        Insignificant local   Relatively small      None                  None                 Lower opposition      The plant size      In compliance      To be
plant        impact on the en-     investment and low                                               of the society com-   depends on                             con-
             vironment             operational costs                                                pared to the cases    waste stream                           sidere
                                                                                                    of landfills and                                             d
                                                                                                    incineration
MBT >1       Insignificant local   Average invest-       None                  None                 Lower opposition      The plant size      In compliance      To be
plant        impact on the en-     ment and opera-                                                  of the society com-   depends on                             con-
             vironment             tional costs                                                     pared to the cases    waste stream;                          sidere
                                                                                                    of landfills and      more intensive                         d
                                                                                                    incineration          treatment than in
                                                                                                                          the case of 1
                                                                                                                          plant
Fire grate   Insignificant im-     Big investment        Significant energy    Available, when      Society’s opposi-     Waste must          Complies with      To be
incinera-    pact on the envi-     and operational       effect                incinerating at      tion is expected      meet quality        LR and EU          con-
tion with-   ronment in case of    costs                                       the present solid                          (calorific power    legislation and    sidere
out MBT      proper operation of                                               fuel boiler houses                         and humidity)       BAT                d
             emissions cleaning                                                                                           and quantity
             equipment                                                                                                    parameters

Fire grate   Insignificant im-     Big investment        Significant energy    Available, when      Society’s opposi-     Higher calorific    Complies with      To be
incinera-    pact on the envi-     and operational       effect                incinerating at      tion is expected      fractions are ob-   LR and EU          con-
tion after   ronment in case of    costs                                       the present solid                          tained after MBT    legislation, and   sidere
MBT          proper operation of                                               fuel boiler houses                                             BAT                d
             emissions cleaning
             equipment


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Table 3.55 (the end) The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Šiauliai region
                                                                                  Aspects                                                                        Deci-
               Environmental        Economic            Energy                  Infrastructure        Social                Technological        Legal           sion
 Incinera-     Insignificant im-    Upon utilising the  Insignificant en-       The existing in-      Society’s opposi-     Does not have        Complies        Re-
 tion in       pact on the envi-    present incinera-   ergy effect (only on frastructure of          tion is expected      essential influ-     with LR and     jected
 cement kiln ronment in case of tion installation,      cement produc-          AB Akmen s                                  ence on the ce-      EU legisla-
 after MBT     proper operation of investment is nec-   tion)                   cementas can be                             ment production      tion
               emissions cleaning essary only in                                used                                        process but the
               equipment            emissions cleaning                                                                      effects on cement
                                                                                                                            quality are not
                                                                                                                            clear
 Fluidised     Insignificant im-     Upon utilising the     Significant energy     Available, if in-    Society’s opposi-   Only high calo-      Complies        Re-
 bed incin-    pact on the envi-     present incinera-      effect                 cineration takes     tion is expected    rific waste can be   with LR and     jected
 eration       ronment in case of    tion installation,                            place in the exit-                       incinerated          EU legal acts
 after MBT     proper operation of   investment is nec-                            ing solid fuel                                                but does not
               emissions cleaning    essary only in                                boiler houses (if                                             comply with
               equipment             emissions cleaning                            any)                                                          BAT

 Gasifica-     Insignificant im-     Investment only in     Smaller effect com-    None                 Society’s opposi-   The technological    Complies        Re-
 tion after    pact on the envi-     MBT and gasifica-      pared to the case of                        tion is expected    process requires     with LR and     jected
 MBT           ronment               tion (without clean-   direct waste incin-                                             optimum opera-       EU legal acts
                                     ing equipment)         eration                                                         tion conditions      but does not
                                     equipment                                                                                                   comply with
                                                                                                                                                 BAT




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     Table 3.56 The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Panev žys, Alytus, Marijampol , Utena, Telšiai and Taurag regions
                                                                                    Aspects                                                                   Decision
             Environmental        Economic                Energy                  Infrastructure    Social               Technological        Legal
Landfills    Negative impact      Low operational         Low energy effect       Under installa-   None                 Simple technol-      Does not com-   To be con-
                                  costs                                                                                  ogy, does not                        sidered due
             on the envi-                                 (only for gas re-       tion                                                        ply with LR
                                                                                                                                                              to smaller
             ronment with                                 covery)                                                        depend on waste      and EU legis-   waste
             regard to the                                                                                               amount and com-      lation          amount o
             greenhouse gas                                                                                              position
             emissions
MBT 1        Insignificant        Relatively low          There is no direct      None              Lower opposition     The plant size       In compliance   To be
plant        local impact on      investment and          effect; the effect is                     of the society       depends on                           consid-
             the environment,     operational costs ;     achieved when                             compared to the      waste stream;                        ered
             the impact of        costs of calorific      incinerating calo-                        cases of landfills   the incineration
             calorific fraction   fraction transport      rific fraction                            and incineration     of calorific frac-
             transport to an      to incineration                                                                        tion is possible
             incineration         facility
             facility


MBT >1       Insignificant        Average invest-         There is no direct      None              Lower opposition     The plant size       In compliance   To be
plant        local impact on      ment and opera-         effect; the effect is                     of the society       depends on                           consid-
             the environment,     tional costs; costs     achieved when                             compared to the      waste stream;                        ered
             the impact of        of calorific fraction   incinerating calo-                        cases of landfills   more intensive
             calorific fraction   transport to incin-     rific fraction                            and incineration     treatment than in
             transport to an      eration facility                                                                       the case of 1
             incineration                                                                                                plant; the incin-
             facility                                                                                                    eration of calo-
                                                                                                                         rific fraction is
                                                                                                                         possible




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Table 3.56 (the end) The techniques of mixed municipal waste treatment to be considered or rejected for Panev žys, Alytus, Marijampol , Utena, Telšiai and Taurag regions
                                                                                 Aspects                                                                     Decision
               Environmental      Economic             Energy                  Infrastructure     Social               Technological       Legal
 Fire grate    Insignificant      Big investment       Significant energy      Not available      Society’s opposi-    Waste must          Complies with Rejected
 incinera-     impact on the      and operational      effect                  due to the lack tion is expected        meet quality        LR and EU
 tion with-    environment in     costs                                        of space at                             (calorific power    legislation, and
 out MBT       case of proper                                                  energy produc-                          and humidity)       BAT
               operation of                                                    tion enterprise                         and quantity
               emissions clean-                                                                                        parameters
               ing equipment

 Fire grate    Insignificant      Big investment         Significant energy   Incineration is     Society’s opposi-   Higher calorific    Complies with      To be con-
 incinera-     impact on the      and operational        effect               possible in the     tion is expected    fractions are ob-   LR and EU          sidered
 tion after    environment in     costs                                       existing solid                          tained after MBT    legislation, and
 MBT           case of proper                                                 fuel boiler                                                 BAT
               operation of                                                   houses or waste
               emissions clean-                                               can be trans-
               ing equipment                                                  ported to the
                                                                              facilities of the
                                                                              neighbouring
                                                                              region
 Incinera-                                                                                                                                                   Rejected
 tion in
 cement kiln                                                                     None
 after MBT


 Fluidised     Insignificant      Upon utilising the     Significant energy   Available, if       Society’s opposi-   Only high calo-     Complies with      Rejected
 bed incin-    impact on the      present incineration   effect               incineration        tion is expected    rific waste can     LR and EU
 eration       environment in     installation, in-                           takes place in                          be incinerated      legal acts but
 after MBT     case of proper     vestment is neces-                          the exiting solid                                           does not com-
               operation of       sary only in emis-                          fuel boiler                                                 ply with BAT
               emissions clean-   sions cleaning                              houses (if any)
               ing equipment


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Gasifica-    Insignificant   Investment only in     Smaller effect com-    None   Society’s opposi-   The technologi-    Complies with    Rejected
tion after   impact on the   MBT and gasifica-      pared to the case of          tion is expected    cal process re-    LR and EU
MBT          environment     tion (without clean-   direct waste incin-                               quires optimum     legal acts but
                             ing equipment)         eration                                           operation condi-   does not com-
                             equipment                                                                tions              ply with BAT




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3.2.3. Strategic assessment of the long list of the municipal waste management scenarios


