Social Studies Pacing Guide

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General Knowledge, Processes, & Skills                                                               Social Studies Pacing Guide
Reached throughout Year
General Social Science Knowledge – embedded in civics standards and expectations and used throughout the course of study
K1.1    Know the defining characteristics of the discipline of civics.
K1.2    Know that each discipline is subject to criticisms and limitations; be aware of the primary criticisms and limitations of civics.
K1.3    Understand and analyze social relationships and patterns.
K1.4    Understand social and political perspectives.
K1.5    Understand the diversity of human beings and human cultures.
K1.6    Analyze events and circumstances from the vantage point of others.
K1.7    Understand social problems, social structures, institutions, class, groups, and interaction.
K1.8    Apply social studies concepts to better understand major current local, national, and world events, issues, and problems.
K1.9    Integrate concepts from at least two different social studies disciplines.
K1.10 Understand significant concepts, generalizations, principles, and theories of civics as a discipline.

Social Studies Procedures and Skills – embedded in civics standards and expectations
P1 Reading and Communication – read and communicate effectively.
P1.1     Use close and critical reading strategies to read and analyze complex texts pertaining to social science; attend to nuance, make connections to prior knowledge, draw inferences, and determine main idea and supporting details.
P1.2     Analyze point of view, context, and bias to interpret primary and secondary source documents.
P1.3     Understand that diversity of interpretation arises from frame of reference.
P1.4     Communicate clearly and coherently in writing, speaking, and visually expressing ideas pertaining to social science topics, acknowledging audience and purpose.
P1.5     Present a coherent thesis when making an argument, support with evidence, articulate and answer possible objections, and present a concise, clear closing.

P2 Inquiry, Research, and Analysis – critically examine evidence, thoughtfully consider conflicting claims, and carefully weigh facts and hypotheses.
P2.1    Understand the scientific method of inquiry to investigate social scientific and historical problems.
P2.2    Read and interpret data in tables and graphs.
P2.3    Know how to find and organize information from a variety of sources, analyze, interpret, support interpretations with evidence, critically evaluate, and present the information orally and in writing; report investigation results
P2.4    Use multiple perspectives and resources to identify and analyze issues appropriate to the social studies discipline being studied.
P2.5    Use deductive and inductive problem-solving skills as appropriate to the problem being studied.

P3 Public Discourse and Decision Making – engage in reasoned and informed decision making that should characterize each citizen’s participation in American society.
P3.1    Clearly state an issue as a question of public policy, trace the origins of an issue, analyze various perspectives, and generate and evaluate possible alternative resolutions.
P3.2    Deeply examine policy issues in group discussions and debates (clarify issues, consider opposing views, apply democratic values or constitutional principles, anticipate consequences) to make reasoned and informed
P3.3    Write persuasive/argumentative essays expressing and justifying decisions on public policy issues.

P4 Citizen Involvement
P4.1    Act out of respect for the rule of law and hold others accountable to the same standard.
P4.2    Demonstrate knowledge of how, when, and where individuals would plan and conduct activities intended to advance views on matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate effectiveness.
P4.3    Plan and conduct activities intended to advance views on matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate effectiveness.

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                                                                  1
Month: September – 2 Weeks                                                          Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 1: Origins, Foundational Values and Constitutional Principles
        of American Government

            Code & Content Expectations                           Essential
                                                                                                     Assessment                       Vocabulary                          Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                        Questions/Scaffold

Origins of American Constitutional Government             What are the philosophical    Rule of Law                             American constitutional
2.1.1 Explain the historical and philosophical origins    and historical roots of the   Depending upon whether the group           government
of American constitutional government and evaluate        foundational values of        is a history class or a government      Anti-Federalists            Anti-Defamation League -
the influence of ideas found in the Magna Carta,          American constitutional       class, several cases might prove        Articles of Confederation
English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact, Iroquois       government?                   stimulating in reaching a deep          Bill of Rights
Confederation, Northwest Ordinance, Virginia              What are the fundamental      understanding of the rule of law in     checks and balances         NAACP -
Statute for Religious Freedom, Declaration of             principles of American        our constitutional system. The          civil rights
Independence, Articles of Confederation, and              constitutional government?    Watergate story with an emphasis        common good                 National Organization for Women -
selected Federalist Papers (such as the 10th, 14th,                                     on the documentation of President       confederation     
51st), John Locke’s Second Treatise, Montesquieu’s        How have the fundamental      Nixon’s violation of law is a classic   Declaration of
Spirit of Laws, Paine’s Common Sense.                     values and principles of      study of how elected officials are         Independence
                                                          American constitutional       not above the constitution. Another     Declaration of
2.1.2 Explain the significance of the major debates       government shaped             approach might be to look at the           Sentiments
and compromises underlying the formation and              American society?             evolution of the rights of the          diversity
ratification of American constitutional government                                      accused in the Brown/ Miranda/          English Bill of Rights
including the Virginia and New Jersey plans, the                                        Gideon cases. Also, a study of the      Equal Rights
Great Compromise, debates between Federalists and                                       conditions of women and African            Amendment
Anti-Federalists, debates over slavery, and the                                         Americans before and after              equality
promise for a bill of rights after ratification.                                        “protective” laws might prove           federalism
                                                                                        useful. In addition, government         Federalists
2.1.3 Explain how the Declaration of Independence,                                      classes might do comparative            Great Compromise
Constitution and Bill of Rights reflected political                                     studies of constitutions (current and   Great Depression
principles of popular sovereignty, rule of law, checks                                  historic) from other countries. The     individual rights
and balances, separation of powers, social compact,                                     emphasis should be on close study       Iroquois
natural rights, individual rights, separation of church                                 of primary documents. Small group       John Locke’s Second
and state, republicanism and federalism.                                                discussion should be followed by           Treatise
                                                                                        large group debriefing. A writing       justice
                                                                                        activity on a critical question might   Magna Carta

