Social Studies TAKS Review
Vocabulary & Content
Power is held by the people and exercised
through the efforts of representatives chosen
by the people
On July 4th of this year, fifty-six
representatives from the thirteen colonies
met and unanimously approved the
Declaration of Independence
Those in favor of ratification of the
Constitution and a strong central (federal)
Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted by the Second
Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 colonies as independent
states, free from rule by Great Britain.
Author of the Declaration of Independence
The American Civil War was fought during
Fort Sumter, SC
Civil War began here
Appomattox Court House
Civil War ended here; Lee surrendered to
Lincoln’s plan to conquer the South and win
the Civil War for the Union
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the
most significant achievements of the
Articles of Confederation. It established a
system for setting up governments in the
western territories so they could eventually
join the Union on an equal footing with the
original 13 states.
Quote from Declaration of
“We hold these truths to be self-evident,
that all men are created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable rights, that among these are
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. .
To protect people’s rights
The purpose of government according to the
Declaration of Independence
According to the Declaration of
Independence, where a government gets its
power from (“consent of the governed”)
Taking effect in January of 1863, it declared
that all slaves in rebellious Confederate
states would be free
This document, signed by King John of
England in 1215, is the cornerstone of
English law and justice. It declared that the
king and government were bound by the
same laws as other citizens of England.
Men who played a major role in declaring
U.S. independence, fighting the
Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting
the U.S. Constitution. They include Thomas
Jefferson, George Washington, Benjamin
Franklin, and James Madison.
A set of economic principles based on
policies which stress government regulation
of economic activities to benefit the home
country. This was one cause of the
A system of agricultural production based
on large-scale land ownership and slave
labor. This system focused on the
production of cash crops such as cotton,
tobacco, and sugar cane.
During this rapid period of industrial
growth, more and more countries adopted
mass production. Handmade goods were
quickly replaced by machine-made goods.
Factory laborers replaced craftsmen and
Those who were opposed to (against) the
ratification of the Constitution because they
feared the power of the national government
in the new federal system, and because they
favored states’ rights.
These rights are fundamental or natural
guaranteed to people naturally instead of by
the law. They include life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness.
Articles of Confederation
This document was the nation’s first plan of
government adopted by the Second
Continental Congress in 1781. This
document gave most of the government
power to the states, not the federal
Marbury v. Madison
This was the first judgement by the
Supreme Court which supported the federal
system of government. In 1803, Chief
Justice John Marshall, a Federalist,
strengthened the powers of the court by
establishing the principle of judicial review
(the power to of the courts to declare laws
A series of essays written by three leading
Federalists - James Madison, Alexander
Hamilton, and John Jay - to promote the
ratification of the U.S. Constitution.
In this type of government everyone,
including all authority figures, must obey
laws. Constitutions, statements of rights,
and other laws define the limits of those in
power so that rulers cannot take advantage
of their elected, appointed, or inherited
This movement concentrated on ending
slavery in the United States.
Battle of Vicksburg
The Union gained control of the Mississippi
River in this turning point battle of the Civil
President of the Union during the Civil
War, believing his main goal was to save
the Union (although he added the abolition
of slavery to Union goals when he issued
the Emancipation Proclamation).
Ulysses S. Grant
Most important Union general during the
President of the Confederate States of
Robert E. Lee
Most important Confederate general
Effect a British blockade had on American
manufacturing during the War of 1812
Battle of Gettysburg
Union victory turned back a Southern
invasion of Pennsylvania; this battle in 1863
marked a turning point in the Civil War
because the South would never again be
able to take the offensive.
Leader of the Sons of Liberty in Boston,
responsible for protests leading to the
Helped with the Declaration of
Independence, negotiated the French
alliance, negotiated the Treaty of Paris,
1783 following the American Revolution,
and helped write the Constitution of the
Commander of the Continental Army
(American army) during the American
Wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet that
inspired the Declaration of Independence,
and The Crisis, encouraging Americans to
keep fighting during the American
Free enterprise system
An economic system in which individuals
depend on supply and demand the profit
margin to determine what to produce, how
to produce, how much to produce, and for
whom to produce. (The opposite to
government control such as mercantilism.)
Fundamental Orders of
This document was the first written
constitution in America.
The division of power between the federal
or central government and the states within
This meeting was held for the purpose of
revising the Articles of Confederation, but
instead resulted in a new plan of
government. 39 of the 55 delegates who
attended signed the new document - the
The location where the Second Continental
Congress met to sign the Declaration of
Independence and the Constitutional
The year the Constitutional Convention met
and proposed the U.S. Constitution.