       The macroscenarios of municipal waste management in Lithuania from 2010, presented
below, were worked out taking into consideration the following:
       •   the prepared forecasts of municipal waste generation and collection of separate frac-
           tions thereof for the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, described in the section 3.1.2, based
           on the growth tendencies of the average GDP, according to which the collection of
           biodegradable waste from the year 2010 would account for at least 22 % of the total
           biodegradable waste amount (this value is recommended to the new EU member
           states and is typical of the EU old timers, see Table 2.2), this these separately col-
           lected biodegradable waste would be treated in composting and/or anaerobic digestion
           equipment;
       •   Tasks of biodegradable waste management set forth in Part VII of National Strategic
           Waste Management Plan of the Republic of Lithuania, according to which until the
           year 2010 the landfilled municipal biodegradable waste should account for no more
           than 75 per cent, until the year 2013 – no more than 50 per cent and until the year
           2020 – no more than 35 per cent of the 2000-year amount;
       •   waste management plans and strategies worked out for every region and described in
           the section 2.3;
       •   the forecasts of municipal waste generation, collection and composition given in the
           section 3.1.1;
       •   3.1.2. waste disposal/treatment alternatives in every region and/or group of regions to
           be considered, described in the section 3.1.2.
       Based on the above-described factors and, first of all, on the tasks of biodegradable waste
disposal as well as expected financial-economic situation in Lithuania and/or waste management
regions, the following alternative macroscenarios of waste management in regions are possible:
       •   Zero macroscenario, according to which, a separate collection (on-site sorting) and
           treatment of biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste is started in the mentioned pe-
           riod from the year 2010, while mixed municipal waste (together with biodegradable
           waste remaining in its content) is still disposed in the regional landfills.
       •   Minimum A macroscenario, according to which, a separate collection (sorting on
           site) and treatment of biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste is started from the year
           2010, while the incineration and/or mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of mixed
           municipal wastes are applied in the regions of Vilnius and Utena (as the largest group
           of regions by generating waste amounts) from the year 2013 and in the regions of
           Kaunas, Alytus and Marijampol (as the second largest group of regions by generating
           waste amount) – from the year 2020;
           • Minimum B macroscenario, according to which, a separate collection (sorting
           on-site) and treatment of kitchen and canteen biodegradable waste is started from the
           year 2010, while the incineration and/or mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of
           mixed municipal wastes are applied in the regions of Vilnius and Utena (as the largest
           group of regions by generating waste amount) from the year 2013 and in the regions
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           of Klaip da, Telšiai and Marijampol (as one of the largest groups of regions by gen-
           erating waste amount) – from the year 2020;
           • Medium macroscenario, according to which, a separate collection of biodegrad-
           able waste (sorting on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration and/or
           mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied in the
           regions of Vilnius and Utena, and Kaunas Alytus and Marijampol (as two largest
           groups of regions by generating waste amounts) – from the year 2013, and in the re-
           gions of Klaip da, Telšiai and Taurag (as the third largest group of regions by gener-
           ating waste amounts) – from the year 2020;
           • Maximum A macro scenario, according to which, a separate collection of biode-
           gradable waste (sorting on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration
           and/or mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied
           in all the regions from the year 2013 except the regions of Panev žys and Šiauliai (as
           the smallest group of regions by generating waste amounts);
       •   Maximum B macroscenario, according to which, a separate collection of biodegrad-
           able waste (sorting on-site) is started from the year 2010, while the incineration and/or
           mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of mixed municipal wastes are applied in all
           the regions from 2013 including the regions of Panev žys and Šiauliai.


        As it was mentioned, in the cases of all these scenarios, the collection of separate frac-
tions, including biodegradable waste, would be carried out according to the forecasts given in the
section 3.1.2. The collected biodegradable fractions will account for 22% of the total generating
biodegradable waste amount or roughly 7.5% of the total municipal waste amount. Green biode-
gradable waste would be composted on the composting sites provided for in regional plans, while
separately collected biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste would be treated in special (drum,
tunnel etc.) composting facilities or undergo anaerobic digestion with biogas recovery.
       Groups of regions in waste management macroscenarios are mainly formed according to
the principle of close neighbourhood and good communication possibilities. For the most part is a
bigger region in terms of population (and generating waste amounts) and a smaller region or re-
gions in its neighbourhood. In this way, the following groups of regions are organised: Vilnius-
Utena, Kaunas-Alytus-Marijampol , Klaip da-Telšiai-Taurag and Šiauliai-Panevežys. The order
of priority of servicing these groups of regions in the macroscenarios again first depends on lar-
ger amounts of generating waste (in this was a larger amount of mixed municipal waste is treated,
which results in better satisfaction of the requirements laid down in the National Strategic Waste
Management Plan concerning the disposal of biodegradable waste in landfills) and in this way the
Vilnius-Utena group of regions is given the highest priority and that of Šiauliai-Panevežys – the
lowest in all macroscenarios.
        During further assessment of the scenarios, special attention is given to the control years,
i.e. 2010, 2013 and 2020, in these years the scenarios are assessed according to the amounts of
biodegradable waste disposed in landfills. A plan of measures is formed for every selected sce-
nario, covering the period of 2007-2026 and given in the section 3.2.4.




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       3.2.3.1. Assessment of the Zero macroscenario


        According to this scenario, the collected mixed municipal waste would be disposed only
in regional landfills. Neither incineration nor MBT facilities would be constructed.
        The collection of biodegradable waste would account for around 22% of the total generat-
ing amount of biodegradable waste (or 7.5% of the total municipal waste amount), i.e. the collec-
tion rate proposed in waste generation forecasts for the years 2010, 2013 and 2020. This mini-
mum percentage of separate collection of biodegradable waste (both green and kitchen and
canteen wastes) of the total biodegradable waste amount should be established in a new ver-
sion of the Waste Management Rules or in separate waste management rules of regions.
        There is no alternative to a separate collection of biodegradable waste in containers, such
as manual or mechanical sorting of mixed waste by separating biodegradable waste, because the
impurities of other fractions, even though minimal ones, would not be avoided, in which case the
composting products, in fact, would be equal to biologically treated low calorific fractions in
mechanical-biological treatment (see section. 3.1.2.4). Such product would not have the proper-
ties typical of compost.
        Separately collected green biodegradable waste would be composted on the composting
sites envisaged in regional plans. These sites will be established in the majority of municipalities
and in some wards, often at the regional or closed district landfills. Thus, Vilnius region will have
11 composting sites, Kaunas region – 5 sites in municipal centres and another 6 small sites in
wards, Alytus region – 5 sites, Marijampol region – 9 sites, Utena region – 2 sites, Panev žys
region – 5 sites, Šiauliai region – 6 sites, Telšiai region – 4 sites, Taurag region – 4 sites, Klaip -
da region – 7 sites.
        Separately collected biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste will be treated in special
composting or anaerobic digestion facilities. Should the annual amount of collected biodegrad-
able waste exceed 15000 t, it is recommended to construct anaerobic digestion facilities with bio-
gas production. Such facilities could be installed in Vilnius region from the 2010, Klaip da re-
gion – from the year 2013, Kaunas region – from the year 2020. But the treatment of biodegrad-
able waste of Kaunas and Utena regions in biogas units operating in these regions could also be
considered. These composting or anaerobic digestion facilities will be mainly installed by re-
gional landfills, and only in the case of Vilnius region the anaerobic digestion facility is planned
by the anaerobic digestion facility of sludge from Vilnius waste water in the territory of the city’s
waste water treatment plant. A similar situation is expected in Taurag region even though in this
case the treatment of biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste in neighbouring regions' facilities
may also be considered.
        Table 3.57 shows information about the satisfaction of the biodegradable waste disposal
requirements set forth in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan of the Republic of
Lithuania in the case of the Zero scenario. In this case the requirements can be satisfied only in
the year 2010; therefore, to avoid bigger expenses until the year 2010 the incineration and/or
MBT facilities with full treatment of biodegradable waste contained in mixed municipal waste
can be partially installed but a separate collection of biodegradable waste (both green and canteen
wastes) of 22% and its composting and/or anaerobic digestion must be achieved.




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   Table 3.57. Share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according to the Zero macroscenario in the years 2010,
   2013 and 2020, t/year
 Region                               2000                    2010                    2013                2020
 Vilnius                                        128942             96300                 101700              115000
 Kaunas                                          90071             46300                  48600               63600
 Klaip da                                        71756             48800                  51900               57800
 Šiauliai                                        67253             32900                  35300               45700
 Panev žys                                       47913             28200                  30000               36700
 Alytus                                          17368             23000                  24600               30300
 Marijampol                                      19664             21700                  23300               29400
 Utena                                           22953             18400                  19700               23600
 Telšiai                                         36372             18000                  19100               23200
 Taurag                                          11011             12800                  13900               17200
 Total:                                         513304            346400                 368100              442500
                                            Share, compared to 2000 %
 Total disposal in landfills:                       100               67                      72                     86
 Required shares of biodegrad-                                        75                      50                     35
 able waste disposed in landfills,
 %



        3.2.3.2. Assessment of the Minimum A macroscenario


         Tables 3.58 and 3.59 present information about the satisfaction of the biodegradable waste
disposal requirements set forth in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan of the Republic
of Lithuania in the case of the Minimum A scenario. The situation of the year 2010 is the same as
in the case of the Zero macroscenario, and this, like under all the other macroscenarios, allows to
postpone the construction and launching of incineration and MBT facilities until the year 2013.
         Separately collected biodegradable waste should be managed in the same way as in the
case of the Zero scenario.
         In 2013, Vilnius and Utena regions should have either separate incineration facilities to
treat mixed municipal waste or one such facility for both regions. The alternative is MBT facili-
ties and incineration facilities to treat high calorific fractions (HCF) If the decision is taken to
construct the incineration facility joint for both regions, it would be rational to have it in Vilnius
with which Utena region has convenient communication (the distance from Vilnius to Utena is 96
km). Regional landfills would be further used only for the disposal of waste sorting residues, low
calorific fractions (LCF) after MBT and the slag generating during incineration a part of which
could be applied in road building.
         In 2020, Kaunas, Alytus and Marijampol regions should have either separate incineration
facilities to treat mixed municipal waste or one such facility joint for all three regions. The alter-
native is MBT facilities and incineration facilities to treat HCF. If the decision is taken to con-
struct one such facility for these regions, it would be rational to have it in Kaunas with which
Alytus and Marijampol regions have convenient communication (the distance between Kaunas
and Alytus is 66 km, between Kaunas and Marijampol – 56 km). Regional landfills further
would be used only for the disposal of waste sorting residues, low calorific fractions after MBT
and the slag generating during incineration (in specially installed cells), a part of which could be
applied in road building.
         In the remaining regions the situation would be the same as in the case of the Zero sce-
nario.
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        When applying MBT and incineration, this scenario would satisfy the requirements of
biodegradable waste landfilling only in 2010 and 2013 but this percentage in 2013 would be only
slightly lower than 50 %. When applying incineration alone, this macro scenario would fully sat-
isfy the requirements for the 2010, 2013 and 2020, however, again this share of landfilled biode-
gradable waste would be only slightly smaller than 50 and 35 %. Consequently, the implementa-
tion of such macroscenario is risky and therefore is rejected.