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                                             2
            Code & Content Expectations                       Essential
                                                                                            Assessment                    Vocabulary           Resources
               (Disciplinary Knowledge)                   Questions/Scaffold
2.1.4 Explain challenges and modifications to                                  provide closure.                     Mayflower Compact
American constitutional government as a result of                                                                   Montesquieu’s Spirit of
significant historical events such as the American                             Life                                   Laws
Revolution, the Civil War, expansion of suffrage, the                          The concept of life as a             natural rights
Great Depression, and the civil rights movement.                               constitutional precept should be     New Jersey plans
                                                                               established in its full historical   Northwest Ordinance
Foundational Values and Constitutional                                         sense. Advanced classes might        Paine’s Common Sense
Principles of American Government                                              benefit from an overview of the      participation
2.2.1 Identify and explain the fundamental values of                           Enlightenment philosophers such as Patriot Act
America’s constitutional republic (e.g., life, liberty,                        John Locke and John Jacques          popular sovereignty
property, the pursuit of happiness, the common good,                           Rousseau who influenced Thomas       pursuit of happiness
justice, equality, diversity, authority, participation,                        Jefferson. The students should fully republicanism
and patriotism) and their reflection in the principles                         understand what “natural rights”     rule of law
of the United States Constitution (e.g., popular                               means as a basis for the American    separation of church and
sovereignty, republicanism, rule of law, checks and                            constitutional and legal system. The   state
balances, separation of powers, and federalism).                               connection should then be made to a separation of powers
                                                                               contemporary issue that connects the social compact
2.2.2 Explain and evaluate how Americans, either                               issue to the student. These might    suffrage
through individual or collective actions, use                                  include: cloning, bioethics, or      Universal Declaration of
constitutional principles and fundamental values to                            capital punishment. Discussion,        Human Rights
narrow gaps between American ideals and reality                                debate, and writing should follow.   Virginia Plan
with respect to minorities, women, and the                                     This is a good issue for outside     Virginia Statute for
disadvantaged. (See USHG 6.1.2; 6.3.2; 7.1.3; 8.3)                             interviews or class speakers from      Religious Freedom
                                                                               the professional community.
2.2.3 Use past and present policies to analyze
conflicts that arise in society due to competing                               Liberty
constitutional principles or fundamental values (e.g.,                         After reading and discussing several
liberty and authority, justice and equality, individual                        seminal documents that address the
rights, and the common good). (See USHG 6.3.2;                                 concept of liberty in American
8.2.4; 8.3.1; 9.2.2)                                                           democracy, students should write a
                                                                               personal essay in which they define
2.2.4 Analyze and explain ideas about fundamental                              and defend their own ideas about
values like liberty, justice, and equality found in a                          liberty and personal freedom as
range of documents (e.g., Martin Luther King’s “I                              citizens. The essay must address the

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                                    3
            Code & Content Expectations                       Essential
                                                                                            Assessment                  Vocabulary   Resources
               (Disciplinary Knowledge)                   Questions/Scaffold
Have a Dream” speech and “Letter from Birmingham                               problem of how to adjudicate
City Jail,” the Universal Declaration of Human                                 disputes between individual
Rights, the Declaration of Sentiments, the Equal                               “liberties” and whether our
Rights Amendment, and the Patriot Act). (See USHG                              constitution places limits on
F1.1; 8.3.2; 9.2.2)                                                            personal freedom. Grading rubrics
                                                                               for the essay should include citation
2.2.5 Use examples to investigate why people may                               of historical examples and
agree on constitutional principles and fundamental                             references to the constitution and
values in the abstract, yet disagree over their meaning                        court cases. A good place to begin
when they are applied to specific situations.                                  the class discussion is the 1919
(See USHG 8.2.4)                                                               Schenk vs. U.S. case and the famous
                                                                               Holmes opinion on free speech
                                                                               (“clear and present danger”). Also,
                                                                               the writings of Henry David
                                                                               Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson
                                                                               may prove provocative.

                                                                               The Pursuit of Happiness
                                                                               The class will conduct a debate on
                                                                               the subject of gun control. After
                                                                               researching and discussing
                                                                               Amendment II of The Constitution
                                                                               and the intended meaning of "the
                                                                               right to bear arms", the class will be
                                                                               divided into two teams to prepare
                                                                               their debate. One significant aspect
                                                                               of the debate should include whether
                                                                               gun ownership should be included in
                                                                               a citizen’s right to "pursue
                                                                               happiness" if the owner uses his
                                                                               firearm for hunting, competitive
                                                                               shooting, collecting or other
                                                                               peaceful activity. Are there times
                                                                               when "pursuit of happiness" might

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                                    4
            Code & Content Expectations       Essential
                                                                            Assessment                  Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)    Questions/Scaffold
                                                               conflict with other rights such as
                                                               "life" or "liberty"? How should such
                                                               conflicts be resolved in our
                                                               democratic system?

                                                               Part of the research for the debate
                                                               could include interviews with guest
                                                               speakers representing both sides of
                                                               the issue. A closure activity might
                                                               be a position paper defending one
                                                               side of the argument and pointing
                                                               toward possible solutions.

