Tactical-Standing-Operating-Procedures by freedomguide

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									     st            th
    1 Battalion 104 Aviation
Pennsylvania Army National Guard

   Tactical Standing Operating
            Procedures
            (TACSOP)




          1 November 2002
                                                    Table of Contents
                                                                      Zone Reconnaissance...................................76
                                                                      Area Reconnaissance ...................................76
Table of Contents                                               i     Route Reconnaissance .................................77
                                                                      Video Reconnaissance .................................78
                                                                      The Enemy ...................................................79
Mission                                                        1
 Mission Statement..........................................1        Sustainment                                                   82
 Mission Essential Task List (METL).............1
 Tactical Leader Roles ....................................1          TAA Operations...........................................82
 Tactical Missions ...........................................5       FARP Operations .........................................99
 Operations and their Forms............................6              NBC Operations.........................................107
 Command Relationships ................................9
                                                                     Recovery                                                   115
Preparation                                                 10        Recovery Sequence....................................115
 Mission Planning .........................................10         Recovery Matrix ........................................118
 OPORD Issue...............................................14         Company Mission Debrief.........................119
 FRAGO Format ...........................................18           After Action Review (AAR)......................120
 Company Planning Cells..............................26
 Company Mission Briefing Outline.............28
                                                                     Hand & Arm Signals                                         121
 Rehearsals ....................................................31
 Uniforms (F Shown) ....................................34
 Packing Lists................................................35
 Individual Precombat Operations ................36                  LNO                                                        123
 Aircraft Precombat Operations ....................38                 Roles, Responsibilities, Procedures ...........123
 REDCON Levels .........................................39            Maneuver RFI Checklist ............................124
 Attack Warnings ..........................................40         Fires RFI Checklist ....................................127
 Graphical Naming Conventions...................41                    Intelligence RFI Checklist .........................128
                                                                      Logistics RFI Checklist..............................129
  Execution                                                 43
 Convoy Operations ......................................43          OPSEC                                                      130
 Convoy Procedures ......................................46           General.......................................................130
 TAA Occupation..........................................51           EEFI ...........................................................131
 Bug Out........................................................51    Combat Media Operations .........................131
 Air Operations Enroute ................................52
 Actions on the Objective..............................60
 TAA Occupation..........................................66          Signal                                                     133
 HA Occupation ............................................67         Responsibilities ..........................................133
 Fire Support .................................................68     Operations ..................................................133
 JAAT Operations .........................................72          Fixed Callsigns...........................................135
 Airborne Assault Security............................75



                                                                                                                                       i
     Commo Check ...........................................135                 S .................................................................187
     Laser Codes................................................137             T .................................................................188
     Ground Radio Checklists ...........................138                     W................................................................188
     Aircraft Radio Checklists...........................140                    Z .................................................................188


Safety                                                             146         Acronyms                                                       189
     Risk Management ......................................146                  A.................................................................189
     METT-T Factors for Mission Risk                                            B.................................................................189
     Assessments ...............................................148             C.................................................................189
     Fratricide Prevention..................................150                 D.................................................................190
     Ground Risk Assessment. ..........................152                      E .................................................................190
                                                                                F .................................................................190
                                                                                G.................................................................190
Reports                                                            159          H.................................................................190
     Administrative Reports ..............................159                   I ..................................................................191
     Tactical Reports .........................................176              J ..................................................................191
                                                                                K.................................................................191
                                                                                L .................................................................191
Glossary                                                           177          M ................................................................191
     A.................................................................177      N.................................................................191
     B.................................................................178      O.................................................................191
     C.................................................................179      P .................................................................192
     D.................................................................180      R.................................................................192
     E .................................................................181     S .................................................................192
     F .................................................................181     T .................................................................192
     H.................................................................182      U.................................................................192
     I ..................................................................182    V.................................................................193
     K.................................................................183      W................................................................193
     L .................................................................183     Z .................................................................193
     M ................................................................183
     N.................................................................184     Index                                                          194
     O.................................................................184
     P .................................................................185
     R.................................................................185




ii
                                                                                           MISSION




                                                                           Mission
Mission Statement
(1) Federal: 1-104th AVN on order mobilizes and deploys to a forward area of operation to destroy
enemy armor, mechanized, and other forces using fire and maneuver in support of 28th ID (M). On
order, conducts Stability Support Operations (SSO) to include federal disaster or emergency assistance
operations.

(2) State: On order of the Governor of Pennsylvania, 1-104th Avn mobilizes and deploys to provide for
or to assist in the re-establishment of the protection of life, property, and the preservation of peace,
order, and public safety. On order assist other agencies in emergency mitigation and recovery
operations.


Mission Essential Task List (METL)
•   Conduct Deployment Operations
•   Conduct Tactical Movement / Occupy an Assembly Area (AA)
•   Conduct Attack Operations
•   Conduct Sustainment Operations
•   Conduct Command and Control
•   Conduct Military Support Operations


Tactical Leader Roles
Battalion Commander
Responsible for the overall success of attack helicopter operations. He receives the mission from higher
headquarters, decides how battalion assets are to be used, and directs the execution of plans. The
commander must position himself during both planning and execution phases to ensure the success of
the mission. The Battalion Commander maintains control and directs action by:
• Issuing specific orders.
• Allocating available resources to accomplish the tasks.
• Issuing a concept to the staff that specifies and assigns essential tasks.
• Developing an estimate based on METT-T.
• Establishes SOPs to ensure personnel accomplish routine tasks and operations.




                                                                                                       1
                                                                                          MISSION



Executive Officer (XO)
The principal assistant to the commander. Although the XO may assume command in the absence of the
commander, he is not in the chain of command. He operates as the chief of the staff and coordinates all
their activities. Normally responsible for controlling the main command post during the battle. Ensures
coordination between the main CP, TAC, and other subordinate CPs. Located in the ALOC when no
battle is in progress.

Command Sergeant Major (CSM)
Advises the Battalion Commander on matters concerning the soldiers of the unit. The CSM focuses on
any function critical to the success of the operation. The CSM:
• Focuses on soldier and soldier support matters; monitor unit moral.
• May act as liaison, lead advance or quartering parties, and monitor key defensive preparations.
• Assists the XO in coordinating the battalion CSS effort.
• Executes policies and standards on performance, training, appearance, conduct of enlisted personnel.
• Maintains communications and provides counsel and guidance to NCOs and enlisted personnel.
• Performs other duties as assigned by the commander.


LNO
Conduct liaison with other maneuver units, ensuring that the battalion is properly employed and
synchronized into the battle. The Liaison Officer must understand the commander’s intent, must be
proficient in attack helicopter operations, must know the unit’s capabilities and limitations, and must
ensure that the following tasks are accomplished :
• Know the status and availability of aircraft.
• Advise the supported commander on matters concerning the employment of attack helicopter assets.
• Ensure proper integration of the battalion within the scheme of maneuver, recommending courses of
   action that are within the capabilities of the battalion.
• Keep the commander abreast of current situation and information that projects the enemy’s likely
   COA.
                                 2 2
• Coordinate with the force A C element on the status of tactical operations, the location and status of
   battalion assets, and all other information that effects the use of airspace.

S1
Collocates with S4 in the ALOC. Responsible for all matters and issues relating to personnel in the
battalion. The S1:
• Prepares the personnel estimate.
• Determines individual replacement requirements.
• Monitors unit strength and estimates personnel losses.
• Plans and supervises logistical and administrative services.
• Prepares and coordinates medical and casualty evacuation plans.
• Coordinates religious, legal, finance, and public affairs support.


S2
Normally operates from the TOC or TAC (see page 83) where communication assets are available for
coordinating surveillance and reconnaissance activities and updating the current situation. The S2:




2
                                                                                                           MISSION



•   Provides weather information.
•   Prepares analysis of the area of operations and area of influence.
•   Computes enemy strength and determines order of battle.
•   Prepares intelligence and counterintelligence estimates.
•   Develops IPB, PIRs, and reconnaissance and surveillance plans.
•   Is the primary battle tracker and forecaster of enemy intentions.
•   Provides input to regiment and higher reconnaissance and surveillance collection plans.
•   Primary coordinator for force protection.

S3
The operations officer is the commander’s principal assistant for coordinating and planning operations.
Monitors current and future operations, ensuring essential combat assets are provided when and where
required and anticipates developing situations and missions. Depending on mission execution, may
locate forward with the commander or may position himself as required to facilitate C2. The S3:
• Integrates fire support.
• Prepares operations estimates.
• Establishes communications priorities.
• Coordinates and publishes OPLANs, OPORDs, and FRAGOs.
• Selects the general locations of the TOC (see page 83), TAC, and other subordinate CPs.
• Plans and supervises electronic warfare activities and PSYOPS and OPSEC.
• Monitors and controls battalion and company tactical operations.
• Develops and supervises training programs.
• Develops deception plans and requirements.
• Advises the commander on combat operations.


S4
Collocates with the S1 in the ALOC (see ALOC on page 89). Initiates timely actions to support the commander’s intent.
Provides the commander with information on all logistics matters. Coordinates with Brigade S4 on the status of equipment,
supplies, and future requirements. The S4:
• Prepares logistics estimates.
• Recommends main supply routes.
• Maintains supply and maintenance status.
• Plans and controls administrative movements.
• Plans for supply and maintenance requirements. Procures, receives, stores, and distributes supplies.
• Establishes combat service support priorities with the S3.
• Prepares logistics orders, plans, annexes, and paragraph IV of OPORDs and OPLANs.

Attack Company Commander (CCDR)
Responsible for everything the company does or fails to do. He fights the battle. The commander
establishes attack priorities, plans and directs fire distribution, and controls supporting fires. Operates
from an attack aircraft and maneuvers assets during an engagement. The attack CCDR:
• Receives the mission from the battalion.
• Task-organizes the company (see page 8).
• Provides detailed planning guidance to crews.
• Coordinates with supported units.
• Confirms BPs/SBFs/ABFs for company and selects ones for platoons/teams.



                                                                                                                        3
                                                                                            MISSION



•   Plans routes to the holding and objective areas
•   Coordinates indirect fire support and CAS.
•   Keeps the battalion informed through SITREP, SPOT, and BDA reports.
•   Plans for local security in the TAA, FAA, HA, enroute, and in the objective area.
•   Plans the engagement from the BP/SBF/ABF and makes a detailed preparation of the EA.
•   Controls the JAAT.
•   Controls company fires.
•   Coordinates battle handover and receives a briefing from the unit to be relieved (see page 64).
•   Briefs the incoming CCDR during relief on station.
•   Maneuvers the company to the FARP and controls refueling and rearming operations.
•   Conducts the debriefing (see page 119).
•   Prepares for future operations.

First Sergeant (1SG)
•   Assist the commander, at his direction, to execute missions.
•   Assist in planning company missions.
•   Task organizes the company.
•   Sets the company's perimeter defense.
•   Collates, tracks, and submits all company field reports (see page 159).
•   Serves as serial convoy commander.
•   Coordinates for Class 1 supply availability.
•   Coordinates guard force.
•   Executes established policies and standards on performance, training, appearance and conduct of
    enlisted personnel.
•   Plans required training.
•   Prepares for future operations

Aircrew
Attack helicopter aircrews destroy enemy forces and their supporting systems. They see the battlefield,
find the enemy, coordinate its destruction, and provide security against ground and air threats. Aircrews:
• Request and adjust indirect fires and CAS.
• Provide early warning and confirm BPs/SBFs/ABFs.
• Coordinate operations and develop the enemy situation.
• Assist the CCDR in controlling JAAT operations.
• Conduct target handovers.
• Maintain enemy contact during movement in the objective area.
• Acquire, identify, report, designate, and engage targets.
• Provide local security and protection from air threats during engagements.
• Select firing positions that satisfy BRASSCRAF.
• Move to alternate positions for reengagement/survivability.
• Move to successive or supplementary positions or HAs, or return to FARP.




4
                                                                                             MISSION



Platoon Leader
Responsible for leading their platoons. When the platoon is task-organized, he controls the task-
organized platoon or team. Platoon leaders:
• Assist in planning company missions.
• Control the fire and maneuver of their platoons or teams.
• Fight their own aircraft.
• Assist the CCDR, at his direction, to execute missions.
• Ensure that proper radio operating procedures are used.
• Ensure that flight records are properly maintained.
• Maintain control of the TOC environment by limiting personnel access.
• Ensure that situation and operations maps are posted and updated in a timely manner.


Tactical Missions
The primary mission of an attack helicopter battalion is to destroy enemy forces using fire, maneuver,
and shock effect. The battalion attacks the enemy to destroy, attrit, disrupt or delay. It may also conduct
other offensive operations, as well as reconnaissance, security, and defensive operations (see Operations
and their Forms on page 6). Based on each individual threat, the S2 determines the % destruction
required for both battlefield calculus purposes and for determining success for each of the following
missions.

Attack to Destroy
This is a high-risk mission. The battalion uses direct and indirect fires to physically render an enemy
force combat-ineffective unless it is reconstituted. To accomplish this mission, the battalion must accept
a substantial risk that may cause it to become combat-ineffective upon the completion of the attack.

Attack to Attrit
This is a high- to medium-risk mission. The battalion uses direct and indirect fires to reduce the
effectiveness of an enemy force caused by loss of personnel and materiel. The greater the enemy force
that the battalion must attrit, the greater the risk the commander must accept.

Attack to Delay
This is a medium- to high-risk mission. The battalion uses direct and indirect fires to engage the enemy,
understanding that the destruction of the force is secondary to slowing his advance to gain time. The
battalion attacks to delay the enemy’s use of a geographic area for a specific period of time. The risk that
the commander accepts is determined by the amount of time that the battalion must delay, location of the
enemy, and the type of force encountered.

Attack to Disrupt
This is a medium- to low-risk mission. The battalion uses direct and indirect fires to break apart an
enemy’s formation and tempo, interrupt his time table, cause premature commitment of forces, and/or
piecemeal their attack. The commander sets the amount of risk based on the friendly loss he is willing to
accept, the location of the attack, or the number of attacks that will be made.




                                                                                                         5
                                                                                             MISSION



Operations and their Forms
Offense
ATTACK:
HASTY ATTACK
Preparation time is traded for speed to exploit an opportunity.
DELIBERATE ATTACK
Characterized by preplanned, coordinated employment of fires, and movement to close with and destroy
the enemy.
SPOILING ATTACK
Launched from a defensive posture in order to disrupt an expected enemy attack (may be hasty or
deliberate).
COUNTERATTACK
Conducted with either reserve or lightly committed forces against the enemy after he has committed his
forces.
RAID
Swift penetrations of hostile territory to secure information, confuse the enemy, or destroy installations
or forces.
FEINT AND DEMONSTRATION
A feint is designed to divert the enemy's attention from the main effort. A demonstration is a show of
force in an area where a decision is sought.
MOVEMENT TO CONTACT
Used to develop the situation, establish, or regain enemy contact.
PURSUIT
An offensive action used against a retreating enemy force.
EXPLOITATION

An attacker extends the destruction of the defending force by maintaining offensive pressure on the
enemy.
Defense
MOBILE
A mobile defense orients on the defeat or destruction of the enemy force by allowing it to advance to a
point where it is exposed to a decisive attack.
AREA
Orients on denying enemy designated terrain.
Reconnaissance
ROUTE
Obtains information on a specified route.



6
                                                                                           MISSION



AREA
Obtains information concerning the terrain and/or enemy forces within a prescribed area.
ZONE
Obtains information concerning all routes, obstacles, terrain, and/or enemy forces within a defined zone.
RECONNAISSANCE IN FORCE
Conducted when commanders cannot obtain adequate intelligence by other means.
Security
SCREEN
Maintains surveillance to provide early warning by maintaining contact with the enemy forces that have
been encountered. Impedes and harasses the enemy with organic and supporting fires and within its
capability destroys or repels enemy patrols.
GUARD
Gains early warning, reaction time and maneuver space to the front, flank or rear of a moving or
stationary force. Reconnoiters, screens, attacks and defends to accomplish the mission.
AREA
Unit is tasked to protect convoys, facilities, and MSR critical points.
AIR ASSAULT SECURITY
Conducted during air assault operations to protect the assaulting force.
Retrograde
DELAY
Mission that trades space for time, retaining flexibility and freedom of action.
WITHDRAWAL
A planned, voluntary disengagement that anticipates enemy interference.




                                                                                                       7
                                                                                            MISSION




Attack Company Organization
The following methods are the standard throughout the battalion. This allows ease of integration of
elements of one company into another.
General
Based on METT-T, the maneuver CDR will task-organize his company using a variation of one of the
two following methods. For team and company formations, see Air Operations Enroute on page 52).

Lead/Wingman Teams




      Red Team                                White Team                            Blue Team

Three, two-ship L/W teams, provide security, facilitate C2 and flexibility. If the company organizes in
this manner, the battalion standard names (shown below) will be used.
• Red team, the lead team, is led by the scout platoon leader.
• White team is led by the CCDR.
• Blue team is led by the attack platoon leader.
This organization type is best employed when the enemy situation is vague, as with; movement to
contact, security, reconnaissance, and search and attack missions.

Light/Heavy Teams




      Light Team                                                  Heavy Team

The terms “light” and “heavy” refer to the mission and weapons load of the aircraft, not the number of
aircraft in the team. CCDRs may decide it is advantageous to evenly divide the number of aircraft
between teams.
• Light aircraft are normally fitted with rockets. The scout platoon is the light team leader.
• Heavy team may be Hellfire pure. The attack platoon leader is the heavy team leader.
• The CCDR locates where he can best control the fight.
This type is best employed during deliberate attacks and when the enemy situation is relatively certain.




8
                                                                                              MISSION




Command Relationships
Command relationships determine the logistical support, UCMJ authority, command authority, and the
level at which task organizing may take occur.

Organic
Personnel and equipment that are a permanent part of a unit listed in its table of organization.

Assigned
Relatively permanent, and/or where that organization controls and administers the units or personnel for
the primary function, or greater portion of the functions of the unit or personnel.

Attached
Relatively temporary. The detailing of individuals to specific function where such functions are
secondary or relatively temporary. Subject to limitations imposed by the attachment order. The receiving
unit has the responsibility to provide the attached units with sustainment support above its organic
capability. However, the responsibility for transfer, promotion of personnel, UCMJ, and SIDPERS
transactions and unit strength reporting are normally retained by the parent unit.

OPCON
Operational Control. Transferable command authority that may be exercised by commanders at any
echelon at or below the level of combatant command. Includes authoritative direction over all aspect of
military operations and joint training to accomplish missions assigned to the command. Normally
provides full authority to task-organize the OPCONed units. Does not, in itself, include authoritative
direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit training.

TACON
Tactical control allows commanders below combatant command level to apply force and direct the
tactical use of logistics assets but does not provide authority to change organizational structure or direct
administrative and logistical support.




                                                                                                           9
                                                                                         MISSION




                                                            Preparation
Mission Planning
The military decision-making process (MDMP) has seven steps. There are four techniques to save time.
• The commander can make decisions during the process without waiting for briefings after each step.
• The commander can become more directive in his guidance, limiting options.
• The commander can limit the number of COAs during wargaming.
• Maximize parallel planning—Issue a verbal WARNO at the earliest opportunity.


Sequence
1.   Receipt of mission.
2.   Mission analysis.
3.   Course of action development.
4.   Course of action analysis.
5.   Course of action comparison.
6.   Course of action approval.
7.   Orders production.

Receipt of Mission
This can come from either an order issued by higher or derived from an ongoing operation.
Initial Assessment
1. Determine time available from mission receipt to mission execution.
2. Determine time to plan, prepare for, and execute mission for own and subordinate units.
3. Determine IPB.
4. Determine staff estimates already available to assist planning.
5. Ambient light requirements for planning, rehearsals, and movement.
6. Staff experience, cohesiveness, and level of rest or stress.

Commander’s Initial Guidance
1.   How to abbreviate the MDMP, if required.
2.   Initial time allocation.
3.   Liaison officers to dispatch.
4.   Initial reconnaissance to begin.
5.   Authorize movement.
6.   Assign the staff required additional tasks.
Issue WARNO 1



10
                                                                               MISSION




Mission Analysis
Analyze higher headquarters’ order          Conduct a mission analysis briefing
                                            1. Mission and intent two levels up.
Conduct initial IPB                         2. Mission, intent, concept of the operation,
                                                and deception plan or objective one level up.
Determine tasks
                                            3. Review of commander’s initial guidance.
1) Specified.
                                            4. Initial IPB products.
2) Implied.
                                            5. Specified, implied, essential tasks.
3) Essential.
                                            6. Constraints.
Review available assets                     7. Forces available.
                                            8. Hazards and their risks.
Determine constraints                       9. Recommended initial CCIR.
                                            10. Recommended timelines.
Identify critical facts and assumptions     11. Recommended restated mission.
Conduct risk assessment                     Approve the restated mission
Determine initial CCIR                      Develop the initial commander’s intent
1. PIR.
   a. Maneuver.                             Issue the commander’s guidance
   b. Logistics                             1.  Specific COAs to consider and their priority.
2. EEFI.                                    2.  The CCIR.
3. FFIR.                                    3.  Reconnaissance guidance.
                                            4.  Risk guidance.
Determine the initial recon annex           5.  Fire support guidance.
1. Area of operations.                      6.  Security measures to be implemented.
2. Mission statement.                       7.  Additional CS and CSS priorities.
3. Task-organization.                       8.  Time plan.
4. Reconnaissance objective.                9.  Type of order to issue.
5. PIR and FFIR.                            10. Type of rehearsals to conduct.
6. LD and LC times.
7. Initial NAIs.                            Issue WARNO 2
8. Routes to AO and passage of lines.       1. Restated mission.
9. Commo and Logistics support.             2. Commander’s intent.
10. Fire support measures.                  3. Unit AO.
11. Medical evacuation.                     4. CCIR.
                                            5. Risk guidance.
Plan use of available time                  6. Recon initiated by subordinate units.
                                            7. Security measures.
Write the restated mission
                                            8. Deception guidance.
1. Who will execute the action?
                                            9. Specific priorities.
2. What type of action (essential tasks)?
                                            10. Time plan.
3. Where will the action occur?
                                            11. Guidance on rehearsals.
4. How will the commander employ assets?
5. Why will each force conduct its part?    Review facts and assumption




                                                                                        11
                                                                                PREPARATION



Course of Action Development
Sequence                                              Criteria
1. Analyze relative combat power.                     •   Suitability.
2. Generate options.                                  •   Feasibility.
3. Array initial forces.                              •   Acceptability.
4. Develop the scheme of maneuver.                    •   Distinguishability.
5. Assign headquarters.                               •   Completeness.
6. Prepare COA statements and sketches.

Analyze Relative Combat Power
1. What friendly capabilities pertain?                4. What additional resources may be required
2. What type operations may be possible from             to execute the mission?
   both friendly and enemy perspectives?              5. How should we allocate existing resources?
3. How and where is the enemy vulnerable?
Generate Options
Array Initial Forces
1. Consider restated mission and higher’s intent and guidance.
2. Consider friendly/enemy air/ground avenues of approach.
3. Consider as a minimum most likely and worst case COAs.

Develop the Scheme of Maneuver
1. Purpose of the operation.                          8. Reconnaissance and security operations.
2. A statement of where the commander will            9. An outline of the movements of the force.
   accept tactical risk.                              10. Identification of maneuver options that may
3. Identification of critical friendly events and         develop during and operation.
   phases of the operation.                           11. Location of engagement areas.
4. Designation of the main effort, along with         12. Responsibilities for AOs.
   its task and purpose.                              13. Concept of fires.
5. Designation of supporting effort, linked to        14. C2 attack priorities.
   how they support the main effort.                  15. Prescribed formations.
6. Designation of reserve, to include location,       16. CS and CSS priorities.
   composition, task, and purpose.                    17. Integration of obstacle effects with
7. Deep, close, and rear operations.                      maneuver and fires.
Assign Headquarters
Prepare COA Statements and Sketches
1.   Unit boundaries.                                 9. Location of CPs.
2.   Unit formations (not subordinate units)          10. Known or templated enemy locations.
3.   FEBA or LD/LC and phase lines.
4.   R&S graphics.
5.   Ground/air axes of advance.
6.   TAA, BPs, EAs, objectives.
7.   Fire support coordination measures.
8.   Designation of main and supporting efforts.



12
                                                                                   PREPARATION




Course of Action Analysis
Identifies which COA accomplishes the mission with minimum casualties while best positioning the
force to retain the initiative for future operations. It helps the commander and his staff to:
• Determine how to maximize combat power against the enemy while protecting the friendly forces
    and minimizing collateral damage.
• Have as near an identical vision of the battle as possible.
• Anticipate battlefield events.
• Determine conditions and resources required for success.
• Determine when and where to apply the force’s capabilities.
• Focus IPB on enemy strengths, weaknesses, center of gravity desired endstate, and decisive points.
• Identify the coordination requirements to produce synchronized results.
• Determine the most flexible course of action.
Wargaming Steps
1. Gather the tools.
2. List all friendly forces.
3. List assumptions.
4. List known critical events and decision points.
5. Determine evaluation criteria.
6. Select the wargaming method.
7. Select a method to record and display results.
8. Wargame the battle and assess the results.


Course of Action Comparison
Each staff officer analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of each COA from his
perspective. They present their findings for the other’s consideration. Using the evaluation criteria
developed in the analysis phase, the staff compares feasible COAs to identify the one that has the
highest probability of success against the most likely as well as the most dangerous enemy COA. The
selected COA should:
• Pose the minimum risk to soldiers, equipment, and mission accomplishment.
• Best position the force for future operations.
• Provide the best flexibility to meet “unknowns” during execution.
• Provide maximum latitude for initiative by subordinates.


Course of Action Approval
At the decision briefing, the commander decides on the COA he believes to be the most advantageous.
Having identified the risks associated with the selected COA, the commander decides what level of
residual risk he will accept to accomplish the mission and approves control measures that will reduce the
risks. He must obtain higher commanders’ approval to accept any risk that might imperil the higher
commanders’ intent.
Issue WARNO 3
Based on the commander’s decision, the staff immediately issues a warning order.




                                                                                                    13
                                                                   PREPARATION




OPORD Issue
Attendees
CDR, XO, CCDRs, Staff, S-3A, TACOPS, SIGO, CHEMO, EWO, SIP, ASO, CSM.
SequenceS3.
    a. Roll call.
    b. Packet review.
    c. Mission.
    d. Map orientation.
    e. Task organization.
2. S2.
    a. Time hack.
    b. Enemy situation.
    c. Weather analysis.
3. EWO: Countermeasures.
4. S3.
    a. Friendly situation.
    b. Commander’s intent.
    c. Concept of the Operation.
5. FSO: Fire support.
6. S3.
    a. Coordinating instructions.
    b. Command.
7. SIGO: Signal.
8. S4: Logistics.
9. S1.
    a. CASEVAC.
    b. DART plan.
    c. Personnel replacements.
10. ASO: Safety.
11. CDR: Comments.




14
                                                                               PREPARATION




OPORD Format
                                                                       Copy No      of    Copies
                                                                               th
                                                                       HQ, 104 AHB
                                                                       Johnstown, PA 15902-7201
                                                                       DTG: XXXXXXXXXXX

OPORD 03-XX HQ, 1-104th AHB

References
Time Zone Used Throughout The Order: Romeo.

Task Organization. Annex A (Task Organization).

1. SITUATION.
   a. Enemy Forces. Annex B (Intelligence)
   b. Friendly Forces.
       (1) Current Disposition. Annex C (Operations Overlay) (Include LRSD, ADA, GLLD)
       (2) Higher Headquarters. (2 levels up)
           (a) Mission.
           (b) Intent.
       (3) Adjacent Units. (Left, Right, Rear - 2 levels up)
           (a) Mission.
           (b) Intent.
       (4) Supported Commander.
           (a) Mission.
           (b) Intent.
           (c) Concept of the Operation.
   c. Attachments and detachments.

2. MISSION. Who [1-104th ], what [conducts hasty/deliberate attack], where [along Route into EA;]
when [NLT, H-Hour, O/O], why [to destroy, attrit, disrupt] what [enemy].

3. EXECUTION:
   Commander's Intent. (Purpose, Endstate)
   a. Concept of the Operation. Annex W (Timeline/Synchronization Matrix)
       (1) Maneuver.
           (a) Ground. (Convoy, Assembly Area/ FARP occupation)
           (b) Air. (Movement, FLOT crossing, attack sequence, handover, FARP ops, endstate)
       (2) Fires: Concept of fire support, units, equipment, location, callsigns, frequencies.

   b. Task to subordinate units.
       (1) A Company.




                                                                                                 15
                                                                          PREPARATION



       (2) B Company.
       (3) C Company.
   c. Task to combat support units.
       (4) D Company.
       (5) HHC.
   d. Coordinating instructions.
       (1) Timeline.                                            Recovery Airfield, EA Sketch,
           (a) Order Effective Time.                            HAs, TRPs, Graphics (FS,
           (b) RFR.                                             FLOT, A2C2, IFF On/Off).
           (c) FFR.                                         (b) Doppler Card; ACPs, PP, A/S
           (d) Weather Decision.                            (c) Flight Following Duties.
           (e) AAR.                                         (d) Flight Plans. Per SOP.
       (2) Uniform. Per SOP                                 (e) SAAFRs Updates.
       (3) MOPP/OEG.                                    (13) Actions on Contact Enroute.
       (4) Special Mission Equipment.                   (14) Lead Change.
       (5) Aircraft Loads.                              (15) Rules of Engagement.
       (6) ADA Warning and Weapon Status.               (16) Anti-Fratricide Measures.
       (7) Mission Abort Criteria.                      (17) Target Priorities.
       (8) Bump Plan.                                   (18) Engagement Priorities.
       (9) ASE Employment.                              (19) Risk management.
       (10) Lighting Configurations.                    (20) Relief On Station.
       (11) CCIRs.                                      (21) CSAR.
           (a) PIRs.                                    (22) DART.
           (b) EEFIs.                                   (23) Aircraft Destruction Criteria.
           (c) FFIRs.                                   (24) FARP Operations.
       (12) Flight Coordination.                        (25) Assembly Area Operations.
           (a) Flight Rtes, Coordination                (26) NBC.
               Altitude, IMC Base Altitude,
4. SERVICE SUPPORT: See Annex I (Service Support).