Table 3.58. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Minimum A macroscenario (ap-
plying MBT and incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
 Region                                         2000          2010            2013               2020
 Vilnius                                     128942                96300            9178             11782
 Kaunas                                       90071                46300           48600             16382
 Klaip da                                     71756                48800           51900             57800
 Šiauliai                                     67253                32900           35300             45700
 Panev žys                                    47913                28200           30000             36700
 Alytus                                       17368                23000           24600              8164
 Marijampol                                   19664                21700           23300              7787
 Utena                                        22953                18400            5308              6359
 Telšiai                                      36372                18000           19100             23200
 Taurag                                       11011                12800           13900             17200
 Total:                                      513304              346400           261186            231074
                                           Share of the year 2000, %
 Total actual disposal in landfills              100                  67              51                   45
 Required shares of biodegrad-                                        75              50                   35
 able waste disposed in landfills,
 %


Table 3.59. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Minimum A macroscenario (ap-
plying incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                         2000         2010             2013              2020
 Vilnius                                       128942              96300               0                 0
 Kaunas                                         90071              46300           48600                 0
 Klaip da                                       71756              48800           51900             57800
 Šiauliai                                       67253              32900           35300             45700
 Panev žys                                      47913              28200           30000             36700
 Alytus                                         17368              23000           24600                 0
 Marijampol                                     19664              21700           23300                 0
 Utena                                          22953              18400               0                 0
 Telšiai                                        36372              18000           19100             23200
 Taurag                                         11011              12800           13900             17200
 Total:                                        513304             346400          246700            180600
                                             Share compared 2000, %
 Total:                                           100                 67               48                  35
 Required amounts of biode-                                           75               50                  35
 gradable waste disposed in
 landfills, %




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        3.2.3.3. Assessment of the Minimum B macroscenario
         Tables 3.60 and 3.61 present information about the satisfaction of the biodegradable waste
disposal requirements set forth in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan of the Republic
of Lithuania in the case of the Minimum B scenario. The situation of the year 2010 is the same as
in the case of the Zero macroscenario, and this, like under all the other macroscenarios, allows to
postpone the construction and launching of incineration and MBT facilities until the year 2013.
         Separately collected biodegradable waste should be managed in the same way as in the
case of the Zero scenario.
         In 2013, Vilnius and Utena regions should have either separate incineration facilities to
treat mixed municipal waste or one such facility for both regions. The alternative is MBT facili-
ties and incineration facilities to treat HCF. If the decision is taken to construct the incineration
facility joint for both regions, it would be rational to have it in Vilnius with which Utena region
has convenient communication (the distance from Vilnius to Utena is 96 km). Regional landfills
would be further used only for the disposal of waste sorting residues, LCF after MBT and the
slag generating during incineration a part of which could be applied in road building.
         In 2020, Klaip da, Telšiai and Taurag regions should have either separate incineration
facilities to treat mixed municipal waste or one such facility joint for all three regions. The alter-
native is MBT facilities and incineration facilities to treat HCF. If the decision is taken to con-
struct one such facility for these regions, it would be rational to have it in Klaip da with which
Telšiai and Taurag regions have convenient communication (the distance between Klaip da and
Plung is 60 km, between Klaip da and Taurag – 110 km). Regional landfills further would be
used only for the disposal of waste sorting residues, low calorific fractions (LCF) after MBT and
the slag generating during incineration (in specially installed cells), a part of which could be ap-
plied in road building.
         In the remaining regions the situation would be the same as in the case of the Zero sce-
nario.
         When applying MBT and incineration or only incineration, this scenario would satisfy the
requirements of biodegradable waste landfilling only in 2010 and 2013 but this percentage in
2013 would be only slightly lower than 50%, and in 2020 – higher than 35%. Therefore such
macroscenario rejected.
Table 3.60. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Minimum B macroscenario (ap-
plying MBT and incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                          2000         2010             2013              2020
 Vilnius                                        128942              96300            9178             11782
 Kaunas                                          90071              46300           48600             63600
 Klaip da                                        71756              48800           51900             15574
 Šiauliai                                        67253              32900           35300             45700
 Panev žys                                       47913              28200           30000             36700
 Alytus                                          17368              23000           24600             30300
 Marijampol                                      19664              21700           23300             29400
 Utena                                           22953              18400            5308              6359
 Telšiai                                         36372              18000           19100              6251
 Taurag                                          11011              12800           13900              4634
 Total:                                         513304             346400          261186            250300
                                          Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                            100                 67              51                49
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                    100                 75              50                35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %


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Table 3.61. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Minimum B macroscenario
(applying only incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                            2000          2010         2013              2020
 Vilnius                                          128942              96300            0                 0
 Kaunas                                            90071              46300        48600             63600
 Klaip da                                          71756              48800        51900                 0
 Šiauliai                                          67253              32900        35300             45700
 Panev žys                                         47913              28200        30000             36700
 Alytus                                            17368              23000        24600             30300
 Marijampol                                        19664              21700        23300             29400
 Utena                                             22953              18400            0                 0
 Telšiai                                           36372              18000        19100                 0
 Taurag                                            11011              12800        13900                 0
 Total:                                           513304             346400       246700            205700
                                            Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                               100                67            48                  40
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                       100                75            50                  35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %



        3.2.3.4. Assessment of the Medium macroscenario

         Tables 3.62 and 3.63 present information about the satisfaction of the biodegradable waste
disposal requirements set forth in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan of the Republic
of Lithuania in the case of the Medium macroscenario. The situation of the year 2010 is the same
as in the case of the Zero macroscenario, and this, like under all the other macroscenarios, allows
to postpone the construction and launching of incineration and MBT facilities until the year 2013.
         Separately collected biodegradable waste would be managed in the same way as in the
case of the Zero scenario.
         In 2013, Vilnius and Utena, and Kaunas, Alytus and Marijampol regions should have ei-
ther separate incineration facilities to treat mixed municipal waste or one such facility in each
group of regions. The alternative is MBT facilities and incineration facilities to treat HCF. If the
decision is taken to construct the incineration facility joint for every group of regions, it would be
rational to have them in Vilnius with which Utena region has convenient communication (the
distance between Vilnius and Utena is 96 km) and Kaunas with which Alytus and Marijampol
have convenient communication (the distance between Kaunas and Alytus is 66 km, between
Kaunas and Marijampol – 56 km). Regional landfills would be further used only for the disposal
of waste sorting residues, LCF after MBT and the slag generating during incineration a part of
which could be applied in road building.
         In 2020, Klaip da, Telšiai and Taurag regions should have either separate incineration
facilities to treat mixed municipal waste or one such facility joint for all three regions. The alter-
native is MBT facilities and incineration facilities to treat HCF. If the decision is taken to con-
struct one such facility for these regions, it would be rational to have it in Klaip da with which
Telšiai and Taurag regions have convenient communication (the distance between Klaip da and
Plung is 60 km, between Klaip da and Taurag – 110 km). Regional landfills further would be
used only for the disposal of waste sorting residues, low calorific fractions (LCF) after MBT and
the slag generating during incineration (in specially installed cells), a part of which could be ap-
plied in road building.

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Table 3.62. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Medium macroscenario (apply-
ing MBT and incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                          2000         2010             2013              2020
 Vilnius                                        128942              96300            9178             11782
 Kaunas                                          90071              46300           13095             16382
 Klaip da                                        71756              48800           51900             15574
 Šiauliai                                        67253              32900           35300             45700
 Panev žys                                       47913              28200           30000             36700
 Alytus                                          17368              23000            6628              8164
 Marijampol                                      19664              21700            6278              7787
 Utena                                           22953              18400            5308              6359
 Telšiai                                         36372              18000           19100              6251
 Taurag                                          11011              12800           13900              4634
 Total:                                         513304             346400          190687            159333
                                          Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                            100                 67               37                31
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                                        75               50                35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %


Table 3.63. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Medium macroscenario (apply-
ing only incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                            2000        2010            2013              2020
 Vilnius                                          128942             96300              0                  0
 Kaunas                                            90071             46300              0                  0
 Klaip da                                          71756             48800          51900                  0
 Šiauliai                                          67253             32900          35300              45700
 Panev žys                                         47913             28200          30000              36700
 Alytus                                            17368             23000              0                  0
 Marijampol                                        19664             21700              0                  0
 Utena                                             22953             18400              0                  0
 Telšiai                                           36372             18000          19100                  0
 Taurag                                            11011             12800          13900                  0
 Total:                                           513304            346400         150200              82400
                                            Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                              100                67              29                16
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                                         75              50                35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %


         As the forecasts show this macroscenario in all the forecast years fully satisfies the biode-
gradable waste disposal requirements and can be practically implemented. However, the applica-
tion of mechanical-biological treatment of mixed municipal waste resulting in high calorific frac-
tion incineration and low calorific fraction landfilling would be risky since the amount of biode-
gradable waste disposed in landfills in the year 2020 would approach the limit set in the Strategic
Waste Management Plan. Thus, in the case of this scenario the mechanical-biological treatment,
in fact, should not be applied.