                                                               After studying the Declaration of
                                                               Independence, in particular the
                                                               second paragraph regarding the
                                                               precepts of equality that it presents,
                                                               the class will look at documents
                                                               from 3 or 4 subsequent historical
                                                               situations that call into question the
                                                               idea that "all men are created equal"
                                                               in our society. The teacher may
                                                               select these situations from such
                                                               examples as: Indian removal, Asian
                                                               exclusion, anti immigrant nativism,
                                                               gender exclusion, the Jim Crow era,
                                                               integration and civil rights, etc.

                                                               The class will be divided up into 3-4
                                                               teams to study the historical context
                                                               of their assigned topic and packets
                                                               (or online) documents pertaining to
                                                               their topic. Each group will create a

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                    5
            Code & Content Expectations       Essential
                                                                            Assessment                 Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)    Questions/Scaffold
                                                               one act play or series of dramatic
                                                               vignettes that will be presented to
                                                               the rest of the class. Each
                                                               presentation must show how
                                                               subsequent history resolved their

                                                               A follow up debriefing should
                                                               address the following questions.
                                                               Was justice achieved? Has America
                                                               always lived up to its ideal of
                                                               equality? Is America a more diverse
                                                               society today? Why has diversity in
                                                               our population caused so many
                                                               problems? Are the concepts of
                                                               equality and diversity compatible?
                                                               How has the constitution grown to
                                                               make America more diverse since
                                                               1787? What does population growth
                                                               and increasing diversity mean for
                                                               America's future?

                                                               The debriefing could take the form
                                                               of a panel discussion, a debate, or a
                                                               written response.

                                                               Break the class into several study
                                                               groups. Assign each one of the
                                                               following fairness and equity laws:
                                                               The Civil Rights Act of 1964
                                                               (Public Law 88-352), The Civil
                                                               Rights Act of 1965 (Public Law 89-
                                                               110), Title VII of the Civil Rights

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                    6
            Code & Content Expectations       Essential
                                                                            Assessment                  Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)    Questions/Scaffold
                                                               Act of 1964, Title IX of the
                                                               Educational Amendments of 1972,
                                                               the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and
                                                               the Americans With Disabilities Act
                                                               of 1990, and The Equal Rights
                                                               Amendment (ERA) written by Alice
                                                               Paul in 1921.

                                                               After researching the assignment,
                                                               the groups should report to the class
                                                               orally. The report should outline the
                                                               conditions that led to the legislation
                                                               and the specific ways that the
                                                               legislation was designed to
                                                               remediate an inequity. The
                                                               presentations might include a
                                                               creative component: a skit, a debate,
                                                               a comic book, a poster, or a series of
                                                               role playing interviews.

                                                               A follow up activity would assign
                                                               the same groups the task of
                                                               researching a current social inequity
                                                               that might be addressed by new
                                                               legislation. After more research and
                                                               planning, the groups would write a
                                                               proposal for new laws that would
                                                               remedy the inequity. Each proposal
                                                               must show either constitutional
                                                               precedent or demonstrate the need
                                                               for a constitutional amendment. A
                                                               formal written proposal should be
                                                               submitted by each group.

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                    7
            Code & Content Expectations       Essential
                                                                            Assessment                  Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)    Questions/Scaffold
                                                               After consideration of the
                                                               documents, the class should be
                                                               divided into two groups (Federalists
                                                               vs Anti Federalists). Each group will
                                                               prepare for a symposium-debate on
                                                               the question of Federalism and the
                                                               sharing of political power in a
                                                               democracy. Students will play
                                                               historical roles based on the major
                                                               historical figures representing the
                                                               evolution of their group's position
                                                               and philosophy. Representatives
                                                               from both groups will meet with the
                                                               teacher to determine the 3-5 key
                                                               questions that will be the focus of
                                                               the symposium. Each student in both
                                                               groups must prepare a role and stay
                                                               in that role for the duration of the
                                                               debate. The discussion will stay
                                                               focused on the pre-selected
                                                               questions. Each student will submit
                                                               a position paper (with historical
                                                               examples) representing his
                                                               character's hypothetical position on
                                                               the selected questions. Extensive
                                                               research required.

                                                               A unit on consumerism might prove
                                                               effective in studying the relationship
                                                               between truth and the government.
                                                               Ralph Nader’s Unsafe at Any Speed,
                                                               Upton Sinclair’s muckraking classic

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                    8
            Code & Content Expectations       Essential
                                                                            Assessment                    Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)    Questions/Scaffold
                                                               - The Jungle - , or a recent 20/20
                                                               expose might kick off the unit. The
                                                               teacher might prepare a packet of
                                                               cases involving government action
                                                               based on social research (e.g. The
                                                               Triangle Shirtwaist fire, fire
                                                               retardant child sleep-wear, the DDT
                                                               ban, the tobacco litigation and

                                                               Students would then work in
                                                               investigating teams researching
                                                               recent legislation, the history of
                                                               research behind the law, and current
                                                               enforcement. The teams will present
                                                               a brief on their finding to the class.
                                                               The teacher should prepare an initial
                                                               list of possible topics for the project.
                                                               An option would include video
                                                               taped "news magazine"
                                                               presentations. Students should
                                                               provide a list of sources used in their

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                    9
Month: September/October – 3 Weeks                                                  Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 2: Structure, Functions, Enumerated Powers,
        Powers and Limits on Powers of the National Government

            Code & Content Expectations                         Essential
                                                                                                      Assessment                        Vocabulary                    Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                      Questions/Scaffold