Gold Rush of 1849
Event responsible for the great growth in
population of California; by 1850 California
was ready to be admitted as a state.
Fugitive Slave Law
Part of the Compromise of 1850 that
required slaves caught anywhere in the
United States to be returned to their owners
in the South.
Missouri Compromise of 1820
First compromise dealing the expansion of
slavery; Maine became a free state and
Missouri became a slave state; slavery was
outlawed in the remaining northern part of
the Louisiana Purchase.
Event describing the fighting when a
territory in the Louisiana Purchase was
allowed to decide slavery by popular
sovereignty (letting the voters decide); both
sides cheated in the election and violence
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Anti-slavery novel written by Harriet
Beecher Stowe describing the evils of
Raid on Harper’s Ferry
Abolitionist John Brown tried to capture the
United States army arsenal here to get guns
to arm slaves in Virginia for a slave
Hero of the Battle of New Orleans in the
War of 1812.
Advice Washington gave to the United
States in his Farewell Address about foreign
One of the first 2 political parties, evolving
out of the Anti-Federalists; believing that
most power should belong to the states; led
by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
One of the first 2 political parties; believed
in a strong central government; led by
Alexander Hamilton and John Adams.
Political party founded by Andrew Jackson
and still in existence today; the party of the
Political party founded in the 1850’s to
oppose the spread of slavery into the
territories; still in existence today.
Henry David Thoreau advocated this
process of defying the law or policies of a
government when a person believes the
laws are unjust.
People who exemplify this quality go
beyond their obligations by taking an active
role in improving the community and the
experiences of other members of the
A principle of government, with elected
representatives serving at the will of the
This document was written in 1620 prior to
the Pilgrims landing at Plymouth Bay in
Massachusetts. The males who signed
agreed to majority rule and participate in a
government in the best interests of all
members of the colony.
New England Colonies
Colonial region that was the coldest, rocky
& hilly, ill suited for agriculture; colonists
specialized in fishing, whaling, &
Colonial region with the warmest climate,
widest plains, and richest soil; colonists
specialized in cash crop agriculture -
tobacco, indigo, and rice.
Colonial region including New York (taken
over from the Dutch), Germans, English
Quakers, and other European ethnic groups;
colonists specialized in growing grains and
making iron products.
Freedom of religion
Reason why the colonies of Massachusetts,
Pennsylvania, and Maryland were founded.
Last and most southern English colony;
founded as a refuge for debtors and to
protect the Carolinas from the Spanish in
Money, wealth, riches, or gold
Reason for founding many of the English
colonies, including the first English colony -
First cash crop to make money for Virginia
and the other Southern colonies.
Invented the cotton gin and the idea of
Southern states declared federal protective
tariffs null and void, believing in the theory
of states’ rights proposed by John C.
Calhoun. President Jackson threatened to
use federal troops to collect tariffs.
The “Great Compromiser” solved the
Nullification Crisis with a compromise
tariff; he also wrote the Missouri
Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise
Provides for the judicial branch of the
government to determine if laws are
This amendment granted black men the
right to vote.
English Bill of Rights
In 1689, this document guaranteed certain
rights to Englishmen and established the
idea of limited government in the minds of
the colonists who later wrote the U.S.
A statement of foreign policy which
proclaimed that Europe should not interfere
in affairs within the United States or in the
development of other countries in the
Western Hemisphere (in return, the U.S.
would not interfere in Europe).
In this year representatives of the Virginia
Company established the first permanent
English settlement in North America. The
settlement was called Jamestown in honor
of King James I of England.
Separation of powers
The division of a central government into
two or more branches, each having its own
responsibilities and authorities.
Dred Scott v. Sanford
A landmark Supreme Court decision which
confirmed the status of slaves as property
rather than citizens, denied citizenship to
free blacks, and stated that Congress had no
power to outlaw slavery in any territory.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the
Constitution, ratified in 1791.
Principle of government - people have
rights protected by the Bill of Rights,
including freedom of speech and press.
Worked to change society for the better;
focused on improving conditions for the
poor, enslaved, imprisoned, women, and the
In this year, President Thomas Jefferson
bought the Louisiana Purchase from France,
more than doubling the size of the United
Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which
captured the spirit of liberty and morality
ideally held by citizens of a democracy -
“Government of the people, by the people,
for the people.”
A tax on an imported product designed to
protect local industries.
This amendment declared that all persons
born or naturalized in the United States
were entitled equal rights, regardless of the
race, and that their rights were protected at
both the state and national levels. This
became the basis of the civil rights
movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s.