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        3.2.3.5. Assessment of the Maximum A scenario

        Tables 3.64 and 3.65 present information about the satisfaction of the biodegradable waste
disposal requirements set forth in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan of the Republic
of Lithuania in the case of the Maximum A macroscenario. The situation of the year 2010 is the
same as in the case of the Zero macroscenario, and this, like under all the other macroscenarios,
allows to postpone the construction and launching of incineration and MBT facilities until the
year 2013.
        Separately collected biodegradable waste would be managed in the same way as in the
case of the Zero scenario.
        In 2013, Vilnius and Utena, and Kaunas, Alytus and Marijampol , and Klaip da, Telšiai
and Taurag regions should have either separate incineration facilities to treat mixed municipal
waste or one such facility in each group of regions. The alternative is MBT facilities and incin-
eration facilities to treat HCF. If the decision is taken to construct the incineration facility joint
for every group of regions, it would be rational to have them in Vilnius with which Utena region
has convenient communication (the distance between Vilnius and Utena is 96 km), in Kaunas
with which Alytus and Marijampol have convenient communication (the distance between Kau-
nas and Alytus is 66 km, between Kaunas and Marijampol – 56 km) and Klaip da with which
Telšiai and Taurag regions have good communication (the distance from Klaip da and Plung is
60 km, between Klaip da and Taurag – 110 km). Regional landfills would be further used only
for the disposal of waste sorting residues, LCF after MBT and the slag generating during incin-
eration a part of which could be applied in road building.

Table 3.64. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Maximum A macroscenario
(applying MBT and incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                         2000         2010             2013              2020
 Vilnius                                       128942             96300             9178             11782
 Kaunas                                         90071             46300            13095             16382
 Klaip da                                       71756             48800            13984             15574
 Šiauliai                                       67253             32900            35300             45700
 Panev žys                                      47913             28200            30000             36700
 Alytus                                         17368             23000             6628              8164
 Marijampol                                     19664             21700             6278              7787
 Utena                                          22953             18400             5308              6359
 Telšiai                                        36372             18000             5146              6251
 Taurag                                         11011             12800             3745              4634
 Total:                                        513304            346400           128662            159333
                                         Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                            100                67               25                  31
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                                       75               50                  35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %




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Table 3.65. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Maximum A macroscenario
(applying only incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                            2000         2010          2013              2020
 Vilnius                                          128942             96300             0                 0
 Kaunas                                            90071             46300             0                 0
 Klaip da                                          71756             48800             0                 0
 Šiauliai                                          67253             32900         35300             45700
 Panev žys                                         47913             28200         30000             36700
 Alytus                                            17368             23000             0                 0
 Marijampol                                        19664             21700             0                 0
 Utena                                             22953             18400             0                 0
 Telšiai                                           36372             18000             0                 0
 Taurag                                            11011             12800             0                 0
 Total:                                           513304            346400         65300             82400
                                           Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                              100                67             13                  16
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                                         75             50                  35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %


         As the forecasts show this macroscenario in all the forecast years fully satisfies the biode-
gradable waste disposal requirements and can be practically implemented. However, the applica-
tion of mechanical-biological treatment of mixed municipal waste resulting in high calorific frac-
tion incineration and low calorific fraction landfilling would be risky since the amount of biode-
gradable waste disposed in landfills in the year 2020 would approach the limit set in the Strategic
Waste Management Plan. Thus, in the case of this scenario the mechanical-biological treatment,
in fact, should not be applied.



        3.2.3.6. Assessment of the Maximum B scenario

         Tables 3.66 and 3.67 present information about the satisfaction of the biodegradable waste
disposal requirements set forth in the National Strategic Waste Management Plan of the Republic
of Lithuania in the case of the Maximum B macroscenario. The situation of the year 2010 is the
same as in the case of the Zero scenario, and this, like under all the other macroscenarios, allows
to postpone the construction and launching of incineration and MBT facilities until the year 2013.
         Separately collected biodegradable waste would be managed in the same as as in the case
 of the Zero scenario.
         In 2013, all waste management regions should have either separate incineration facilities
to treat mixed municipal waste or one such facility in each group of regions. The alternative is
MBT facilities and incineration facilities to treat HCF. If the decision is taken to construct the
incineration facility joint for every group of regions, it would be rational to have them in Vilnius
with which Utena region has convenient communication (the distance between Vilnius and Utena
is 96 km), in Kaunas with which Alytus and Marijampol have convenient communication (the
distance between Kaunas and Alytus is 66 km, between Kaunas and Marijampol – 56 km),
Klaip da with which Telšiai and Taurag regions have good communication (the distance from
Klaip da and Plung is 60 km, between Klaip da and Taurag – 110 km), and Šiauliai with which
Panev žys region has good communication (the distance between Šiauliai and Panev žys is 87
km). Regional landfills would be further used only for the disposal of waste sorting residues, LCF
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after MBT and the slag generating during incineration a part of which could be applied in road
building.


Table 3.66. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Maximum B macroscenario
(applying MBT and incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                         2000         2010             2013              2020
 Vilnius                                       128942             96300             9178             11782
 Kaunas                                         90071             46300            13095             16382
 Klaip da                                       71756             48800            13984             15574
 Šiauliai                                       67253             32900             9511             12314
 Panev žys                                      47913             28200             8083              9889
 Alytus                                         17368             23000             6628              8164
 Marijampol                                     19664             21700             6278              7787
 Utena                                          22953             18400             5308              6359
 Telšiai                                        36372             18000             5146              6251
 Taurag                                         11011             12800             3745              4634
 Total:                                        513304            346400            80956             99136
                                         Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                            100                67               16                  19
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                                       75               50                  35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %


Table 3.67. The share of biodegradable waste disposed in landfills according the Maximum B macroscenario
(applying only incineration) in the years 2010, 2013 and 2020, t/year
  Region                                            2000         2010          2013              2020
 Vilnius                                          128942             96300              0                   0
 Kauno                                             90071             46300              0                   0
 Klaip da                                          71756             48800              0                   0
 Šiauliai                                          67253             32900              0                   0
 Panev žys                                         47913             28200              0                   0
 Alytus                                            17368             23000              0                   0
 Marijampol                                        19664             21700              0                   0
 Utena                                             22953             18400              0                   0
 Telšiai                                           36372             18000              0                   0
 Taurag                                            11011             12800              0                   0
 Total:                                           513304            346400              0                   0
                                           Share compared to 2000, %
 Total:                                              100                67              0                   0
 Required amounts of biodegrad-                                         75             50                  35
 able waste disposed in landfills, %


       During all the forecast years this macroscenario fully satisfies the biodegradable waste
disposal requirements on the national scale and therefore can be applied in practice.


3.2.4. Technical characteristics of the short list’s scenarios
        This chapter presents the characteristics of the Medium, Maximum A and Maximum B
scenarios selected in the previous stage of assessment. In this case the alternative of mechanical-
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biological treatment of the mixed municipal waste prior to incineration is rejected because, as the
data given in the tables of the section 3.2.3 show, there is a risk that when landfilling low calo-
rific fractions after MBT the amount of biodegradable waste, even in the case of the Maximum A
scenario, in 2020 would approach the allowable limit of 35 % of the biodegradable waste dis-
posed in landfills in 2000.
      The balance schemes of municipal waste streams for every scenario and every region are
given in Annex 3-5.

       3.2.4.1. Characteristics of the Medium scenario considerations

Even though in this scenario (like in the others) financial-economic calculations of biodegrad-
able waste treatment are more favourable for the alternative of composting but not anaerobic
digestion (see section 4), the proposal is to use anaerobic digestion equipment. The main reason
for this proposal is that the EU and Lithuanian environmental legislation establishes the concept
of the waste management hierarchy, according to which the anaerobic digestion of biodegrad-
able waste is superior in terms of waste recycling as a higher waste priority because 2 products
are obtained: compost and biogas suitable for energy recovery the utilisation of which as a re-
newable source of energy is encouraged by the resolutions of the Lithuanian Republic Govern-
ment (see 1.1.7). In the meantime, biodegradable waste composting results in only one product –
compost.
         The Medium scenario proposes to start incinerating mixed municipal waste in Vilnius and
Utena, and Kaunas, Alytus and Marijampol regions from 2013; and in Klaip da, Telšiai and
Taurag regions from 2020.