Structure, Functions, and Enumerated Powers of          What is the structure of the    Civilian Control of the Military          advice and consent
National Government                                     national government?            After reviewing Article II, section 2     bicameralism          s/historic.htm
3.1.1 Analyze the purposes, organization, functions,                                    of The Constitution, the class will       concurrent powers
and processes of the legislative branch as enumerated   What are the functions of       consider President Eisenhower’s           enumerated powers
in Article I of the Constitution.                       the national government?        remarks in 1960 concerning the            impeachment
                                                                                        "undue influence of the military-         inalienable rights
3.1.2 Analyze the purposes, organization, functions,    What are its enumerated         industrial complex." The teacher          judicial review
and processes of the executive branch as enumerated     powers?                         should prepare a packet which             powers of the purse
in Article II of the Constitution.                                                      includes Eisenhower’s speech,             revenue
                                                        How are power and               remarks by military leaders like          veto power
3.1.3 Analyze the purposes, organization, functions,    responsibility distributed,     General Curtis LeMay, and other
and processes of the judicial branch as enumerated in   shared, and limited in the      documents concerning the control
Article III of the Constitution.                        government established by       and use of nuclear weapons. The
                                                        the United States               focus of these documents will
3.1.4 Identify the role of independent regulatory
                                                        Constitution?                   prepare discussion of the issue of
agencies in the federal bureaucracy (e.g., Federal
                                                                                        "The Constitution in a Nuclear
Reserve Board, Food and Drug Administration,
                                                        What are the structures and     Age". After consideration of the
Federal Communications Commission). (See USHG
                                                        functions of state and local    documents, the class will be divided
                                                        government?                     into two groups: one representing
3.1.5 Use case studies or examples to examine                                           support for civilian control, the other
tensions between the three branches of government                                       representing the military point of
(e.g., powers of the purse and impeachment, advice                                      view. After preparing several
and consent, veto power, and judicial review).                                          discussion points provided by the
                                                                                        teacher, the class will engage in a
3.1.6 Evaluate major sources of revenue for the                                         round table discussion defending
national government, including the constitutional                                       their assigned point of view. As a
provisions for taxing its citizens                                                      supplemental case, the teacher could
                                                                                        provide a documents packet on the

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                                             10
            Code & Content Expectations                        Essential
                                                                                              Assessment                 Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                     Questions/Scaffold
                                                                                1945 decision to use atomic
3.1.7 Explain why the federal government is one of                              weapons by President Truman and
enumerated powers while state governments are those                             the various options facing him and
of reserved powers.                                                             the military perspective at the time.
Powers and Limits on Powers                                                     This activity may be an extended
3.2.1 Explain how the principles of enumerated                                  term project and could involve
powers, federalism, separation of powers,                                       additional research and writing. A
bicameralism, checks and balances, republicanism,                               shorter activity would involve group
rule of law, individual rights, inalienable rights,                             discussion of the packet and
separation of church and state, and popular                                     questions.
sovereignty serve to limit the power of government.
                                                                                Separation of Powers
3.2.2 Use court cases to explain how the Constitution
                                                                                The class should read and review
is maintained as the supreme law of the land (e.g.,
                                                                                Articles I, II, and II of The
Marbury v. Madison, Gibbons v. Ogden, McCulloch
                                                                                Constitution. Then using the Legal
v. Maryland).
                                                                                Information Institute web site
3.2.3 Identify specific provisions in the Constitution                          (
that limit the power of the federal government.                                 ses/historic.htm), students should
                                                                                study briefs of the Marbury v
3.2.4 Explain the role of the Bill of Rights and each                           Madison (1803) and McCullough v
of its amendments in restraining the power of                                   Maryland (1819) cases to fully
government over individuals. (See USHG F1.1)                                    understand the concepts of judicial
                                                                                review and broad congressional
3.2.5 Analyze the role of subsequent amendments to                              authority "within the scope of the
the Constitution in extending or limiting the power of                          constitution." Now, the class might
government, including the Civil War/Reconstruction                              do an in depth study of one or more
Amendments and those expanding suffrage. (See                                   cases involving questions of the
USHG F1.1)                                                                      separation of power between the
                                                                                three branches.
Structure and Functions of State and Local
Governments                                                                     Suggested cases are: President
3.3.1 Describe limits the U.S. Constitution places on                           Jackson's war against The Bank of
powers of the states (e.g., prohibitions against coining                        The United States (1832-36),

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                                     11
            Code & Content Expectations                      Essential
                                                                                            Assessment                 Vocabulary   Resources
               (Disciplinary Knowledge)                  Questions/Scaffold
money, impairing interstate commerce, making                                  President Roosevelt's handling of
treaties with foreign governments) and on the federal                         The Northern Securities Trust
government’s power over the states (e.g., federal                             (1902), Plessy v Ferguson (1896)
government cannot abolish a state, Tenth Amendment                            and The War Powers Act (1973).
reserves powers to the states).                                               The class could be divided into four
                                                                              research/study groups, each taking
3.3.2 Identify and define states’ reserved and                                one of the cases. The groups would
concurrent powers.                                                            prepare a brief tracing the history of
                                                                              the case and the constitutional issues
3.3.3 Explain the tension among federal, state, and                           at stake. Their presentation should
local governmental power using the necessary and                              also identify the resolution of the
proper clause, the commerce clause, and the Tenth                             case and link the resolution to issues
Amendment.                                                                    of separation of power.