5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL.
   a. Command.
      (1) Locations of: BNCDR, XO, S3.
      (2) CP Locations.
      (3) Succession of Command. BNCDR, XO, S-3, Senior CCDR.
      (4) Command Relationships. (Current, Future)
   b. Signal .
      (1) Current SOI in effect.                       (7) Required Calls.
      (2) Commo Cards day in effect.                   (8) Lost Commo Procedures.
      (3) Variables. (IFF, KYK-13, ECCM)               (9) Reporting Procedures.
      (4) ITO/ATO & SPINS.                             (10) MSE Operations.
      (5) LASER Codes: (GLID, USAF).                   (11) Drop Lines.
      (6) NAVAIDS.                                     (13) Retrans: (Location, Time)




16
                                                                   PREPARATION




ACKNOWLEDGE:


                                          (NAME)
                                          (RANK)
OFFICIAL:

(NAME)
(POSITION)
ANNEXES:
Annex A       (Task Organization)              Appendix 4 (Legal)
Annex B (Intelligence)                         Appendix 5 (Religious Support)
   Appendix 1 (Intelligence Estimate)       Annex J (NBC Operations)
      Tab A (MCOO)                          Annex K (Provost Marshal)
      Tab B (Enemy Situation Template)      Annex L (Reconnaissance and Surveillance
      Tab C (Analysis of AO)                Operations)
   Appendix 2 (Threat ID)                   Annex M (Deep Operations)
Annex C (Operation Overlay)                 Annex N (Rear Operations)
Annex D (Fire Support)                      Annex O (Airspace Command and Control)
   Appendix 1 (Air Support)                 Annex P (Command and Control Warfare)
   Appendix 2 (Field Artillery Support)     Annex Q (OPSEC)
   Appendix 3 (Naval Gunfire Support)       Annex R (PSYOP)
Annex E (Rules of Engagement)               Annex S (Deception)
Annex F (Engineer)                          Annex T (Electronic Warfare)
   Appendix 1 (Engineer Overlay)            Annex U (Civil-Military Affairs)
   Appendix 2 (Environmental                Annex V (Public Affairs)
Considerations)                             Annex W (Timeline/Synchronization Matrix)
Annex G (Air Defense)                       Annex X (Army Aviation Operations)
Annex H (Signal)                               Appendix 1 (Aviation Overlay)
   Appendix 1 (Commo Card)                         Tab A (Wire Hazards)
   Appendix 2 (SPINS)                              Tab B (TAA Sketch)
   Appendix 3 (Comm Schematic)                     Tab C (FARP Sketch)
Annex I (Service Support)                          Tab D (Bug-Out Plan)
   Appendix 1 (Service Support Overlay)        Appendix 2 (Navigation Data)
      Tab A (Service Support Matrix)           Appendix 3 (Range Operations)
   Appendix 2 (Road Movement)                  Appendix 4 (APG)
      Tab A (Strip Maps)                       Appendix 5 (Inter-Service Operations)
      Tab B (Road Movement Table)           Annex Z (Operation Risk Assessment)
   Appendix 3 (Personnel)




                                                                                   17
                                                                                      PREPARATION




FRAGO Format
     Task Organization
     Define the task organization by company, team, and other attachments




1    Situation                            Enemy                             Maneuver
     Describe the enemy tactical situation by defining Who, What, When, Where, and Why




                                                                             ADA Threat
     Composition and tactical array of ADA enroute and in objective area. Describe ASE/EW countermeasures




                                                                            Most Likely COA
     Describe the most likely course of action




                                                                            Most Dangerous COA
     Describe the most dangerous course of action




                                                                            Disposition
     Define the overall morale and percent strength of the enemy forces




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                                                                                   PREPARATION



                                                                      Equipment
List all maneuver and ADA equipment and the numbers that will be encountered




                                                                        Terrain
Describe vegetation, contour relief, and masking




                                                                        Weather
Give full weather brief




                                     Friendly                           Maneuver
Define mission and intent two levels up
One Higher:                                             Two Higher:




                                                                          Adjacent Units
List all adjacent units. Define ground maneuver unit sectors and state who is in reserve




                                                                                            19
                                                                                             PREPARATION



2    Mission
     Define Who, What, When, Where, and Why




3    Execution                            Commander’s Intent
     Describe overall vision, who is the main/supporting effort, state key tasks, success criteria, endstate




                                        Concept of the Operation                 Preparation
     Describe the procedures and timing of the preparation




                                                                                 Enroute
     Describe the procedures and timing of the enroute portion




                                                                              Actions on the Objective
     Describe the procedures, timing and synchronization while on the objective




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                                                                                    PREPARATION



                                                                       Egress and Recovery
Describe the egress and return. Discuss FARP operations and re-attack coordination




                                     Fires                                Purpose of Fires
State the purpose for both direct and indirect fires
Direct:                                                   Indirect:




                                                                            Essential Fire Support Tasks
List all indirect fire support tasks and describe the purpose, method, endstate for all
Task:                                                     Task:
Purpose:                                                  Purpose:
Method:                                                   Method:
Endstate                                                  Endstate
Task:                                                     Task:
Purpose:                                                  Purpose:
Method:                                                   Method:
Endstate                                                  Endstate
                                                                          Units
List supporting Artillery and CAS assets with callsigns and frequencies




                                                                          Control Measures
Describe any control measures




                                                                                                       21
                                                                                         PREPARATION



                                                                              Initiation of Fires
     Describe the event or signal which initiates direct and indirect fires




                                        Electronic Warfare                    SEAD
     Describe overall SEAD plan of supporting EW assets




                                                                              Units
     List supporting EW assets with callsigns and frequencies



                                            Tasks to Subordinate Units        A Co
     List each specified task in logical sequence




                                                                              B Co
     List each specified task in logical sequence




                                                                              C Co
     List each specified task in logical sequence




22
                                                                                   PREPARATION



                                                                    HHC
List each specified task in logical sequence




                                                                    D Co
List each specified task in logical sequence




                                     Coordinating Instructions
Bump Plan:                                                       MOPP Level:
Target Priorities:
ADA Status:                        Aircraft Lighting:            Aircraft Loads:
Air Routes:
Ground Routes:
Formations:                        Altitudes:                    Airspeeds:
Flight Modes:                      Movement Techniques:
Actions on Contact:
Fratricide Prevention:
Abort Criteria:                    Music Off:                    Music On:
Downed Pilot:
IIMC:
Lost Commo:                        Challenge:                    Password:
RFR Time:                          FFR Time:                     AAR Time:
Other Coordinating Instructions:




                                                                                            23
                                                                                         PREPARATION



4    Service and Support                 Concept of Support
     State the concept of support




                                         Material and Services                Supply
     Describe all mission requirements associated with each class of supply
     I:                                                        VI:
     II:                                                       VII:
     III:                                                      VIII:
     IV:                                                       IX (Air):
     V:                                                        IX (Ground):



                                                                              FARP
     Location and procedures for “WAR DOG” AND “WOLF PACK”
     WAR DOG:                                                  WOLF PACK:




                                                                              Transportation
     State all specific information concerning unit movement




                                                                              Services
     Describe all services to be conducted




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                                                                                  PREPARATION



                                                                        Ground Maintenance
    Describe all ground vehicle maintenance to be conducted




                                                                          Aviation Maintenance
    Describe all ground vehicle maintenance to be conducted to include DART




5   Command and Signal                 Command                          Location of Big Four
    BNCDR:                                                    XO:
    CSM:                                                      S3:
                                                                        Location of C2 Elements
    TOC:                                                      ALOC:
    TAC:                                                      TALOC:
    Air TAC:                                                  RTS:
                                                                        Succession of Command
    State battalion succession of command:
                                       Signal
    Define comsets, COMSEC usage, callsigns, RTS, and IFF codes.




                                                                                                  25
                                                                              PREPARATION




Company Planning Cells
                                                   4. Direct fire planning.
AMC Cell                                           5. Actions on contact.
1.   Task Organization.                            6. EA/BP sketch.
2.   Cell assignments.                             7. Targets in AMPS.
3.   Mission statement/intent.
4.   Mission planning timeline.                    Flight Coordination Cell
                                                   1. TAA: A2C2, radio calls, boresight plan.
Enemy Cell                                         2. Air routes: primary/alternate, airspeed,
1. Enemy location, composition, disposition            altitude, mode of flight, formations and
   and strength.                                       obstacles.
2. ID ADA array and threat rings.                  3. HAs/FAAs: location, occupation
3. ID ASE settings and ensure aircraft are             configuration/security and boresight plan.
   programmed.                                     4. Aircraft lighting in TAA, enroute and in
4. Conduct terrain analysis.                           ABF.
5. Enemy graphic/photos posted.                    5. Fuel requirements: take-off fuel and Bingo.
6. Answer the following questions:                 6. Stick diagrams printed and triple checked.
Where is the enemy currently?                      7. AMPS products: TDH, DTC and terrain
Where is he going?                                     analysis.
Where can we kill him?                             8. ATO/ACO/SPINs checked and briefed.
When will he be there?                             9. All routes/ROZs/HIDAZ...posted on map.
What can hurt me/what can I do?                    10. NOTAMs checked and briefed.
                                                   11. IIMC plan.

Weather Cell
1. Current weather: ceiling, visibility, winds,    Fire Support Cell
   altimeter, temp, PA and DA.                     1. Artillery locations and call signs/freqs.
2. Forecast weather: ceiling, visibility, winds,   2. Concept of fires.
   altimeter, temp, PA and DA.                     3. Fire control measures: NFAs, CFZs, RFAs,
3. Enroute weather: ceiling, visibility, and          CFL, RFL, FSCL...ect.
   winds.                                          4. Priority of fires.
4. EA Weather: ceiling, visibility, and winds.     5. SEAD plan.
5. Light data: BMNT, sunrise, sunset, EENT,        6. CAS: IP, laser codes, call sign and freq.
   EO forecast, moonrise, moonset and %illum.      7. Friendly ADA: location, type, weapons
                                                      control status, ADA warning status.
Friendly Cell
1. Mission/intent 2 levels up.                     Coordinating Instructions Cell
2. Adjacent units location/mission.                1. CCIR: PIR, EEFI, FFIR.
3. Friendly graphics posted.                       2. Ammo configuration.
                                                   3. MOPP level.
Maneuver Cell                                      4. PPC data.
                                                   5. Bump plan.
1. Concept of the operation.                       6. DPP/SPINs data.
2. Task to teams.
3. ABF/BP planning.




26
                                                                              PREPARATION



Service Support Cell                                2. Radios loaded.
1. FARPs: Location, landing direction, traffic,     3. Havequick MWODs.
   freq, #points, fuel available, ammo              4. Challenge/password.
   available, boresight plan                        5. Mode 4 fills, Mode 1 and 2 info.
2. Medical support: location of aid station,        6. Laser codes.
   location of hospital, frequencies.               7. PRC-112 frequencies/loading.
3. Ration cycle, mess location and times open.      8. GPS codes.
4. Contact teams: DART, BDAR, location, and         9. Brevity list completed.
   MOS included.                                    10. CSAR plan; types/location, call signs and
5. Decon site and procedures.                           frequencies.
6. Aircraft status.                                 11. Succession of command.
7. Weapons load for the mission.
8. Current aircraft fuel status.                    Safety Cell
9. Rehearsal site preparation.                      1. RAM complete.
                                                    2. Crew endurance tracking.
Command and Signal Cell
1. Commo Card complete; frequencies and call
   signs.

Flight Packet Minimum Requirements
Mission graphics posted on map, Timeline, Route sketch, AMPS/NAV card, EA sketch, Battalion and
Company mission statements and commanders’ intent, PIRs, Comm Card.




                                                                                               27
                                                                                     PREPARATION




Company Mission Briefing Outline
OPORD __________                  DTG __________ Company __________

Task Organization
     Tail #     Team          Pilot              CPG           Weapons              Remarks




Time of Attachment __________           Time of Detachment __________

Support Relationship: Attached, OPCON, TACON.

Situation
Enemy Forces
1.    Location of enemy forces and activities.
2.    Strength and composition.
3.    Type of equipment.
4.    Capabilities and weaknesses.
5.    Probable courses of action.
6.    Terrain and weather.
      a. Obstacles.
      b. Key terrain.
      c. Observation/fields of fire.
      d. Cover and concealment.
      e. Avenues of approach.

     Precipitation     Temp HI/LO       Winds           Visibility   Moonrise/set         PA



     Turbulence         Hazards       Illumination     BMNT/EENT     Electro-opt.       Other



Friendly Forces
1. Mission of next two higher commanders.
2. Intent of next two higher commanders.
3. Scheme of maneuver of next higher commander.




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                                                                                  PREPARATION



4.   Mission issued by the next higher commander essential to the operation.
     a. Unit to the left.
     b. Unit to the right.
     c. Units to the front and rear.
     d. Supporting units.


Mission
Who, What, When, Where, Why. (read twice for clarity)

Execution
Intent
1. Purpose.
2. Key Tasks.
3. Endstate.

Concept of the Operation
(A concise statement of the COA with any B/P missions)
1. Scheme of maneuver.                                      l. CAS.
2. Fires                                                        1) Type.
   a. Purpose of direct fires.                                  2) Sorties.
   b. Purpose of indirect fires.                                3) Time on station.
   c. Initiation of fires.                                      4) IPs.
   d. Essential Fires Support Tasks (EFSTs).                    5) Callsigns/frequencies.
       1) Task.                                                 6) Laser codes.
       2) Purpose.                                              7) Target information.
       3) Method.                                    1.     Intelligence and EW.
       4) Endstate.                                         a. Collection and jamming assets.
   e. Priority of fires.                                    b. Passive and active countermeasures.
   f. Priority targets.                                     c. ASE.
   g. SEAD plan.                                                1) Objective.
   h. Target engagement criteria.                               2) Triggers.
   i. Target responsibilities.                                  3) Procedures.
   j. Fires support coordination measures.                      4) Capabilities/effects.
   k. Special Munitions.                                    d. Obstacles, mines and fortifications.

Tasks to Subordinate Units
1. Scouts.
2. Guns.
3. Other.




                                                                                                      29
                                                                                 PREPARATION



Coordinating Instructions
1. Time line.                                           8. Abort criteria/bump plan.
2. Order of movement.                                   9. Engagement/bypass criteria.
3. Routes.                                              10. Target priorities.
   a. Ingress primary/alternate.                        11. Reporting requirements.
   b. Egress primary/alternate.                         12. Air coordination order/SPINS.
4. Formations, movement techniques, and                 13. IIMC procedures.
   flight profiles.                                     14. ROE.
5. Actions on contact.                                  15. Special equipment.
   a. Direct fire.                                      16. MOPP level.
   b. Indirect fire.                                    17. ADA weapon control/warning status.
   c. EW.                                               18. DART procedures/E&E.
   d. NBC.                                              19. Fighter management.
   e. Visual.                                           20. Post mission requirements.
   f. Obstacles.                                        21. Force protection.
   g. Air.                                                  a. Risk assessment.
6. Control measures/passage of lines.                       b. Operational risk.
7. Aircraft lighting.                                       c. Fratricide risk.

Service Support
1. General friendly CSS situation.
2. Material and services.
   a. Supply.
      1) Ration cycle, times, basic load for mission.
      2) FARP operations (include sketch).
      3) Ammunition.
   b. Transportation.
   c. Services.
   d. Maintenance.
3. Medical evacuation/hospitalization.
4. Personnel
5. Civil-military operations.

Command and Signal
Command                                                 Signal
1. Location of the commander.                           1.   SOI Index and edition/commo card.
2. Location of the platoon leaders.                     2.   Listening and silence instructions.
3. Location of the battalion “Big Four.”                3.   Challenge and password.
4. Succession of command.                               4.   IFF procedures.
5. Locations of CPs, TOC, TAC (air and                  5.   Anti-jamming code words/procedures.
ground).                                                6.   Special signals.
                                                        7.   Commo/Retrans plan.
                                                        8.   Laser codes.




30
                                                                                    PREPARATION




Rehearsals
The five types of rehearsals are confirmation brief, backbrief, combined arms rehearsal, support
rehearsal and battle drill/SOP rehearsal. Each of the five will be used to achieve specific battalion and
company level results. The six rehearsal techniques are full dress, reduced force, terrain model, sketch
map, map and radio. 1-104th AVN units will most often utilize the terrain model or map rehearsal
technique in the interest of time and space.


Commander’s Confirmation Brief
The Confirmation brief occurs immediately after the OPORD brief is concluded. Subordinate leaders
brief the higher commander on:
        Their understanding of the intent.
        Their specific tasks and purpose.
        Their relationship between their unit’s mission and the mission of other units.

Commander’s Backbrief
This rehearsal allows the commander to clarify his intent early in the subordinates tactical estimate
process. The higher commander should use this brief to identify problems in his concept, identify
problems in subordinate unit commander’s concepts and determine how subordinates intend to
accomplish the mission.
Attendees
Battalion Commander(s), S-3 or TACOPS, CCDRs
Sequence
1. Commander’s intent.
2. Your mission/intent.
3. Status of your unit.
   a. Personnel.
   b. Equipment.
4. Constraints (must do).
5. Restraints (can’t do).




                                                                                                        31
                                                                                PREPARATION




Battalion Level Combined Arms Rehearsal
Conducted at the BN CP. Terrain model or map board with mission graphics. XO leads rehearsal IAW
the execution checklist and the decision support template, BNCDR/CCDRs describe their actions (task
and purpose), and BNCDR prompts discussions.
Attendees
BNCDR, XO, CCDRs, Staff, S-3, TACOPS, SIGO, CHEMO, EWO, FSO, ASO, CSM.
Sequence
1. XO.                                                10. XO.
   a. Roll call.                                          a. Start timeline.
   b. Designate recorder.                                 b. Stop at critical areas.
   c. Ground rules.                                       c. BNCDR: Decision points.
2. S2: Time hack.                                             1) States his decision.
3. S3.                                                        2) Selects a branch.
   a. Minimum equipment requirements.                         3) States conditions for success.
   b. Orientation of rehearsal products.                  d. BNCDR/CCDRs: Actions on the
   c. Mission statement.                                      objective.
   d. Task organization                                       1) Task/Purpose of each team/element.
4. BNCDR: Intent.                                             2) Indirect and direct fire plans.
5. S3: Friendly maneuver force disposition.                   3) Triggers.
6. SIGO: Communications plan                                  4) Egress plan.
7. S2.                                                    e. Egress objective area thru EOM.
   a. Current enemy situation.                        11. S3.
   b. Most likely COA.                                    a. Recock and repeat step 10 (if required).
   c. Status of recon and surveillance plan.              b. State endstate.
8. EWO: ADA threat.                                   12. S4. Brief key CS and CSS requirements.
9. FSO.                                               13. Recorder.
   a. Enemy artillery.                                    a. Restate changes (if any).
   b. Friendly artillery.                                 b. Time until FRAGO (if required).
   c. Fire support plan.                              14. BNCDR: Reiterate intent




32
                                                                               PREPARATION




Company Battle Drill Rehearsal
Conducted in the respective company areas and led by the CCDR or AMC IAW OPORD and flight
packet information. Rehearsals will be conducted on a terrain model or a map board depending on time
and terrain. Minimum attendance consists of the Commander, 1SG, PLs, Crews and PSGs.
                                                           c. Rehearse the following key actions:
Sequence                                                       1) Bump plan.
1. CDR/AMC.                                                    2) Actions in EA (direct fire plan).
    a. Roll call.                                              3) Immediate action drills.
    b. Designate recorder.                                     4) Commo architecture.
    c. Ground rules.                                           5) Indirect/direct fires.
    d. Orientation.                                            6) Battle handover.
    e. Mission statement/intent.                               7) Passage of lines.
    f. Time hack.                                              8) FARP/HA/AA operations.
2. EWO/Intell Cell                                             9) Downed aircraft recovery plan.
    a. Enemy overview.                                     d. CDR/AMC: Decision points.
    b. ADA threats/equipment.                                  1) States his decision.
3. Friendly Cell: Friendly maneuver force                      2) Selects a branch.
    disposition.                                               3) States conditions for success.
4. C2 Cell: Communications plan                        7. Recorder.
5. Fire Cell.                                              a. Restate changes (if any).
    a. Friendly artillery.                                 b. Time until additional rehearsal (if
    b. Fire support/SEAD plan.                                 required).
6. CDR/AMC.                                            8. CDR/AMC: Reiterate intent
    a. Start timeline. Crews respond with
        action (task and purpose).
    b. Stop at critical areas.

.




                                                                                                33
                                                                                             PREPARATION




Uniforms (F Shown)


                Insignia,
                                                                                        Chin strap
                subdued,above band
                one inch
                                                                                        adjusted and taped
                and centered.
                Name on band


                                                                                                    First aid
                                                                                                      - DA Form
           Red lens                                                                                 pouch
                                                                                                       1156
                                                                                                      - DA Form
           Flashlight                                                                                  1155
           Earplug case



        Canteen on
        right hip
                                                                                                        Canteen on
           Holster                                                                                      left hip
           on right
           hip
                                                                                                 NBC Mask
NOTE:
                                                       Two ammo pouches
When required, the flack vest will be worn on convoys and during TAA defense.

Standard Uniforms
     Uniform      Description                               Uniform       Description

 A                Class A                               D                 Duty uniform (BDU/ABDU)
 B                Class B                               F                 Field uniform (Kevlar, LBE/LBV or
                                                                          flight vest, protective mask)
 C                Civilian attire                       P                 PT uniform




34
                                                              PREPARATION




Packing Lists
Summer (May – September)
RUCKSACK                     A BAG (DUFFEL OR KIT)     B BAG (DUFFEL OR KIT)
Wool socks (2)               Padlock                   PT uniform (complete)
Drawers (2)                  Mattress pad              Sneakers
T-shirt (2)                  BDU/flight suit (2)       Shelter half/ropes/poles/pegs
BDE/flight suit (1)          Wool socks (4)            Spare glove inserts
Wet weather gear             Drawers (4)               Spare towels
IPE                          T-shirt (4)               Hood, cold weather
MRE (2)                      Training MOPP suit        Neck gator
E-tool (attached)            Combat boots              Field jacket with liner
2 quart canteen (attached)   Gortex (if not worn)      Bear suit
Bug net                      Laundry bag               Field pants with liner
Wash towel                   Wool blanket              Boots, cold weather
Gloves with liners           Poncho                    Polypro (2)
Shaving kit                  Bath towel                Pile cap
Sleeping bag (attached)                                Scarf
                                                       Mittens with inserts
                                                       Shower shoes
                                                       Boot care products
                                                       Suspenders (if not used)
Winter (October – April)
                             Sleeping bag (attached)
RUCKSACK                                               B BAG (DUFFEL OR KIT)
Wool socks (3)               A BAG (DUFFEL OR KIT)     PT uniform (complete)
Drawers (2)                  Padlock                   Sneakers
T-shirt (2)                  Mattress pad              Shelter half/ropes/poles/pegs
BDE/flight suit (1)          Wool blanket              Spare glove inserts
Wet weather gear             BDU/flight suit (2)       Bath towel
Gortex (if not worn)         Wool socks (3)            Wash towel
Pile cap                     Drawers (4)               Bear suit
Scarf                        T-shirt (4)               Boots, cold weather
Hood, cold weather           Polypro (2)               Field pants with liner
Neck gator                   Spare mitten inserts      Shower shoes
IPE                          Training MOPP suit        Boot care products
MRE (2)                      Combat boots              Suspenders (if not used)
E-tool (attached)            Field jacket with liner
2 quart canteen (attached)   Laundry bag
Wash towel                   Wool blanket
Gloves with liners           Poncho
Mittens with liners          Bug net
Shaving kit                  Bath towel




                                                                                35
                                                                          PREPARATION




Individual Precombat Operations
All Personnel
General
1.   Dog tags, ID card and meal card.            7. Leader has notebook, pencil/pen.
2.   Uniform/TA-50 present per TACSOP.           8. MOPP level correct.
3.   Weapon carried or secured at all times.     9. Rucksack properly packed.
4.   Weapons serial numbers memorized.           10. B & C bags packed, loaded, and marked.
5.   Cat eyes on back of helmet bands.           11. Challenge & password, changeover times.
6.   Name on camouflage band, and helmet rank.
NBC Equipment
1.   NBC suit present and serviceable.           8. Crews knowledgeable of MOPP levels and
2.   Mask carried, fitted, and serviceable.          alert warning procedures.
3.   Boots and gloves serviceable.               9. NBC Survey Teams identified. Assigned
4.   M-291 Decon Kit on each person.                 equipment present and serviceable.
5.   M-13 DAP per vehicle.                       10. NBC markers as applicable.
6.   Mask inserts, as required.                  11. Crew knowledgeable of preparation of
7.   M-256 Chemical detection kits present and       vehicle for nuclear blast.
     complete per vehicle.
Weapons
1.   Clean/bores clear.                          6. Headspace/timing gage present, serviceable.
2.   Function check.                             7. Crew can set headspace and timing on M-2s.
3.   Mounted/secured.                            8. Spare barrel and equipment loaded.
4.   Ammunition.                                 9. Cleaning equipment in M16 stock.
5.   Properly crewed/qualified.                  10. Zero setting in hand guard.

Pilots
1. AR 95-1 requirements met.                     9. Flight planning completed.
2. Within fighter management.                        a. Mission Briefing form.
3. ALSE gear present, inspections current.           b. Risk assessment.
4. NBC blower and field gear in aircraft.            c. Flight plans.
5. Flight gear in aircraft.                          d. NOTAMs, Weather.
   a. Publications.                                  e. PPC.
   b. NVGs (Always remain with the aviator).         f. Weight and balance.
   c. Necessary maps.                            10. ANCD if required.
       1) Mission graphics posted.               11. FBC and Comm Card.
       2) No Fly areas and hazards posted.       12. 2 x VRS Tapes.
6. Backup batteries.                             13. Canteen per crewmember.
7. Preflight inspection completed                14. 9 mm ammo.
8. Logbook in aircraft.                          15. Blood chit.




36
                                                                                   PREPARATION




Crew Chiefs
1.   Aircraft untied and opened.                        6. Bottles, tubes, and paper towels for oil
2.   Flyaway gear stowed in aircraft.                      samples available in aircraft.
3.   Windows cleaned.                                   7. Toolboxes, PLL boxes, POL products
4.   Survival kits present.                                loaded in company vehicles.
5.   Scheduled maintenance completed and
     signed off.

Vehicle Operators
1.  Two flashlights per vehicle.                        17. Commo check complete.
2.  Load plans posted in logbook.                       18. Maps: 1:50,000 map or strip map.
3.  Equipment strapped down.                            19. Convoy number marked on vehicle.
4.  TA-50 and BII properly stowed as per load           20. Headlights uncovered.
    plan or vehicle -10 manual.                         21. GPS installed (mission dependent).
5. Vehicle topped off.                                  22. M9 paper attached to vehicles.
6. Fuel and water cans filled.                          23. Troop straps available and used.
7. Complete sets of camouflage nets and poles           24. Trailer chains, inter-vehicular cables, and
    secured on vehicle.                                     brake chains hooked up.
8. Canvas installed on trucks.                          25. Form 626s filled out for ammunition
9. NVGs with batteries and crew qualified.                  carrying vehicles.
10. Air guards identified.                              26. Explosive placards properly displayed on
11. Log book complete.                                      ammunition carrying vehicles.
12. Dispatch complete.                                  27. Necessary BII carried for hot/cold weather.
13. Verify PMCS completed.                              28. Convoy signs on lead/trail vehicles.
14. Deferred 2404 filled out correctly.                 29. Oil and water levels correct.
15. First aid kit complete.                             30. External/internal lights operational.
16. MREs issued.                                        31. Unit ID on bumper is taped over.


Radio Operators
1. Radios operational, frequencies set.
2. Hand mikes connected, spare available.
3. Speakers connected.
4. Fills properly loaded.
5. PMCS completed.
6. Antenna Tie downs utilized.
7. Batteries on hand.
8. OE-254s complete plus running spares.
9. Frequencies and call signs known by crew.
10. Antenna properly laced, secured and protective tip installed and tied down.
11. Leaders know who is NCS.
12. ANCD if required.




                                                                                                      37
                                                                                  PREPARATION




Aircraft Precombat Operations
Preflight PCI
1. Survival radio A/B frequencies.                        5. FCC serial number checked.
2. COMSEC.                                                6. VRS tape loaded.
   a. EGI P-Codes.                                        7. ADP thumbwheel checked
   b. Havequick MWODs and nets.                           8. Chaff settings to 1, 1, 4, 2.
   c. SINCGARS fills.                                     9. Pin removed from M-130 module.
   d. KY-58 keyed                                         10. M-130 dispenser set to “C.”
   e. KIT-1C keyed.                                       11. ALQ-144 jam program set.
3. DTC installed.                                         12. Missile launchers to “ARM.”
4. Burst limiter set on TCB.                              13. ALQ-136 to “WAR.”