       3.2.4.1.1. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Vilnius region

        Apart from the measures envisaged in the planning documents, in Vilnius region it is pro-
posed to apply anaerobic digestion or composting to separately collected kitchen and canteen
biodegradable waste from 2010, and start incinerating mixed municipal waste from 2013. The
biodegradable waste treatment and mixed municipal waste incineration facilities could be in-
stalled either at once (according to forecast capacities of the year 2026) or in stages. In the fur-
ther waste management plan it is proposed to construct these facilities at once since in this way
the funds intended for this purpose will be quicker assimilated.
        Anaerobic digestion. Table 1 of the Annex 3-6 presents the forecasts of the separately
collected biodegradable waste amounts in the region. Taking into consideration the collected
amount of biodegradable waste, it is not necessary to construct facilities of the full forecast ca-
pacity. Technically, this installation can be divided into stages: until 2010 – installation of a
3000-ton cell, until 2016 – a 4000-ton cell, and until 2021 and 2024 – 2 cells of 2000 tons each.
Different capacities of the cells are proposed according to the forecast growth of separately col-
lected biodegradable waste amounts.
        Composting. In Vilnius region, the stages and parameters of the composting equipment
that are alternative to anaerobic digestion equipment fully coincide with those of anaerobic diges-
tion.
        Biodegradable waste containers. Special containers will be placed to collect biodegrad-
able waste. The methods of calculation of their amount are given below.



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The amount of biodegradable waste containers is calculated according to the formula:

                                                 WABio
                N cont . =
                             ( ρ Bio / 1000) ⋅ (Vcont / 1000) ⋅ EF ⋅ Fil Bio

               Here: Ncont – the required amount of containers (pcs.);
                 WABio – biodegradable waste amount (t/year);
                  ρ Bio  - biodegradable waste density (kg/m3);
                  Vcont – container volume (l);
                  EF – container emptying frequency (times/year);
                  FilBio – container filling percent (%).

       The forecast of worn container replacement is based on the assumption that the container
depreciation period is 5 years. The interim table of container amount calculation for Vilnius re-
gion in 2013 is given in the Table 3.69.
        13,177 containers of 120 litre capacity and 1,073 containers of 770 litre capacity will be
placed during stage I (2010). The amount of usable containers is given in Table 2 of Annex 3-6.
According the biodegradable waste generation and collection forecast, it will necessary to in-
crease the number of containers by 242 pcs. of 120 litres and 20 pcs. of 770 litres every year in
the period of 2010-2013, and by 353 pcs. of 120 litres and 29 pcs. of 770 litres in the period of
2014-2026.
         Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of Annex 3-6 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy production
from biogas.
         Waste incineration plant. Investment costs of the incineration plant were calculated ac-
cording to the nominal amount of waste treated by it. 234,900 t of waste from Vilnius region will
be transferred to the incineration plant within 2011. 247,400 t of waste from Vilnius region and
49,600 t of waste from Utena region, i.e. the total of 297,000 t, will be transferred to the incinera-
tion plant within 2013. 302,100 t of waste from Vilnius region and 62,400 t from Utena region,
i.e. the total of 364,500 t, will be transferred to the incineration plant within 2020. Table 4 of An-
nex 3-6 shows the forecast of incinerable waste generation.
         Taking into consideration seasonal fluctuations of the waste amount, the duration of in-
cineration plant’s operation suspension due to routine maintenance and repair works (around 10%
of the working time) and the condition that the operation of the facility in case of very small
amount of waste (less than 70% of the nominal amount) becomes complicated, it was calculated
that in the initial phase (2013-2014), the incineration plant could incinerate 320,000 t of waste per
year (40 t/h). Later, with the aim to incinerate all possible mixed municipal waste, until 2026 the
capacity of the incineration plant should be increased with additional lines of 30 t thousand every
2-3 years (the proposal is – in the years 2015, 2018 and 2021) until. These capacities would be
sufficient to incinerate all generated amount of mixed municipal waste in the regions of Vilnius
and Utena until 2026.
         Incineration residues disposal in landfills. Products formed in the process of waste in-
cineration that cannot be sold as secondary raw materials will be disposed in a special cell in-
stalled in the Vilnius regional municipal waste landfill the capacity of which is selected according
to the amount of this waste. Within the operation period of 2011-2026, around 1.3 million tons of
waste will generate (within the mentioned period roughly 5.0 tons of mixed municipal waste will
be incinerated). The forecasts of incineration residue amounts to be disposed of are given Table
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5 of the Annex 3-6. The proposal is to install special disposal cells, of 350,000 t each, in the re-
gional landfill in the years 2013, 2017, 2022 and 2025.

       3.2.4.1.2. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Utena region

         It is proposed to start operating anaerobic digestion or composting equipment intended for
separately collected biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste in the Utena waste management
region in 2010, and start incinerating mixed municipal waste in the incineration unit of Vilnius
region in 2013. The biodegradable waste treatment facilities could be installed either at once (ac-
cording to forecast capacities of the year 2026) or in stages. In the further waste management
plan it is proposed to construct these facilities at once since in this way the funds intended for this
purpose will be quicker assimilated.
         Anaerobic digestion. A detailed forecast amount of biodegradable waste is given in Ta-
ble 1 of the Annex 3-7. Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable waste, it
is not necessary to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this installation
can be divided into stages: until 2010 – installation of a 5000-ton cell, and installation another 4
cells of 500 t each in 2013, 2016, 2019 and 2023.
       Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alternative
of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste management
plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated biogas can
be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).
         Composting. In Utena region, the stages and parameters of the composting equipment
that are alternative to anaerobic digestion equipment fully coincide with those of anaerobic diges-
tion.
         Biodegradable waste containers. 5,477 containers of 120 litre capacity and 128 contain-
ers of 770 litre capacity will be placed during stage I (2010). According the biodegradable waste
generation and collection forecast, it will necessary to increase the number of containers by 105
pcs. of 120 litres and 2 pcs. of 770 litres every year in the period of 2010-2013, and by 181 pcs.
of 120 litres and 4 pcs. of 770 litres in the period of 2014-2026. The forecast of usable container
amount if given in Table 2 of the Annex 3-7.
         Transfer station. The proposal is to incinerate mixed municipal waste of the region in
Vilnius region from 2013. With the aim to reduce the costs of waste transport to the incineration
unit, a transfer station should be installed in Utena region. In 2013, its capacity should amount to
49,600 t, and in 2020 – 62,400 t of waste. Taking into consideration the distances of transporta-
tion it was calculated that 12 containers need to be acquired until 2013 and another 3 containers –
until 2020. The indicators of the transfer station are given in Table 3 of the Annex 3-7.
         Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of Annex 3-7 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy production
from biogas.
       3.2.4.1.3. The characteristics of the Medium scenario in Kaunas region

        Apart from the measures envisaged in the Development Plan and the Memorandum of Fi-
nancing (No. 2004/LT/16/ C/PE/001), in the Kaunas waste management region it is proposed to
apply either anaerobic digestion or composting to the separately collected biodegradable kitchen
and canteen waste from the 2010, and incinerate mixed municipal waste from the year 2013. The
biodegradable waste treatment facilities could be installed either at once (according to forecast
capacities of the year 2026) or in stages. In the further waste management plan it is proposed to
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construct these facilities at once since in this way the funds intended for this purpose will be
quicker assimilated.
         Anaerobic digestion. The amounts of separately collected biodegradable waste treated in
anaerobic digestion facilities are given in Table 1 of the Annex 3-8.
        Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable waste, it is not necessary
to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this installation can be divided
into stages: in the first stage of investment (until 2010) – installation of the infrastructure treating
13,500 t, in the second and third stages (until 2020, and 2024) – additional cells of 5,000 t and
1,000 t.
        Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alterna-
tive of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste manage-
ment plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated bio-
gas can be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).

        Composting. The proposal is to install the composting system, being an alternative to an-
aerobic digestion, using a cell system and continue developing it with regard to real amounts of
waste. The amounts of treated waste coincide with anaerobic digestion indicators.
        Biodegradable waste containers. 7,151 containers of 120 litre capacity and 491 contain-
ers of 770 litre capacity will be placed during stage I (2010). According to the forecast of biode-
gradable waste generation and collection, it will be necessary to place another 385 containers of
120 litre capacity and 26 containers of 770 litre capacity in the year 2013, and 1,925containers of
120 litres and132 containers of 770 litres until 2020. The amount of planned containers is given
in table 2 of the annex 3-8.
        Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-8 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.
        Waste incineration plant. Within the year 2013, 148,900 t of waste from Kaunas region,
60,900 t of waste from Alytus region and 48,600 t of waste from Marijampol region (the total of
258,400 t) will be transferred to the incineration plant. With an increase in waste amount, the in-
cineration plant should receive 196,500 t of waste from Kaunas region, 77,800 t of waste from
Alytus region and 61,900 t of waste from Marijampol region (the total of 336,200 t) per year in
2020. The forecast of incinerable waste amounts is given in Table 4 of the Annex 3-8.
        Taking into consideration seasonal fluctuations of waste amounts, the suspension of in-
cineration plant’s operation due to routine maintenance and repair works as well as other condi-
tions, it was calculated that the nominal capacity of the incineration plant should amount to
280,000 t per year (35 t/h). With the increase in the incinerable waste amount up to 336,000 t/m
in 2020, it is proposed to install an additional incineration line of 60,000 t/year (7.5 t/h) in 2020.
        Incineration residues disposal in landfills. Products formed in the process of waste in-
cineration will be disposed in a special cell installed in the Kaunas regional municipal waste land-
fill (Zabieliškiai landfill) the capacity of which is selected according to the amount of this waste.
Within the operation period of 2013-2026, around 1.2 million tons of waste will generate (within
the same period roughly 4.6 million tons of mixed municipal waste will be incinerated). The
amount of waste to be disposed in specially installed cells of the regional landfill is given in Ta-
ble 5 of the Annex 3-8. The proposal is to install these cells, of 350,000 t each, in the years 2013,
2017, 2021 and 2024. These capacities will be sufficient until the year 2026.