3.3.4 Describe how state and local governments are                            Some key discussion topics: How
organized, their major responsibilities, and how they                         might these cases be resolved today?
affect the lives of citizens.                                                 Does the balance of power among
                                                                              the three branches shift over time?
3.3.5 Describe the mechanisms by which citizens                               How do politics and social change
monitor and influence state and local governments                             affect the balance? Is there
(e.g., referendum, initiative, recall).                                       equilibrium among the branches or
                                                                              does power shift over time? What
3.3.6 Evaluate the major sources of revenue for state                         are some issues today that reveal the
and local governments.                                                        shifting balance? Can we trace the
                                                                              history of the shifting balance of
3.3.7 Explain the role of state constitutions in state                        power? Which of the three branches
governments.                                                                  seems to be in ascendance today?

                                                                              A good closure activity might be an
                                                                              impromptu position paper or take
                                                                              home essay based on some of the
                                                                              issues raised by the presentations
                                                                              and discussion.

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                                   12
            Code & Content Expectations       Essential
                                                                             Assessment                Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)    Questions/Scaffold

                                                               Freedom of Religion
                                                               A good debate-discussion topic
                                                               might be to address the relationship
                                                               between religion and politics in
                                                               American life. In what ways has
                                                               religious belief shaped the political
                                                               and social views of millions of
                                                               American citizens? The class might
                                                               undertake a comparative study of the
                                                               history of recent American elections
                                                               (say going back to the 1960’s) to see
                                                               how religious affiliation has
                                                               influenced the outcome. Voting
                                                               statistics indicating party loyalty,
                                                               religious affiliation, financial
                                                               contributions, economic status,
                                                               educational level, and ethnicity
                                                               could be researched. The teacher
                                                               might provide a packet with
                                                               historical perspective from
                                                               Machiavelli to William Jennings
                                                               Bryan to Madeline Murray O’Hare
                                                               to the South Carolina primary race
                                                               between John McCain and George
                                                               W. Bush.

                                                               Class activities include a debate,
                                                               small group consideration of the
                                                               documents packets, and an essay
                                                               taking a position on the relationship
                                                               between politics and religion in
Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                    13
            Code & Content Expectations       Essential
                                                                             Assessment                 Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)    Questions/Scaffold

                                                               Popular Sovereignty
                                                               Voting patterns could be studied by
                                                               criteria such as: age, race, education
                                                               and gender. A good historical case is
                                                               the Lincoln -Douglas debate
                                                               regarding the extension of slavery. A
                                                               related issue is the problem of
                                                               redistricting congressional
                                                               boundaries along more equitable
                                                               lines for minorities. A statistical
                                                               comparison of voting in redistricted
                                                               areas might provoke good discussion
                                                               and debate about the impact of
                                                               popular sovereignty in local areas.
                                                               Another vital aspect of popular
                                                               sovereignty is the constitutional
                                                               recourse available to citizens when
                                                               their wishes are violated by elected
                                                               officials. Cases of initiative,
                                                               referendum, and recall might be
                                                               studied (especially those available
                                                               on the local level). Discussion,
                                                               debate, and writing activities should

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                    14
Month: October – 3 Weeks                                                              Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 3: System of Laws and Other Actors in the Policy Process

            Code & Content Expectations                            Essential
                                                                                                        Assessment                     Vocabulary                        Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                         Questions/Scaffold

System of Law and Laws                                     What is the role of law in      CASE STUDIES                          clear and present danger
3.4.1 Explain why the rule of law has a central place      the American political   compelling government      achers/search_results.php?type=3
in American society (e.g., Supreme Court cases like        system? What is the             eachers/search_results.php?type=3     interest
Marbury v. Madison and U.S. v. Nixon; practices            importance of law in the                                              equal opportunity
such as submitting bills to legal counsel to ensure        American political system?                                            interest groups
congressional compliance with the law). (See USHG                                                                                libel
F1.1, 8.2.4)                                                                                                                     media
                                                           What roles do political                                               political parties
3.4.2 Describe what can happen in the absence or           parties, interest groups, the                                         public agenda
breakdown of the rule of law (e.g., Ku Klux Klan           media, and individuals play                                           public opinion
attacks, police corruption, organized crime,               in the development of                                                 public policy
interfering with the right to vote, and perjury). (See     public policy?                                                        public safety
USHG 8.3.5)                                                                                                                      security
3.4.3 Explain the meaning and importance of equal
protection of the law (e.g., the 14th Amendment,
Americans with Disabilities Act, equal opportunity

3.4.4 Describe considerations and criteria that have
been used to deny, limit, or extend protection of
individual rights (e.g., clear and present danger, time,
place and manner restrictions on speech, compelling
government interest, security, libel or slander, public
safety, and equal opportunity).

3.4.5 Analyze the various levels and responsibilities
of courts in the federal and state judicial system and
explain the relationships among them.

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           Code & Content Expectations                        Essential
                                                                                    Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                    Questions/Scaffold
Other Actors in the Policy Process
3.5.1 Explain how political parties, interest groups,
the media, and individuals can influence and
determine the public agenda.

3.5.2 Describe the origin and the evolution of
political parties and their influence. (See Grade 5 SS;
USHG 9.1.2)

3.5.3 Identify and explain the roles of various
associations and groups in American politics (e.g.,
political organizations, political action committees,
interest groups, voluntary and civic associations,
professional organizations, unions, and religious

3.5.4 Explain the concept of public opinion, factors
that shape it, and contrasting views on the role it
should play in public policy.