Aircraft Systems PCI
Conducted as required. In addition to a commo check (see Commo Check on page 135), The following
systems will be thoroughly function-checked by the crew:
• All sights and sight subsystems.                    • All ASE.
• All display systems.                                • VRS.
• Internal boresight.                                 • Radio presets programmed.
• External boresight (if possible).                   • All navigation equipment and avionics.
• All weapon systems, all modes.                      • Engine run-up


Standard Configurations

          A                   B                  C                       D                 E




•   8 Hellfire      •   38 Rockets      •   16 Hellfire         •   12 Hellfire    •   76 Rockets
•   38 Rockets      •   4 Hellfire      •   990 rounds          •   1 Aux Tank     •   990 rounds
•   990 rounds      •   1 Aux Tank                              •   990 rounds
                                                  F



                                        •   57 Rockets
                                        •   1 Aux Tank
                                        •   990 rounds




38
                                                                                   PREPARATION




Aircraft Lighting
Normal lighting configuration is blacked-out (Lightset 0) unless otherwise briefed. During training all
applicable regulations will be adhered to. The following are the battalion standard Lightsets.
                          Lead                        Chalks 2-6                        Trail
  Lightset
              FORM        NAV        A/C      FORM      NAV         A/C       FORM      NAV       A/C
      0          --         --        --         --       --          --        --        --       --
      1          --         --       ON          --       --        ON          --        --      ON
      2         ON          --        --        ON        --          --       ON         --       --
      3         ON          --        --        ON        --          --       ON       Dim        --
      4         ON         Dim        --        ON       Dim          --       ON       Dim        --
      5         ON          --        --        ON        --          --       ON         --      ON
      6         ON         Dim        --        ON       Dim          --       ON       Dim       ON
      7         ON       Bright       --        ON      Bright        --       ON      Bright     ON
      8         ON         Dim       ON         ON       Dim        ON         ON       Dim       ON
      9         ON       Bright      ON         ON      Bright      ON         ON      Bright     ON


REDCON Levels
  REDCON           Takeoff                                  Description
     1           Immediate       •   100% NR                      • Ready for takeoff
     2           15 minutes      •   APU on, HARS aligned         • Monitoring radios
                                 •   Doppler programmed           • Weapons safe, initialized
                                 •   Avionics on, checked, set • Boresight completed
     3           30 minutes      •   Run-up complete              • Aircrews standing by
                                 •   Monitoring radios
     4             1 hour        •   Crews in company AA          • Ammo loaded
                                 •   Preflight complete           • Comm cards complete
     5            3 hours        •   Crews in company AA          • Mission briefed
                                 •   Preflight complete           • Continue mission
                                 •   Ammo loaded                      planning
     6                           •   Preflight, run-ups, radio    • Crews stood down
                                     checks complete              • Normal operations
     7                           •   Fighter management




                                                                                                     39
                                                                                                 PREPARATION




Attack Warnings
Ground Condition Security Levels in TAA
        Condition                     Probability of Attack              LP/OPs                 Defensive Structure
         Green                             Not Likely                    Manned                    CDR’s Option
             Amber                          Possible                     Manned                       50% Alert
             Red                            Imminent                     Manned                       100% Alert

Attack Codes
      Type Attack                        Aural Signal                  Visual Signal                    Action
                                  •    Avoid noise so that      •   White star cluster or     • React as per range
                                       your exact location is       trip flare.                   card at fighting
         Ground                        not compromised.                                           position.
                                  •    LL/FH Secure.                                          • Report to higher.
                                                                                              • Start QRF.
                                  •    One long continuous      •   Green star cluster        • Engage with small
                                       vehicle horn blast                                         arms and crew-
              Air                                                                                 served weapons.
                                                                                              • Report to higher.
                                                                                              • Prep for reattack.
                                  •    Short, sequential horn   •   NBC markers.              • Mask, find cover,
                                       blasts.                  •   Enemy spraying.               go to MOPP 4.
  Biological or Chemical          •    “Gas, gas, gas!”         •   Non-exploding             • Survey (M256 kit).
                                  •    Metal on metal.              munitions.                • Report (NBC 1).
                                  •    M8 alarm horn.           •   Symptoms.                 • Decon.
                                  •    “Fallout!”               •   Brilliant flash.          Without Warning:
                                                                •   Intense light             • Fall to ground, ,
         Nuclear                                                •   Radiological                  cover skin, MOPP 4.
                                                                    contamination             With Warning:
                                                                    markers.                  • Find shelter, protect
                                                                                                  eyes, decon.

Weapons Control Status
  Condition              Engagement Criteria
                                                                    Air Defense Warning Levels
    Hold             Engage aircraft in self-defense.
                                                                      Condition           Engagement Criteria
     Tight           Engage any aircraft positively                     White        Air attack is not probable.
                     identified as hostile.
                                                                       Yellow        Air attack is probable.
     Free            Engage any aircraft not
                     positively identified as friendly.                  Red         Air attack is imminent or in
                                                                                     progress.




40
                                                                  PREPARATION




Graphical Naming Conventions
   CONTROL
   MEASURE          SYMBOL       DESIGNATION           EXAMPLES
Air Axis/                      Bird Names            Axis Owl
Corridors/Routes                                     Axis Robin

Air Control Point              Numbers 10-99         ACP 10
                                                     ACP 99

Objectives                     Violent Names         Objective Slam
                                                     Objective Jab
Escape Routes                  Soda Names            Escape Route
                                                     Pepsi
                                                     Escape Route
                                                     Coke
Assembly Area                  Female Names          AA Tina
                                                     AA Linda
ABFs/SBFs/BPs                  Professional Sports   ABF Pirates
                               Teams                 SBF Steelers
                    Patriots
                                                     BP Dolphins
Rally Point                    Male Names            Rally Ponit Ted
                       1                             Rally Ponit John

Engagement Area                Indian Names          EA Commanche
                                                     EA Navajo

FARP/RRP                       Gas Stations:         “War dog”
                               Active: War dog       FARP Texacco
                                                     “Wolf Pack”
                               Silent: Wolf pack
                                                     Farp Shell

Ground                 1       Numbered              CP 1, 2…
Checkpoint                     sequentially

Phase Lines                    Metals                PL Silver
                                                     PL Lead
Holding Areas                  Colors                HA Red
                                                     HA Blue




                                                                           41
                                           PREPARATION



 Down Aviator                     Coors
 Pickup Points       Beer Names   Miller


Passage              1-9          PP 1
Point/Contact    1                PP 9
Point




42
                                                                                       EXECUTION




                                                                      Execution
Convoy Operations
Quartering Party
The Quartering Party establishes security, conducts reconnaissance, and prepares the new assembly area
for occupation by the main body. The HHCCDR or HHCXO is the QPCDR. Considerations include:
• Defensibility                                         • Road network
• Cover and concealment                                 • Drainage
• Communications                                        • Escape routes
• Dispersion                                            • Access to MSR / BSA / DSA
Tasks
1. Establish security.
   a. Conduct NBC recon and security sweep of assembly area.
   b. Install chemical alarms.
   c. Establish observation posts.
   d. Establish battalion perimeter and identify company sectors.
2. Establish communications.
   a. Establish commo with TOC.
   b. Establish radio commo with next higher headquarters.
   c. Establish ground TAC.
   d. Install landline commo network.
3. Improve Position.
   a. Establish and mark AA traffic routes.
   b. Mark vehicle and aircraft parking positions.
   c. Mark work and sleeping area locations.
   d. Provide company ground guides at TAA.
4. Aircraft may conduct route recon and remain airborne as radio relay until all serials close.
Equipment
•   Ammo/Pyro                         •   3 x ANCD                          •   3 x M9 paper booklets
•   Pioneer Tools/Stakes              •   2 x NVDs (per vehicle))               (per co)
•   1 x Binoculars                    •   1 Flashlight (per person)         •   Company markers –
•   1 Roll Eng Tape (per Co)          •   1 x compass (per Co)                  chemlights/bean bags
•   2 x M256 Kit (per Co)             •   2 Rolls of WD-1 Wire                  (colored and coated)
•   1 x TA-312 w/extra                    (per Co)                          •   1 Chainsaw (HHC)
    batteries (per Co)                •   1 x CAM                           •   1 Medic (full medic bag)
•   2 x M8 Alarms (per Co)            •   1 x Manpack w/extra               •   1 GPS/Co
•   2 x IM 93 (per Co)                    battery (per Co)




                                                                                                    43
                                                                            EXECUTION



Responsibilities
HHCCDR/HHCXO                    COMMO SOLDIER                   A, B, C, D SOLDIER #2
•   Planning, briefing.         •   Install OE-254s.            •   NBC recon team member
•   Establish Co sectors.       •   Tag all commo lines.        •   Operate M256, CAM,
•   Conduct recon.              •   Set-up TAC tent.                IM-93.
•   Lead quartering party.      •   Install wire to higher.     •   Use M8/M9 paper.
                                •   Set-up commo tent.          •   Operate SAW.
BN NBC CNTL TM OIC
                                •   Install HHC commo lines.    •   Install M8 alarm.
•   OO, conduct NBC recon.
                                                                •   Assist setting up
•   Prepare/receive reports.    MOTOR NCO
                                                                    camouflage.
•   Supervise M8 install.       •   Establish DP and MP.
•   Supervise hasty decon.      •   Establish EPW HA.           A, B, C, D SOLDIER #3
•   Supervise NBC sweep.        •   Install WD1 for above.      •   Run WD1 from TAC to
•   Supervise unmask proc.      •   Select OPs.                     company CP.
                                •   Operate M256.               •   Install TA-312 to OP.
HHC NCOIC
                                •   Select work areas.          •   Perform as ground guide.
•   Precombat inspection.
                                •   Ground guide.               •   Install vehicle position
•   Conduct a convoy.                                               markers.
•   Initiate defense plan.      MOTOR POOL SOLDIER              •   Assist setting up
•   Designate/mark HHC          •   Operate SAW.                    camouflage.
    section areas.              •   Set-up OP.
                                                                III/V NCO
S3 TAC OIC                      •   Operate TA-312.
                                •   Drive HQ vehicle.           •   Select FARP location.
•   Designate TAC location.                                     •   Select vehicle and aircraft
•   Take battle from TOC.       •   Occupy fighting position.
                                                                    parking locations.
                                •   Operate SINCGARS.
S3 TAC NCOIC                    •   Security for NBC NCO.       •   O/O, conducts refuel.
•   Supervise set-up of TAC.                                    •   Select OPs.
•   File reports with higher.   A, B, C, D Q.P. NCOS            •   FARP security plan.
                                •   Prepare QP for mission.
S2 TAC SOLDIER                                                  III/V SOLDIER
                                •   Supervise QP personnel.
•   Set-up assembly area.                                       •   Drives M978.
                                •   Select/occupy Co OPs.
•   Operate radios.                                             •   Operates SAW.
                                •   Establish Co perimeter,
                                                                •   Operates TA-312,
S3 NBC NCO                          CP, begin sector sketch.
                                •                               •   Installs WD1.
•   Supervise NBC teams.            Select parking locations.
                                •                               •   NBC recon team member.
•   Prepare/receive reports.        Select ground guides.
                                •                               •   Install M8 alarm.
•   Set up TAC in TAA.              Camouflage equipment.
                                                                •   Establish hasty fighting
•   Supervise M8 install.       A, B, C, D SOLDIER #1               positions.
•   Supervise operational       •   Drive company vehicle       •   Operates SINCGARS.
    decon.                      •   Carry and operate           •   Conducts refuel
COMMO NCOIC                         SINCGARS.                       operations.
•   Select site for OE-254s.    •   Security for soldier #2.    •   Operates M256.
•   Establish L/L to higher.    •   Perform OP duties.          •   Use M8/M9 paper.
                                •   Establish hasty fighting
                                    positions.




44
                                                                                         EXECUTION



Actions at the Release Point
1. Location of the Release Point is METT-T dependent.
2. Upon halt at the RP establish 100% security.
3. While maintaining security teams get in MOPP 4 and put M9 paper on vehicles and individuals.
4. Once security is established and individuals are in MOPP 4 Quartering Party moves to the TAA.

Actions at the Assembly Area
1. Upon occupation of the TAA, four vehicles (with radios) establish 360° security.
2. Quartering party OIC and company NCOICs identify company perimeters while Co NBC team's
    conduct individual NBC sweeps of Co areas.
3. Battalion NBC control team conducts initial NBC sweep in center of TAA.
4. Once areas are checked with M256 kits, M9 Paper, and CAM each company sends NBC report to
    Battalion NBC control team.
5. Once all reports are received and area is clear, quartering party OIC makes decision to conduct
    unmasking procedures (see below). If unclear, move to a alternate AA and notify higher.
6. Once area is clear and unmasking is complete establish LP/OP’s to provide security using concealed
    routes to the OP.
7. Identify and mark locations for major elements and equipment.
    a. TOC.                                                  e. Work Areas.
    b. ALOC.                                                 f. Routes to bring vehicles into their
    c. Company / Section sites.                                  assigned areas.
    d. Entry and exit points (dismount points).              g. Sleeping Areas.
8. Clear and mark landing sites for day and night operations.
9. Once all locations are marked – Have a soldier run commo wire to TAC.
10. Once commo wire is in place – each section conducts commo check with TAC.

Unmasking Procedures
UNMASKING WITH M256 KITS:
1. If all tests with M256 kits are negative, the senior ranking person selects 1 or 2 individuals
   considered the least mission essential (not necessarily those of the lowest rank).
2. Remove soldiers weapons and move them to a shaded area.
3. Unmask for 5 minutes, then reseal and clear masks.
4. Observe for 10 minutes. If no symptoms are noticed, give the “ALL CLEAR” signal.
5. Continue to monitor other personnel for symptoms.
6. Have first aid available.

UNMASKING WITHOUT M256 KITS
1. Select personnel as described above, remove their weapons and move them to a shady area.
2. Have them take a deep breath, hold it, and with eyes open break the seal of their mask for 15 seconds
   (without removing mask).
3. Reseal and clear masks.
4. Observe for 10 minutes.
5. If no symptoms, break seals and take 2 or 3 breaths, then reseal and clear masks.
6. Observe 10 minutes.
7. If no symptoms, unmask for 5 minutes, then remask.
8. Observe for 10 minutes. If no symptoms are exhibited, give the “ALL CLEAR.”




                                                                                                    45
                                                                                     EXECUTION



9.   All unmask, and continue to observe for delayed symptoms.
Reception of the Main Body
1.   Quartering party NCOIC and driver meets main body at the RP.
2.   Each company sends a representative to the dismount point for vehicle entry.
3.   Guides direct units and sections to assigned areas without slowing or stopping.
4.   VEHICLES MUST NOT HALT OR BUNCH UP.
5.   Once all sections have occupied the Assembly Area each company reports closure of elements to
     quartering party OIC.


Convoy Procedures
General
•    The CSM is the convoy commander.
•    Convoys are divided into serials (number dependent on mission). The senior NCO(usually 1SGs) in
     each serial is that serial’s commander.
•    S3 selects the TAA location, deconflicts the terrain, and submits required reports to ensure
     coordination is complete. The HHCCDR is the overall OIC for TAA occupation.
•    S4 selects routes and prepares the movement annex for all OPORDs (to include strip maps). Routes
     incorporate a 15-minute rest area every 2 hours of driving time.
•    S2 provides ROE and threat assessment along the route.
•    Serial 1 departs 3 hours after the quartering party.
•    Serials depart at 1-hour intervals thereafter.
•    Serials have a minimum of two radios (lead and trail). Convoy frequency: A&L, FH, Secure.
•    Serial commanders designate air guard. Employ crew-served weapons when possible. Serial
     commanders maintain security of their serial during halts and rest stops.
•    Each vehicle will deploy with rations, 10 gallons of water and 10 gallons of fuel onboard.
Typical Main Body Composition
•    Quartering Party – HHCCO/XO, S3, NCOIC, TAC, BN CHEM, RTS, Co NCOICs, security force.
•    Serial # 1 – HHC Staff/HQ elements, mix from units.
•    Serial # 2 – D Co, contact team, mix from units.
•    Serial # 3 – Line units, motor pool, HQ elements.
•    Serial # 4 – FARP.
•    Serials will have a minimum of 2 x radios (lead and trail), 1 x .50 CAL (mounted) and 1 x medic.
NOTE:
FARPs may not be part of the main body depending on the situation. FARP personnel are prepared to
move separate from the convoy in JFARP configuration or become Serial #4 of the Main Body if a
JFARP is not required. When separate from the convoy, FARP assumes all duties of quartering party.
Additionally, Serial #4 may split, creating a 5th serial in the mission dictates.




46
                                                                                       EXECUTION



Convoy Speeds and Intervals
The following applies to all battalion vehicles, unless otherwise directed in the OPORD.
      Condition           Interval (Day)      Interval (Night)         Speed            Max catch-up
        Dust                  100m                  50m                20mph              30mph
      Open Road               100m                 50m                 25mph                30mph
     Build-Up Area            25m                  25m                 25mph                30mph
       Highway                100m                 50m                 25mph                30mph

Convoy Commander Responsibilities
1. Knows:
   a. Number of vehicles in the convoy.
   b. Communications plan for the convoy.
   c. OPLAN for moving to the TAA.
   d. Current situation.
   e. Amount of ammunition in the convoy.
   f. Procedures for ground, air, NBC attack.
   g. Number/type sensitive items in convoy.
2. Conducts brief to serial commanders.
3. Ensures serial commanders conduct:
   a. Convoy safety checklist (on page 48).
   b. Individual soldier and vehicle operator PCI checks.
   c. Serial brief IAW the format below.
   d. FFR for their serial.

Serial Commander Responsibilities
1. Number of vehicles in the serial.
2. Communications plan for the serial.
3. OPLAN for moving to the TAA.
4. Current situation.
5. Amount of ammunition in the serial.
6. Procedures for ground, air, NBC attack.
7. Number/type sensitive items in the serial.
8. Number Personnel in the serial.
9. Ensures compliance with Convoy Checklist
10. Conducts Convoy brief.
11. Ensures Troop Commanders are in compliance with all designated responsibilities.
12. Turns in closing report to BN TAC within 30 minutes after arrival to TAA.
Vehicle Troop Commander Responsibilities
1.   Troop Commander worksheet. (for turn-in to Serial Commander prior to SP)
2.   Individual soldier/ vehicle PCI checks.
3.   Vehicle operator PMCS checks.
4.   Risk Assessment Sheets are completed.
5.   Ensures Load Plans are complete and accurate.
6.   Ensures vehicle and trailers are marked on both sides with transportation control numbers.



                                                                                                    47
                                                                                     EXECUTION



Convoy Brief
1.  SP/RP                                              11. Driver debriefing
2.  Route                                                  a. Servicing of vehicles
3.  Actual departure time (ATD)                            b. Inspection of vehicles
4.  Estimated arrival time (ETA)                           c. Accident/breakdown procedures.
5.  Route reconnaissance                                   d. Communications check
6.  Convoy organization                                    e. Dispatch check
    a. Size of march units/serials                         f. Vehicle OVM, highway warning kit.
    b. Type of march                                       g. Qualified and properly licensed on
    c. Rate of march/convoy speed                             vehicle; SF 46 on hand
        1) Maximum speed                                   h. Proper uniform
        2) Maximum catch-up speed                      12. Cargo
    d. Operating gaps                                      a. Properly loaded and secured
        1) Between march units/serials                     b. Protected from weather
        2) Interval between vehicles                   13. Security measures
        3) Open road                                       a. Enroute
        4) Through towns & cities                          b. At halt
        5) At halt                                     14. Trail
    e. Convoy clearance                                    a. Wrecker
        1) Timely submission                               b. Maintenance vehicle(s)
        2) EAID Form 511 in lead vehicle                   c. Medical support
        3) Clearance number chalked on both                d. Trail officer
           sides of each vehicle                       15. Guides
    f. Vehicle markings                                    a. Position
7. Rest and mess halts                                     b. Posting and pickup
    a. Location, mess arrangements                     16. Military and civil police support
    b. Time and duration                               17. POCs for medical / maintenance support.
8. Refueling location                                  18. Use of lights
9. Loading/entrucking                                      a. During operation
    a. Time and location                                   b. Blackout restriction
    b. Load plan                                           c. NVG usage
    c. Type/class of cargo                             19. Release trucks
    d. Oversize load                                       a. Time
10. Unloading/detrucking time                              b. Responsibility
                                                       20. Debriefing and after action reports
Convoy Checklist
ARs 55-29, 385-55, 600-55 and FMs 21-305, 21-306 and 55-30 provide guidance in convoy operations.
In addition, use the checklist below to manage the risks associated with convoy operations.

1. Do tactical vehicle drivers have a valid Government Motor Vehicle Operator’s Identification Card
   Optional Form (OF) 346?
2. Are drivers trained to drive in adverse weather, difficult terrain, and blackout drive, with NVGs?
3. Are convoy drivers provided with eight consecutive hours rest for each ten continuous hours of
   driving a tactical vehicle within a 24-hour period?




48
                                                                                      EXECUTION



4. Do convoy commanders brief all drivers, assistant drivers, and senior occupants prior to the march
    on hazardous areas or conditions to be encountered?
5. Do drivers keep proper distances between vehicles?
6. Do drivers reduce speed during conditions of reduced visibility and adverse weather?
7. Do drivers perform before-, during-, and after-operation preventative maintenance?
8. Do drivers know the meaning of traffic control signs, signals, devices and markings?
9. Do all drivers know the route?
10. Are vehicle basic-issue items, pioneer tools, highway warning devices, and fire extinguishers present
    on every wheeled convoy vehicle?
11. Are drivers of bulk fuel transporters instructed on emergency procedures for fuel leaks?
12. Are vehicles that transport hazardous materials or dangerous cargo:
    a. Appropriately posted with placards and loaded to meet hazard classification and compatibility?
    b. Inspected using DA Form 626 (Motor Vehicle Inspection)?
    c. Equipped with two fire extinguishers appropriate for the cargo?
13. Are ammunition and POL cargo transported separately?
14. Do vehicles carrying hazardous cargo have assistant drivers?
15. When vehicles are moving, are radio whip antennas tied down to not less than seven feet from the
    ground and antenna tips covered with protective balls?
16. Are service drive lights used at all times on paved public roads?
17. When transporting personnel do drivers:
    a. Walk to rear of the vehicle before starting to secure the tailgate and safety strap and ensure all
        passengers are seated?
    b. Adjust the tarpaulin to ensure proper ventilation and security?
    c. Secure baggage and other loads safely and not in the way of passengers?
    d. Prohibit personnel from riding on outside of wheeled and tracked vehicles?
    e. Ensure that all occupants use restraint systems when available?
18. Is the rear vehicle the largest and a non-passenger-carrying vehicle?
19. Are ground guides used IAW AR 385-55, FM 21-305 and unit SOP?
20. Are rotating/flashing amber lights or convoy flags used on the first and last vehicles in the convoy?
21. Are vehicles marked in accordance with AR 385-55 and FM 50-30?




                                                                                                    49
                                                                                                 EXECUTION




                                     VEHICLE MISSION BRIEFING

     Date_______________
     Driver ____________________              Bumper # ________________          Unit _______________
     Co-Driver _________________
     1. Mission: ___________________________________________________________________________
     ______________________________________________________________________________________
     2. Route: _____________________________________________________________________________
       Strip Map ____________________ Recon _________________________
     3. Vehicle Type ___________________        Licensed in Type ________   Miles in Type ________
     4. Time Licensed in unit _____________ Refresher Tng ____________ Winter Tng __________
     5. Day/Night    Blackout/NVG    Weather: Clear/Dry ______ Fog/Drizzle _____ Rain/Snow _____
     6. Authorized Loads: Passengers____ Cargo____ Fuel____ Ammunition ____ Towing/Rec____
     7. Mission Restrictions: Speed ________________________________________________________
     8. Safety Considerations: ________________________________________________________________
     ______________________________________________________________________________________
     9. Additional Remarks: __________________________________________________________________
     10. Risk Value from worksheet: _______
     11. Additional Control Measures: __________________________________________________________



     APPROVAL AUTHORITY’S Name/Rank/Signature:_________________________________________


                                        MISSION BRIEF-BACK
     1. Mission a. Can be accomplished as briefed _______________________________
               b. Identify required deviations from mission ________________________________________
                    __________________________________________________________________________
     2. Crew Endurance: Good __________       Extension granted ______________
     3. Remarks: ___________________________________________________________________________
     ______________________________________________________________________________________
     DRIVER’S SIGNATURE: _____________________________________________

                                        POST MISSION BRIEF
     1. Mission Status: a. Completed as briefed _______________________________________
                       b. Not completed (see remarks) _________________________________
                       c. Changed (see remarks) ______________________________________
     2. Crew Endurance Status: _______________________              Hours Driven: ____________
     3. Vehicle Status: Maintenance ____________________                    Fuel: ____________
     4. Remarks: __________________________________________________________________________
     ____________________________________________________________________________________
     DRIVER’S SIGNATURE: ______________________________________________




50
                                                                                      EXECUTION



TAA Occupation

Priority of Work
1.   Security (OP, barrier plan)                         5.   Camouflage.
2.   Quartering Party tasks.                             6.   Command post.
3.   Accountability and reports.                         7.   Vehicles.
4.   Establish commo.                                    8.   Other tents
Priority of Communications
1. FM secure.                                            3. PRC 127.
2. Wire.                                                 4. Messenger
Defense Plan
Company’s initial defense plans are submitted to the S2 within one hour of occupation. The physical
security plan and sketch are completed by the 1SGs to include:
• OPs.                                                  • Wire and obstacles.
• Range fans.                                           • Aircraft and vehicle parking plan.
• M8 alarms.                                            • Tent locations.
Plans are reviewed by the
CSM prior to submission to
the S2.


Bug Out
Rapid departures from the AA depends on timely and accurate threat updates. Aircrew alert status is
upgraded based on the threat situation. Safe evacuation of aircraft and vehicles is accomplished through
rally points and holding areas. Rally points and holding areas are briefed prior to occupation of TAA.
Aircraft
1. Aircrews placed on appropriate REDCON status
2. Evacuation decision issued.
3. Aircraft depart TAA to company HAs and report to S3.
4. Monitor BN CMD.
5. Prepare to transition to battle or reposition to alternate TAA.

Vehicles
1.   Evacuation decision issued.
2.   Quartering party marshals at dismount point NLT 1+15 hrs from notification.
3.   Main Body marshals at dismount point NLT 2+30 hrs from notification.
4.   O/O deploy to directed alternate assembly area.
5.   Prepare to transition to battle or reposition to alternate TAA.




                                                                                                    51
                                                                                     EXECUTION




Air Operations Enroute
Team Formations
CCDRs designate formations for the company based on the factors of METT-T, the degree of security
desired, and how the company will react to enemy contact. The basic building block of platoon and
company formations is the single lead/wingman team. In all of the following formations, the lead
aircraft designates the primary direction, altitude and speed of travel, while the wingman sets the
separation for others to follow. In all cases, minimum and maximum separation between elements will
be briefed.
Free Cruise                                           Combat Cruise

                                                             10º                             10º
         45º                        45º




                      30º                                                    30º
                     Avoid                                                  Avoid
Used when teams desire to move quickly and            Unlike free cruise, combat cruise requires the
maximize the use of terrain for masking. The          wingman to remain in either right or left cruise
wingman maneuvers on either side of lead at           and change sides only after being directed to do
will. Gives the team freedom to maneuver and          so by lead or transmitting his intentions to lead.
allows the wingman to provide security for lead.      Optimal angle is 45 degrees.
Combat Spread                                         Line Formation
                                          +10º




                                          -10º
Used when enemy contact is imminent.                  A variation on the combat spread. Used to
Promotes security by providing maximum                facilitate movement into BPs, SBFs, and ABFs.
firepower forward and overlapping fields of fire.     Formed by placing two or more teams abreast.
This is primarily used during search and attack       Also known as “stacking left/right.” Provides
missions over open terrain or water. Difficult to     excellent firepower forward, limited flanking
control during NVS operations.                        fires, decreased freedom of maneuver.




52
                                                                                    EXECUTION




Company Formations
The following formations are built from lead/wingman teams. During contour and NOE flight, the
CCDR does not normally employ rigid formations, but employs techniques of movement such as
traveling overwatch or bounding overwatch. These formations are normally used when enemy contact is
not expected, speed of movement is desired, or to cross a specific point quickly. When operating at
contour and above, the commander, based on METT-T, will employ one of the following.
Staggered                                            Echelon




The formation of choice for movement in the          Used during traveling overwatch when speed is
company. Allows for team integrity, while            required and the terrain is open. This formation
maintaining separation between elements. Used        is used in situations where the tactical situation
as a general-purpose traveling and traveling         does not favor combat trail and firepower must
overwatch formation when the terrain allows for      be focused forward. Allows speed of a combat
dispersion. Provides excellent control, firepower    trail with wider front. More difficult to maintain
to flanks, rapid movement. Limited firepower         orientation than combat trail. Too restrictive for
forward. Either staggered left or right (shown).     rugged terrain. Either left or right (shown).
Combat Trail




Used most often when passing through defiles or rugged, closed terrain, during air movements, and
during movements when speed is required in the contour mode. Formed by two or three successive free
cruise formations. Allows rapid movement through the worst terrain. Ample maneuver room for actions
on contact. Least fatiguing formation.




                                                                                                  53
                                                                                          EXECUTION



Wedge                                                         Combination




Used when providing overwatch for another
element (as when acting as an advance guard for
an air movement) and the terrain is open or
rolling. The wedge is formed by two combat
cruise formation (one left, one right). Permits
excellent fire to the front and good fire to the
flanks. Difficult to use in close, rugged terrain.
Separation                                                    The CCDR may use any combination of
Close: 3-5 rotor-disks.                                       formations, mixing techniques between platoons
Loose: 5-10 rotor-disks.                                      or teams, based on METT-T. The above figure
Extended: >10 rotor-disks.                                    depicts a light team using a combat spread,
                                                              followed by a heavy team using the wedge.
Lead Change
1.   Lead change is by team (by aircraft is the exception).
2.   Lead calls “Lead change,” and direction, “left/right”.
3.   Flight acknowledges in chalk order.
4.   Lead team turns 45° from formation heading for five seconds, then parallels formation.
5.   Former lead calls “Set,” and slows to allow flight to pass.
6.   Former lead counts off aircraft, rejoins as trail and then calls “Trail Set.”
Formation Flight Checklist
1. Formation time schedule.
2. Order of movement and bump plan.
3. Type of formations
    a. Airspeeds.
    b. Altitudes.
    c. Separation.
4. Formation and lead change procedures.
5. Frequencies.
6. Commo responsibilities.
7. Downed aircraft procedures.
8. IIMC procedures.
9. Landing procedures.
10. Contingencies.




                                                                                                       54
                                                                                               EXECUTION



Formation Line-Up Procedures
1.   Lead turns perpendicular to flight in order to observe line-up.
2.   When ready for takeoff, lead picks-up to a hover.
3.   The flight picks-up to a hover.
4.   When lead observes all aircraft hovering, he turns in the direction of takeoff.
5.   Lead waits 5 seconds and then commences takeoff.
6.   Lead climbs at 300-500 fpm and flies 60 knots for 30 seconds.
7.   No transmissions are made (no news is good news).
Inadvertent IMC
Always brief, in detail, before each mission. As a minimum, briefing should include:
• IIMC altitude.
• Approach control frequencies.
• Applicable navigation aids.

NOTE
It is advisable to brief and fly staggered right when IIMC is likely so as to preclude confusion and to
instill positive habit transfer in the event actual conditions are encountered. Note the “Stack down”
concept.
Procedures
                                                                                     60° Right
                                                    40° Right                        IIMC Alt. = +600’
                    20° Right                       IIMC Alt. = +400’
                    IIMC Alt. =+200’
                                          2                              4                               6
 Straight
 IIMC Alt.

                           1           30° Left            3                           5
                                       IIMC Alt. = +300’                50° Left
                                                                        IIMC Alt. = +500’

1. If lead encounters IIMC, he initiates the immediate action steps:
   a. Attitude.
   b. Heading.
   c. Torque.
   d. Airspeed.
2. Lead states he is inadvertent IMC, states climb heading and IIMC altitude.
3. The rest of the flight makes every effort to remain in VMC conditions. If not…
4. Aircraft turn their chalk number times 10-degrees to their side of the formation.
   a. Example: Chalk 2 turns 20-degrees to the right.
   b. Example: Chalk 5 turns 50-degrees to the left.
5. Lead climbs to the IIMC altitude.



