Prepare a checklist of vital information for your company's appointed fire wardens with this Firefighting & Fire Safety Essentials guide.
This Fire Safety guide can provide your fire wardens with a better understanding of:
- the combustion process,
- different classes of fires,
- various types of fire extinguishers,
- what type of fire each extinguisher is designed for,
- how to use each type of extinguisher,
- how to ensure that the extinguisher is maintained in a usable condition.
This Firefighting & Fire Safety Essentials Guide is provided in MS Word format and is fully editable.
We’ve Got It! www.megadox.com ESSENTIALS IN FIRE FIGHTING AND SAFETY 1. Definition of Fire vs. Combustion (a) Fire is a result of a rapid combustion reaction. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (b) Combustion is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation of a fuel, which produces heat and light. 2. Heat Transfer (a) Laws of heat flow state that heat tends to flow from a hot substance to a cold substance. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (b) Heat can travel through a burning structure by one or more of three methods: (i) conduction - direct contact or with a medium (ii) convection - movement of air or liquid (iii) radiation - heat transfer in waves where matter doesn’t exist. 3. Fuels (a) Fuels are found in the 3 stages of matter: (i) solids; (ii) liquids; (iii) gases. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (b) Only gases burn. 4. Phases of Fire (a) Incipient phase: earliest phase beginning with actual ignition. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (b) Rollover phase: also known as flameover. Takes place when unburned gases accumulate at the ceiling level. (c) Steady state phase: occurs when enough oxygen and fuel are available for fire growth. (d) Flashover phase: occurs when flames flash over the entire room or area. (e) Hot smoldering phase: occurs when flames cease if in an air-tight confinement. Back draft can occur during this phase. (f) Back draft can be the most hazardous condition a fire fighter will ever face. Characteristics of potential back draft: (i) pressurized smoke exiting a small opening; (ii) black smoke becoming dense yellow gray; (iii) little or no visible flame; (iv) smoke leaving the building in puffs or at intervals; (v) smoke-stained windows; (vi) muffled sounds; (vii) sudden rapid movement of air when an opening is made. 5. Fire Extinguishment Theory (a) Reduction of temperature Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (b) Removal of fuel (c) Exclusion of oxygen (d) Inhibition of chain reaction -2- 6. Portable Extinguishers (a) Classified A, B, C and D according to their intended use on the 4 classes of fires: Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (i) A and B have numerical ratings (ii) C rating means non-conductive (iii) D extinguishers have effectiveness on face plate (iv) Most common type are dry chemical (v) Dry powder is for Type D fires Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (b) Type A Extinguisher: (i) Rated from 1-A to 40-A. (ii) 1-A means the extinguisher contains 1 1/4 gallons of water or 5 liters or dry chemical equivalent. (iii) 2-A means extinguisher contains twice as much as 1-A or 2 1/2 gallons or 10 liters or dry chemical equivalent. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (c) Type B Extinguisher rated from 1-B to 640-B: (i) Rating based on extinguishing ability of square sheet pans of N-Heptane a flammable liquid. (ii) Rating based on non-expert’s ability to extinguish a square footage of burning N- Heptane. (iii) Example of rating system - an expert can extinguish 150 sq. ft. of N-Heptane. A non- expert can extinguish 40% or 60 sq. ft., thus the extinguisher is listed as a 60-B extinguisher. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (d) Type C Extinguisher means non-conducting. (e) Type D Extinguishers are available in two types - hand carried and wheeled: (i) Hand carried up to 30 lb. of dry powder. (ii) Wheeled models from 150 - 350 lb. (iii) Agent used is sodium chloride (table salt) with flow enhancers and thermoplastic materials that enhance crusting. (iv) Cover burning metal with 1-2 inches of material. Formatted: Bullets and Numbering (f) Use the PASS system with all portable extinguishers: (i) P means PULL THE PIN. (ii) A means AIM. (iii) S means SQUEEZE THE HANDLE. (iv) S means SWEEP T
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