3.5.5 Evaluate the actual influence of public opinion
on public policy.

3.5.6 Explain the significance of campaigns and
elections in American politics, current criticisms of
campaigns, and proposals for their reform.

3.5.7 Explain the role of television, radio, the press,
and the internet in political communication.

3.5.8 Evaluate, take, and defend positions about the
formation and implementation of a current public
policy issue, and examine ways to participate in the
decision making process about the issue.

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            Code & Content Expectations                      Essential
                                                                                   Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                   Questions/Scaffold

3.5.9 In making a decision on a public issue, analyze
various forms of political communication (e.g.,
political cartoons, campaign advertisements, political
speeches, and blogs) using criteria like logical
validity, factual accuracy and/or omission, emotional
appeal, distorted evidence, and appeals to bias or

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                          17
Month: November – 2 Weeks                                                           Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 4: Conceptual Foundations of Civic and Political Life

            Code & Content Expectations                           Essential
                                                                                                       Assessment                     Vocabulary          Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                        Questions/Scaffold

Nature of Civic Life, Politics, and Government            What is civic life? What are   Representative Government              anarchy
1.1.1 Identify roles citizens play in civic and private   politics? What is              High school students might benefit     aristocracy
life, with emphasis on leadership.                        government? What are the       from a comparative study of several    authoritarian
                                                          purposes of politics and       different constitutions from around    communist
1.1.2 Explain and provide examples of the concepts        government?                    the world to measure the depth and     confederal
“power,” “legitimacy,” “authority,” and                                                  effectiveness of representative        constitutional republic
“sovereignty.”                                       What are essential                  government in The Constitution of      fascist
                                                     characteristics of limited          The United States. The constitutions   military junta
1.1.3 Identify and explain competing arguments about and unlimited government?           of the former U.S.S.R. and The         monarchy
the necessity and purposes of government (such as to What is constitutional              Union of South Africa would be         socialist
protect inalienable rights, promote the general      government? What forms              useful. The class might also be        theocratic states
welfare, resolve conflicts, promote equality, and    can a constitutional                divided into study groups to
establish justice for all). (See USHG F1.1; F1.2;    government take?                    determine the powers allotted to
8.3.2)                                                                                   elected representatives in such
                                                                                         bodies as the Japanese Diet, the
1.1.4 Explain the purposes of politics, why people                                       Isreali Kinessett, and the British
engage in the political process, and what the political                                  House of Commons.
process can achieve (e.g., promote the greater good,
promote self-interest, advance solutions to public                                       For background, the class should
issues and problems, achieve a just society). (See                                       review Article I of The Constitution
USHG F1.1; F1.2; 6.3.2; 8.3.1)                                                           and the writings of John Locke and
                                                                                         Jean Jacques Rousseau. With the
Alternative Forms of Government                                                          "pure democracy" of the New
1.2.1 Identify, distinguish among, and provide                                           England town meeting at one end
examples of different forms of governmental                                              and totalitarian dictatorship on the
structures including anarchy, monarchy, military                                         other, where does the American
junta, aristocracy, democracy, authoritarian,                                            republic stand in comparison to
constitutional republic, fascist, communist, socialist,                                  other countries in empowering its
and theocratic states.                                                                   citizens?

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            Code & Content Expectations                      Essential
                                                                                   Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                   Questions/Scaffold

1.2.2 Explain the purposes and uses of constitutions
in defining and limiting government, distinguishing
between historical and contemporary examples of
constitutional governments that failed to limit power
(e.g., Nazi Germany and Stalinist Soviet Union) and
successful constitutional governments (e.g.,
contemporary Germany and United Kingdom). (See
USHG 7.2.1; WHG 7.3)

1.2.3 Compare and contrast parliamentary, federal,
confederal, and unitary systems of government by
analyzing similarities and differences in sovereignty,
diffusion of power, and institutional structure.
(See USHG F1.1; F1.2)

1.2.4 Compare and contrast direct and representative
democracy. (See USHG F1.1; F1.2)

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                          19
Month: November/December – 3 Weeks                                                       Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 5: The Meaning, Rights, and Responsibilities of Citizenship

            Code & Content Expectations                              Essential
                                                                                                          Assessment   Vocabulary              Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                           Questions/Scaffold

The Meaning of Citizenship in the United States of           What are the personal,                                       
America                                                      political, and economic
5.1.1 Using examples, explain the idea and meaning of        rights of citizens in the
citizenship in the United States of America, and the         United States?
rights and responsibilities of American citizens (e.g.,
people participate in public life, know about the laws
that govern society, respect and obey those laws,
participate in political life, stay informed and attentive
about public issues, and voting).

5.1.2 Compare the rights of citizenship Americans have
as a member of a state and the nation.

Rights of Citizenship
5.3.1 Identify and explain personal rights (e.g., freedom
of thought, conscience, expression, association,
movement and residence, the right to privacy, personal
autonomy, due process of law, free exercise of religion,
and equal protection of the law).

5.3.2 Identify and explain political rights (e.g., freedom
of speech, press, assembly, and petition; and the right to
vote and run for public office).

5.3.3 Identify and explain economic rights (e.g., the
right to acquire, use, transfer, and dispose of property,
choose one’s work and change employment, join labor
unions and professional associations, establish and
operate a business, copyright protection, enter into
lawful contracts, and just compensation for the taking of
private property for public use).
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            Code & Content Expectations                        Essential
                                                                                     Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                     Questions/Scaffold

5.3.4 Describe the relationship between personal,
political, and economic rights and how they can
sometimes conflict.

5.3.5 Explain considerations and criteria commonly
used in determining what limits should be placed on
specific rights

5.3.6 Describe the rights protected by the First
Amendment, and using case studies and examples,
explore the limit and scope of First Amendment rights.