                                                                                                             55
                                                                                          EXECUTION



6. Other aircraft climb as follows: chalk 2 = +200’; chalk 3 = + 300’; chalk 4 = +400’; chalk 5 = + 500’;
chalk 6 = + 600’. (see diagram above).

Lost Commo
The trail aircraft will execute the following procedure:

1. Maneuver to a safe position, with at least a 3 disk separation from the preceding aircraft and
momentarily set anti-collision lights to a position opposite from that briefed (day = red; night = white).

2. The preceding aircraft will acknowledge by momentarily setting anti-collision lights to the same
position.

3. The preceding aircraft will then decelerate to allow the aircraft with lost communications to occupy
his position in the flight, inform the AMC and assume duties of the aircraft with lost communications.

If the lead aircraft loses communications he will :

1. Set anti-collision lights to the position based on the above guidance for 5 seconds and execute lead
change procedures IAW this SOP.

2. Chalk 2/Team 2 will then assume lead for the flight and announce the lead change.

3. The lost commo aircraft will execute lead change procedures IAW this SOP except that trail will
allow the lost commo aircraft to maneuver into position in front of his aircraft.

(If the formation consists of only two aircraft the procedure will remain the same except for unnecessary
requirements.)

Any other aircraft that loses communications will follow these guidelines:

1. Momentarily set anti-collision lights to the opposite position from that briefed for the flight. If anti-
collision lights were off, turn them on.

2. Trailing aircraft will accelerate forward along side of the lost commo aircraft and acknowledge by
momentarily flashing the same anti-collision lights. Trailing aircraft then decelerates to assume original
position in the flight.

In any of the above situations the AMC will redistribute flight responsibilities as necessary.

Lost communications does not necessarily warrant departure from the formation or cancellation of the
mission unless briefed accordingly.

Disorientation
Lead calls “Guilty” or any aircraft calls “Check Nav.” If lead is disoriented, execute lead change.




56
                                                                                      EXECUTION



Aircrew Duties Enroute
Company Formations
LEAD                                                   CCDR
Primary navigation.                                    Contact with supported unit.
ATC calls.                                             Command of the company.
Primary artillery.
                                                       CHALKS 3-5
CHALK 2                                                Flank security.
Backup navigation.                                     Primary JAAT.
Forward security.
                                                       TRAIL
Contact with higher.
                                                       Flight following.
                                                       Rear security.
Single L/W Teams
LEAD                                                   WINGMAN
Primary navigation.                                    Backup navigation.
ATC calls.                                             Flight following.
Primary artillery.                                     Primary JAAT.
Contact with supported unit.                           Contact with higher.
Forward/flank security.                                Rear/flank security.




PRE-COMBAT CHECKS
The following checks must be completed before takeoff as a function of the aircraft run-up. These
checks may be confirmed during the enroute portion of an attack, prior to the point where enemy contact
is likely and where the workload is low enough to permit the completion of all checks.

Firepower (Weapons initialization)                     Navigation
1.   Weapon switches:        ON.                       1.   Maps:          Targets plotted.
2.   Arm/Safe switches:      ON.                       2.   EGI:           Navstat 1/PPOS updated.
3.   Weapons action switch: WASed.                     3.   Clocks:        GPS time.
4.   ARCS zone:              Armed.                    4.   CMD HDG:       Confirm.
5.   Hellfire:        Spun, coded, prioritized.        5.   ADF:           Tuned.
6.   Laser:           Coded, CCM checked.
7.   ATSWARMS:        Checked.                         Commo
                                                       1. Radios:              Proper comset.
EW Systems                                             2. Authentication:      Ready.
1.   APR-39:    ON, volume set, BIT complete.
2.   ALQ-136:   ON, or STBY, BIT complete.             Emitters
3.   ALQ-144:   ON, BIT complete.                      1. APX-100: Modes (music on/of line).
4.   M_130:     PRGM, counter set, ARMed.              2. Lights:  As required.




                                                                                                     57
                                                                                      EXECUTION




Tactical Flight Planning
1. Provisions of AR 95 Series and all applicable NGR Regulations will be strictly adhered to during all
operations.
2. The battalion flight operations section will maintain the following information in current status for all
flight planning:
               (a) Airspace allocations
               (b) Weather
               (c) NOTAMs (if available)
               (d) Range information
               (e) Hazards map and NO FLY areas
               (f) Current DOD and Local Flight Publications
3. The designated mission briefer(s) will conduct an Aircrew Mission Briefing IAW AR 95-1. The briefing
will consist of:
             (a) Aircrew mission briefing
             (b) Briefback
             (c) Post mission briefing
4. A risk assessment will be completed by each aircrew and for the flight by the air mission commander or
flight lead.
5. The DD form 175 (Military Flight Plan) or flight log will be filed and maintained by battalion flight
operations section.
6. All flight plan changes to include crew member and passenger manifest will be transmitted to the
battalion flight operations section.
7. The battalion flight operations section will maintain an updated passenger manifest.
8. Aircraft departing the battalion area will activate flight plans on the appropriate flight operations
frequency and will terminate upon return.

Tactical Flight Following
1. Aircraft flight follow with battalion flight operations section when possible.
2. FOC/FCC provide flight following service and are published in the Airspace Control Order (ACO).
3. Internal flight following is the method of last resort.

Passage of Lines
1. Passage of lines requires the close coordination of three staffs:
   a. Common higher headquarters.
   b. Stationary force.
   c. Passing force.
2. Control methods include altitude, direction, lateral boundaries, and time limitations to supplement other
   forms of IFF and visual identification. 1-104th AVN BN coordinates passage through LNO teams at
   Division level, or through DOCC LNOs if the operation is cross-FLOT. A LNO may be sent forward to
   ground brigades in order to facilitate passage.
CCIR
CCIR is confirmation the ground unit knows friendly aircraft will be passing through their airspace.




                                                                                                       58
                                                                                       EXECUTION



TECHNIQUES
•   Separation between aircraft must be reduced to a minimum to enable all aircraft to cross as close as
    possible to the expected PP time.
•   Cross the PP within +/- 10 seconds.
•   Minimize exposure by using terrain to its maximum advantage.

Actions on Contact
Air movement during an attack may result in a meeting engagement. Such engagements occur when contact
with the enemy is made suddenly, with little or no prior information concerning its size, location, and
disposition. When contact is made, the reactions of leaders in the first few seconds may determine the
outcome of the fight. Generally, the platoon or team under fire moves aggressively using fire and maneuver
to suppress the enemy, seeks covered and concealed fighting positions, and establishes a base of fire. The
unit in contact sends a contact report, and the CCDR determines the appropriate course of action. Based on
METT-T, the CCDR chooses one of the following COAs:
• Continue to develop the situation.
• Conduct a hasty attack.
• Fix the enemy while the remainder of the unit bypasses or conducts a hasty attack.
• Bypass.


Aircraft Survivability Equipment
RADAR WARNING RECEIVER
1. PWR switch:        ON for entire mission.
2. MODE switch:       as desired.
TRANSPONDER
1. Prior to Music Off/On Line.
   a. All Modes ON, unless otherwise briefed.
2. Beyond Music Off/On Line.
   a. Mode 1, 2, 3/A, C: OFF.
   b. Mode 4:               ON.
IR JAMMER
ON at all times, except OFF one minute prior to entering the FARP.
RADAR JAMMER.
STANDBY, until threat is imminent.
CHAFF
1. Mode switch:       PRGM.
2. ARM/SAFE:          ARM after takeoff.




                                                                                                     59
                                                                                          EXECUTION



Actions on the Objective
RP Inbound
This is the point at which the unit fully deploys from its enroute formation in order to best array itself for
making enemy contact. Based on METT-T, teams transition to the BP or SBF/ABF by either traveling
overwatch or bounding overwatch.

Occupation
Standard occupation of a BP/SBF/ABF is “set left stack right,” unless otherwise briefed. The lead element
(whether a single aircraft or team) occupies the left flank, with the trail element occupying the right.
Occupation can be made sequentially by team (preferred), or simultaneously. In most cases, aircraft will be
in combat spread or line formation, so as to array maximum firepower forward. It is imperative for the crew
to ATSWARMS prior to any potential engagements.
BP OCCUPATION
By its nature, a battle position is a specific place in the battlespace from which the attack must be made.
Each crew selects individual firing positions within the confines of the BP, relative to the other aircraft in
the flight. These positions are generally static. The CCDR may elect either a standard set (all elements
forward) or a nonstandard set (one element in reserve for remote fires).
SBF AND ABF OCCUPATION
These control measures are less restrictive than a fixed BP. Within the span of the ABF, each crew selects a
series of firing positions (more like firing lanes) along the axis of orientation. Because the enemy situation
is uncertain, aircraft and teams bound in overwatch of each other until contact is made. When the enemy is
engaged, the ABF reverts to a “hasty” battle position.
Security
Unless briefed otherwise, aircraft on the flanks are responsible for flank and rear security.
Target Priorities
Unless briefed otherwise, target priorities are as follows
1. Air defense artillery.
2. Command vehicles.
3. Armor/anti-tank systems.
4. Personnel or mechanized troop carriers.
5. Artillery.
6. Miscellaneous.

Engagement Priorities
Aircrews must decide which vehicle to destroy first. Standard engagement priorities are:
1. Threat to self.
2. Threat to company.
3. Threat to friendlies.
4. Target priorities.




60
                                                                                       EXECUTION




Fire Distribution
There are several techniques for controlling fire distribution in the EA:
• Sectors
• Target Array
• Quadrants
• Closest TRP
• Fire Patterns (the rule of thumb for fire patterns is: Left-Left-Lead, Right-Right-Rear).

SECTORS                                             TARGET ARRAY




QUADRANTS                                           CLOSEST TRP


                         Q2

               Q1
                           Q4

                    Q3




FIRE PATTERNS




                                                                                              61
                                                                                           EXECUTION




Precautionary Landing Procedures
In the event that an aircraft must depart the formation, the team will depart the formation using the
procedures stated under “Lead Change.” The wingman will cover the aircraft and provide assistance as
required. Once the air crew/aircraft are secured, the remaining team member will attempt to rejoin the
formation as trail or proceed as directed by the AMC. If a team consists of only one aircraft, the
wingman of the team to his front will depart to cover the aircraft.


Downed Aircraft/Crew Recovery
The tactical situation will determine what action or courses of action are required to recover the crew
and aircraft. The aircraft may have gone down with maintenance problems while enroute or may have
gone down in the BP and wasn't accounted for at the rally point. Crews must be briefed on pick-up
points, time, identification signals, and points of infiltration as part of every mission briefing or
OPORD.

In the event an aircraft goes down during a mission, the downed aircrew will abide by the following
guidelines:

   The senior individual assumes command.

   Administer first aid as necessary.

   Remove/destroy all classified information and equipment as necessary. Zero/destroy all radio, IFF,
   and secure equipment as necessary. Change frequencies on radios from those used during mission.

   If the area is secure, remain in the vicinity of the aircraft and try to contact friendly forces.

   If the tactical situation does not permit remaining in the vicinity of the aircraft, escape and evade
   IAW the briefed evasion plan.

   If the aircraft is in immediate danger of being captured and if destruction of the aircraft is authorized,
   execute whatever procedures were briefed to destroy the aircraft.

NOTE: Downed aviator pick-up points will be checked 30 minutes before SR and 30 minutes after SS
once an aircraft and crew have been lost.

If another aircraft is on site, and has permission from the commander to deviate from the primary
mission, the crew should:
        (1) Locate the downed aircraft’s position and report it. Plan and conduct search.
        (2) Provide security for the downed crew.
        (3) Describe the physical status of the aircraft
        (4) Contact the downed crew.
        (5) Contact the commander with the situation.
        (6) Attempt to recover the downed crew. If able, stay in the area to guide and assist SAR
aircraft.




62
                                                                                          EXECUTION



          (7) If immediate extraction becomes necessary and a UH-60 DART is not available, the
              supporting aircraft may land in the vicinity of the downed crew. The downed CPG will
              attach his survival vest D ring to the left hand hold outside the assisting aircraft’s pilot
              station. The pilot of the downed aircraft will attach himself to the right side. Once both
              crewmembers indicate ready to depart, the assisting aircraft will proceed to the nearest safe
              area and land. After releasing the downed crew, the assisting aircraft will pass the new
              location of the downed crew to rescue forces/commander and, if able, remain on station to
              provide further assistance.

Upon notification of a downed aircraft, the platoon leader or company commander must notify the chain
of command of the extent of damage, location of the aircraft, condition of the crew, security of the site,
enemy situation, and the factors effecting air and/or ground recovery.

If the enemy situation permits, the commander makes arrangements to secure the aircraft until
maintenance personnel arrive or otherwise is relieved of responsibility to provide security for the
aircraft.

Downed Aviator Pick-up (DAP). During a mission, order of pick-up is:
            (1) Immediate - SAR
            (2) Upon egress - SAR/DART
            (3) 30 min prior to sunrise at the DPP or 30 min after sunset at the DPP

PRC-112 is the primary means of communication. Utilize according to the OPORD. Normally, initial
contact will be made on 243.00. Subsequent transmissions will be made on 282.8 The radio can be
homed on using the UH-60’s personnel locator system. Beware of the tactical situation and battery wear
when turned on.

Downed Aviator Pick-up Points (DPP) are usually ACPs, RPs, HAs, or easily recognizable terrain
features along the route and near the engagement area. DPPs are briefed in the operations order.

Brevity Words
Brevity code words are not a secure means of communications. Standard terminology found in the ATM
will be used along with the following brevity code words.
Winchester:              Mission ammunition expended (except % needed for defensive purposes).
Full House:              Entering BP
Set:                     All elements established in BP/ABF.
Set Hot:                 Same as set, but have IDed targets and are ready to engage.
Poker:                   Engage
Remington:               50% of mission ammunition remaining.
Guilty:                  Lead is disoriented and cannot navigate.
Bingo:                   10 min station time remaining
Hearts:                  Abort




                                                                                                         63
                                                                                        EXECUTION



Deal:                  Break Station
Vegas:                 Departing AA
Bust:                  Downed Aircraft
Nixon:                 Execute Escape
Cards:                 Hold
Casino:                Mission Complete
Straight:              NBC Attack
Jacks:                 Rally At
Stud:                  Redcon 1234
Flush:                 SEAD
Clubs:                 Send BDA
Spades:                Send FARM
Folding:               To FARP

Battle Handover
Elements remain on station until relieved, or ordered to return. Relief is conducted on station to ensure
continuous operations, the single most important task is to maintain enemy contact. Coordination is
conducted over the internal frequency of the unit in contact or over squadron command. Preplanned
contact points should be designated in the mission brief.
RELIEVING ELEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES:
         Contact the on station element
         Provide security for both elements during a face to face.
         Dismount/meet the sit CDR
         As a minimum, exchange the following info: (if unchanged – state “same”)
UNIT ON STATION PROVIDES:
1. Enemy forces in contact.
2. Enemy forces bypassed/previously reported.
3. Current mission.
4. Changes in friendly situation.
5. Reports to (call sign) on (frequency).
6. Fires from (call sign) on (frequency).

RELIEVING UNIT PROVIDES:
1. FARP status.
2. Changes in the FAA, AA, HA and routes.
3. Threat/friendly update.
4. Time the relieving unit will require relief.




64
                                                                                         EXECUTION



Egress
Exiting the BP
Standard egress is left turns unless otherwise briefed. If it is necessary for the company to break station
while still in contact, The CDR may elect to use one of the following methods to cover the egress:
1. Initiate preplanned suppressive artillery fires. (Preferred).
2. Have one team support by fire with rocket or cannon fires.
Movement to the Rally Point
The CDR may decide to move by teams or as a company to the rally point. If the egress was
unanticipated and/or uncoordinated, linkup is made more difficult. It is imperative for all crews to
maintain a high degree of situational awareness during night and limited visibility operations.




                                                                                                        65
                                                                                      EXECUTION




TAA Occupation




                                                       Threat
                                                  RP
                                                                       Traffic



                                                       D Co
                                                                                 RP

                                           B Co                    C Co
                                                       TOC

                                                       ALOC
                        RP

                                             HHC                A Co



                                 Traffic

                                                                  RP



General
•    Monitor O&I for air-to-air.
•    IP/RPs 5 km away.
•    HAs, scatter/linkup area approximately 3 km outside of the battalion AA.
•    Air traffic is counter-clockwise.
•    Minimum separation between parked aircraft is 100 meters (terrain and METT-T dependent).

Bug Out
Rapid departures from the AA depend on timely and accurate threat updates. Aircrew alert status is
upgraded based on the threat situation. Safe evacuation of aircraft and vehicles is accomplished through
rally points and holding areas. Rally points and holding areas are briefed prior to occupation of TAA.
Procedures
1.   Aircrews placed at appropriate REDCON status
2.   Evacuation decision issued.
3.   Aircraft depart TAA to Troop HAs and report to S3.
4.   Monitor BN CMD.
5.   Prepare to transition to battle or reposition to alternate TAA.




66
                                                                                    EXECUTION




HA Occupation




                                                  Threat
                                                 Lead

                                   #3                             #2



                                   #5                             #4

                                                  Trail




General
A covered (preferably), concealed position occupied for short periods when final reconnaissance and
coordination of assets is required. Never occupied for longer than a few minutes, the HA allows the
company to reduce exposure and permits face-to-face between crews and/or ground elements.
Requirements
•   Maintain 100% RPM.
•   Maintain radio listening silence.
•   Establish 360-degree security (Coil).
•   Maintain intervisibility.
•   Remain NOE around HA.
•   Maintain separate company HAs.
•   Position a team to provide overwatch if METT-T requires it.




                                                                                                  67
                                                                                        EXECUTION




Fire Support
Responsibilities
COMMANDERS
Ensure pilots are trained in fire support employment and can request fire support on the battlefield.
Commanders ensure fire support is integrated into their operations.
S-3
Assists in coordinating fire support for all operations. OPORDs contain frequencies, callsigns, fire
support coordination measures, and a fire support execution matrix. Additionally, the S-3 coordinates
with the Division ALO for assistance in obtaining CAS when necessary.
FSO/FSNCO
Plans all fire support to integrate available fire support systems into the commander’s concept of the
operation. When available, The FSO or FSNCO collocates with the S-3 in the UH-60 Air TAC during
tactical operations to supervise the execution of the fire support plan. When the UH-60 Air TAC is not
available, the FSO/FSNCO is collocated with the TOC or ground TAC.
FIRE SUPPORT ELEMENT
Consists of the FSO and the FSNCO
1. Focal point through which all fire support is coordinated.
2. Supervises all FSE operations, to include the AFATDS.
3. Locates in either the TOC, or Ground TAC, depending on the situation. When the Ground TAC is
   operational, the FSO locates in the TAC and the FSNCO locates in the TOC.
Planning
The FSO/FSNCO develops a fire support annex for each OPORD. The annex includes:
1. Artillery unit locations.
2. Target information (target list worksheet).
3. Priorities of fire.
4. Support relationships (DS, GS, GS-R, R).
5. Communication nets.
6. The following minimum information is designated in the OPORD:
   a. Priorities of fires and CAS availability.
   b. Counter-air operations.
   c. Air support sorties and type delivery system/ordnance load.
   d. Designated field artillery support available.
       (1) Unit and FA Organization for Combat.
       (2) Type weapons and munitions.
       (3) Locations (current and proposed, position areas (PAs) for M109A6 Paladins).
       (4) FS and QF nets (quick fire nets only if decentralized execution is authorized).
   e. Fire Support Coordination Measures and establishing command.
   f. Fire Support target list and overlay and Execution Matrix.
   g. High Pay Off Targets (Target prioritization).




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                                                                                        EXECUTION



Coordination
When operating with DS, GS, or GS-R artillery and priority of fires or anticipated priority of fires, the
following will be exchanged and disseminated:
• Target lists and overlays.
• COMSEC material
• SOI extracts.
• AFATDS master unit list information and communications configurations (when applicable).
• Companies may provide input on fire support planning and targeting depending on the tactical
    situation and support relationship of supporting artillery.
Fire Support Agencies
FIELD ARTILLERY AND MORTARS.
Artillery is normally allocated on a mission by mission basis to Division. Availability and amount of fire
support is based on the battalion mission and area of responsibility. The accessibility of mortar support
is at the discretion of the ground maneuver commander. BPs/ABFs are coordinated to avoid mortar
firing points and to maximize use of maneuver element’s organic mortars.
CLOSE AIR SUPPORT
Requested through fire support channels. The S-3 integrates CAS planning into all operations. Requests
for CAS are processed through the Division ALO for USAF support.
NAVAL GUNFIRE
FSE coordinates through FS channels. All aircrews are prepared to control naval gunfire when available.
SMOKE
Coordinated through Battalion FSO and adjacent units to minimize obscuring effects on friendly ground
and air operations.
FASCAM
Coordinated through Battalion FSO. Considerations:
• Employment. Utilized to delay or disrupt enemy movement or timetable, or force an enemy into a
   particular course of action. It is not a munition to stop an enemy force.
• Types are ADAM (anti-personnel) and RAAM (anti-armor), and can be in short duration (less than
   24 hours) or long-duration (more than 24 hours)
• Time. It may take over an hour to emplace a minefield, and an hour to plan. Also, while the artillery
   unit is emplacing the minefield it is not available for other missions.
• Safety factor. The employment of FASCAM denies a particular area to friendly as well as enemy
   units for the duration of the munition. It also create a large safety area (as large as 2 Km wide)
   around the actual minefield.
• Clearance. Approval authority for FASCAM is normally retained at Division or higher levels.

ILLUMINATION
The FSE will keep the battalion informed of illumination usage in the area of operations to safeguard
against night vision system degradation.
LASER SWITCH SETTING
•   The Corps FSE is the overall manager for laser operations and monitors units operating on or near
    the Corps/Division boundaries to deconflict settings with adjacent units.




                                                                                                       69
                                                                                          EXECUTION



•   The Brigade FSE is the lowest level to manage switch settings and coordinate the settings with the
    designator and the FDC.
•   The Brigade FSO coordinates the switch settings for Hellfire systems, Copperhead, and USAF laser
    guided munitions. The executing FSE ensures delivery system and designator are on same setting.
•   Code allocations are based on current SOI and passed down through FSE channels to each battalion.
Fire Support Execution
Normally, artillery calls for fire are transmitted to the Battalion FSO/FSNCO via the assigned fire
support net. After clearing the fires, the FSO will transmit the call for fire to the Brigade FSE or directly
to the artillery FDC, depending on the type of support relationship. Primary means of transmission of
calls for fire from the Battalion FSE to Regiment FSE is by AFATDS. Mission dependent, Attack
Companies may be authorized direct coordination with DS artillery units for fire support. In this case
CCDRs maintain responsibility of clearing fires for fratricide prevention. JAAT/CAS requests will
normally be transmitted by the assigned AMC via the assigned CAS net.


Artillery Munitions and Characteristics
    Asset         Max Range        Max Rate of Fire    Sustained Rate            Type Ammo
                  (in meters)       (per minute)        (per minute)
 105 Towed
 M102               11,500         10 for 3 minutes           3           HEP-T, RAP, WP, APERS,
                 15,400 (RAP)                                             Gas, HE, ICM, ILLUM, HC
 M119               14,000          6 for 2 minutes           3                    Smoke
                 19,000 (RAP)
 155 Towed
 M198               22,400          4 for 3 minutes           1           HE, RAP, RAAM, APERS,
                  30,000 RAP                                             CHEM, ADAM, ICM, DPICM,
                                                                            ILLUM, CDHP, Nuke
 155 SP
 M109A(3-5)         18,100          4 for 3 minutes           1                 Same as M198
                 23,500 (RAP)
 M109A6             22,400          4 for 3 minutes           1                 Same as M198
 (Paladin)       30,000 (RAP)
 MLRS
 Rockets            30,000          1.5 per second            12                    DPICM
 ATACMS             156 km          1.5 per second             2                    DPICM
 Mortars
 60mm                3500          30 for 4 minutes           20                HE, WP, ILLUM
 81mm                5800          30 for 4 minutes           18                Same as 60mm
 107mm               6800          18 for 2 minutes            3                Same as 60mm
 120mm               7200          15 for 1 minute             4                Same as 60mm




70
                                                                                         EXECUTION




Call for Fire
I Won’t Let Down My Men
ID
“You, this is me…
WARNING ORDER
…Adjust fire, over.”
…Fire for Effect, over.”
LOCATION
“Grid VK12345678, Direction 240-degrees magnetic, over.”
“Direction 240-degrees magnetic, Distance, 4500 meters, over.”
“Shift from a known point, Target AE2302, Direction 240-degrees, Left 150, Drop 300, Up 50, over.”
DESCRIPTION
“APCs in the open.”
METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT
“High angle, WP, Open Sheaf, over.”
“ICM, over.”
(Low angle, HE is standard).
METHOD OF CONTROL
“At my command, over.”
“Time on target, over.”
(When ready is standard).

Message to Observer                                   Mission Status
“Mike-Tango-Oscar…”
                                                      FSE
GUNS/BATTERIES IN EFFECT                              “You this is me, shot, over.”
“Charlie…”
                                                      OBSERVER
“Battalion…”
                                                      “You, this is me, shot, out.”
NUMBER OF VOLLEYS
                                                      FSE
“…two rounds…”
                                                      “Splash, over.”
CHANGES TO INITIAL CALL FOR FIRE
                                                      OBSERVER
“…DPICM…”
                                                      “Splash, out.”
TIME OF FLIGHT
                                                      OBSERVER
“…time of flight: 34 seconds…”
                                                      At this point, the observer will make corrections
TARGET NUMBER                                         until within 50m, at which point he will request fire
“…target number AE2346, over.”                        for effect. When mission is complete, send BDA.
                                                      “Eight APCs destroyed, record as target, End of mission,
                                                      over.”

                                                      FSE
                                                      “End of mission, out.”



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                                                                                           EXECUTION




JAAT Operations
General
The Joint Air Attack Team is a combination of US Army attack and scout aircraft and US Air Force
CAS aircraft operating together to locate and attack high priority, lucrative targets. Attacks may be
designated as either sectored or combined and can be simultaneous, sequential, or random during the
operation. Timing may be arranged by a time hack or by visual sighting. Reattacks are used to maintain
continuous pressure on the target. As part of the JAAT attack plan, the battle captain may request
reattacks in the initial briefing.
Communications
Normally Havequick. During the attack, team members use this net as necessary to relay threat and
target information and further update the attack plan. It is imperative to transmit either “continue,”
“continue dry,” or “cleared hot” to each fighter during their attack.

Fighter Check-In                                           “Nine-Line”
Initial contact from CAS flight leader contains            (Line numbers are not used)
the following information:                                 1. Initial Point      (name, 6-digit grid).
1. Authenticate                                            2. Heading            (magnetic to target).
2. Callsign and mission number.                            3. Distance           (NM to target).
3. Number and type of aircraft.                            4. Elevation          (of target in feet MSL).
4. Position/Altitude                                       5. Description        (what you see).
5. Ordnance.                                               6. Location           (LAT/LONG/UTM).
6. Playtime.                                               7. Type mark/LTL (laser code xxxx,
7. Abort code.                                                                   LTL 060-degrees).
8. Remarks (NVG/LST)                                       8. Loc. of friendlies (300m south).
                                                           9. Egress direction (egress west).
CAS Ammunition
                Weapon                             Category                        Description
                MK82                                                                 500 lb. HE
                MK83                          General Purpose                       1000 lb. HE
                MK84                                                                2000 lb. HE
                CPU52                                                                 HE/Frag.
                CPU58                                                                 HE/Frag.
                CBU71                                                             HE/Frag./Mine
                CBU87                         Cluster Munition              Anti-pers./armor, incendiary
              CBU89 Gator                                                    Anti-armor & pers. Mines
             MK20 Rockeye                                                           Anti-armor
                BL755                                                               Anti-armor
                GBU10                                                               2000 lb. HE
                GBU12                             Laser Guided                       500 lb. HE
                GBU24                                                               2000 lb. HE
                GBU28                                                               5000 lb. HE
            AGM65 Maverick                  Air-to-Ground Missile                   Anti-armor
             AGM88 HARM                                                             SAM killer




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                                                                                            EXECUTION



Laser Operations
CAS aircraft may be equipped with a laser spot tracker (Pave Penny) which presents the pilot with a
visual steering indicator of an illuminated target’s location. Additionally, Apaches can direct laser-
guided munitions carried by attack aircraft onto the target by remote designation. Laser codes are
transmitted in line 7 of the 9-Line brief and consist of the last three digits (1 is assumed as the first).
ELEMENTS OF A LASER-ASSISTED ENGAGEMENT
•   Departing IP call.
•   Timing coordination and type weapon call: Notifies battle captain that CAS is inbound at the stated
    time on target (normally 60 seconds) and alerts weapons to be used in the engagement.
•   10 seconds call: The laser should be turned on in ten seconds if next call is not heard.
•   Laser on call: Begin lasing the target. Normal duration is 20 seconds unless requested otherwise.
•   Spot call: CAS has acquired the spot.
•   Lock-launch call: Indicates standoff ordnance is inbound.
•   Shift call: A shift call is made by the wingman or another target on the same run is desired. The laser
    must remain on or the Pave Penny reverts to scan mode.
•   Terminate call: CAS has acquired the target visually and/or no longer needs the laser. Laser is turned
    off at the terminate call, when the weapon hits the target, or after 20 seconds (longer if requested).
Example Laser-Augmented Engagement Call
CAS                                                        APACHE
“Misty 21, IP inbound.”                                    “Freedom 20, roger.”
CAS                                                        APACHE
“Misty, 60 seconds, IR Maverick.”                          “Continue.”
CAS                                                        APACHE
“10 seconds.”                                              “Continue”
CAS                                                        APACHE
“Laser on.”                                                “Laser on.”
CAS                                                        APACHE
“Spot.”                                                    “Cleared hot”
CAS
“Lock-launch.”
CAS                                                        APACHE
“Misty 22, shift, Rockeye.”                                “Shift, set.”

CAS                                                        APACHE
“Spot.”                                                    “Cleared hot”

CAS
“Terminate.”




                                                                                                              73
                                                                                        EXECUTION




Airborne Assault Security




                                                   Enemy
                                               Drop Zone                    USAF

                                   1-3 km
                        3-5 km




General
P-Hour security operations provide force protection for airborne assault operations.
Conducted to protect the airborne assault task force prior to P-Hour (the time of the airborne drop) to
provide overwatch during the consolidation of ground units, and to deny enemy avenues of approach as
the ground units begin their follow-on missions.
Phases
The P-Hour security operation is a two-phase mission. The first is a deliberate attack on the drop zone to
destroy air defense, C2 and ground maneuver elements prior to the airborne assault. Following the
airborne assault, the second phase is to provide overwatch and deny enemy avenues of approach.