French and Indian War
This struggle between the British and the
French in the colonies of North America
was part of a worldwide war know that the
Seven Years War. It led to British taxation
of the American colonies to pay the war
An expression from the 1840’s - many
people believed it was the “God-given”
right of the United States to own land from
the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.
This idea led to annexing Texas, acquiring
Oregon, and the Mexican War.
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of
government to limit the powers of the other
branches in order to prevent the abuse of
This amendment ended slavery in the
The idea that political power rests with the
people who can create, alter, and abolish
government. People express themselves
through voting and free participation in
King George III
King of England during the American
President of the Constitutional Convention
of 1787 and the first President of the United
“No taxation without
Cause of the American Revolution; belief
that people should not be taxed unless they
elected the representatives who determined
Name for British (English) lawmakers
Battle of Lexington & Concord
First battle of the American Revolution;
British troops marching out of Boston to
confiscate guns and ammunition stockpiled
by colonists were met by colonial militia.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution;
American victory convinced the French to
ally with Americans
Horrible winter camp endured by
Washington’s army, suffering from cold,
disease, and hunger.
Battle of Yorktown
Last battle of the American Revolution -
American army, French army, and French
navy forced the British to surrender
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Britain officially recognized the United
States as an independent country and agreed
that the western boundary would be the
Constitutional compromise giving the
United States a two-house legislature - the
Senate where each state has 2 votes and the
House of Representatives where each states’
votes are based on population.
Constitutional compromise where 5 slaves
were counted as 3 people for the purposes
of determining Representatives in Congress
Group of delegates from each state that
actually selects the President
Virginia House of Burgesses
First representative assembly (legislature) in
the English colonies, 1619
War between the United States and Mexico,
1846-1848. Fought over the annexation of
Texas and resulted in the United States
gaining California and the rest of the
Reform movement aimed at ending the sale
of alcohol and stopping people from
The right to vote
Reform movement led by Elizabeth Cady
Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B.
The differences between the North and
South that led to each side being more loyal
to their region of the nation than to the
nation as a whole; one cause of the Civil
Region of the country in the 1800’s that
specialized in cotton plantation agriculture
based on slave labor.
John C. Calhoun
His theory of states’ rights justified South
Carolina’s attempt to nullify the federal
tariff and led to the Nullification Crisis.
Spokesman for the North, supporting a
strong federal government and protective
Section of the country in the 1800’s that
was heavily industrialized, urban, in favor
of protective tariffs, and opposed slavery.
President responsible for the removal of the
Cherokee and other Native Americans from
their homes in the east to reservations west
of the Mississippi River.
“Trail of Tears”
The forcible removal of Cherokees to
reservations west of the Mississippi River; a
journey that resulted in many deaths and
John Wilkes Booth
Actor who assassinated President Lincoln in
revenge for the South losing the Civil War.
An official change or addition to a law or
Effect the Industrial Revolution had on the
amount of goods produced.
Effect the Industrial Revolution had on the
price of goods produced.
Machine that quickly cleaned cotton fibers,
separating seeds and other trash; led to a
dramatic increase in cotton agriculture and
slave labor to tend the cotton fields.
Invented the steamboat
Goods sold outside the country
Relating to the countryside, or outside the
Goods brought from sellers in other
To cut off supplies; to surround an enemy
(particularly by sea) and prevent any
movement in or out
Relating to the city, in or of the city
To officially approve
The power of the President to reject a bill
passed by Congress
Branch of government that makes laws
Branch of government that interprets laws
and punishes lawbreakers
Branch of government that enforces laws.
Relating to politics, government, or law
Relating to money, taxes, and production of
goods and services.
An original document, artifact, picture,
journal, cartoon from the time period in
which an event occurred or a record from a
person who participated in the event.
Boston Tea Party
Event leading to the American Revolution
where members of the Sons of Liberty
destroyed 3 shiploads of tea in Boston
harbor in protest over the Tea Tax.
Factory for producing cloth or clothing
Parts machine-made to be so nearly
identical that they can easily be replaced or
substituted for each other; resulting in much
faster manufacturing and repair
Event leading to the American Revolution,
where 5 colonists in an angry mob were
killed by British soldiers guarding a tax
office in Boston.
A tax on paper documents; one of the direct
taxes which formed the basis of colonial
complaints leading to the American
“Father of the Constitution” - Federalist
responsible for most of the ideas in the
Constitution and also for writing most of the
Bill of Rights.
Information that comes from a second-hand
source (encyclopedia, textbook, etc.)