5.3.7 Using the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth
Amendments, describe the rights of the accused; and
using case studies and examples, explore the limit and
scope of these rights.

5.3.8 Explain and give examples of the role of the
Fourteenth Amendment in extending the protection of
individual rights against state action.

Use examples to explain why rights are not unlimited
and absolute.

Social Studies Pacing Guide – Civics                                            21
Month: December – 2 Weeks                                                              Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 6: Becoming and Dispositions of Citizenship

            Code & Content Expectations                             Essential
                                                                                                           Assessment                   Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                          Questions/Scaffold

Becoming a Citizen                                          How does one become a           Patriotism
5.2.1 Explain the distinction between citizens by           citizen in the United States?   The class will respond to the question
birth, naturalized citizens, and non-citizens.                                              “My Country, Right or Wrong?” in a
                                                                                            debate/discussion of whether patriotism
                                                            What dispositions or
                                                                                            and love of one’s country is always
5.2.2 Describe the distinction between legal and            character traits are            blind and unconditional. To prepare for
illegal immigration and the process by which legal          considered important to the     the debate, the class should consider a
immigrants can become citizens.                             preservation of American        series of historical cases in which the
                                                            constitutional government?      actions of the American government
5.2.3 Evaluate the criteria used for admission to                                           might be questioned on moral or ethical
citizenship in the United States and how Americans                                          grounds. Examples might include:
expanded citizenship over the centuries (e.g.,                                              Indian Removal, The Spanish American
removing limitations of suffrage).                                                          War, the My Lai massacre, use of Agent
                                                                                            Orange, the Golf of Tonkin Resolution,
Dispositions of Citizenship                                                                 the Alien and Sedition Acts,
                                                                                            conscientious objectors, Thoreau's night
5.5.1 Describe dispositions people think lead citizens
                                                                                            in jail, etc.
to become independent members of society (e.g., self-
discipline, self-governance, and a sense of individual                                      The purpose of the debate is to provoke
responsibility) and thought to foster respect for                                           higher level thinking about patriotism
individual worth and human dignity (e.g., respect for                                       and its connection to moral and ethical
individual rights and choice, and concern for the                                           values. For example, is it possible to be
well-being of others).                                                                      both a dissenter and a patriot? What
                                                                                            separates a patriot from a zealot? How
5.5.2 Describe the dispositions thought to encourage                                        do our traditions of individualism and
citizen involvement in public affairs (e.g., “civic                                         free speech interface with our value for
virtue” or attentiveness to and concern for public                                          patriotism and love of country?
affairs; patriotism or loyalty to values and principles
underlying American constitutional democracy) and                                           The activity could involve cluster
to facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in                                     groups which nominate representatives
public affairs (e.g., civility, respect for the rights of                                   to the class debate. The debate could
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            Code & Content Expectations                     Essential
                                                                                            Assessment                    Vocabulary   Resources
               (Disciplinary Knowledge)                 Questions/Scaffold
other individuals, respect for law, honesty, open-                           involve role playing of historical figures
mindedness, negotiation and compromise;                                      from the cases studied. Class
persistence, civic mindedness, compassion,                                   moderators and questioners would
patriotism, courage, and tolerance for ambiguity).                           supervise the debate. The teacher would
                                                                             conduct a debriefing. An essay
                                                                             assignment on the question would
5.5.3 Explain why the development of citizens as
                                                                             follow as a closure activity.
independent members of society who are respectful
of individual worth and human dignity, inclined to                           Justice
participate in public affairs, and are thoughtful and                        The class will do a comparative study of
effective in their participation, is important to the                        three historical events which involve
preservation and improvement of American                                     racial injustice and the constitutional
constitutional democracy.                                                    process of redress. These are: Indian
                                                                             removal, slavery, and Japanese-
                                                                             American internment. The class will
                                                                             research the historical context,
                                                                             constitutional issues, and
                                                                             documentation of legal redress in each
                                                                             case. Then the class will be divided into
                                                                             debate groups to define and argue key
                                                                             issues that cut across all three cases.
                                                                             The ultimate question to be determined
                                                                             is whether justice was finally meted out
                                                                             to all three oppressed groups. The
                                                                             groups must compare and contrast the
                                                                             constitutional, economic, legislative,
                                                                             and legal redress in each historical case.
                                                                             A good closure activity would be a
                                                                             position paper defending a position on
                                                                             the nature of justice and legal redress
                                                                             involving minorities in American

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Month: January – 2 Weeks                                                               Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 7: The United States of America and World Affairs

            Code & Content Expectations                             Essential
                                                                                                          Assessment           Vocabulary                   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                          Questions/Scaffold

Formation and Implementation of U.S. Foreign                How is foreign policy            Foreign Policy Simulation   covert action 
Policy                                                      formed and implemented in        diplomacy
4.1.1 Identify and evaluate major foreign policy            American constitutional                                      economic
positions that have characterized the United States’        government?                                                  military and
relations with the world (e.g., isolated nation, imperial                                                                   humanitarian aid
power, world leader) in light of foundational values and    What is the role of the                                      military intervention
principles, provide examples of how they were               United States in                                             sanctions
implemented and their consequences (e.g., Spanish-          international institutions and                               treaties
American War, Cold War containment) (See USHG               affairs?
6.2; 7.2; 8.1.2; 9.2.1).