PHASE I
1. Initial BPs (inner ring) are occupied prior to P-Hour and the deliberate attack begins.
2. Based on METT-T, clearing may include maneuvering through the inner ring to insure the
   destruction of all enemy personnel and equipment.
3. Just prior to the P-Hour, fires are shifted from drop zones to the enemy AOA.
4. Success for phase 1 is defined as the successful execution of the airborne assault with minimal loss
   of life and equipment.
PHASE 2
1.   Shortly after P-Hour, movement to and occupation of BPs along the outer ring commences.
2.   Advancing enemy are denied penetration of the outer ring.
3.   Overwatch should be provided until approximately P+45.
4.   Success for phase 2 is defined as neutralizing the enemy threat allowing the ground units time to
     consolidate and begin their movement to their objectives.




                                                                                                         75
                                                                                        EXECUTION



Zone Reconnaissance
Purpose
A directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning all routes, obstacles, terrain and enemy
forces within a zone defined by boundaries. It will either be terrain or enemy oriented.

Preparation
1. All route reconnaissance information.
2. Friendly and threat graphics, to include boundaries, LD, PLs, LOA and NAIs.
Tasks
1.   Accomplished all specified recon tasks.
2.   Find enemy units in zone and determine their composition, disposition, and activity.
3.   Locate suitable routes that bypass enemy locations for follow-on forces.
4.   Reconnoiter and determine cross-country movement through open areas within zone.
5.   Identify threat obstacles.
6.   Check hilltops and dominating man-made features for possible OPs.


Area Reconnaissance
Purpose
Conducted to obtain detailed information about a specific area.

Typical objectives
Key terrain.
Choke points.
Assembly areas.
FARP locations.
LZs or PZs for assault aircraft.
Danger areas: bridges, tunnels, and fords.
Threat obstacles and activity.
Tasks
Should include, if briefed, gun tape of the area itself from several different views, using the OKOCA
acronym. Remember to always view the area from inside looking out and outside looking in.
Obstacles: Anything natural or man-made that may impede friendly force movement into or out of the
area.
Key terrain: Areas that, when occupied or controlled, influence the area of operations.
Observation and fields of fire: Generally chosen from the key terrain, the describe the ability of the unit
occupying the Ops to see movement within the area of operations.
Cover and concealment: The ability of friendly and enemy units to protect themselves from direct fire or
observation.
Avenues of approach: Those areas between the obstacles the friendly or enemy forces can use to travel
into or out of the area.




76
                                                                                         EXECUTION



Route Reconnaissance
Purpose
The route reconnaissance is conducted to obtain detailed information about a specific route and all
adjacent terrain where the enemy could influence movement along the route.

Preparation
1. Route name or designation.
2. SP and RP of the route.
3. Time of day the route will be used.
4. Weather forecast of the time of movement.
5. Type and number of vehicles using the route.
6. Departure and completion time.
7. Applicable control measures.
8. Intelligence report on forces close to area.
9. When, where, and how to report the information.
10. Information that should be on the gun tape.
11. Critical points along the route.
12. Actions after completion of the mission.
Conduct Map Recon to Determine
1.   Width.
2.   Surface type.
3.   Possible Ops.
4.   Grades and curves.
5.   Surface condition.
6.   Drive-of capability.
7.   Choke point locations.
8.   Possible ambush positions.
9.   Locations of bridges, tunnels, and underpasses.
Perform the Following
1.   Determine trafficability.
2.   Reconnoiter narrow paths for possible enemy forces and identify bypasses.
3.   Identify and determine the trafficability of lateral routes or approaches.
4.   Identify existing and reinforcing obstacles and possible bypasses.
5.   Reconnoitering key terrain and the perimeter of built-up areas on either side of the route.
6.   Identify movement of FWF vehicles or personnel along the route.




                                                                                                      77
                                                                                     EXECUTION




Video Reconnaissance
Preparation
1.   Know the commander’s intent.
2.   Copy all friendly graphics associated with the recon area.
3.   Conduct a thorough map recon.
4.   Ensure no entries affecting the VRS are on the logbook.
5.   Place videotape in the recorder. Have a backup tape available.
6.   Enter video mission targets into the EGI.
7.   Ensure VRS is set to CPG video.
8.   MOC recorder.
9.   State: Crew, time / date and tail number.
Actions at the Recon Objective
1.  Turn VRS to RCD.
2.  Turn on target reporting.
3.  Start recording.
4.  State: Navstat, time, altitude, mission type, and aircraft heading.
5.  State: Airspeed and direction if moving.
6.  Slave TADS to each new area of interest previously stored. Use NAV, MAN, AUTO ranging (Laser
    as a last resort).
7. Use thumb force controller to scan the area around the target.
8. Keep crosshairs off target you wish to record.
9. Use SALUTE format to describe targets over the ICS.
10. Observe targets in different FOVs and state which is being used.
11. Ensure APR-39 volume is high enough to be audible on the tape.
12. Store all non-planned points of interest.
13. Confirm grids on your map.
14. VRS OFF when complete.
Actions Post-Mission
1. Rewind tape.
2. Retrieve and label the tape with mission, crew, tail number, and DTG of recon.
3. Include a written summary of the events on the tape with the S2 and crew analysis prior to passing
   on to higher.

NOTE:
The gun tape is used for both intelligence and evidence at higher levels.
Always be professional. You don’t know where the tape may end up.




78
                                                                           EXECUTION




The Enemy
Tanks
                Main Gun                                          AA Gun
   Type      Size     Max rng. Max eff.          Size     Max rng. Max eff.     Gnd use
   T-64*    100mm       3000m      1500m       12.7mm        7km        1000m   1500m
   T-55*    100mm       3000m      1500m       12.7mm        7km        1000m   1500m
   T-62*    115mm       3000m      1600m       12.7mm        7km        1000m   1500m
   T-64B    125mm       4000m      2100m       12.7mm      7.85km       1000m   1500m
    T-72    125mm       4000m      2100m       12.7mm      7.85km       1000m   1500m
    T-80    125mm       4500m      2400m       12.7mm      7.85km       1000m   1500m
              * Possibly armed with laser-guided missiles with range of 4 km

Anti-Tank
               Main Gun                                      Main Gun
    Type       Max range        Fired by         Type        Max range       Fired by
    AT-2        2500m           BRDM-1           AT-4         2000m          BRDM-2
    AT-2B       3500m           BRDM-2                                        BMP-2
    AT-3        3000m          BRDM-1/2          AT-5          4000m         BRDM-2
                                 BMP-1                                        BMP-2
                                 BMD-1           AT-6          5000m        HIND-D/E/F
                                BRT-40                                        HIP-E
    AT-3C         3000m        BRDM-1/2          AT-7          1000m         Hand-held
                                 BMP-1           AT-8          4000m          T-64B
                                 BMD-1                                         T-80
                                BRT-40           T-12          8200m          Towed

APCs
                Main Gun                                      Main Gun
     Type         Size        Max range         Type            Size        Max range
    PT-76        76mm          1200m           BTR-60         14.5mm          700m
    BRDM        12.7mm          700m           BTR-70         14.5mm          700m
   BRDM-1       12.7mm          700m           BTR-80         14.5mm          700m
   BRDM-2       14.5mm          700m           BMD-1           73mm          2200m
    BMP-1        73mm          2200m           MLTB           7.62mm          400m
    BMP-2        30mm          4000m
    BMP-3       100mm          3000m
                 30mm          4000m




                                                                                          79
                                                                             EXECUTION




ADA
         Mode        Offset             System                Radar            Range
 MRR            Each battalion     9 x SA-7/14/18      None               6 km
                1 x AAA battery    4 x SA-9/13         Hat box            8-10 km
                                   4 x ZSU-23/4**      Gun dish           2.5 km
                REGT HQ            3 x SA-7/14/18      None               6 km
 TR of MRD      1 x AAA battery    4 x SA-9/13         Hat box            8-10 km
                                   4 x ZSU-23/4**      Gun dish           2.5 km
                REGT HQ            3 x SA-7/14/18      None               6 km
 TR of TD       1 x AAA battery    4 x SA-9/13         Hat box            8-10 km
                                   4 x ZSU-23/4**      Gun dish           2.5 km
                MRB                9 x SA-7/14/18      None               6 km
                REGT HQ            3 x SA-7/14/18      None               6 km
 MRD or TD      Division HQ        6 x SA-7/14/18      None               6 km
                SAM REGT           21 x SA-7/14/18     None               6 km
                                   20 x SA-6/8         Land role (SA-6)   60 km
                                                       Straight flush     12 km
                                                       (SA-8)
                                                       Flat face, Long
                                                       track, Thin skin
 CAA or TA      SAM BDE*           27 x SA-4 or SA- Yo-yo (SA-1)          55 km
                                   1                   Pat hand (SA-4)
                                                       Flat face, Long    12 km
                                                       track, Thin skin
                Airborne REGT      36 x SA-7/14/18 None                   6 km
                                   6 x ZU-23           None               2.5 km
                Ind. Assault BN    9 x SA-7/14/18      None               6 km
 Front          SAM BDE            27 x SA-4 or SA- Yo-yo (SA-1)          55 km
                                   1                   Pat hand (SA-4)
                                                       Flat face, Long    12 km
                                                       track, Thin skin
                Air Assault BDE    45 x SA-7/14/18 None                   6 km
                                   6 x ZU-23           None               2.5 km
                Air Mobile BDE     36 x SA-7/14/18 None                   6 km
                Airborne DIV       183 x SA-           None               6 km
                                   7/14/18             None               2.5 km
                                   36 x ZU-23
 * Additional SAM BDE added       ** Possible 6 x 2s6 and 3 x SA-16/13
                                   2S6                 Hot shot           3km (optical)
                                                                          4.3 km (radar)
                                                                          8 km (missile)




80
                                                                             EXECUTION




Artillery
     Mode          Artillery      Number           Type          Weapon      Range (km)
   MRR          1 x BN of           18             2S1            BMP           15.3
                3 x Btry            18             D30            BTR           15.3
                122mm
                3 x Btry             24           122mm          M1943          5.7
                122mm                             mortar
                Unit mortars                                     M1943          5.7
                                                                 M120           7.2
                                                                  2B9            7.2
   TR           1 x BN of            18             2S1          BMP            15.3
                3 x Btry             8            120mm          M1943          15.3
                122mm                             mortar
                Unit mortars                                     M1943           5.7
                                                                  2B9            5.0
   TD, MRD      1 x Regt             54             2S3        152mm SP         17.2
                (MRD)
                1 x Regt (TD)        36             2S3        152mm SP        17.2
                1 x BN               18            BM21        122mm SP        20.4
                Rocket               4          Frog-7/7B or                     70
                launchers                       SS-21 Scarab                    100
   CAA, TA      1 x Arty BDE         48          2A36/2S3      152/130mm      28/37.5
                1 x Regt             54            BM21        122mm SP        20.4
                MRL
                1 x SSM BN         12 or        SS-1C SCUD       SS-21          100
                                                     or
                                     18         SS-23 Spider     SS-23          500
   Front        1 x Arty DIV         72          2A36/2S7      152/203mm      28/37.5
                2 x How             144          D20/ML20        2S3 SP        17.2
                BDE
                1 x How              72         D30 or M30                     15.3
                BDE                  72          2A36/2S7      152/203mm      28/37.5
                1 x BDE         72 (16 rnds.)     BM22                          35
                MRL                  or
                                  40 rnds.         BM21                         20.4
                1 x SSM           12-18 or      SS-1C SCUD       SS-21          100
                BDE                                  or
                                   12-18        SS-23 Spider      SS-23         500
                1 x SSM            12-18         SS-12 Mod       2 x Scale      900
                BDE                                                board
   High power   1 x BDE            24 or           2S7 or       203mm SP        37.5
   BDE                              24              B-4        2-3mm How.       18.0
                                    24           2S4/M-240      SP mortar        9.7




                                                                                          81
                                                                                     EXECUTION




                                                        Sustainment
TAA Operations
Quick Reaction Force
Purpose
Serves as reinforcement for a section of the assembly area's perimeter when being attacked. Conducts
sweeps to intercept and defeat/delay enemy forces in case they breach the perimeter.
Composition
The QRF team is composed of six soldiers. Delta Company supplies two soldiers. HHC supplies three
soldiers and the NCOIC of the QRF.
Equipment
•   One LMVT with 50 cal. ring mount.
•   One M-2 .50 caliber machine gun.
•   One PRC-27 radio.
•   One SINCGARS Man Pack Radio.
•   One frame tent.
•   2 x SAWs.
•   6 x NVGs
Operations
The members of the QRF conduct their normal duties as required unless the ground security condition
level rises to amber or red. The soldiers sleep in the QRF Tent (vicinity HHC CP) to allow the NCOIC
to ready the force within a minimal amount of time. (See Attack Warnings on page 40).
• The NCOIC contacts the 1SGs within 2 hours of the last serial arriving at the TAA. The QRF
    NCOIC tours the company areas with the 1SGs and outlines the perimeter defense sector. The
    soldiers attached to the QRF from the line Companies accompany their 1SG and the QRF NCOIC
    during this tour. 1SG's brief the QRF NCOIC of any changes within their company's assigned area of
    operations.
• During times of elevated alert status the NCOIC reports to the Battalion TOC and awaits further
    instructions.
• If the QRF is dispatched, it moves by the fastest route available in order to arrive at the perimeter
    before it is breached.
Actions on Contact
•   Move by the most direct route between the Battalion TOC and the area that was breached.




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                                                                                  SUSTAINMENT



•   Upon repelling the attack or defeating the enemy, the QRF NCOIC immediately notifies the
    Battalion TOC of the situation and awaits further instructions.

Main Command Post (TOC)
Another name for the Main CP is the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) The TOC tracks, analyzes, and
controls the current battle, and plans future operations. It monitors the status of combat power at all
times. It monitors Brigade CMD, Brigade O&I, and Battalion CMD.
General
The TOC operates 24-hours in two shifts. It consists of five SICUPS (one always packed onto the TAC
vehicle) and a frame tent arranged as shown below. There are three main functional areas:
1. Current Operations.
2. Future Operations.
3. Briefing Tent.

Minimal Operations (TAC)
When the situation dictates, the TOC will sets-up with a HMMWV and 2 x OE-254s.
Personnel
XO, S3, S2, Asst. S3, FSO, SIGO, CHEMO, LNO, TACOPS, S3 NCOs, FSO NCO, S2 Analysts, Flight
Ops.

TOC Roles
The primary responsibility for the TOC is to maintain situational awareness for the Commander. The
Battle Captain and TOC NCOIC ensure a current operations map and overlay is updated regularly,
communications with higher and lower are maintained, and that reports are submitted on time. The
following is a list of the duties/responsibilities of the Battle Captain and TOC NCOIC.

1. Battle Captain. Responsible for Current Operations in the TOC. Serves as the Commander’s
representative when the CDR, S3, or XO is not present. Responsibilities include but are not limited to:

•   Ensures the Battalion adheres to the standards published in the Brigade/Battalion TACSOP for
    reporting and operating procedures.
•   Conducts Commander’s Update Brief and TOC shift change briefs.
•   Responsible for all current operations. An operation is considered current once future operations has
    published and briefed an OPORD/FRAGO to subordinate units and a rehearsal has been conducted.
    The Battle Captain should attend all Battalion rehearsals and read all OPORDs/FRAGOs thoroughly.
•   Ensures TAA and TOC security is established and coordinated.
•   Maintains TOC charts/documents including but not limited to:

               1.   FARP locations and status
               2.   Current combat power
               3.   Corps and Regimental FRAGOs
               4.   Current ATO/ACO
               5.   Commander’s Critical Information Requirements
               6.   Unit Mission and Commander’s Intent




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                                                                                   SUSTAINMENT



                7. Current and future Challenge and Password
                8. Battalion Battle Rhythm
                9. MOPP/THREATCON status

•    Maintain library of aviation and operations field manuals, TMs, and regulations.
•    Post and maintain a significant activities board.
•    Ensure TOC operations are sustained.
•    Manage personnel on hand to accomplish the mission.
•    Ensure all flight operations procedures are filed/tracked as necessary.

2. TOC NCOIC. (Usually Operations Sergeant) Senior enlisted supervisor of the TOC. Works in
concert with the Battle Captain to ensure mission success. The operations sergeant is responsible for
training assigned personel. Responsibilities include but are not limited to:

•    Monitor TOC security.
•    Schedule the work flow.
•    Ensure that overlays are .reproduced.
•    Ensure that reports are complete and timely.
•    Ensure that missions are reviewed and processed.
•    Ensure that missions comply with airspace control measures.
•    Ensure proper equipment operation and maintenance.
•    Establish and monitor search and rescue (SAR) procedures.
•    Establish and monitor flight-following activities.
•    Monitor and supervise normal administrative flight operations functions.
•    Establish a pre-accident plan and monitor combat search and rescue (CSAR), medical evacuation
     (MEDEVAC), crash rescue, and downed aircraft procedures.
•    Designate personnel for miscellaneous support; for example, water, fuel, meals, trash collection, and
     courier.

3. Shift Supervisors. Shift supervisors are responsible for the training and conduct of personnel
assigned to their shift. Their duties include, but are not limited to:

•    Maintain DA Form 1594 (Daily Staff Journal).
•    Coordinate flight following activities.
•    Coordinate SAR procedures.
•    Maintain noise, light and litter discipline.
•    Ensure the TOC is in a high state of police.
•    Ensure that proper radio operating procedures are used.
•    Ensure that flight records and hours are tracked and maintained.
 •   Ensure that situation and operations maps are posted and updated in a timely manner.

4. Aviation Operations Specialists. Aviation operations specialists will:

•    Maintain flight records and flight hours.
•    Conduct flight following activities.




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                                                                                       SUSTAINMENT



 •   Make entries in DA Form 1594 as directed.
•    Assist with SAR procedures.
•    Maintain the TOC in a high state of police.
•    Update situation and operations maps in a timely manner.
•    Assist with normal administrative flight operations functions.
•    Use proper radio operating procedures when transmitting radio messages.


Communications
•    HMMWV radios are used in Level 1 and 2 TOC configurations.
•    L/L (when available).
•    Switchboard.
•    PRC-127.
Flight Operations
TOC operations will have a flight dispatch capability to control flights in the local area and to supply
necessary flight planning for unit aircrews.
         a. A flight following log may be used for the flight following of visual flight rules (VFR) aircraft
that remain in the local area. If the flight log is used in lieu of a flight plan, it must include at a minimum
the following:
                  (1) Aircraft designation and call sign.
                  (2) Route of flight.
                  (3) Point and time of departure.
                  (4) Estimated time en route.
                  (5) Actual time of arrival.
                  (6) Location of passenger and crew manifest if it is not attached to the flight log.
         b. If the flight does not meet the criteria of a local flight under VFR conditions, the aviator must
file a flight plan with the unit or airfield operations. The operations will forward the flight plan in
accordance with AR 95-11 and FAA Handbook 7110.10.
         c. Unit operations will establish a means of obtaining weather and NOTAM information for
aircrews on local flights when the unit operations is not collocated with the airfield weather station or
the flight planning room. This information may be obtained by telephone or by radio. If neither method
is available, the information may have to be picked up in person.

       d. During non-duty hours, aircrews can obtain weather information by telephoning the Federal
Aviation Administration (FAA) weather station or the nearest weather briefing facility identified in the
Department of Defense (DOD) Flight Information Publication (FLIP). They can obtain NOTAM
information from the nearest flight briefing facility. The telephone numbers for these facilities should be
prominently displayed by the telephone designated for the use of aircrews.
Battle Tracking
Battle Tracking begins by reading the current mission FRAGO/OPORD and becoming familiar with all
annexes, Commander’s Intent, and operational graphics. When possible, the Battle Captain and TOC
NCOIC should attend the regimental mission rehearsal to ensure they are briefed on the latest mission
changes.

The following items and tasks should be on hand or complete prior to mission execution:



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                                                                                    SUSTAINMENT




        1. Current copy of the latest FRAGO from Brigade, subordinate, and supported units
        2. Updated mission execution checklist or matrix
        3. Updated overlays with the following posted at a minimum:
               a. Routes, Engagement Areas, boundaries, CAS kill boxes, and other pertinent
               operational graphical control measures from all higher and supported units
               b. Current ground and air front line trace. As a rule of thumb, units should be plotted 2
               levels down for both supported friendly units and enemy targeted units.
               c. A FIRES overlay as appropriate
               d. A Combined Obstacles Overlay with known friendly and enemy obstacles (as
               necessary) and restricted, severely restricted, and unrestricted terrain identified.
        4. Significant activities board posted and updated
        5. Current communications card posted for higher, subordinate, and supported units
        6. Unit icons for tracking movement
        7. Current Fire Support Coordination Line, Limits of Advance, or other important phase lines or
        boundaries
        8. No Fire Areas and artillery positional areas that could influence air operations
        9. An engagement area map (1:50,000 or less scale) updated with the current or templated target
        array
        10. Updated enemy situation map
        11. A TAA map (1:50,000 or less scale) updated with defense sketches and unit sectors posted

The Battle Captain and TOC NCOIC determine the best method to track the battle. Minimum personnel
needed will usually include a Battle Captain, an RTO, and S2 representative, and a flight operations
operator/coordinator.
TOC Shift Change Brief
Occurs at 0800 and 2000 (unless otherwise directed).
SEQUENCE
1. Roll Call                                                       Battle Captain/NCOIC
2. Weather                                                         S2/SWO
         a. Current
         b. Next 48 hours
         c. Negative impact on operations
3. Current Situation
         a. Current Enemy Situation                                S2
                  1. At objective
                  2. Affecting TAA
         b. Friendly Situation                                     Battle Captain
                  1. Last 12 hours
                  2. Current Task Organization
                  3. Current FRAGO/OPORD
                  4. LNO locations
                  5. Operations next 24 hours
                  6. Current A2C2 (ATO, ACO, etc.)
                  7. Communications status
         c. TOC Sustainment Issues                                  NCOIC
         d. Report Status                                  NCOIC
         e. Priorities of work or outstanding issues       Battle Captain
         f. Counterpart Battle Hand-over                   All




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                                                                                                        SUSTAINMENT



TOC Operational Level
The TOC is based on a modular concept, so that minimum effort and relocation of equipment is required
when transitioning from one TOC level to the next.
   Level     Reaction Time                                                            Equipment
     1        15 minutes                Radios, OE-254s, TAC vehicle
     2           1 hour                 Radios, OE-254s, Current OPs section, No camouflage
     3           4 hours                Radios, OE-254s, Current and Future Ops, Briefing tent, Camouflage, Security


TOC Level 1 Layout

                                        CMD                                     O&I




                                                BC    Intel



TOC Level 2 Layout

                                                                                CMD               O&I
                                                              Current Ops Map
                                                      Intel
                           Future OPS




                                                      BC




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                                                                                                                  SUSTAINMENT



TOC Level 3 Layout

                                 BN O&I
 BDE O&I                                                                BDE CMD
                                                                                                                 BN CMD




                                S2                                                   RTO/Switch      Status Boards
           TACOPS AS3




                                                                                                               BC
                                                                   Flight Ops




                                                                                                                       Current Ops Map
                               Future
                                Ops




                                                                                                               Intel
                           Future Ops Map
                                            Copier / Fax              S3
                                                S3                                         Current Ops




                                                                                                                              NCOIC
                                                                                  Coffee
                                                    Briefing Map




                                                                                              Equipment Area




                        Briefing Tent         VRS




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                                                                                      SUSTAINMENT



Rear Command Post (ALOC)
The rear command post is the coordinating center for combat service support. The ALOC controls
security and movement of the field trains. It assesses the situation and anticipates the needs of the
battalion, ensuring timely delivery of support. It monitors BDE A&L, BN CMD and BN A&L nets and
maintains abreast of the battle in order to assume the duties of the main CP.
ALOC Layout
The ALOC operates 24-hours in two shifts. It consists of one frame tent arranged as shown below


               BDE A&L




                                           PAC




                                                                          S4
                                           S1
                 BN A&L




                                                                          S-4 NCO
                                           Radios




                                                     Briefing Map/Board
                 BN CMD



Minimal Operations (TALOC)
When the battalion will occupy for less than 24 hours, the Tactical ALOC (TALOC) will set-up with a
HMMWV and two SINCGARS (CMD, A&L). When the unit deploys to an AA, the TALOC initially
provides an immediate CSS CP. Control transfers to the ALOC when it is established in the AA.
Personnel
XO, S4, S1, S4 NCOs, PAC NCO, BN AMO, Motor Section rep, Commo rep.
Communications
•   All Radios are remoted from a HMMWV.
•   L/L (when available).
•   Switchboard (If not co-located with TOC).
ALOC Shift Change Brief
Normally occurs at 0700 and 1900 (or as directed).
SEQUENCE
1. Situation.                                               5. Priority of workloads (due outs).
   a. End states.                                           6. Suspended workloads (hold).
   b. Current operations.                                   7. Major events.
   c. Future operations.                                        a. Last 24 hours.
2. Status boards.                                               b. Next 24 hours.
3. Challenge, and password.                                 8. Each individual staff section briefs
4. Status of information requests (due ins).                respective highlight




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                                                                              SUSTAINMENT



Commander’s Update
Conducted at TOC at a time TBD based on mission requirements. Each staff section provides the BN
Commander a 3x5 Card with essential information.
SEQUENCE
1. XO                                                    d. Class V
2. S3                                                        (1) Type, Quantity, Location
   a. Friendly Situation                                     (2) Used – Last 24/Next 24
      (1) Current                                        e. Class VI
      (2) Next 24 Hours                                  f. Class VII
   b. Attachments/Detachments                                (1) Gains, Losses, Transfers
   c. Missions                                               (2) Due-Ins
      (1) Last 24, Current, Next 24                      g. Class VIII
      (2) LNO Activities                                 h. Class IX: Critical short (Air, Ground)
      (3) A2C2 personnel                                 i. Services
3. SIGO: COMSEC, Retrans                                     (1) Maintenance
4. S2                                                             (a) Aircraft Status
   a. GPS Time Hack                                               (b) Ground Vehicle Status
   b. Enemy Situation: Last 24,                                   (c) Major Equipment Status
      Current, Next 24                                       (2) Transport (air, ground, external)
   c. Rear Area Threat                                   j. FARPs
   d. TAA Security                                           (1) Locations (Active/Silent)
   e. Sensitive Items Accountability                         (2) Operational Status (Active/Silent)
   f. WX                                                     (3) Equipment and Personnel on-site
5. S1                                                        (4) COS on-site (quantity/type)
   a. Personnel Strength                             7. FSO
      (1) PDY (by location) FAA, FARP,                   a. Field Artillery: Assets Available,
           REAR, etc                                         Locations, Priorities
      (2) Gains - Last 24/Next 24                        b. CAS: Assets Available, TBM Coverage,
      (3) Losses - Last 24/Next 24                           Priorities
   b. Medical                                        8. CHEMO: Current Decon locations
      (1) Disposition of Injured, Sick,              9. ASO
           Wounded                                       a. Accidents/Incidents (Last 24 Hours)
      (2) KIA, MIA                                       b. AAARs/OHRs (Last 24 Hours)
   c. Morale                                         10. Flight Surgeon
   d. Legal (ART 15, UCMJ)                           11. Chaplain
   e. EPW: Number, Location, Disposition             12. CCDRs
6. S4                                                    a. Battle Rostered Crews Available
   a. Class I                                            b. Equipment Status
      (1) DOS On-Hand                                    c. Fighter Management Status
      (2) Cycle (Today, Tomorrow)                        d. Aircrews
      (3) Serving Hours (Today, Tomorrow)                e. Non-Crewmembers
   b. Class II                                       13. CSM Comments
   c. Class III                                      14. XO: Alibis?
      (1) Type, Quantity, Location                   15. Commander's Comments.
      (2) Used – Last 24/Next 24




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                                                                                    SUSTAINMENT




Aviation Maintenance
General
Battalion organic maintenance capability resides in the attack Companies and D Company (AVUM).
AVUM-level maintenance focuses primarily on operational maintenance which concentrates on
inspection and repair by replacement in order to provide the minimum acceptable safety standards,
rather than “like new” repairs. Detailed troubleshooting and extensive repair are passed back to AVIM.
Aircraft maintenance is primarily performed by D Company vicinity the rear CP. Forward repair of
aircraft is possible in the TAA or onsite where an aircraft went down. The downed aircraft recovery
team (DART) on call. D Company will rely on AVIM contact teams to augment its capabilities. D
Company will normally evacuate aircraft to AVIM if repairs are anticipated to require more than 48
hours, and “pass back” to AVIM 40% to70% of the aircraft phases.
Organization
1. D Company remains in the rear BNCP area along with the ALOC.
2. D Company echelons its assets to best support the battalion mission. It normally will place a truck-
   transported contact team forward in the TAA along with a FARP augmentation team. Additionally
   provides a DART team for forward and enroute recovery.
3. D Company establishes a company CP at TAA, serving as the center for all aircraft maintenance
   functions.
4. D Company coordinates maintenance priorities, requirements to AVIM, and maintains current and
   anticipated aircraft status. D Co CP forwards all maintenance statuses to the ALOC.
Controlled Exchange
1. The BNCDR is the approval authority for controlled substitution in a tactical environment. XO or D
   CCDR approves controlled exchanges at the TAA in his absence.
2. In the event a bug out requires rapid exchange to maximize airworthy aircraft, a VOCO will suffice
   with paperwork to follow.
Operations
GENERAL
All change in status, requirements for support either inside or outside the battalion, and reports will be
forwarded through the ALOC. The S4 element will chair the daily LOGPAC meeting in which status,
requirements and information are shared. PC and Tech supply attend this meeting in order to receive the
latest information from the company representatives.
SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE
1.   PMDs, phases and TBO replacement are prioritized
2.   D Company in the TAA performs scheduled maintenance beyond crew chief level.
3.   A completed DA Form 2407, logbook, and keys must accompany aircraft when given to D Co.
4.   Procedures and requirement for scheduled maintenance are the same as in garrison.
5.   PC meetings are held daily at 0800 in the D Co CP.