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       3.2.4.1.4. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Alytus region

         In Alytus region, apart from the measures envisaged in the municipal waste management
development plan and the Memorandum of Financing (No. 2001/LT/16/P/PE/003), it is proposed
to start the operation of the biodegradable waste anaerobic digestion or composting equipment in
2010, and the incineration of mixed municipal waste in Kaunas incineration unit in 2013. The
biodegradable waste treatment facilities could be installed either at once (according to forecast
capacities of the year 2026) or in stages. In the further waste management plan it is proposed to
construct these facilities at once since in this way the funds intended for this purpose will be
quicker assimilated.
         Anaerobic digestion. The following amounts of separately collected biodegradable waste
in Alytus region will be treated in the anaerobic digestion facilities in a year: in 2010 – 6,500 t;
2013 – 7,000 t; 2020 – 8,600 t. The amount of separately collected biodegradable waste is item-
ised in Table 1 of the Annex 3-9.
         Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable waste, it is not necessary
to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this installation can be divided
into stages: in the first stage of investment (until 2010) – installation of the infrastructure treating
7,500 t of waste, in the second stage (until 2015) – installation of an additional cell of 2,500 tons.
         Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alterna-
tive of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste manage-
ment plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated bio-
gas can be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).
         Composting. The calculations separately evaluate the alternative to use the planned com-
posting equipment. Its cost amounts to LTL 19.708 million. The beginning of operation, the year
2009, nearly coincides with the term proposed by the Medium scenario.
         Biodegradable waste containers. A network of special containers to collect biodegrad-
able waste in the region will be created. It will be serviced by municipal waste collecting compa-
nies. 6,424 containers of 120 litre capacity and 171containers of 770 litre capacity will be in-
stalled during stage I (2010). According to the forecast of biodegradable waste generation and
collection, another 494 containers of 120 litre capacity and 13 containers of 770 litre capacity
will be necessary in 2013. The total of 8,500 containers of 120 litre capacity (by 1,581 containers
more compared to the year 2013) and 227 containers of 770 litres (by 42 containers more com-
pared to the year 2013) will be necessary in 2020. The itemisation of the container amount is
given in Table 2 of the Annex 3-9.
         Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-9 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.
         Transfer station. From the year 2013, mixed municipal waste will be incinerated in Kau-
nas. With the aim to reduce the cost of waste transportation to the incineration unit, the plan is to
install one transfer station in Alytus. The mixed municipal waste collected in municipalities will
be transported by refuse collection vehicles to the waste transfer station where waste will be
pressed and loaded onto bigger trucks of 30 m3 capacity for further transport to the incineration
unit. A transfer station will be installed for this purpose. During the control year 2013, the station
will receive 60,900 t and in 2020 − 77,800 t of waste from Alytus region. 15 containers will be
necessary in 2013 and 19 ones – 2020. The calculations of the transfer station’s parameters are
given in Table 4 of the Annex 3-9.


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       3.2.4.1.5. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Marijampolė region

         In Marijampol region, apart from the measures envisaged in the municipal waste man-
agement development plan and the Memorandum of Financing (No 2002/LT/16/P/PE/011) it is
proposed to start operating the anaerobic digestion or composting equipment to treat separately
collected kitchen and canteen biodegradable waste from 2010, and start incinerating mixed mu-
nicipal waste in the Kaunas region incineration unit from 2013. The biodegradable waste treat-
ment equipment could be installed either at once (according to forecast capacities of the year
2026) or in stages. In the further waste management plan it is proposed to construct these facili-
ties at once to quicker assimilate the funds intended for this purpose.
         Anaerobic digestion. The necessity of the anaerobic digestion equipment is calculated
according to the amount of treated waste, which during the control years will be the following:
2010 – 6,100 t, 2013 – 6,600 t, 2020 – 8,200 t. The forecast of collected biodegradable waste
amount is given in Table 1 of the Annex 3-10.
         Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable waste, it is not necessary
to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this installation can be divided
into stages: in the first stage (until 2010) – installation of a 7,000 t cell, in the second and third
stages (until 2015 and 2024) – installation of 2 additional cells of 1,000 t each.
       Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alternative
of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste management
plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated biogas can
be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).

        Composting. The indicators of the composting equipment capacity coincide with those of
the anaerobic digestion.
        Biodegradable waste containers. 6,802 containers of 120 litre capacity and 141 contain-
ers of 770 litre capacity will be installed during stage I (2010). According to the forecast of bio-
degradable waste generation and collection, another 186 containers of 120 litre capacity and 3
containers of 770 litre capacity will be necessary every year in the period of 2010-2013, and 255
containers of 120 litres and 5 ones of 770 litres – in the period of 2014-2026. The planned
amount of containers is given in Table 2 of the Annex 3-10.
        Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-10 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.
        Transfer station. From the year 2013, mixed municipal waste of the region will be incin-
erated in Kaunas. With the aim to reduce the cost of waste transportation to the incineration unit,
the plan is to install one transfer station in the region.
        The mixed municipal waste collected in municipalities will be transported by refuse col-
lection vehicles to the waste transfer station where waste will be pressed and loaded onto bigger
trucks of 30 m3 capacity for further transport to the incineration unit. A transfer station will be
installed for this purpose. During the year 2013, the station will receive 48,600 t and in 2020 ¬
61,900 t of waste. The transfer station will need 12 containers in 2013 and 15 ones – 2020. The
calculations of the transfer station’s parameters are given in Table 4 of the Annex 3-10.




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        3.2.4.1.6. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Klaipėda region

        In Klaip da region, the proposal is to anaerobically digest or compost the collected bio-
degradable kitchen and canteen waste from 2010, and incinerate the mixed municipal waste from
2020. The biodegradable waste treatment and mixed municipal waste incineration facilities could
be installed either at once (according to forecast capacities of the year 2026) or in stages. In the
further waste management plan it is proposed to construct these facilities at once to quicker as-
similate the funds intended for this purpose.
        Anaerobic digestion. The prices of anaerobic equipment are calculated according to the
amount of treated waste. A detailed amount of collected biodegradable waste is given in Table 1
of the Annex 3-11.
        Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable waste, it is not necessary
to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this installation can be divided
into stages: in the first stage of investment (until 2010) – installation of a 15,000 t cell, in the sec-
ond and third stages (until 2015 and 2024) – installation of 2 additional cells of 3,000 t and 2,000
t.
      Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alternative
of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste management
plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated biogas can
be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).
        Waste composting. The proposal is to install the composting system, being an alternative
to anaerobic digestion, using a cell system and continue developing it with regard to real amounts
of waste. Its parameters coincide with those of the anaerobic digestion system.
        Biodegradable waste containers. 7,151 containers of 120 litre capacity and 491 contain-
ers of 770 litre capacity will be placed during stage I (2010). According to the forecast of biode-
gradable waste generation and collection, another 140 containers of 120 litre capacity and 12 con-
tainers of 770 litre capacity will be necessary every year in the period of 2010-2013, and 206
containers of 120 litres and 18 ones of 770 litres – in the period of 2014-2026. A detailed forecast
of containers is given in Table 2 of the Annex 3-11.
        Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-11 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.
        Waste incineration plant. The cost of investment in the incineration plant is calculated
according to the nominal amount of waste treated by it. In 2020, the incineration unit will receive
125,600 t of waste from Klaip da region, 59,800 t from Telšiai region, and 44,000 t from Taurag
region per year, i.e. the total of 229,400 t of waste. A detailed forecast of the incinerable waste
amount is given in Table 4 of the Annex 3-11.
        Taking into consideration seasonal fluctuations of waste amounts, the duration of incin-
eration plant’s routine maintenance and repair works as well as other factors, it was calculated
that the capacity of the incineration plant should amount to 250,000 t per year. An additional line
of 20,000 t should be launched in 2024.
        Incineration residues disposal in landfills. Products formed in the process of waste in-
cineration that cannot be sold as secondary raw materials will be disposed in a special cell in-
stalled in the Klaip da regional municipal waste landfill the capacity of which is selected accord-

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ing to the amount of this waste. Within the period of 2020-2026, around 0.36 million tons of
waste will generate. The amount of disposable waste is given in Table 5 of the Annex 3-11.
        The first landfill’s cell of 200,000 t capacity should be operated from 2020, and the sec-
ond one of 200,000 t – from 2023.