4.1.2 Describe the process by which United States
foreign policy is made, including the powers the
Constitution gives to the president; Congress and the
judiciary; and the roles federal agencies, domestic
interest groups, the public, and the media play in
foreign policy.

4.1.3 Evaluate the means used to implement U.S.
foreign policy with respect to current or past
international issues (e.g., diplomacy, economic, military
and humanitarian aid, treaties, sanctions, military
intervention, and covert action).

4.1.4 Using at least two historical examples, explain
reasons for, and consequences of, conflicts that arise
when international disputes cannot be resolved
peacefully. (See USHG 6.2.2; 7.2; 8.1.2; 9.2.2; WHG
7.2.1; 7.2.3; 8.1.2)

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            Code & Content Expectations                           Essential
                                                                                        Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
               (Disciplinary Knowledge)                       Questions/Scaffold
U.S. Role in International Institutions and Affairs
4.2.1 Describe how different political systems interact
in world affairs with respect to international issues. (See
USHG 6.2.4)

4.2.2 Analyze the impact of American political,
economic, technological, and cultural developments on
other parts of the world (e.g., immigration policies,
economic, military and humanitarian aid, computer
technology research, popular fashion, and film). (See
USHG 6.1.4; 8.2.1)

4.2.3 Analyze the impact of political, economic,
technological, and cultural developments around the
world on the United States (e.g., terrorism, emergence
of regional organizations like the European Union,
multinational corporations, and interdependent world
economy). (See USHG 6.1.1; 9.1.1; 9.2.1)

4.2.4 Identify the purposes and functions of
governmental and non-governmental international
organizations, and the role of the United States in each
(e.g., the United Nations, NATO, World Court,
Organization of American States, International Red
Cross, Amnesty International).

4.2.5 Evaluate the role of the United States in important
bilateral and multilateral agreements (e.g., NAFTA,
Helsinki Accords, Antarctic Treaty, Most Favored
Nation Agreements, and the Kyoto Protocol).

4.2.6 Evaluate the impact of American political ideas
and values on other parts of the world (e.g., American
Revolution, fundamental values and principles
expressed in the Declaration of Independence and the
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Month: January – 2 Weeks                                                           Social Studies Pacing Guide
Unit 8: Citizenship in Action

            Code & Content Expectations                           Essential
                                                                                                    Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                        Questions/Scaffold

Civic Inquiry and Public Discourse                        How can citizens acquire
6.1.1 Identify and research various viewpoints on         information, solve
significant public policy issues.                         problems, make decisions,
                                                          and defend positions about
6.1.2 Locate, analyze, and use various forms of           public policy issues?
evidence, information, and sources about a significant
public policy issue, including primary and secondary      How can citizens participate
sources, legal documents (e.g., Constitutions, court      in civic life?
decisions, state law), non-text based information
(e.g., maps, charts, tables, graphs, and cartoons), and
other forms of political communication (e.g., oral
political cartoons, campaign advertisements, political
speeches, and blogs).

6.1.3 Develop and use criteria (e.g., logical validity,
factual accuracy and/or omission, emotional appeal,
credibility, unstated assumptions, logical fallacies,
inconsistencies, distortions, and appeals to bias or
prejudice, overall strength of argument) in analyzing
evidence and position statements.

6.1.4 Address a public issue by suggesting alternative
solutions or courses of action, evaluating the
consequences of each, and proposing an action to
address the issue or resolve the problem.

6.1.5 Make a persuasive, reasoned argument on a
public issue and support using evidence (e.g.,
historical and contemporary examples), constitutional
principles, and fundamental values of American
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            Code & Content Expectations                         Essential
                                                                                      Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
               (Disciplinary Knowledge)                     Questions/Scaffold
constitutional democracy; explain the stance or

Participating in Civic Life
6.2.1 Describe the relationship between politics and
the attainment of individual and public goals (e.g.,
how individual interests are fulfilled by working to
achieve collective goals).

6.2.2 Distinguish between and evaluate the
importance of political participation and social

6.2.3 Describe how, when, and where individuals can
participate in the political process at the local, state,
and national levels (including, but not limited to
voting, attending political and governmental
meetings, contacting public officials, working in
campaigns, community organizing, demonstrating or
picketing, boycotting, joining interest groups or
political action committees); evaluate the
effectiveness of these methods of participants.

6.2.4 Participate in a real or simulated election, and
evaluate the results, including the impact of voter
turnout and demographics.

6.2.5 Describe how citizen movements seek to realize
fundamental values and principles of American
constitutional democracy.

6.2.6 Analyze different ways people have used civil
disobedience, the different forms civil disobedience
might take (e.g., violent and non-violent) and their
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            Code & Content Expectations                        Essential
                                                                                     Assessment   Vocabulary   Resources
              (Disciplinary Knowledge)                     Questions/Scaffold

6.2.7 Participate in a service-learning project, reflect
upon experiences, and evaluate the value of the
experience to the American ideal of participation.

6.2.8 Describe various forms and functions of
political leadership and evaluate the characteristics of
an effective leader.

6.2.9 Evaluate the claim that constitutional
democracy requires the participation of an attentive,
knowledgeable, and competent citizenry.

6.2.10 Participate in a real or simulated public
hearing or debate and evaluate the role of deliberative
public discussions in civic life.

6.2.11 Identify typical issues, needs, or concerns of
citizens (e.g., seeking variance, zoning changes,
information about property taxes), and actively
demonstrate ways citizens might use local
governments to resolve issues or concerns.

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