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                                                                                    SUSTAINMENT



UNSCHEDULED MAINTENANCE
1. Performed as far forward as the tactical situation allows. Conducted by crew chiefs and D Company
   at the TAA, the contact team at the FAA and by DART team at the down aircraft sites.
2. Companies needing D Company assistance in the TAA should contact D Co CP or the ALOC.
   Identify the problem, special requirements, and mission requirements if known.
   a. Contact team NCOIC determines most expeditious method to affect repair.
   b. NCOIC notifies D Company via L/L or on A&L if additional support is required.
   c. PC officer determines if assistance is required from and coordinates with AVIM.
   d. Evacuation decision is made by the BNCDR or XO in consultation with the D CCDR, and is
       based on METT-T, workload, and parts availability.
CONTACT TEAM
1. Restores aircraft to MC status through limited LRU replacement and component repair.
2. Normally transported in 2-3 tactical vehicles with the tools, parts and soldiers required to repair
   frequent or anticipated failures.
3. Composition:
   a. 1 x 67R TI                         c. 1 x 68N                             f. 1 x 68G
       (E7 NCOIC)                        d. 5 x 68X                             g. 1 x 92A
   b. 6 x 67R                            e. 1 x 68X TI
AIRCRAFT RECOVERY
1. DART team will move by UH-60 (if available) or by ground.
2. When DART team reaches the site of a downed aircraft, it assesses the aircraft and will either
   perform battle damage repair and evacuate, prepare for surface or air recovery, or destroy it.
3. The commander of the downed aircraft notifies their commander and the TOC of the:
   a. Nature and extent of the damage.
   b. Location of the aircraft.
   c. Condition of the crew.
   d. Security of the site.
   e. Enemy situation.
   f. Other factors which would effect repair and air or surface recovery.
4. If the aircraft is recoverable by surface or air means, the supporting AVIM is contacted to coordinate
   the required ground/air assets to include rigging kits if required.
5. If the aircraft is not recoverable, the DART team evacuates as many serviceable components as
   possible, giving priority to LRUs.
6. If DART team can perform BDAR to restore the aircraft to minimum safe flying condition, it does
   so and the aircraft is flown out of the area.
7. Factors of METT-T determine the extent of the recovery attempt. During cross FLOT operations,
   primary consideration is given to recovery of the crew, then to sanitizing the aircraft, and finally to
   either immediate evacuation or destruction.
OIL SAMPLES, FORMS, AND RECORDS
1. Oil samples are submitted to D Company for inclusion in the next LOGPAC meeting.
2. DA -12 and -13 series forms are closed out and submitted to the D Company CP NLT 1200 the day
   following the flight.
3. Routine work orders and parts requests are submitted at any time to the D Company CP.




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                                                                                    SUSTAINMENT



TOOLS
Tools and calibrated items are available from the mobile AVUM #1 tool set (A90), located in the TAA.
Turn-in of calibrated items for repair and calibration are centralized in the ALOC.
REPORTS
Companies update the ALOC with the aircraft status report report. Changes in aircraft status are reported
immediately to the D Company forward representatives. D Company then passes the statuses on to the
ALOC, which provides status reports to the Brigade ALOC. PC continues to track status on the DA
1352-1 and provides this information as required. Other reports are due as described in the Reports
Annex (see Reports on page 159).
SERVICE SUPPORT
1. D Company receives all classes of supply (except CL IXA) from HHC in the TAA.
2. Tech Supply is responsible for coordination, requisition, transportation and turn-in of CL IXA repair
   parts. They do this through daily liaison with the Companies and the supporting AVIM SSA.

Vehicle Maintenance
Maintenance management in a field environment is critical to sustaining all MTOE assigned equipment.
This SOP will outline the procedures used to repair and evacuate equipment while in other than a
garrison environment. In addition it outlines the procedures for equipment dispatching, evacuations, and
describes the organization of key maintenance personnel during deployment.
ORGANIZATION
The Battalion Maintenance Technician will head a BDAR/FE repair team consisting of one 63B10 and
one 63S10. This team will be located with the motor pool and will be equipped with one each M998
w/radio, GPS, and small amounts of class IX repair parts. The teams responsibility will be to perform
battle damage assessment and any repairs that can be accomplished within two hours or less. The
Battalion Motor Sergeant (BMS) will supervise the remaining maintenance personnel and will be
located in the field trains. The BMS will be responsible for interfacing with the support unit and pushing
forward all required repair parts and administrative paperwork to the ALOC.
SERVICES
Units will continue to perform preventive maintenance services when mission permits. Services will be
performed I.A.W. all applicable TM's and LO's. Caution will be used when operating in severe dust or
sand. Wheel bearings will only be serviced when seals are found to be damaged or brake shoes
contamination is evident.
RECOVERY
Recovery will be performed using the medium tow bar assigned to the section. Any additional support
will be requested through the Forward Support Battalion. All recovery will be performed IAW FM 20-
22. Safety chains will always be utilized. Equipment will be evacuated from FEBA to field trains. All
recovery will be performed only after recovery personnel have been updated on the current enemy
situation. Field expedient methods of repair and recovery will only be used until sufficient repairs can be
made.
EQUIPMENT EVACUATION
Weapons and other minimum essential equipment will be evacuated to the field trains through the unit
armorer. These items will then be job ordered and evacuated to support maintenance. Hand receipts such




                                                                                                      93
                                                                                     SUSTAINMENT



as DA Form 2402 Exchange Tag will be utilized. Units are required to report the readiness status of all
assigned weapons systems daily when submitting the logistics situation report.
REPAIR PARTS
The battalion will deploy with all CL IX repair parts. Replenishment will be accomplished utilizing the
Unit Level Logistics System (ULLS-G). In the event that the supporting DSU is incapable of using this
automation, the battalion will carry the necessary forms to revert to the manual system. Status of all
open documents will be verified with the SSA twice daily. Any high priority parts received will be
installed within 24 to 48 hours as mission permits. All recoverable items will be maintained the same as
in garrison. Any weapons repair parts received will be pushed forward to the unit armorers immediately.
CLASS III
Class III will be issued from the 15 day basic load. All petroleum will be issued utilizing temporary
hand receipts. All assigned MTOE equipment will deploy with a minimum of two quarts of OE 15w-40.
When the unit expends provided quantities of oil, a request will be sent to the field trains and additional
quantities will be forwarded through the resupply channels. The ALOC contact team will carry a
minimum of the following quantities of class III package products: 10 gallons of antifreeze, 10 gallons
of OE 15w-40, 5 gallons of OE-HDO-10, 20 quarts or 5 gallons of Dexron II 1 pound of GAA
OFFENSIVE MAINTENANCE
Maintenance during a unit offensive will be limited to Minimum Essential Maintenance Only (MEMO).
The effort will be directed at repairing equipment to allow it and the primary weapon system to
accomplish the primary mission. If necessary a down graded state of maintenance may be acceptable
depending on the current enemy situation. All equipment during the offensive operations will be
repaired on-site as the tactical situation permits. If equipment can not be repaired with in 2 hours it will
be evacuated to the Unit Maintenance Collection Point (UMCP). Any repairs that can not be performed
within 4-6 hours will be evacuated to the Brigade Support Area.
DEFENSIVE MAINTENANCE
During defensive maintenance operations equipment will be repaired as far forward as the tactical
situations permits. Maintenance performed in the Covering Force Area (CFA) will be restricted to
repairs that can be made within 30 minutes. Any repairs requiring more than 30 minutes will be
evacuated to the Main Battle Area (MBA). Any equipment in the CFA that cannot be repaired or
recovered will be destroyed I.A.W. applicable TM's. Only mission essential maintenance is performed in
the CFA and MBA. All other maintenance is deferred until the unit moves to a static defense.
CONTROLLED EXCHANGE AND CANNIBALIZATION
Controlled exchange is the switching of serviceable repair parts for unserviceable repair parts from one
weapon system to another. The process is complete when the unserviceable item is requisitioned or
repaired and replaced. Cannibalization is performed to bring a weapon system back to mission
serviceability. The BNCDR I.A.W. AR 750-1 will approve all controlled substitution/cannibalization.
OPERATOR MAINTENANCE
Operator’s maintenance will be performed as mission permits. DA Form 2404 / 5988-E will be utilized
and any shortcomings that cannot be repaired or replaced by the equipment operator will be annotated
and the 2404 will be sent to the Motor SGT at the field trains. The SMS will send a contact team to
verify the required repair parts or maintenance. All required repair parts will placed on order and
arrangements will be made to install them as they arrive or on the next scheduled service. The DA Form




94
                                                                                   SUSTAINMENT



2404 will only be replaced when uncorrected faults are annotated and corrected. Operators will continue
to utilize the DA Form 2404 /5988-E until it's full.
MOTOR STABLES
Motor stables are conducted as required. The operator will perform a complete PMCS according to the –
10 operators manual. Individual vehicles must contact the motor pool with their bumper number on BN
A&L FH secure for every installed radio.

Supply
Resupply activities take place as much as possible during the hours of darkness or under conditions of
limited visibility. The S4 coordinates for transportation of supplies. The S4 section coordinates supply
support with priority to ammunition, POL, and repair parts.
Class I (Rations).
1. Ration issue is based on unit average daily strength figures from personnel status reports.
2. Rations are accounted for utilizing field meal cards, cash collection, or payroll deduction. The
   specific method is announced in the initial operations order.
3. The mess team is located in the TAA. If units deploy to the FAA, The mess team picks up Class I at
   the TAA, or the equivalent supply point, and transports it to the FAA. Out-of-cycle resupply is
   requested through the regiment S4.
4. BNHHC will deploy a MKT when required.
5. Normal ration cycle is A-M-A. Meal times are scheduled to support combat operations and combat
   crews. Companies are notified of meal hours the day prior during daily LOGPAC meeting.
6. Deployed FARP personnel eat meals that are delivered via aircraft or ground vehicle as coordinated
   by the HHC Commander/1SG.
7. The battalions water resupply point is located in close proximity to the MKT and is controlled by the
   mess team (HHC Commander). This is the only authorized water supply for the battalion. All other
   water sources are considered non-potable unless changed by battalion order.




                                                                                                      95
                                                                                           SUSTAINMENT



MKT TRAFFIC FLOW




                                                                              Drinks
                                   5 meters




                                                                              Condiments
                                         Wash




                                                                MKT


Class II (Clothing, Individual Equipment, General Supplies).
Each company and HHC supply must deploy with adequate supplies to support operations. All Class II
requests go through the S4.
Class III (POL).
1. All class III requests go through the S4.
2. All vehicles and aircraft must he topped-off at the end of each mission or daily, whichever applies.
   Ground support equipment will be refueled daily. Refuel times are 0900-1000 and 1900-2000 daily.
3. Sections with MOGAS requirements must deploy with 3 x DOS.
4. JP8. (See FARP Operations on page 99).
5. Each company must deploy with and maintain a 3 x DOS of package POL products.
Class IV (Construction Material).
1. Request through S4.
2. Companies deploy with an adequate supply for their company barrier plan.
Class V (Ammunition).
BATTALION BASIC LOADS.
  Ammunition Type       Line COs      D Company         III/V          HHC
 9mm
 5.56 Ball
 5.56 SAW




96
                                                                                   SUSTAINMENT



  Ammunition Type       Line COs      D Company          III/V          HHC
 5.56 SAW (Tracer)
 40mm HEDP
 50 Cal.
 30 mm
 2.75 MPSM
 Hellfire
(See Standard Configurations for AH-64s on page 38)
GENERAL
1. III/V issues small arms ammunition to company 1SGs for distribution at AHA. CCDRs/1SGs must
   continually monitor ammo status and request additional assets to replenish basic loads through S-4.
2. The S-4 forecasts ammunition requirements for future missions based on his staff estimate. This
   forecast is coordinated closely with the III/V platoon leader and considers ammunition on hand,
   previously requested and the CSR/RSR for the operation.
3. The III/V platoon sergeant (or another individual on the ammunition signature card) prepares the DA
   Form 581 (request for issue and turn in of ammunition) and obtains a document number from the S4.
4. S4 sends the request to the division/brigade ammunition officer/representative.
5. Once approved at that level, ammunition is picked up from ammunition transfer/supply points as
   directed by DAO/ BAO.
6. Ammunition is then delivered to the FARP using III/V assets. Backup transportation can be
   coordinated from other assets in the brigade (UH-60, or external truck transportation).
Class VI (Personal Demand Items)
Health and comfort items are requested through the S4.
Class VII (Major End Items)
Major end items are requested based on battle loss reports followed up by formal requisitions to the
supporting Material Management Center.
Class VIII (Medical Items).
Medical supplies are requested through the regiment aid station. Class VIII items are transported to the
battalion by vehicles returning from the clearing station after evacuating casualties or picked up as
necessary.
Class IX (Repair Parts)
(See Vehicle Maintenance on page 93 and Aviation Maintenance on page 91).

Services
The S4 coordinates the following services:
Graves Registration.
1. The graves registration point is normally in the vicinity of the BSA/DSA. S4 ensures that the KIA
   collection point is located away from medical aid facilities when possible.
2. Companies evacuate their dead to the graves registration point by the fastest available means.
3. Enemy dead are reported to the S4 for recovery and evacuation through graves registration channels.




                                                                                                       97
                                                                                  SUSTAINMENT



4. Civilian dead must be reported to the S4, but should be handled by local civilians IAW local
   customs. This is coordinated through the division G5.
Clothing Exchange/Bath Service
S4 coordinates through the Brigade S4.
Laundry Service.
The S4 coordinates all laundry services with the Brigade S4. The ALOC along with HHC personnel
develop hasty laundry points if Brigade cannot provide laundry and bath units.
Confiscation of Civilian Property for Military Use
The Brigade Commander or higher must authorize confiscation of civilian property.
Field Sanitation
The S4 coordinates for chemical latrine support. If unavailable, company field sanitation teams will
designate and prepare ground latrine areas. The CCDRs and first sergeants must ensure that deployed
soldiers drink only potable water, use sensible rodent and insect control procedures and adhere to sound
preventive medicine measures.
EPW Collection
Located in the vicinity of and supervised by the motor pool.
Battalion Aid Station
Located in the vicinity of the ALOC.
Transportation
1. The S4 coordinates for external transportation assets with the Brigade S4, who in turn coordinates
   requirements such as heavy lift trucks and medium lift air assets through the 28th MMC movement
   control center (MCC).
2. Transportation priorities are determined by the S4 in coordination with guidance from the XO and
   S3. Priorities are METT-T driven.
3. Transportation of all supplies is conducted in conjunction with the ALOC’s LOGPAC mission.
   LOGPAC missions operate once daily between the ALOC and the resupply point. LOGPAC mission
   times are METT-T dependent and are briefed in the deployment order. Adjustments of mission time,
   if required, are briefed at daily LOGPAC meeting.
4. All vehicle movement in and out of the TAA is coordinated through the ALOC. Units will report, in
   person, to the forward ALOC: Type vehicle, bumper #, all occupants rank and name, destination,
   and ETR when departing the TAA. The same is accomplished upon return to the TAA.




98
                                                                               SUSTAINMENT



FARP Operations



                        1        2        3        4        5        6




General
The battalion operates two FARPs; An active FARP and a silent FARP. Occupies 2-5km from the
TAA. Standard configuration is six rearm/refuel pads (see diagram above).
REFUEL REQUIREMENTS
Two HEMTT tankers; six-point HTARS setup, one command and control vehicle.
AMMUNITION DEPLOYMENT REQUIREMENTS
1. Four HEMTT cargo carriers and four HEMTT trailers.
2. One 6k forklift is required for ammunition deployment from the AHA to the Armament pads.

ARMAMENT TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES
(See Refuel/Rearm Sequence on page 101).
Each pad has an NCO "Pad Chief" from the armament platoon, responsible for that pad’s operations.
Two soldiers as well as a member of the III/V platoon assist each Pad Chief.
Approach/Departure Procedures
1. Standard traffic is counter-clockwise (left traffic).
2. Entry may be straight in or parallel. Inverted “Y” oriented to FARP, not landing direction.
3. Occupy an adjacent company HA prior to movement to FARP RP when necessary to wait.
4. Use aircraft, if possible, to clear FARP (ascertain whether FARP is contaminated, operational,
   and/or clear of enemy activity).
5. Move NOE from HA to FARP. FARP operations are conducted without the use of radio whenever
   possible. A courtesy call may be made, “Callsign inbound with # aircraft.” FARP responds with
   “Roger, out.” FARP net is FH secure BN FARP net.
6. After refuel and rearm, aircraft depart as a flight or rejoin at company HA.
Signals
1. Inverted “Y”
   a. Safe FARP: Steady green (day or night)




                                                                                                99
                                                                                      SUSTAINMENT



     b. Contaminated FARP.
         (1) Day: VS-17 panel on center IR panel.
         (2) Night: Flashing red.
2.   Primary means of commo with FARP personnel is ICS if armament is present. If fuel only, use BN
     FARP net.
3.   Essential inter-aircraft communications will be limited to Havequick nets.
4.   Visual signals are next priority.
     a. Day: Upon landing, anti-collision lights remain on until safe to approach. Under blackout, give
         the “cleared to approach” signal (see Hand and Arm Signals on page 121).
     b. Night: Upon landing, ensure anti-collision lights remain and nav lights bright on until aircraft is
         safe to approach. Once aircraft is safe to approach anti-collision lights off, nav lights dim. Under
         blackout, flash colored-lens flashlight three times when safe to approach.
5.   FARP personnel approach aircraft from 3 o’clock position.
6.   Refuel/rearm pads are identified by IR paper markers at the 12 o-clock position and red Chemlights
     on the grounding rods and tail rotor hazard area. The number 1 pad (far left) will have a red
     chemlight on its IR panel.
7.   Use of the anticollision light/strobes during refueling will be avoided.
8.   FARP personnel wear green or blue chemlights.
III/V Platoon Leader Checklist
1. What time must the FARP be operational?
2. Who will safe the FARP?
3. Proposed loads and operational times.
4. TAA fuel support required.
5. Primary/alternate fuel required.
6. Locations of ammunition supply points.
7. Site recon - who's setting up / breaking down.
8. Alternate routes in and out of site; alternate TAA site location.
9. Coordination with friendly units along routes and FARP site.
10. Military Police support along route.




100
                                                                               SUSTAINMENT



Refuel/Rearm Sequence
1.  Aircraft touches down on pad.
2.  “Safe-approach” signal is given, weapon switches cold.
3.  Grounding cable, wheel chocks, and safeing pins installed.
4.  Pad Chief establishes wing commo, and checks-in.
5.  Armament team safes aircraft.
6.  Download rockets from right pod if refueling.
7.  Perform stray voltage check.
8.  Disconnect gun cannon plug.
9.  Pad Chief informs PC when commencing 30mm upload and refuel (simultaneous rearm and refuel
    will only be done in wartime, or when the commander deems it necessary).
10. Upon completion of 30mm upload, rounds counter is set
11. Upload left wing stores and chaff.
12. Pad Chief moves his team to right side and awaits refuel complete.
13. Upload right wing stores.
14. After uploading complete, Pad Chief reiterates quantities, types and zones of load.
15. Crew performs weapons inventory.
16. Any weapons not inventoried are adjusted at this time.
17. Pad Chief clears rearm crew from pad, ensures gun cannon plug connected and breach door closed.
18. Chocks pulled, grounding cable removed, wing store pins removed and stowed.
19. Pad chief informs PC aircraft is clear and disconnects ICS from wing and clears pad.
Jump FARPs                                            C-130 “WET WING”
Located 18-25 KM from the FLOT/FEBA to
provide faster turn around times for aircraft
conducting combat operations. Plan on 150
gallons per aircraft per flight hour.                                                         100’



CH-47 “FAT COW”
                                                                                150’


                        50’



                                      150’




NOTE
A typical 18-ship mission entering the FARP
after a 2-hour flight would require 5400 gallons
of JP-8.




                                                                                              101
                                                  EXECUTION




Fires in the FARP
1. If operating the aircraft on fire.
   a. Execute immediate action steps to cease
       aircraft operations.
   b. Give signal for refuel personnel to
       shutoff fuel.
   c. Transmit a MAYDAY with pad location.
   d. Evacuate the area.
2. If occupying adjacent FARP pads.
   a. If REDCON 1.
       1) Call in the blind with “Callsign, pad
            #, immediate takeoff.”
       2) Execute immediate takeoff.
       3) Turn away from aircraft on fire
            during climbout.
       4) Return to company HA.
   b. If other than REDCON 1.
       1) Execute emergency shutdown.
       2) Evacuate the area.
3. Always egress to the opposite direction of
   the fire or incident.
4. Ensure personnel involved in the evacuation
   are aware of your location and status.




                                                        102
                                                                                                                          SUSTAINMENT




FARP Safety Checklist
                 TACTICAL REFUELING SITE INSPECTION CHECKLIST                                                             DATE
                                                      (AR 710-2)

 ACTIVITY                                                               SITE LOCATION



 This checklist will be used as a guide in conjunction with FM 10-67-1. The Officer in Charge or Noncommissioned Officer will accompany the
 designated inspector (Aviation Safety Officer) during the site inspection. As indicated in the yes/no check block, appropriate initials by both parties
 are required.

                                                                                                                            YES                NO
  ITEM                                                   CHECKLIST                                                         P   A           P        A
   NO                                                      ITEM                                                            O   S           O        S
                                                                                                                           L   O           L        O
     1         Has the refueling site been selected according to FM 10-67-1 or FM
               1-111, Appendix J e.g., minimal terrain slope, obstacle avoidance,
               A/C spacing, camouflage, FOD minimization?
     2         Was the site layout planned according to FM 10-67-1 or FM 1-111,
               Appendix J, e.g., traffic patterns, lighting/signal,
               cover/concealment?
     3         Are fire extinguishers present, one for pump & one for each nozzle?
               (Minimum size is 20lbs)
     6         Are grounding rods being with pumps, filter separators, and at each
               dispensing point?
     7         Does each nozzle have a 100-mesh screen, dust cap and bonding
               wire attached?
     8         Are drip pans available at each dispensing point?

     9         Have hoses been inspected for blisters, tears, bulges, dry rot, nick,
               cuts?

    10         Is refueling site equipped with appropriate lighting for night
               operations e.g.,Y directional markers, refueling point markers?
               (Lighting options may include bean bags, illumination sticks,
               reverse polarity paper)
    11         Have air traffic control procedures been established? Is a trained
               air traffic controller, pathfinder or unit member available or will the
               unit control movement into and out of the refueling site through
               pilot briefings?
    12         Has the site been cleared of loose sticks, stones, and other debris?

    13         If using tank vehicles, are they located at least 100 feet from the
               dispensing point?
    14         Has required pre-operations maintenance been performed on tank
               vehicles if used?




                                                                                                                                                  103
                                                                                SUSTAINMENT




                                                                                 YES    NO
ITEM                              CHECKLIST                                     P A    P A
 NO                                 ITEM                                        O S    O S
                                                                                L O    L O
 15    Does the site layout insure proper spacing between aircraft refueling
       points IAW FM 10-67-1?
            MINIMUM DISTANCE ROTOR HUB TO ROTOR HUB
                      CH-47      Side by side                        180 feet
                                 Nose to tail                        140 feet
                      UH-1, UH-60, AH-1, AH-64, OH-58                100 feet
 16    Is the site set up for approach, landing and departure into the wind?

 17    Has a visual sample been taken from each dispensing nozzle?

 18    Has an Aqua-Glo sample been taken from the outlet side of the
       filter separator?
 19    Has a filter membrane color-rating sample been taken for FARE,
       AAFARS, Fat Cow, Wet Hawk, and FSSP systems when initially
       set up for a specific site?
 20    Have pressure differential gauges been checked and recorded?

 21    Have filter separators been stenciled with the date elements were
       changed and are they in compliance with the two year requirement?
 22    Is blowing dust or snow a problem at the refueling site?

 23    Are "Passenger Marshalling Area", and "No Smoking " signs
       posted?

 24    Are refueling personnel familiar with emergency procedures in the
       event of a spill?
 25    Do ground guides know the proper marshalling signals?

 26    Are Tactical Standing Operating Procedures on hand to provide
       guidance on aircraft refueling?
 27    Have personnel received training on fire fighting and crash rescue?

 28    Are sufficient personnel assigned and available to tend the pumps,
       refuel aircraft, and perform fireguard duties?




104
                                                                          SUSTAINMENT




  29 Are petroleum supply personnel wearing appropriate protective
     clothing IAW FM 10-67-1? (Sleeves rolled down, gloves, eye
     protection, and hearing protection when noise hazard is present)
 30  Has the complete system been checked for proper operation prior to
     first aircraft arriving i.e., pump, hoses, couplings, and leaks?
REMARKS

PRINTED NAME OF POL OIC            SIGNITURE
OR NCOIC


PRINTED NAME OF                    SIGNITURE
AVIATION SAFETY
INSPECTOR




                                                                                  105
                                                                                          SUSTAINMENT




External Load Operations
Load Capacities
        Dimensions                CH-47D          UH-60A
 Maximum Load                   18000 lbs.      9000 lbs.
 External Cargo Hook            26000 lbs.      8000 lbs.
 Maximum Cargo Space            1474 ft.2       246 ft.2
 Usable Length                  362 in.         110 in.
 Usable Height                  78 in.          54 in.
 Floor Width                    90 in.          72 in.
 Cargo Door Dimensions          90 x 78 in.     68x54 in.
 Cargo Floor Capacity           300 lbs/ft.2    300 lbs./ ft.2
 Maximum PAX Seating            33              12

External Loads and Required Equipment
    External Cargo           Weight (lbs.)      CH-47D             UH-60A          Required Equipment
 HMMWV                          7000              1                  1          1 x 10k Sling Set
 Blivet, 450 gal.                3285                 5               2         1 x 25K Sling Set
 Blivet, empty                      250               40             28         1 x 10k Sling Set
 AMMO Pallet, Hellfire           1749                 9               3         1 x 10k Sling Set per Pallet
 AMMO Pallet, 2.75 MPSM          2227                 6               2         1 x 10k Sling Set per Pallet
 AMMO Pallet, 30mm               3208                 6               2         1 x 10k Sling Set per Pallet
 M416 1/4 Ton Trailer               580               1               1         1 x 10k Sling Set
 M149A2 Water Trailer            6100                 1               1         1 x 10k Sling Set
 M4K Forklift                    9725                 1              N/A        1 x 25K Sling Set

Internal Loads
         Cargo                        Weight (lbs.)              per Airframe
 FARE System                 1000                                     1
 FARE System Personnel       250 per Soldier                          4
 Palletized Loads            IAW SOP, Applicable Manuals            8-10

Responsibility for rigging of all external/internal loads lies with the supported unit, to include blocking
and bracing of palletized items. Loads rigged IAW applicable manuals.




106
                                                                                 SUSTAINMENT



NBC Operations
Overview
The purpose of this SOP is to assign responsibilities and prescribe procedures to be used with 1-104th
AV BN in the event of nuclear, biological, or chemical attack. This SOP applies to all chemical,
biological, and nuclear operations. This TACSOP is to standardize the routine procedures for operations
in a contaminated environment.
MOPP Level
  LEVEL       OVERGARMET            MASK        BOOTS        GLOVES
  Ready     Available               Carried     Available    Available
    0       Carried                 Carried      Carried      Carried
    1       Worn open or closed     Carried      Carried      Carried
    2       Worn closed             Carried       Worn        Carried
    3       Worn closed              Worn         Worn        Carried
    4       Worn closed              Worn         Worn         Worn

NOTE
• In hot weather, coat or hood can be left open for ventilation.
• Work area is defined as within reach and accessible, not to exceed 50 feet.
• Personnel are identified in MOPP with rank and name on 100-MPH tape over right breast pocket.


Battalion NBC Organization
1. Battalion NBC Control Party.
   a. Battalion NBC Officer
   b. Battalion NBC NCO.
   c. HHC NBC NCO.
   d. D Company NBC NCO
   e. Enlisted Alternate.
2. Power Driven Decon Equipment (PDDE) Crew.
   a. 3 soldiers from the HHC
   b. HHC NBC NCO.
   c. M17 operator.

NBC Teams
Team Summary - Responsibilities of each NBC Team is depicted below. The Battalion NBC Officer
coordinates team activities to support chemical operations. Priority of Decontamination is the commands
discretion. The following information will be used to prioritize decon;
• The current mission (which company is the main effort)
• The type of equipment that is contaminated
• Where multiple agents detected or used
• What is the availability of Decon




                                                                                                 107
                                                                                  SUSTAINMENT



NBC Team Summary
        Team Title         Responsible Unit            Personnel           Equipment Requirements
 Radiological Survey    A/B/C                    Primary and alternate     AN/VDR-2
 (Aerial)                                        operator per instrument   UDR-13
 Radiological Survey    A/B/C/D/HHC              Primary and alternate     AN/VDR -2
 (Ground)                                        operator per instrument   UDR-13
                                                 and 2 individuals for
                                                 thorough decon team
 Chemical Survey        A/B/C/D/HHC              Primary and alternate     M22 ACADA
                                                 operator per M8A1         M256A1 Kit
                                                 alarm 1 individual for
                                                 thorough decon team       M9 Paper
                                                 one operator per M-256
 Detailed Troop and     HHC                      NBC NCO,
 Equipment Decon                                 Seven soldiers

NBC Control Party.
1. Advise command on NBC situation relative to the area of operations and how to minimize the
   effects of NBC on the battalion.
2. Advise command on avoidance, protection and contamination procedures in the area of operation to
   minimize the effects of NBC on the battalion
3. Advise command when continuous or periodic monitoring is required, and maintain records of
   radiation exposure. Records should include soldiers name and total radiation exposure.
4. Manage the NBC warning and reporting system
5. Supervise the marking of contaminated areas in the area of operation
6. Plan, control and conduct radiological and chemical surveys
7. Coordinate with chemical units for Thorough Decon
Radiological Survey Team.
The purpose of the radiological team is to conduct radiological surveys to determine the extent and
intensity of contamination. The team conducts radiological monitoring routinely to determine the
presence and intensity of residual contamination.
1. Employ AN/VDR-2 , and UDR-13
2. Conduct both ground and aerial surveys
3. Perform continuous and periodic monitoring when:
    a. Fallout warning is received
    b. Ordered by the unit commander
    c. The unit is moving.
    d. A Nuclear strike is observed or reported
    e. During reconnaissance or patrol missions
    f. When 1 cGY/hr or higher is detected by periodic monitoring.