       3.2.4.1.7. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Tauragė region

         In Taurag region, the proposal is to start operating the biodegradable waste anaerobic
digestion or composting equipment from 2010, and start the incineration of the mixed municipal
waste in the Klaip da region waste incineration plant in 2020. The biodegradable waste treatment
facilities could be installed either at once (according to forecast capacities of the year 2026) or in
stages. In the further waste management plan it is proposed to construct these facilities at once to
quicker assimilate the funds intended for this purpose.
         Anaerobic digestion. The prices of anaerobic digestion equipment are calculated accord-
ing to the amount of treated waste. A detailed forecast of the collected biodegradable waste
amount is given in Table 1 of the Annex 3-12.
         Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable waste, it is not necessary
to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this installation can be divided
into stages: in the first stage of investment (until 2010) – installation of a 4,000 t cell, and the in-
stallation of another 4 cells of 500 t each in the years 2013, 2016, 2020 and 2023.
       Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alternative
of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste management
plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated biogas can
be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).
         Composting. The implementation stages and parameters of the composting system, being
an alternative to anaerobic digestion, coincide with those of anaerobic digestion.
         Biodegradable waste containers. A special network of containers to collect biodegrad-
able waste will be created in the region. The amount of containers for the network is given in Ta-
ble 2 of the Annex 3-12. 4,189 containers of 120 litre capacity and 78 ones of 770 litre capacity
will be placed during stage I (2010). The primary investment costs are given below. In the period
of 2010-2013, it will be necessary to place another 116 containers of 120 litre capacity and 2 con-
tainers of 770 litre capacity every year, and in the period of 2014-2026 – 166containers of 120
litres and 3 ones of 770 litres every year.
         Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-12 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.
         Transfer station. From the year 2020, the region’s mixed municipal waste will be incin-
erated in Klaip da region. With the aim to reduce the cost of waste transportation to the incinera-
tion unit, the plan is to install one transfer station in the region. The transfer station’s parameters
(see Table 4 of the Annex 3-12) are calculated according to the amount of transported waste and
the distance. In 2020, the transfer station will receive 44,000 t of waste from Taurag region. 11
waste containers will be necessary to transport the said amount.

       3.2.4.1.8. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Telšiai region

       In Telšiai region, the proposal is to start operating biodegradable waste anaerobic diges-
tion or composting equipment in 2010, and start incinerating mixed municipal waste in the
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Klaip da region incineration unit in 2020. The biodegradable waste treatment facilities could be
installed either at once (according to forecast capacities of the year 2026) or in stages. In the fur-
ther waste management plan it is proposed to construct these facilities at once to quicker assimi-
late the funds intended for this purpose.
         Anaerobic digestion. A detailed forecast of biodegradable waste collection is given in
Table 1 of the Annex 3-13. Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable
waste, it is not necessary to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this in-
stallation can be divided into stages: in 2010 – installation of a 5,000 t cell, and installation of
another 4 cells of 500 t each in the years 2014, 2017, 2019 and 2023.
       Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alternative
of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste management
plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated biogas can
be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).
         Composting. The implementation stages and parameters of the composting system, being
an alternative to anaerobic digestion, fully coincide with those of anaerobic digestion.
         Biodegradable waste containers. 4,338 containers of 120 litre capacity and 153 contain-
ers of 770 litre capacity will be placed during stage I (2010). A detailed forecast of necessary
containers is given in Table 2 of the Annex 3-13. According to the forecast of biodegradable
waste generation and collection, in the period of 2010-2013 it will be necessary to increase the
amount of containers by 85 pcs. of 120 litre capacity and 3 pcs. of 770 litre capacity every year,
and in the period of 2014-2026 – by 134containers of 120 litres and 5containers of 770 litres
every year.
         Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-13 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.
         Transfer station. From the year 2020, the region’s mixed municipal waste will be incin-
erated in Klaip da region. With the aim to reduce the cost of waste transport to the incineration
unit, the region should have a transfer. The planning documents provide for the installation of 2
waste transfer stations: in Mažeikiai (15,000 t/year) and Telšiai (12,000 t/year). The forecast an-
nual amount of waste to be reloaded and transported for incineration to Klaip da region from
Telšiai region in 2020 amounts to 59,800 tons, which is 2.2 times more than the planned capaci-
ties of the transfer stations (the calculations of the planned transfer station’s indicators are given
in Table 4 of the Annex 3-13). This the reason why it is suggested to increase the amount of con-
tainers up to 19.

       3.2.4.1.9. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Šiauliai region

         In Šiauliai region, the recommendation is to start separate collection of biodegradable
waste (and treat it in anaerobic digestion or composting equipment) from 2010. The biodegrad-
able waste treatment facilities could be installed either at once (according to forecast capacities of
the year 2026) or in stages. In the further waste management plan it is proposed to construct these
facilities at once to quicker assimilate the funds intended for this purpose.
         Anaerobic digestion. The prices of anaerobic digestion equipment are calculated taking
into account the amount of treated waste. A detailed forecast of biodegradable waste collection is
given in Table 1 of the Annex 3-14. Taking into consideration the collected amount of biode-
gradable waste, it is not necessary to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically,
this installation can be divided into stages: in the first investment stage (until 2010) – installation
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of a 10,000 t cell, and installation of another 4 cells of 1,000 t each in the years 2014, 2017, 2020
and 2023.
       Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alternative
of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste management
plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated biogas can
be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).
        Composting. The implementation stages and parameters of the composting system, being
an alternative to anaerobic digestion, coincide with those of anaerobic digestion. The investment
costs are given below.
        Biodegradable waste containers. Taking into consideration the forecast amounts of col-
lected biodegradable waste, Table 2 of the Annex 3-14 shows the forecast amounts of containers
necessary to collect this waste: 8,250 containers of 120 litre capacity and 270 containers of 770
litre capacity will be placed during stage I (2010). According to the forecast of biodegradable
waste generation and collection, in the period of 2010-2013 it will be necessary to increase the
amount of containers by 177 pcs. of 120 litre capacity and 6 pcs. of 770 litre capacity every year,
and in the period of 2014-2026 – by 279 containers of 120 litres and 9 containers of 770 litres
every year.
        Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-14 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.

       3.2.4.1.10. Characteristics of the Medium scenario in Panevėžys region

        In Panev žys region, the recommendation is to start treating biodegradable waste (the two
alternatives are under consideration: operation of anaerobic digestion equipment or composting
equipment) in 2010. The biodegradable waste treatment equipment could be installed either at
once (according to forecast capacities of the year 2026) or in stages. In the further waste man-
agement plan it is proposed to construct these facilities at once to quicker assimilate the funds
intended for this purpose.
        Anaerobic digestion. The prices of anaerobic digestion equipment are calculated consid-
ering the amount of waste to be treated, which in the control years will be as follows: in 2010 –
8,000 t, 2013. – 8,500 t, 2020 – 10,200 t. The forecast of biodegradable waste collection is given
in Table 1 of the Annex 3-15.
        Taking into consideration the collected amount of biodegradable waste, it is not necessary
to construct facilities of the full forecast capacity. Technically, this installation can be divided
into stages: in the first investment stage (until 2010) – installation of an 8,500 t cell, and in the
second and third stages (until 2013 and 2021) – installation of another 2 cells of 2,000 t and 1,000
t, respectively.
       Despite the fact that financial-economic calculations are more favourable for the alternative
of composting but not that of anaerobic digestion (see chapter 4), the further waste management
plan (chapter 8) proposes using the anaerobic digestion equipment because generated biogas can
be used as a renewable energy source with all its advantages (see section 1.1.7).
        Composting. The implementation stages and parameters of the composting system, being
an alternative to anaerobic digestion, coincide with those of anaerobic digestion.
        Biodegradable waste containers. 6,507 containers of 120 litre capacity and
247containers of 770 litre capacity will be placed during stage I (2010). According to the forecast
of biodegradable waste generation and collection, in the period of 2010-2013 it will be necessary
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to increase the amount of containers by 136 pcs. of 120 litre capacity and 5 pcs. of 770 litre ca-
pacity every year, and in the period of 2014-2026 – by 198 containers of 120 litres and 8 contain-
ers of 770 litres every year. The forecast of the container amount is given in Table 2 of the Annex
3-15.
        Biogas utilisation for energy production. When applying the anaerobic digestion of
separately collected biodegradable waste, additional amount of energy is produced from generat-
ing biogas. Table 3 of the Annex 3-15 shows the amounts of electric and thermal energy produc-
tion from biogas.

       3.2.4.2. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario considerations

       The Maximum A scenario proposes either anaerobic digestion or composting of biode-
gradable waste from 2010 and the incineration of mixed municipal waste in Vilnius, Kaunas and
Klaip da from 2013.

       3.2.4.2.1. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Vilnius region

        The investment program in Vilnius region is the same for the Medium and the Maximum
A alternatives, the estimates of financial analysis are described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.1.

       3.2.4.2.2. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Utena region

        The investment program in Utena region is the same for the Medium and the Maximum A
alternatives, the estimates of financial analysis are described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.2.


       3.2.4.2.3. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Kaunas region

        The investment program in Kaunas region is the same for the Medium and the Maximum
A alternatives, the estimates of financial analysis are described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.3.

       3.2.4.2.4. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Alytus region

        The investment program in Alytus region is the same for the Medium and the Maximum
A alternatives, the estimates of financial analysis are described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.4.

       3.2.4.2.5. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Marijampolė region

     The investment program in Marijampol region is the same for the Medium and the Maxi-
mum A alternatives, the estimates of financial analysis are described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.5.

       3.2.4.2.6. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Klaipėda region

       The action program Klaip da region in the same for the Maximum A and the Medium
scenarios in all case except waste incineration: the Maximum A alternative proposes incinerating


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mixed municipal waste from 2013 but nor from 2020. Other components for Klaip da region are
described in detail in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.6.
        Incineration unit. During the control year 2013, the incineration unit will receive
100,900 t of waste from Klaip da region, 47,800 t from Telšiai region, 34,100 t from Taurag
region, i.e. the total of 216,900 t of waste per year. During the year 2020, the incineration unit
will receive 125,600 t of waste from Klaip da region, 59,800 t from Telšiai region and 44,000 t
from Taurag region, i.e. the total of 229,400 t per year. The amount of incinerable waste is given
in Table 1 of the Annex 3-16.
        Taking into consideration seasonal fluctuations of the waste amount, the duration of in-
cineration facilities’ operation suspension due to routine maintenance and repair works and the
condition that the operation of the facility in case of very small amount of waste (less than 70%
of the nominal amount) becomes complicated, it was calculated that in 2013, the incineration unit
could incinerate 200,000 t of waste per year, from the year 2017 – 240,000 t, and from 2022 –
270,000 t. These capacities would be sufficient until the year 2026.
        Incineration residues disposal cell in the Klaip da regional municipal waste landfill.
In the period of 2013-2026, around 0.8 million tons of waste will generate. The annual forecast of
this waste is given in Table 2 of the Annex 3-16. With regard to this, the proposal is to start oper-
ating the landfill’s cell I of 200,000 t capacity in 2013, cell II of 200,000 t in 2018, and cell III of
250,000 t capacity in 2022.

       3.2.4.2.7. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Tauragė region

        The action program in Taurag region is the same for the Maximum A and the Medium
scenarios in all the cases except changes related to earlier installation of the incineration unit in
Klaip da: according to the Maximum A alternative, it is proposed to start incinerating mixed mu-
nicipal waste from 2013 but not from 2020, therefore the waste transfer station should also be
installed earlier. Other components are described in detail in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.7.
        Transfer station. From the year 2013, the region’s mixed municipal waste will be incin-
erated in Klaip da region. With the aim to reduce the cost of waste transport to the incineration
unit, the plan is to install one transfer station in the region. The transfer station’s parameters are
calculated according to the amount of transported waste and the distance. In the control year
2013, the transfer station will receive 34,100 t, and in 2020 − 44,000 t of waste from Taurag
region per year. The forecast of waste to be transported is given in Table 1 of the Annex 3-17.

       3.2.4.2.8. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Telšiai region

        The investment program in Telšiai region in the same for the Maximum A and the Me-
dium alternatives in all the cases except changes related to earlier installation of the incineration
unit in Klaip da: according to the Maximum A alternative, it is proposed to start incinerating
mixed municipal waste from 2013 but not from 2020, therefore the waste transfer station should
also be installed earlier. Other components are described in detail in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.8.
        Transfer station. From the year 2013, the region’s mixed municipal waste will be incin-
erated in Klaip da region. With the aim to reduce the cost of waste transport to the incineration
unit, the plan is to install one transfer station in the region. According to the forecast, in 2013
47,800 t of waste will be re-loaded and transported from Telšiai region to the Klaip da incinera-
tion unit, and in 2020 –59,800 t of waste per year. A detailed amount of forecast transported
waste is given in Table of the Annex 3-18. The planning documents envisage the installation of
two transfer stations: in Mažeikiai (15,000 t/year) and Telšiai (12,000 t/year). This is the reason
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why it is proposed to increase the number of containers used in transfer stations from 8 to 16 con-
tainers and have 4 trucks in 2013, and operate 19 containers and 5 trucks from 2020.

       3.2.4.2.9. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Šiauliai region

        The investment program in Šiauliai region is the same for the Medium and the Maximum
A alternatives, the estimates of financial analysis are described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.9.

       3.2.4.2.10. Characteristics of the Maximum A scenario in Panevėžys region

        The investment program in Panev žys region is the same for the Medium and the Maxi-
mum A alternatives, the estimates of financial analysis are described in the sub-section
3.2.4.1.10.

       3.2.4.3. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario considerations

        The Maximum B scenario provides for the anaerobic digestion or composting of biode-
gradable waste from 2010, and the incineration of mixed municipal waste in Vilnius, Kaunas,
Klaip da, Šiauliai and Panev žys from 2013.
        Taking into consideration the fact that the planned capital costs in some regions fully co-
incide for the Maximum A and Maximum B scenarios reference to the previous description is
given further in the text.

       3.2.4.3.1. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Vilnius region

        The proposed action program in Vilnius region coincides with the Medium scenario, de-
scribed in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.1.

       3.2.4.3.2. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Utena region

       The proposed action program in Utena region coincides with the Medium scenario, de-
scribed in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.2.

       3.2.4.3.3. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Kaunas region

       The proposed action program in Kaunas region coincides with the Medium scenario, de-
scribed in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.3.

       3.2.4.3.4. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Alytus region

       The proposed action program in Alytus region coincides with the Medium scenario, de-
scribed in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.4.

       3.2.4.3.5. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Marijampolė region

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       The proposed action program in Marijampol region coincides with the Medium scenario,
described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.5.

       3.2.4.3.6. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Klaipėda region

        The proposed action program in Klaip da region coincides with the Maximum A sce-
nario, described in the sub-section 3.2.4.2.6.

       3.2.4.3.7. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Tauragė region

       The proposed action program in Taurag region coincides with the Maximum A scenario,
described in the 3.2.4.2.7.

       3.2.4.3.8. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Telšiai region

       The proposed action program in Telšiai region coincides with the Maximum A scenario,
described in the 3.2.4.2.8.

       3.2.4.3.9. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Šiauliai region

        In Šiauliai region, with regard to biodegradable waste management, the Maximum B sce-
nario coincides with the Medium scenario described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.9. The Maximum
B alternative offers to additionally start incinerating mixed municipal waste collected in Šiauliai
and Panev žys regions from 2013.
        Waste incineration plant. In 2013, the incineration plant will receive 95,700 t of waste
from Šiauliai region and 70,600 t from Panev žys region, i.e. the total of 166,300 t per year. In
2020, the incineration plant will receive 100,900 t of waste from Šiauliai region and 96,500 t
from Panev žys region, i.e. the total of 197,400 t per year. The waste forecast is given in Table 1
of the Annex 3-19.
        Taking into consideration seasonal fluctuations of the waste amount, the duration of in-
cineration facilities’ operation suspension due to routine maintenance and repair works and other
conditions, it was calculated that in 2013 the incineration plant should incinerate 180,000 t per
year, in 2017 this amount will be increased by 25,000 t up to 205,000 t, and in 2023 – by another
25,000 t up to 230,000 t per year. These capacities will be sufficient until the year 2026.
        Incineration residues disposal cell in the Šiauliai regional municipal waste landfill. In
the period of 2013-2026, around 0.71 million tons of waste will generate. A detailed description
of the incinerable waste amount is given in Table 2 of the Annex 3-19. With regard to this, the
proposal is to start operating the landfill’s cell I of 200,000 t capacity in 2013, the cell II of
200,000 t in 2017, the cell III of 200,000 t capacity in 2021, and the cell IV of 200,000 t capacity
in 2023.

       3.2.4.3.10. Characteristics of the Maximum B scenario in Panevėžys region

        In Panev žys region, with regard to biodegradable waste management, the Maximum B
scenario coincides with the Medium scenario described in the sub-section 3.2.4.1.10. The Maxi-
mum B alternative offers to additionally start incinerating mixed municipal waste collected in
Šiauliai and Panev žys regions from 2013. This is the reason why a transfer station is necessary
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for Panev žys region. The planning documents provide for the installation of transfer stations,
which will require additional insignificant investment in equipment. The amount of waste to be
reloaded and other station’s parameters are given in Table 1 of the Annex 3-20.

       3.2.4.4. Capacities of waste incineration plants and produced energy amounts


       Table 1 of the Annex 3-21 presents calculated parameters of the stations for each of the
above analysed macroscenarios: average calorific value of waste to be incinerated on the pro-
posed site in MJ/kg; values describing the capacity of the incineration unit in MW, t of waste/h
and t of waste/year; possible amounts of produced electric and heat power in GWh/year by as-
suming that 10 % of waste energy will be converted into electric power 25 % – heat; the share of
generated electric power in % of the total electric power amount produced in the country in 2004
equal to 19,274 GWh; share of generated heat in % of the total heat supplied to users via heat
networks in 2004, which in the case of UAB Vilniaus energija is equal to 2,498.4 GWh, AB
Kauno energija – 1,377.0 GWh and AB Šiaulių energija –449.4 GWh.


       3.2.4.5. Waste stream management schemes for scenarios and regions

    The waste management system development plans for regions were prepared and assessed
following the principle that these plans are prepared in the context of a respective scenario taking
into consideration the forecast of waste generation, composition and collection by fractions as
well as technical considerations proposed in the section 3.2.4. Waste streams for every scenario
and every region are shown in the Annex 3-6.




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