108
                                                                                   SUSTAINMENT




AERIAL SURVEY TEAM TECHNIQUES
1. Route Technique
   a. Aircraft fly along convoy route to assembly area, maintaining constant speed and altitude.
      Maintain 200 feet and cruise speed during survey.
   b. Survey member uses continuous monitoring during survey with AN/VDR-2.
   c. A reading will be taken every 15 minutes.
2. Point Technique
   a. Pilot flies to assembly area (no speed or altitude requirements) and lands.
   b. Survey member dismounts and surveys the area using the AN/VDR-2 and takes a reading.
Chemical Detection Team.
1. Emplace and operate M22 alarm. PMCS the M22 alarm every 24 hours during operation and replace
   battery every four hours. The alarm will be monitored on an hourly basis.
2. When employing the M22 alarm, the detectors should be:
   a. No more than 300 meters apart
   b. On line, no more than 400 meters of wire used
   c. Optimum distance between M42 and M22 is 150 meters.
   d. Place alarm unit in or near the site/selection operations area where all personnel can hear the
       alarm audible signal or observe the flashing.
   e. Use up to 5 M42 alarms units per detector
   f. Emplace downwind of suspected enemy position
   g. Monitor wind direction.
3. Conduct ground survey using M256A1 kits and M8 paper
4. Apply M9 Paper to BDO suit
   a. Apply M9 paper to wrist of firing hand, and elbow of non-firing arm.
   b. Apply M9 paper to the ankle that is placed forward during firing.
5. Mark all contaminated areas with NBC marking kit. Marking will include date, time, and agent
   detected. Markers will be placed at roads, trails and other likely points of entry. All markers will be
   placed facing away from contamination. Personnel will ensure that the entire area is marked and
   report to higher.
6. Conduct NBC recon, and reconnoiter decon sites as directed.

PDDE Team
Decontamination team will be responsible for assisting Companies during operational decon and
conducting detailed troop decon.
NBC Alarms
1. All personnel will put on their protective mask prior to giving the alarm for a chemical or biological
   attack.
2. Soldiers take cover
3. Soldiers conduct immediate decon
4. Proper alarm consist of
   a. Activation of the M22 alarm system
   b. Continuous beating on any metal object.
   c. Short, sequential horn blast.




                                                                                                   109
                                                                                 SUSTAINMENT



     d. Visual signals: Chemical or biological - extend both arms horizontally with the fist doubled,
        facing up. Rapidly move fist to the head and back to the horizontal position, repeating as
        required to warn personnel.
     e. Vehicle horn - when giving an alarm by vehicle horn, remain inside of vehicle
5.   The above alarms are accompanied by verbal announcements of “GAS, GAS, GAS,” “SPRAY”, or
     “FALLOUT” when battlefield noise conditions permit
6.   After masking, seek overhead cover, and conduct personnel decon of all exposed areas and eyes
7.   After masking, seek overhead cover and decon all exposed skin areas and eyes
8.   An “ALL CLEAR” is signaled by the chain of command.
Preparing Vehicles for NBC Attack
1. Place vehicles under natural/prepared overhead coverage.
2. Place M9 paper on mirrors and leading edge of hood.
3. Button up.
4. Conduct PMCS of filtration systems/turn-on.

NBC Team Actions Following an NBC Attack
1. Don protective mask, and MOPP gear immediately
2. Conduct immediate decon
3. Immediately begin monitoring and survey. Continues until confirmed by BN NBC NCO/Officer.
4. Submit NBC 1 Report to your company NBC NCO/Officer, who then submits it to the TOC.
   a. First NBC 1 report forwarded with flash precedence
   b. Report must include as a minimum lines B, D, and either C or F.
5. Subsequent reports sent with Immediate precedence.

OPERATION RADIATION EXPOSURE GUIDANCE
Dosimeter reporting is used to:
1. Give the commander a flexible system of radiation control
2. Helps the commander keep radiation exposure to a minimum and still accomplish the mission
3. OEG is used to select units/elements that can perform the mission
4. OEG is used to determine the turn back dose rate and turn back dose for military operations.
ACTIONS DURING A BIOLOGICAL ATTACK.
1. Mask up immediately and go to MOPP 4.
2. Mark the area.
3. Personnel take hot showers with soapy water for decontamination.
4. Launder clothing with hot soapy water and air dry.

Intelligence
1. Report any information about the enemy’s NBC posture to the Battalion S-3 ASAP.
2. Report any of the following:
   a. Changes in the enemy’s NBC protective posture.
   b. Rapid, unexplained withdrawal of enemy forces
   c. Any special NBC equipment/kits captured
   d. Information from local civilians or refugees
   e. Unexplained poor health of wildlife or livestock.
   f. Personnel with unusual symptoms
   g. Mushroom clouds.




110
                                                                                   SUSTAINMENT



3. Actions requiring automatic masking.
   a. Any artillery, mortar, rocket or aircraft attack on or near your position.
   b. Smoke or mist of an unknown source arrives or is seen in your area.
   c. A chemical or biological attack is suspected for any reason.
   d. Anyone observing or experiencing any of the following symptoms:
       (1) Runny nose.
       (2) Tightness of the chest or throat.
       (3) Choking.
       (4) Dimness of vision.
       (5) Irritation of the eyes and skin.
       (6) Difficulty or increased rate of breathing.
   e. A chemical alarm sounds.
   f. A positive reading is obtained on detector paper or agent monitor.
   g. You observe a contamination marker.
   h. You come upon personnel wearing protective masks.
   i. Your supervisor tells you to mask.
   j. You observe other signs of possible chemical or biological attack.
4. The “ALL CLEAR” signal is given through command channels only. Sound devices and
   radio/telephone nets w ill not be used for passing the “ALL CLEAR” signal unless properly
   authenticated.
Decontamination of Casualties
1. Decon casualties as soon as possible.
2. If a casualty is spotted in a chemical environment, put his mask on him immediately.
3. Ensure that all contaminated clothing is removed before starting decontaminating procedures.
4. Ensure that casualties are properly decontaminated and will not present any hazard to personnel
   transporting and receiving them.
5. If there is not sufficient time for decontamination procedures, cover the casualty with a blanket.
   Wear your protective mask to minimize contamination and keep vehicle ventilated and warn medical
   unit that casualty is contaminated.
Medical Chemical Defense Equipment
1.   NAAK, CANA, and PB tablets.
2.   The Battalion Control Team distributes medical chemical defense materials prior to movement.
3.   Each soldier maintains 3 NAAK kits, 1 CANA kit, and PB tablets.
4.   The packets are stored in the upper right pocket of the MOPP suit.
5.   All used packets are stored in the upper right pocket of MOPP suit. Do not discard any used kits.
6.   Soldiers will not render more than 3 sets of NAAK.




                                                                                                   111
                                                                                SUSTAINMENT




Aircraft Operations in an NBC Environment
Detection
Place M-9 paper on the aircraft as follows:
1. Right side of CPG windshield wiper.
2. Right inboard pylon.
3. Right main landing gear.

Decon Procedures
1. Aircraft, vehicles and personnel which are not contaminated but are returning from missions to
   contaminated battalion areas will avoid entering those contaminated areas and proceed to
   predesignated clean location.
2. Aircraft, vehicle, and personnel who are contaminated while on a mission or are contaminated at
   other areas, and are returning to battalion areas will use the following procedures:
   a. Do not enter the area unless properly cleared to enter.
   b. Remain in MOPP 4, if is suspected the aircraft or vehicles is contaminated , proceed coordinate
      with Battalion NBC team for site link up and proceed to the nearest decontamination site.
IMMEDIATE DECON
Conduct immediate decon, to include skin decon, and equipment spray down, to the best of your ability
and continue the mission until MOPP gear exchange, and equipment decon can be accomplished.
Conduct operator spray-down utilizing M11/M13 for equipment and vehicles:
1. Use M11 or M13 or critical areas of the vehicle (parts mostly used, door handles, hood latches).
2. When practical, decon the rest of the vehicle.
3. Do not use M11/M13 on aircraft.
4. For individual wipe-down use M291 to decon skin and face immediately following an NBC attack.
   Conduct individual wipe-down within the first minute of an NBC attack. Avoid contact with eyes.
   Use the same M291 wipes as well as M295 for equipment after personal decon. replace protective
   mask filters if possible.

Operational Decon Team. .
1-104th AV BN does not plan on conducting operational decontamination with internal resources.
1. On order, HHC provides vehicle wash-down with M17 Sanator.
   a. Estimated water requirements: 100 - 150 gallons per vehicle.
   b. During operation, vehicle operators maintain visual contact.
   c. PDDE operator controls vehicle/aircraft movement.
   d. Wash vehicle for 2-3 minutes.
   e. Driver moves to MOPP gear exchange area, and TC drives vehicle to the marshalling area.
2. Conduct site closure.
   a. Bury materials in the sump.
   b. Cover materials with 1 part STB and 2 parts earth over sump.
   c. Pour all liquids used during operational decon into the sump.
   d. PDDE crew marks the area with NBC marking kit.
   e. Send up NBC 5 report to higher to complete site closure.




112
                                                                                    SUSTAINMENT



Preparation for Thorough Decon Operations
Chemical company support will be requested when thorough decon is needed. PDDE crews will only be
used if absolutely necessary. Company NBC Officer conducts link up operations with chemical unit and
Company Supply SGT for delivery of new IPE packs.
Preparation Phase
1. Contaminated unit commander request support for thorough decon through TOC
2. Decon unit and contaminated unit link-up.
3. Battalion CHEMO and decon unit select predesignated decon site, and pre-decon staging area
4. Contaminated unit and decon unit conduct link up operations
   a. Contaminated unit conducts DTD
   b. Decon unit conducts DED operations.
   c. If decon unit is not available, PDDE crew conducts DED operations.
5. Pre-decon actions: contaminated unit commander ensures
   a. Vehicles prepared for decon and movement to decon site
   b. Vehicles are segregated and buttoned-up.
   c. Crews dismounted.
Site Clearance and Reconstitution
1.   Decon unit closes DED.
2.   DED is shutdown before DTD.
3.   Contaminated unit closes DTD.
4.   Decon unit marks site and reports contamination (NBC 5).
5.   Contaminated unit reconstitutes at the post-decon assembly area.
6.   Decon unit reconstitutes to ensure they can accomplish the next mission.
Unmasking Procedures
UNMASKING WITH M256 KITS:
1. If all tests with M256 kits are negative, the senior ranking person selects 1 or 2 individuals
   considered the least mission essential (not necessarily those of the lowest rank)
2. Remove soldiers’ weapons and move them to a shaded area
3. Unmask for 5 minutes, then reseal and clear masks
4. Observe for 10 minutes. If no symptoms are noticed, give the “ALL CLEAR” signal
5. Continue to monitor other personnel for symptoms
6. Have first aid available.
UNMASKING WITHOUT M256 KITS
1. Select personnel as described above, remove their and move them to a shady area
2. Have them take a deep breath, hold it, and with eyes open break the seal of their mask for 15 seconds
   (without removing mask)
3. Reseal and clear masks
4. Observe for 10 minutes
5. If no symptoms, break seals and take 2 or 3 breaths, then reseal and clear masks
6. Observe 10 minutes
7. If no symptoms, unmask for 5 minutes, then remask
8. Observe for 10 minutes. If no symptoms are exhibited, give the “ALL CLEAR”




                                                                                                    113
                                                                                                                                                              SUSTAINMENT



9.   All unmask, and continue to observe for delayed symptoms.

Typical Thorough Decon Sites
Detailed Troop Decon (DTD) Site

                                               Liquid
                  1                    2    Contamination            3                         4                      5                        6   Contamination        7                          8
                                                Line                                                                                                   Line

                      H2O
      Sump                                                                                                                                                                             Wind




                                                                                                  va l
                                      STB




                                                                                              em o
                                                                      al




                                                                                                                                                                     t
                                                                  mov




                                                                                                                                                                   Poin
                                                                                         ves R




                                                                                                                                          val




                                                                                                                                                                                                i nt
                                                                                                                    oint
                                                             nt Re




                                                                                                                                                                                            e Po
                                                                                                                                           o




                                                                                                                                                                    n
                                                                                                                                        Rem
                                                                                                              itor P




                                                                                                                                                               Deco
                                                                                    & Glo




                                                                                                                                                                                              su
                                                           arme




                                                                                                                                      M ask




                                                                                                                                                                                         Reis
                                                                                                          Mon




                                                                                                                                                             M ask
                                                                                  oots
                                                              g
                                                         Over
        Tarp




                                                                                     b
                                                                                Over
     Hood and Boot Decon                                                   Gear Removal and Monitoring                                                                      Reissue




Detailed Equipment Decon (DED) Site

              1                                 2                                                  3                                  4                                         5




        H2O                                                                                                                     H2O
                                                            DS2
                                                                                                                             Blivet                                            Win
       Blivet                M-17                                                                                                                   M-17                       d
                            Senator                                                                                                                Senator


Detailed Aircraft Decon (DAD) Site
       Wash               DS                                                     Wait/Interior Decon                               Rinse                                      Detectio
                                                                                                                                                                              n
                                                 2



                  1                                  2                                        3                             4                                        5




                                                                                                                                                                                 Win
                                                                                                                                                                                 d
                                                                                     Blive                M-17
                                                                                     t                   Senator
             Inspection                      Wash                            Wait/Interior Decon                           Rinse                                        Dry




114
                                                                                       RECOVERY




                                                                     Recovery
Recovery Sequence
General
The 1-104th Aviation Battalion must be combat ready at all times. To ensure this, units will use this
recovery plan as a basis for conducting effective recovery operations. Emphasis is immediate combat
readiness. This annex provides guidance, outlines responsibilities, and provides an example of recovery
following field exercises or deployments.
Responsibilities.
XO:         Supervise overall recovery operations.
Commanders: See Enclosure 1, Unit Recovery Matrix.
Staff:      See Enclosure 2, Staff Recovery Matrix.
External Support
Prior to recovery, the Battalion S-4 will coordinate for external maintenance support from AVIM and
DSU contact maintenance teams. D Company Production Control will be the Point of Contact (POC)
and direct the efforts of the AVIM team and the BN AMO will be the POC for the DSU team and will
direct them.
Recovery Schedule
1. The training week during recovery differs in the following ways:
2. The duty day generally stars at 0730 and is extended as needed by the by unit commanders to
   accomplish required tasks.
3. Air missions will not normally be flown unless approved by the battalion commander. Submit flight
   schedule through the S-3.
4. Administrative and medical appointments will not be scheduled during this time.
5. Sergeant’s time will not be conducted.
6. Commanders will submit a daily report to the XO on all tasks accomplished for that day, tasks not
   accomplished and revised plan to accomplish tasks not accomplished.
7. This is a command emphasis program. Participation of all Battalion personnel is required.
   Company Commanders will report completion of recovery for their units to the Battalion XO. The
   Battalion Signal Officer, Battalion Motor Officer, Battalion Chemical Officer and D Company
   Commander will verify by vehicle, aircraft and item number that the work is completed as far as it
   can go.
8. The length of recovery will be reflected on the training schedule as 72 hours (Day1-3), but can be
   longer. The ability of a company to maintain the recovery schedule will ensure the unit is ready to
   go to war at any time with its organic equipment.
9. The Battalion Executive Officer will serve as the POC for the recovery operation.




                                                                                                 115
                                                                                        RECOVERY



Recovery Phases
Recovery will be conducted in two phases, the first being prior to redeployment and the second in
garrison.
PHASE I REDEPLOYMENT FIELD REQUIREMENTS
Conducted at the field or deployment location. These actions must be completed prior to the unit being
released from the training location or prior to assignment of convoy SP times.
1. 100% personnel accountability.
2. 100% accountability of all weapons, ANCDs, sensitive items and equipment.
3. Police the training area, to include removing all trash and filling in all non-crew served weapons and
    hasty positions.
4. Record all incidents and maneuver damage, locations by map coordinates (GPS) and turn in
    completed FC Forms 2945s to the XO. Negative reports are required.
5. Conduct ammunition/pyrotechnic shakedown. Ensure collection and return to the ammunition
    section of the Support Platoon.
6. Refuel all vehicles IAW the plan published by the S4.
7. Submit completion report to the S3.
PHASE II GARRISON RECOVERY PROCEDURES
Conducted at Johnstown, PA. (See Recovery Matrix )
Requirements.
Recovery is scheduled to improve the battalion maintenance, garrison and administrative posture
through an intense, focused effort. All actions taken during recovery will be dedicated to the
maintenance of our equipment and personnel. The standard for equipment maintenance and recovery is
10/20 standards. All deficiencies will be noted on a 5988 and, with the approval of the budget officer, a
part or job order requested.
The goal of the battalion recovery program is to accomplish all deferred maintenance on equipment,
aircraft and the review and accomplishment of personnel checks and administrative actions.
Recovery is a task-oriented event focusing on the following areas of interest:
AVIATION MAINTENANCE
1.   Aircraft logbooks inspected and purged.
2.   Disposition of all write-ups.
3.   Scheduled inspections completed.
4.   Deferred maintenance completed.
GROUND MAINTENANCE (WHEELED VEHICLES AND ENGINEER EQUIPMENT)
1.   PMCS completed to 10/20 standards, 5988s turned into motor pool.
2.   Deficiencies have disposition.
3.   Deferred maintenance completed.
4.   Logbooks purged, service cards updated.
5.   Operators’ licenses, seasonal training, NVG training records and 348s updated.
6.   Load plans reviewed, copies with S-4.
7.   Stoves, lanterns cleaned, preserved.
8.   Field accessory items cleaned, inventoried.




116
                                                                                  RECOVERY



NBC EQUIPMENT
1. PMCS completed.
2. Deficiencies have disposition.
3. Function checks completed.
4. Personnel ICE serviceability
5. Equipment TAMMS reviewed.

WEAPONS (INDIVIDUAL AND CREW)
1. Cleaned at least twice.
2. Inspected.
3. Inventoried.

NIGHT VISION DEVICES
1. PMCS/5988 and Serviceability checks completed. 5988s turned into motor pool.
2. Inventories completed.
3. Review control / security procedures.

CONEXES
1. Inventories complete, load plans and 5988's posted.
2. Exterior properly marked.
3. Equipment properly stored with dunnage.
COMMUNICATIONS
1. Radio PMCS completed, turned in to COMMO.
2. Communication checks completed.
TA-50
1. Inspected.
2. Inventoried, shortages accounted for with supply.

ADMINISTRATIVE
1. Awards written/reviewed/status checked.
2. Personnel actions checked status.
3. Assess medical/physical requirements and status of all profiles.
BILLETS, WORK AREAS, GROUNDS, OFFICES
Cleaned, mowed, safety/FOD checked.
TOOLS
1. Inventoried.
2. Serviceability checks completed.
3. Shortages accounted for with supply. Replacement tools placed on order.
TENTAGE & CAMOUFLAGE
1. Cleaned/inventoried.
2. Serviceability checks completed. New items placed on order, as appropriate.
3. Stored IAW TM.
METL UPDATE
1. Task completion.
2. Training status updated with S-3.
3. AAR to XO.




                                                                                       117
                                                                                                           RECOVERY



Recovery Matrix
 Unit              Day 0                          Day 1                         Day 2                         Day 3
         • Remove Convoy #'s            • Set-up and clean tents      • Submit actions to account    • Submit achievement
         • Turn in sensitive items        and stoves                    for property IAW AR 735-       awards to S-1 by 1500
           Initial cleaning of          • Submit TACSOP revision        5.                           • Submit AAR to S-3 by
  All      weapons                        to S-3                      • Turn in 348 change             1500
         • Secure all equipment.        • Submit RL status update       requests to motor pool for
         • Submit closing report.         to SIP                        training conducted
         • ACFT status to PC            • Submit AAARs to ASO.        • Inventory tool boxes
         • Zeorize COMSEC turn-in       • Vehicle and radio Turn-in   • Replenish field desks and
           CCI                          • Notify XO of tasks not        footlockers
                                          completed by 1700.          • Store tents, stoves
                                                                      • Correct veh deficiencies.
         • 1 Officer to arms room for   • 0930-1130: Veh Wash         • Priority on ACFT Wash        • 0730-0930: Inv. TA-50
           100% accountability of       • 1300-1500: 100%               Rack                         • 0930-1130: Inv. Tools
           sensitive items                Vehicle Radio PMCS                                         • 1300-1500: Submit coll.
 A Co    • Inform PC ACFT Status        • 1500-1700: Weapons                                           vouchers /shortage
         • Initial wpns cleaning          Cleaning                                                     annexes to S4
         • Secure all Equipment.                                                                     • 1500-1700: Inspection by
         • All vehicles in MP                                                                          BN CDR/CSM/XO
         • 1 Officer to arms room       • Priority on ACFT Wash       • 0930-1130: Veh Wash          • 0730-0930: Inv. TA-50
         • 100% accountability of         Rack                          1300-1500: 100% Veh          • 0930-1130: Inv. Tools
           sensitive items                                              PMCS-10/20 Standards         • 1300-1500: Submit coll.
 B Co    • Inform PC ACFT Status                                        1500-1700: Weapons             vouchers /shortage
         • Initial wpns cleaning                                        Cleaning                       annexes to S4
         • Secure all Equipment.                                                                     • 1500-1700: Inspection by
         • All vehicles in MP                                                                          BN CDR/CSM/XO
         • 1 Officer to arms room       • 0930-1130: Veh Wash         • 0730-0930: Inv TA-50         • Priority on ACFT Wash
         • 100% accountability of       • 1300-1500: 100%             • 0930-1130: Inv Tools           Rack
 C Co      sensitive items                Vehicle Radio PMCS          • 1300-1500: Submit coll.      • 1500-1700: Inspection by
         • Inform PC ACFT Status        • 1500-1700: Weapons            vouchers /shortage             BN CDR/CSM/XO
         • Initial wpns cleaning          Cleaning                      annexes to S4
         • Secure all Equipment.
         • All vehicles in MP
         • 100% accountability of       • 0730-1130: Weapons          • 0730-1130:Inv tools/PLL      • 0930-1130 Veh/Radio
           sensitive items                Cleaning                    • 1300-1700: 100%                PMCS/5988 Turn-in
 D Co    • Initial wpns cleaning        • 1300-1500: Veh wash           Veh/Radio PMSC                 1500-1700: Inspection by
         • Secure all Equipment                                                                        BN CDR/CSM/XO
         • All vehicles in MP
         • 100% accountability of       • 0730-1130 100% Vehicle      • 0730-1130: Veh wash          • 0730-0930: Inv. TA-50
           sensitive items                Radio PMCS                  • 0730-0930: Inv. tools        • 0930-1130: Submit coll.
         • Initial wpns cleaning        • 1300-1500: Weapons          • Ensure Mess equip              vouchers /shortage
 HHC     • Secure all Equipment           Cleaning                      stored properly                annexes to S4
         • All vehicles in MP                                         • Mess FRIS docs               • 1500-1700: Inspection by
         • Report Vehicles Not in                                       complete.                      BN CDR/CSM/XO
           Motor Pool to XO
 Motor   • Receive vehicle              • 0730-1130: HHC 1300-        • 0730-0930:Inv tools/PLL      • 0930-1500 Supports all
 pool      Status/5988                    1500: A/C Co                • 1300-1700: B/D Co              companies, update 348s
                                                                                                       for tng completed




118
                                                                                        RECOVERY




Company Mission Debrief
General
Conduct debriefs as soon as practical upon completion of the mission. Every soldier participating in the
mission will attend all debriefs. All phases of mission planning and execution will be addressed, with the
intent of improving all aspects of the operation.
Format
1. Roll call.                                           15. Deviations from the plan.
2. Classification.                                      16. Communications throughout the operation.
3.   Mission execution.                                 17. Maintenance status of aircraft.
    a. Restated mission.                                    a. During mission.
    b. Restated commander’s intent.                         b. Current.
4. Was the mission accomplished to standard?            18. Intelligence.
    a. If not, what resulted in failure?                    a. Enemy actions on contact (describe in
    b. Events contributing to failure.                          detail, all enemy sightings).
    c. If accomplished to standard, what was                b. Enemy BDA.
        the key to success?                                 c. ECM encountered.
5. Mission preparation.                                     d. Detailed SAM/ADA sightings or
    a. Mission planning.                                        information obtained.
    b. Mission briefings.                                   e. Were NBC activities observed?
6. Time flow.                                               f. Locations of hazards which could affect
7. Actions at the TAA/FSB.                                      future operations.
8. Actions at the HA.                                       g. Was EEFI protected?
9. Ingress route.                                           h. Weather conditions and deviations from
10. Air movement plan.                                          brief.
11. Actions on the objective.                               i. Terrain (map changes, obstacles/hazards,
    a. RP to BP/ABF.                                            etc.).
    b. TOT.                                             19. AMC comments/lessons learned.
    c. Execution of the attack.                         20. ASO comments/lessons learned.
    d. ASE use and effects of use.                      21. Aircrew comments/lessons learned.
    e. Fire support                                     22. Maintenance officer comments/lessons
        (1) Effects of organic and non-organic              learned.
            direct fires.                               23. Planner comments/lessons learned.
        (2) Effects of indirect fires.                  24. CDR’s comments, lessons learned.
    f. Actions on contact.                                  a. Changes to SOPs.
    g. Communications.                                      b. Adjustments to future plans.
    h. Battle handover.                                     c. Appointment of action officers to
    i. Departure from BP/ABF.                                   resolve issues.
    j. Link-up procedures.                                  d. Next key event.
12. Egress route.                                       25. Turn-in classified documents.
13. Follow-on missions.
14. FARP operations.




                                                                                                   119
                                                                                   RECOVERY




After Action Review (AAR)
Conducted 1 hr after mission completed. Captures comments on sustaining and improving operations.
Attendees
CDR, XO, Staff, CCDRs, CSM, Key personnel on mission.
Sequence
1. XO.                                                  b. Preparation.
   a. Mission Statement.                                   (1) Backbrief.
       (1) Met/not met?                                    (2) RFR.
       (2) Why/why not?                                    (3) Company rehearsals.
   b. Commander’s intent.                                  (4) FFR.
       (1) Met/not met?                                 c. Execution.
       (2) Why/why not?                                    (1) Pre-movement.
   c. Concept of the Operation.                            (2) Ingress.
2. S4.                                                     (3) Actions at the Objective.
   a. Concept of Support.                                      (a) Enemy situation.
       (1) Manning.                                            (b) Fires.
       (2) Arming.                                             (c) Maneuver.
       (3) Fueling.                                            (d) Contingencies
       (4) Fixing.                                         (4) Egress.
       (5) Moving.                                         (5) FARP Operations.
       (6) Sustaining.                                  d. Recovery.
3. S3.                                               4. ASO:
   a. Planning.                                         a. Risk management analysis.
       (1) Receipt of mission.                          b. Accident/incident review.
       (2) Mission analysis.                         5. BNCDR: Comments.
       (3) Course of action development.
       (4) Course of action analysis.
       (5) Course of action comparison.
       (6) Course of action approval.
       (7) Orders production.




120
                                           HAND & ARM SIGNALS




                Hand & Arm Signals


   This Way      Proceed to next guide   Landing Direction




    Move Left         Move Forward         Move Right




 Turn Left                Hover             Turn Right




Move Downward            Land            Move Upward




                                                             121
                                        HAND & ARM SIGNALS




          Slow Down          Stop            Brakes




  Clear to Approach   Start Engine #2            Fire!




      Tail to Left     Move Back         Tail to Right




122
                                                                               LIASON OFFICER




                                                                                       LNO
Roles, Responsibilities, Procedures
Roles
The role of the LNO is to represent the BNCDR at a designated headquarters for the duration of a
specific operation or as dictated by the situation. Effective employment of LNOs is imperative for
coordination and synchronization. Liaison Officers must be involved during the ground maneuver
brigade’s command estimate process to ensure the planned employment is within aviation capabilities to
maximize their combat potential.

Responsibilities
The liaison officer is a critical staff member whose performance has a direct impact on the ground
maneuver unit’s success or failure. As the BNCDR’s representative, the LNO must embody competence
and credibility. The battalion is judged by the performance and impressions given by the LNOs. The
LNO must be capable of changing his focus and his approach depending on his location and who he is
supporting. Above all, the LNO must be knowledgeable in all aspects of aviation employment and must
project a can-do attitude to the supported unit commander.

Procedures
1. Actions prior to departing for the supported unit:
   a. Get a briefing from the S-3 that outlines the supported unit POCs, call signs and frequencies, and
      location. Additionally, be briefed on the battalion’s assets available to support the ground
      commander and the BNCDR’s intent for the operation.
   b. Unit status to include aircraft, personnel, and communications status.
   c. Collect equipment on the LNO checklist and brief driver.
   d. Confirm supported unit knows you are coming.
   e. Locations of ground and air TOCs (current and proposed), assembly areas ( current and
      proposed), FARPS (current and proposed), rear command post.
   f. Intelligence to include weather forecast through mission duration, enemy situation, locations,
      probable courses of action, and NBC use.
   g. Special mission requirements, copies of OPORD and TACSOP, REDCON status, effects of
      weather, IFF codes.
2. Actions enroute to supported unit:
   a. Establish communications.
   b. Obtain MOPP and DEFCON status and request permission to enter.
3. Actions upon arrival at the supported unit:
   a. Report to the POC.
   b. Establish location to park your vehicle.
   c. Establish remote commo from your vehicle to the TOC.
   d. Camouflage your equipment.



                                                                                                 123
                                                                                 LIAISON OFFICER



   e. Contact the HHC commander for support: meals, fuel, maintenance.
   f. Get a situation update from the S-2 / S-3.
   g. Brief the S-3 on how you can support his operation.
   h. Get a brief on friendly locations in our AO, boundaries, decon sites, CAS, aircraft recovery, laser
      codes, call signs and frequencies.
4. Actions following the mission:
   a. Debrief the supported commander on the mission. Cover what went right and wrong with the
      operation and give recommendations.
   b. Debrief the BNCDR and S-3.


Minimum Equipment
1.  Vehicle (HMMWV)
2.  Camouflage for vehicles and sleep tent.
3.  Dual SINCGARS (secure) capability w/GRA-39 remotes.
4.  Sleep tent.
5.  Map board w/ map of the area of operation.
6.  Emergency food, fuel, and water.
7.  SOI with battalion and supported unit callsigns and frequencies.
8.  Field desk to prepare orders, estimates, and overlays.
9.  Paper, acetate, alcohol, shop towels, pens, pencils, markers, 100mph tape,
10. Post-it notes, and DA 1594s.


Mission Coordination
1. Become an integral participant in the mission planning cycle.
2. Perform coordination to support the mission.
3. Assist the S-3 Air with the A2C2 plan. Ensure it is disseminated.
4. Inform the maneuver commander of your aircraft capabilities and limitations.
5. Keep the BNCDR informed.



Maneuver RFI Checklist
Mission
1. What is the present mission? (Hasty/Deliberate/Deep/Close/Rear Attack)
2. What is my task organization? (Battalion-pure, Task Force, etc.)
3. What is the mission duration? (Start Time, Release Time)
4. What is the employment technique? (Mass Attack, Phased, Continuous)
5. What is the execution time? (H-Hour, NLT)
6. How is the mission execution triggered? (H-Hour, NLT, Decision Point?)
7. What is the primary target? Alternate target?
8. Where are my engagement areas? (Primary, alternate)
9. Who chooses my routes? What are my assigned routes?
10. What is the success criteria (Destroy, Attrit, Disrupt, Deny Overwatch)
11. What are the target priorities?
12. What enemy combat vehicles do you use to determine meeting success criteria?
13. What restrictions are placed upon the attack? (time, location, exploitation/pursuit LOA, routes)




124
                                                                            LIAISON OFFICER



14. What is my next mission? Into Where? When? For how long?
15. When and where is the higher’s OPORD Brief?
16. When and where is the higher’s rehearsal?
17. When and where is the debrief/AAR?
Friendly Forces
1. Who is the battalion’s higher headquarters?
2. Where is higher headquarters’ command post?
3. What is the command relationship?
4. What is the duration of the relationship? (Time, mission)
5. What is higher’s mission? Commander’s Intent? Concept of the Operation?
6. What is higher’s commander’s intent?
7. What is higher’s concept of the operation?
8. What is the ground commander’s mission? Intent? Concept of the Operation? Location of forces?
9. What are my adjacent units mission? Intent? Concept of Operation?
10. What other aviation units are in the area of operation? Location of AA? Mission?
11. Where are other current and proposed aviation FARPs?
12. Are the FARPs available for use? Approval authority?
13. What friendly forces are vicinity of the EA? (SOF, LRSD, etc.) Location? Frequency/Call Sign?
14. What is the ADA umbrella in the AO? Enroute? At the Passage Points? Vic. the EA?
15. What is the Weapons Control Status in the AO? Enroute? At the Passage Points? Vic. the EA?
16. What is the ground obstacle plan?
17. What is the deception plan (ground and air)? Do we participate?

Attachments
1. What attachments does the battalion have?
   a. Weather personnel?                                  e. Infantry?
   b. ATC?                                                f. OPFOR?
   c. Military Police? With Dogs?                         g. Observers/Controllers?
   d. ADA?                                                h. Other Aviation Units?
2. What is the command relationship?
3. How many people are attached?
4. What equipment do they have? (vehicles, equipment, aircraft)
5. When are they attached? Released? (Time, Mission)
6. Where do we link-up? POC? Phone Number?
7. What is their mission? Employment considerations/constraints?
8. What are the support requirement? (Classes of Supply, Services, special requirements)
Detachments
1. What are my LNO requirements? To Who? POC? Location? Phone Number?
2. How long does the LNO remain? (Time, Mission)
3. What support is available from the host unit? (Classes of Supply, Services)

Terrain
1. Where is the battalion’s assigned AA? FARP? Retrans Site?
2. Where are the Emergency Displacement Areas (air/ground)
3. Has a reconnaissance been conducted? Size? Suitability for helicopter parking? Obstacles?




                                                                                               125
                                                                              LIAISON OFFICER



4. Has higher headquarters coordinated for the battalion’s terrain? (TAAs, FAAs, FARPs, etc…)
5. If co-occupying terrain with another unit, who is the land manager?
Coordination
1.  Has an operations overlay been issued to the battalion?
2.  Is the mission integrated into the Air Tasking Order(ATO) and Air Control Order (ACO)?
3.  When can the battalion get a copy of the ATO & ACO? By what means?
4.  What A2C2 control measures are in effect?
    a. Established Corridors/SAAFR/MRR
    b. FOC/Tactical Flight Following
    c. ROZ/HIDACZ
    d. Coordinating Altitudes
    e. Flight Following Procedures?(FOC?)
5. Is AWACS available during the mission?
6. What are the Rules of Engagement (Ground and Air) at the EA?
7. Enroute? At the passage points?
8. When am I cleared to engage? Who approves it? By what means?
9. What are the bypass criteria?
10. What Anti-fratricide Measures are employed? What time period?
11. Tactical Recovery Airfield (Weather, Maintenance, Approaches) are available?
12. Where are the Passage Points (Ingress and Egress, Primary and Alternates)?
13. What is the technique for crossing PP (Forces, Stealth)?
14. Who is on the ground at the PP? Location of coordinating HQs?
15. What is the PP frequency and call sign?
16. What is the procedure for opening the PP? (Time, radio, recognition signal), Primary? Alternate?
17. What is the PP times (Outbound, Inbound?)
18. Near/Far Recognition Signals, if directed
19. What is the ground scheme of maneuver during the PP times?
20. What is the current MOPP Level?
Contingencies
1. What is the assigned aircraft abort criteria?
2. What are the abort weather minimums?
3. Who makes the weather decision? When?
4. What is the point of no return?
5. What is the Downed Aircraft Recovery Procedures?
6. What is the aircraft destruction procedures? Approval Authority?
7. What is the Combat Search and Rescue Plan? (Joint, Regiment, or Unit SOP?)
8. Procedures? DAPPs?
9. What is the lost commo procedures on the mission?

Command and Signal
1.   Where is the higher headquarters commander during the mission?
2.   Where is the ground commander during the mission?
3.   What is the location of higher’s TOC, TAC, Rear CP?
4.   What is the location of the ground commander’s TOC, TAC, Rear CP?
5.   What is the current SOI?




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                                                                          LIAISON OFFICER



6. What are the required calls on the mission? What Nets?
7. How compatible is the commo with joint and combined forces? Fills?
8. What is the IFF-Off Line? What is the IFF-On Line?

Safety
1. Who conducts Hazards Route Recon?
2. What is the acceptable risk to troop safety?



Fires RFI Checklist
Artillery
1. What artillery assets are available? Naval Gunfire?
2. When is it available?
3. What is the artillery relationship?(DS,R,GSR,GS)
4. Who has priority of fires? When? How Long?
5. What is higher headquarters’ commander’s intent for fire support?
6. What is the ground commander’s intent for fire support?
7. What is the attack criteria?
8. What are the high payoff targets?
9. Where are the firing batteries?
10. What are the firing frequencies, call signs?
11. What ammunition is available? How much?
12. What special ammunition is available? (FASCAM, SMOKE, ILLUM)
13. Is ATACAMS available?
14. Are there any special fires?
    a. SEAD Program                                       c. Preparation Fires
    b. Schedule of Fires                                  d. Smoke
15. What are the fire support coordinating measures?
    a. FSCL                                d. RFL                           g. ACA
    b. DBSL                                e. NFA                              (Formal/Informal)
    c. CFL                                 f. FFA
16. What is our allocation of priority targets?
17. Are there any target acquisition assets available?
Close Air Support
1. What assets are available?                        8. What is the frequency/call sign? (Fighters,
2. How many sorties are available? What type?            FACs)
3. Who has priority? When? For How Long?             9. Are radio’s compatible? Fills?
4. What is their station time?                       10. What is the target list?
5. What are their special capabilities? (Pave        11. Where are the IPs/CPs?
   Penny, LANTIRN)                                   12. What is the coordinating altitude?
6. Are the aircraft JAAT qualified?                  13. Is a FAC available? Air? Ground? When?
7. What ordnance is onboard? How much?               14. Is a TACP available?




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                                                                           LIASON OFFICER




Electronic Warfare
1. What type jamming assets are available?
2. When are they available?
3. Who has priority?

SEAD
1.   What category of SEAD is available? (Campaign or Localized)
2.   What is the SEAD mission? (Destroy, Neutralize, Suppress)
3.   What are the Lethal SEAD assets available? (Arty, CAS, Wild Weasel)
4.   When are the Lethal SEAD assets available? Who has priority?
5.   What are the non-lethal SEAD assets available? (EF111, Rivet Joint)
6.   When are the non-lethal SEAD assets available? Who has priority?
7.   What is the trigger mechanism for firing? (Time, Radio Call)
Combined Targeting Board
1. When does the targeting board meet? Where?
2. What are all the Target Assignments?
3. When will the battalion get a copy of the matrix?


Intelligence RFI Checklist
1. What is the enemy we are targeting to attack?
2. Where is that targeted enemy now?
3. What is his likely avenue of approach?
4. When will it be in the engagement area?
5. What is that targeted enemy’s strength?
6. What is the current enemy FLOT? Forward CPs?
7. What assets are available to collect on routes, BPs, EAs? (LRSD,UAV, OV-1)
8. What products are available on routes, BPs, EAs? (Photo Imagery, MTI, IMUM’s)
9. What enemy will be along the route during the mission?
10. What enemy will be at the PP during the mission?
11. What enemy will be vic. the assigned EAs during the mission?
12. Where is all AAA (w/ and without radar) that can effect the mission?
13. Where will AAA (w/ and without radar) be along the route during the mission?
14. What is the rear area threat to AA? FARP? Retrans Site?
15. What are the NAIs and TAIs?
16. What collection asset is watching the NAIs and TAIs?
17. When and where will the enemy use NBC munitions?
18. When and where will the enemy use SOF?
19. Where is the enemy artillery deployed?
20. Enemy supporting elements? Where and how deployed?
21. Where is the regiment EPW collection point?




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                                                                    LIASON OFFICER




Logistics RFI Checklist
                                             2.   What Engineer support is available?
Service Support                                   Priority?
1. Where is the CSS overlay?                 Coordination/Services
   a. MSR, BSA, DSA locations.
                                             1. What is the field sanitation/latrine plan?
   b. FARP locations within 50 km.
                                             2. NBC Procedures
   c. Nearest railhead.
                                                a. Where are the deliberate DECON sites
2. Where is the supply point for:
                                                   (ground and air)?
   a. Class I (ration cycle)
                                                b. Where are the MOPP gear exchange
   b. Class II
                                                   points?
   c. Class III (MOGAS, JP8, Emergency
                                                c. Are there any known contaminated
      locations)
                                                   areas?
   d. Class IV
                                                d. OEG
   e. Class V (ASP)
                                             3. Medical Support
   f. Class VI
                                                a. Where are the hospital locations?
   g. Class VII
                                                b. What are the MEDEVAC procedures?
   h. Class VIII
                                             4. What are the Mortuary Affairs procedures?
   i. Class IX (Ground & Air)
                                             5. Administrative
   j. AVIM assets, contact teams.
                                                a. What are the legal affairs procedures?
   k. IDS assets, location, priority.
                                                b. What are the finance procedures?
   l. Class X Procedures & Approval
                                                c. Are there land lines in place?
      authority.
                                             6. Where/when are the Chaplain services held?
3. What is the method of resupply for:
   a. Class I                                Transportation
   b. Class II                               1. Ground movement
   c. Class III (Ground & Aerial resupply)      a. Where is the Assembly Area located?
   d. Class IV                                  b. What are the movement routes, (primary
   e. Class V (CSR, Aerial resupply)               and alternate)?
   f. Class VI                                  c. What is the road clearance number?
   g. Class VII                                 d. What are the control measures for the
      (1) ORF assets, procedures, release          routes?
           authority.                              (1) SP, RP, TCPs?
      (2) Destruction criteria/authority.          (2) Rest halts and ROM locations?
4. What is the required number of DOS for       e. What is the priority of movement?
   Class I, II, III (packaged), IV?          2. External transportation
                                                a. When will the external ground assets be
Attachments                                        available?
1. How many attached units?
                                                b. What is the priority for these assets?
   a. Headcount (Rank, Name, SSAN).
                                             What are the procedures for requesting support?
   b. Number of vehicles/aircraft by type.




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                                                                                                 OPSEC




                                                                                OPSEC
General
Maintaining surprise is essential to military effectiveness in both tactical and strategic operations, and
requires continuous concealment of capabilities and intentions. OPSEC is the principle means of
achieving that concealment. OPSEC is considered and employed in all operations and planning.
Definitions
OPSEC
Actions that are necessary and appropriate to control to eliminate indications of friendly activities which
may provide the enemy with the potential for determining planned, on-going, and completed actions.
ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF FRIENDLY INFORMATION (EEFI)
EEFI are those elements of an operation that require protection. EEFI are identified by the commander
at each level of command as those items which the enemy needs to know to defeat us.
Responsibilities
RESPONSIBILITIES OF OPSEC
•   Commanders of each unit involved in the operation:
•   Administer an OPSEC briefing prior to deployment.
•   Identify and publish applicable EEFI for their organization.
•   Ensure secure methods of communications, camouflage, and light discipline are used to deny the
    enemy an opportunity for air/ground observation.
•   Enforce principles of information security.
•   Ensure all planning considers OPSEC.
•   Consider possibilities of cover and deception during all planning.
VULNERABILITY OF FRIENDLY OPERATIONS
•   Evaluate disclosed information for impact on friendly operations.
•   Consider the possibility that unsecured communications are subject to interception.
•   Consider the possibility that all forces, equipment, and materials are vulnerable to air/ground
    reconnaissance.
•   Consider human intelligence (HUMINT) in areas surrounding the operations.
•   Consider that all operations which have repetitious patterns may be subject to exploitation by hostile
    intelligence forces.




130
                                                                                               OPSEC




 EEFI
1. Operational phases under OPLANs, OPORDs, and forces required and available.
2. Closure times of units involved in OPORDS/EXERCISES.
3. Provisions for reception, support, and employment of augmentation units and reinforcements.
4. Detail of tactical air operations in support of OPLANs and OPORDs.
5. Limitations of the logistics structure of U.S. forces in theater.
6. Air traffic control procedures.
7. Unit status reporting to include personnel. logistics, training, and operational readiness posture.
8. Movements of VIP’s and key command personnel.
9. Activation or increased readiness of command posts and alternate command posts.
10. Air movement plans and procedures for ground forces within theater.
11. Plans, procedures, and execution of airlift within the theater of dangerous or sensitive cargo.
12. Existence of US cover and deception plans for use in any operations.
13. Units participating or supporting OPLAN/OPORD requirement.
14. Specific numerical information on troop strength, aircraft, weapon systems, or supplies.
15. Any information revealing details of future operations.
16. Specific locations of units.
17. Information on intelligence-gathering activities.
18. Specific information on troop movements, deployments, or dispositions that jeopardize security.
19. Most information on Special Operations Forces or operations, without specific coordination through
their chain of command.


Combat Media Operations
The following guidelines establish releasable information and procedure when confronted with media
personnel. Safeguarding of sensitive information is critical to mission accomplishment and preservation
of equipment and soldiers.
1. Know the role and purpose of the press.
    a. Reporters do a vital job for democracy by keeping the public, your friends and family, and other
       soldiers informed. Your interaction with the media can be a moral booster and actually enhance
       the mission.
    b. Don’t jeopardize your life or your mission by trying to accommodate the media or protect them.
       They know and have assumed the risk of covering combat operations. Do not take a chance just
       because the cameras are “rolling”.
    c. Don’t assume that all reporters are after the same “big” story. Hometown media, especially, are
       hungry for slice-of-life features about ordinary soldiers and their routine activities.
    d. The Army story is best told through contact with soldiers. Encourage local commanders and
       soldiers to talk openly with the media, within the bounds of OPSEC. Likewise, encourage the
       media to see what soldiers are doing and to talk to soldiers about their jobs, personal experiences,
       and lessons learned.
    e. Don’t stage events or activities for the media. Don’t assume that all media are anti-military.
    f. Don’t let your soldiers become servants of the media. Soldiers are neither required to, nor should
       they carry equipment or run errands, even for the best-known accredited news correspondents.
2. Know who you’re talking to.




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                                                                                               OPSEC



   a. When approached by a reporter, ensure he’s wearing a press badge issued through your chain of
      command, or that he’s accompanied by a PAO representative.
   b. Tell soldiers that the news media will show up in your area, and train your soldiers on how to
      handle unaccredited media.
   c. Don’t detain unregistered or unescorted media representatives yourself. Instead, refer them to the
      PAO and promptly report them to your supervisor.
   d. Provide media escorts when possible. This nets you a degree of influence over the coverage and
      helps ensure accuracy.
   e. Provide accredited media with transportation when possible. It will pay off in coverage about
      your people and their accomplishments.
   f. Allow media representatives to travel about your area on foot. It is the responsibility of the escort
      to insure OPSEC of area/equipment. Requiring the media to remain in one location is not
      desirable unless mission or threat assessments dictate. A good method of instituting this
      requirement is to have personnel remain at their duty stations. Provide the escort with a
      knowledgeable individual who can guide the press party to the soldiers locations, assist with
      OPSEC areas and equipment, and identify those individuals to be interviewed. This lends the
      impression that these individuals are not hand picked soldiers. If the media gets the impression
      that the soldiers are pre-selected, they will make every effort to obtain interviews from those
      individuals they consider not to be hand picked.
3. Know who will hear you.
   a. What you say and how you say it can be in enemy hands within minutes. Your friends, family,
      and the American public will be influenced by what you say and how you say it. Confidence and
      upbeat attitudes impress the public and the enemy with your sense of resolve.
   b. Don’t violate OPSEC by talking about your units supply and strength levels, losses and tactical
      plans. Avoid specifics such as exact unit locations and exact times of events. Do not discuss
      specific numbers of troops, types of weapon systems, aircraft or supplies. Units may be
      described as company sized, multi-battalion, etc. Numbers are described as large, small, or
      many. Damage and casualties are described as light, moderate, or heavy.
   c. Don’t provide the enemy with propaganda material by grumbling and thoughtless complaining.
   d. Never talk “off the record”.
   e. Do not discuss future operations with news media.
   f. Never lie or evade questions. This can be as damaging as providing information that violates
      OPSEC.
   g. Do not attempt to cover embarrassing events under a cloak of security classification. Use a
      security classification only when it involves classified information.
   h. Maintain a professional attitude during interviews, even when the media seems aggressive, or the
      questions seem silly. Reasoned responses will help you stay in control of the interview.
   i. Know your limits. Stick to subjects within your own area of responsibility and personal
      knowledge. If you do not have the answer to a question, say so.
4. Know your rights.
   a. Companies may talk with the news media without fear of repercussion or punishment. They may
      also decline to talk, and may end an interview at any time.
   b. Don’t take time out for an interview when it would interfere with the mission.
   c. Don’t answer inappropriate questions.




132
                                                                                          SIGNAL




                                                                                Signal
Responsibilities
•    Install battalion switchboard in the TOC and ALOC switchboard in the HHC CP.
•    Install, operate, and maintain SINCGARS retransmission sites.
•    Maintain current communications route map and telephone diagram, which incorporates observation
     posts and crew-served weapons.
•    Maintain communications equipment.


Operations
Wire Operations
•    Wire and messenger is the primary means of communication between the TOC, ALOC, and
     Companies in the TAA.
•    Authentication is used when opening or closing a net, imposing silence, and changing MOPP status.
•    The battalion switchboard is located in the Communications section area.
•    Tag commo wire with markers IAW signal annex of the OPORD.
•    Companies patrol and inspect internal/external lines on a periodic basis for damage or sabotage.
•    Companies recover commo wire upon completion of field training exercises.
PRIORITY OF COMPANY WIRE INSTALLATION
1. The Quartering Party lays wire from the company areas to the switchboard prior to main body
   arrival.
2. Lay wire from OPs to the company areas.


Radio Operations
Net Control Station
1.   Publish schedule for opening and closing nets.
2.   Maintain radio watch and update times during TOC/ALOC shift change.
3.   Initiate hourly radio checks (land line if SINCGARS net is inoperable.
4.   The following stations will operate SINCGARS in frequency hop master (FH-M):
     a. Battalion CMD.
         (1) Garrison: EOC.
         (2) TAA: TOC.
         (3) Objective Area: C2 when not within commo range of TOC
     b. Battalion O&I: TOC.
     c. Battalion A&L.
         (1) Garrison: EOC.
         (2) TAA: ALOC.
         (3) Convoy: Serial commander.



                                                                                                 133
                                                                                          SIGNAL



   d. Battalion FARP net: III/V PL.
Radio Traffic on Battalion Nets
Radio transmissions on the battalion net are made only for urgent traffic to include:
1. Battalion Command net (BN CMD).
   a. Missions.
   b. Urgent information.
2. Battalion Operations and Intelligence net (BN O&I).
   a. Intelligence-related traffic, SPOT reports.
   b. SITREPS, BDA.
3. Administrative and Logistical net (BN A&L).
   a. Information pertaining to personnel, administration, and supply.
   b. Maintenance reports, aircraft and vehicle recovery.
   c. Class III/V resupply.
   d. Convoy operations.
   e. Rear CP to main CP traffic.

Secure Radio Transmissions
1. Radio nets operate in secure (green) mode at all times.
2. NCS initiates authentication procedures for unsecured stations.
3. Report any attempts to enter secure nets without proper authentication to S2.
Retrans
1. 1 x HMMWV.
2. 2 x SINGCARS.
3. 2 x OE-254 antennas.
4. 2 x Commo soldiers.


Standard Comm Schematic

                                            O&I
   Havequick
                     VHF


               RTS
                                                                   FSO                   ALOC
                                                  BDE                           BDE
                                                   CMD                   BDE
                                                                         O&I     A&L
                                         BN
                                         O&I
                                                         TOC                                  BN
                                                                                        BN    CMD
                                                                                        A&L
                                                                            TACSAT
                      RTS         CMD                        BN
                                                             CMD




134
                                                                                              SIGNAL



Fixed Callsigns
Battalion Callsigns
•   1-104TH AV BN "Shadow"


    Position       Suffix       Position        Suffix          Position       Suffix
     CDR            06            SIP            08             Asst. S3        3A
      XO            05             ME             49             CHEMO           3C
      S1            01             MG             69               LNO           3L
      S2            02          Armament       Pit Boss           SIGO           3S
      S3            03             TOC          X-Ray           TACOPS           3T
      S4            04             TAC          Oscar           S1 NCOIC         17
     CSM            07             ALOC          Hotel          S2 NCOIC         27
     ASO            09             FARP        Whiskey          S3 NCOIC         37
    Chaplain       Cross       Motor Pool       Wrench          S4 NCOIC         47
    Commo         Commo            RTS          Retrans           OPS           OPS

Company Callsigns
•   HQ "Shadow"
•   A Company:        “Freedom.”                          •   D Company:       “Dragon.”
•   B Company:        “Outcast.”                          •   HHC:             “Regulator.”
•   C Company:        “Python.”


    Position       Suffix       Position        Suffix          Position       Suffix
     CCDR           06          Scout PL         16             Attack PL       26
       IP         10 or 20      Scout MP          13            Attack MP        23
      SIP         11 or 21     Scout PSG          17           Attack PSG        27
      IFE         12 or 22     Scout Pilots     15-19          Attack Pilots    25-29
     1SG            07             ASO            09            Armament       14 or 24


Commo Check
Standard comsets start from zero (company internal commo check). Company commo checks are
completed on company internal frequencies unless otherwise directed. Battalion commo checks are
conducted on battalion frequencies, are initiated by the BNCDR, and only C2 elements check-in (order is
BNCDR, AirTAC, A, B, C). Note: For guidons calls, see Guidons Call below.




                                                                                                 135
                                                                                              SIGNAL



Procedures
Each aircraft times and programs their radios with onboard assets. Lead initiates the radio check at the
predetermined time. Aircraft respond in chalk order. Radios are checked in the following modes:
1. Pilot’s SINCGARS:      FH secure.
2. Pilot’s UHF:           Havequick II.
3. CPG’s VHF:             VHF.
After the commo check, AMC will callout comsets to facilitate the mission.

Example Commo Check
Initiated by lead, the flight acknowledges, in chalk order, using their callsign.
Lead:           “Python flight, this lead on one, lead on two, lead on three.”
Chalk 2, etc… “Python ___ on one, Python ___ on two, Python ___ on three.”
Contingencies
Alibis are held to the completion of the commo check. When lead determines an aircraft has not reported
in on a certain radio, he will attempt a recheck with that element. If an aircraft has an inoperative radio
or radio function (e.g. Havequick inoperative) the AMC will determine what nets/modes to use. Crews
unable to establish contact in either FH, secure, or Havequick modes will continue to reconfigure radios
prior to takeoff and during low-workload portions of the mission and attempt to establish contact.
Standard Comsets
• Set 0:      Company internal frequencies for commo check.
• Set 1:      Radio 1 (BN CMD)         Radio 2 (Company Havequick)         Radio 3 (ATC)
Note: Additional sets can be established as mission dictates. Comsets will be briefed to include
when/where executed during the mission. No radio call should be necessary to switch comsets.

Guidons Call
The BNCDR, or C2 element on scene will initiate a guidons call with the following trainsmission:
“Guidons, Guidons, Guidons.”
All traffic on the net ceases.
Elements respond in order as follows:
“Regulator CP standing by.”
Order of response is as follows: HHC, A, B, C, D, TOC, ALOC.




136
                                                                                                 SIGNAL




Communications Safety
1.   Use grounding wire and stakes to prevent electrical hazards.
2.   Post electrical hazard signs.
3.   Vehicle whip antennas must have protective cap. Do not tie lower than nine feet above ground.
4.   Install OE-254 antennas a minimum of two antenna heights away from buildings and power lines.
5.   Mark antenna guide wires with engineer tape at the 5-foot level.

Communications Security (COMSEC)
1. Battalion COMSEC custodian issues company COMSEC officers.
   a. Mode 1, 3, and 4 codes.
   b. SINCGARS fills.
   c. KY-58 fills.
   d. Havequick nets and MWODs.
   e. GPS “P” codes.
2. Store COMSEC material or equipment in safe with appropriately cleared personnel.
3. Company COMSEC officers will perform daily inventory and security checks.
4. First-line supervisors ensure only soldiers with U.S. secret clearance handle fill devices.


Laser Codes
 Chalk / 1-104      A Co          B Co          C Co          Battalion
      1             1111          1121          1131         11      1141
        2           1112           1122         1132         03      1143
        3           1113           1123         1133        3T       1144
        4           1114           1124         1134         05      1145
        5           1115           1125         1135         06      1146
        6           1116           1126         1136         08      1148




                                                                                                    137
                                                                                      SIGNAL




Ground Radio Checklists
TACSAT Checklist
Radio Preparation
1. Install BA5590 battery.
2. Attach X-Mode cable to TACSAT X-Mode connector.
3. Install KY-99 batteries (BA5590 and BA1372).
4. Attach X-Mode cable to KY-99 RAD connector.
5. Attach handset to KY-99 AUDIO connector.
6. Attach antenna connector to TACSAT ANT connector.
7. Set KY-99 to C (cipher).

Operation
1. MODE switch:                       ON.
2. VOL control:                       Mid-range.
3. SQL control:                       Full counterclockwise.
4. DIM control:                       Clockwise.
5. PRST/OFST switch:                  As desired.
8. Manual Frequency:                  Set receive frequency.
9. LOAD switch:                       Hold in + or -.
10. Manual Frequency:                 Set receive offset frequency.
     Frequency display will flash if invalid frequency or offset is loaded.

     To disable flashing, enter correct offset.


11. Handset:                          Press to transmit.
     When transmitting, radio must display at least three bars.

     When handset is released, radio must display at least three bars (bounce-back)


     a.   If less than three bars bounce-back, realign antenna.

Plugger Checklist
RECEIVING TIME
1.   Turn PLGR ON
2.   Press    to choose SETUP from menu
3.   Press    to choose Mode
4.   Press    to choose AVG or CONT

5. Press POS button to receive time
6. Use       to change screens for time and position




138
                                                                                       SIGNAL




Filling the Ground SINCGARS Radio
Note: Zeroize the radio prior to loading. Key handset to clear COMSEC tone
1. COMSEC – CT
2. FCTN – LD
3. MODE – FH
4. CHAN – MAN
5. Turn ANCD ON
6. ANCD – Highlight RADIO and press enter
7. ANCD - Highlight SEND and press enter
8. ANCD – Highlight RADIO and press enter
9. ANCD – Highlight ICOM and press enter
10. Follow instructions on ANCD
11. Do you want to include time? Choose Y
12. Press [LOAD] on RT

Ground SINCGARS Checklist
SETTING TIME                       SCANNING                            RECEIVING ERF
1. FCTN – LD                       See Airborne SINCGARS               1. Load MAN freq into RT
2. Press TIME                      Checklist for Scanning              2. Load RT with
3. Press CLR                                                           COMSEC/FH data
                                   SENDING ERF
4. Enter Julian Date                                                   3. FCTN – LD
                                   1. FCTN – LD
5. Press STO                                                           4. COMSEC – CT
                                   2. MODE – FH-M
6. Press TIME                                                          5. CHAN – MAN
                                   3. CHAN – MAN
7. Press CLR                                                           6. MODE – FH
                                   4. COMSEC – CT
8. Enter Hours, Minutes                                                7. Display – HF XXX
                                   5. Press – LOAD
9. Press STO (at 00 seconds)                                           8. Press STO (Display shows
                                   6. Enter Chan in which data
                                                                       “STO __”
                                   is stored
LOADING SC                                                             9. Press X (1-6) (Display
                                   7. Press – ERF
1. FCTN – LD                                                           shows “STO X”, blinks)
                                   8. Press – STO, and Chan
2. MODE – SC                                                           10. Set CHAN to X (1-6)
                                   number to store
3. CHAN – MAN, CUE, or                                                 11. FCTN – SQ ON
                                   9. FCTN – SQ ON
1-6                                                                    12. Attempt commo
                                   10. Attempt commo
4. Press FREQ                                                          CHANGING NET ID
5. Press CLR                                                           1. FCTN – LD
6. Enter Frequency                                                     2. MODE – FH
7. Press STO                                                           3. CHAN – 1-6 (As desired)
8. Repeat for each channel                                             4. Press FREQ
9. FCTN – SQ ON                                                        5. Press CLR
                                                                       6. Enter 3-digit Net ID
                                                                       7. Press STO
                                                                       8. FCTN – SQ ON




                                                                                            139
                                                                                           SIGNAL



Havequick lI Operations
                                                                           2. Select TOD & get tone
ERASE PREVIOUS MWODS                  FOR MULTIPLE MWODS &
1. Enter 220.050                      DAYS                                 IF NECESSARY, SEND TOD
2. Select PST, CH 20, Enter           Follow “Enter MWOD”                  1. Transmit “Stand-by for
                                      procedures above and enter           Mickey” & wait 3 seconds
ACTIVATE MWOD LOAD
                                      the proper date in channel 14        2. Select DF (momentarily)
MODE                                                                       3. Deselect DF
                                      for each MWOD
1. Enter 220.025
2. Select PST, CH 20, Enter           SET TODAY’S DATE IN CH               ENTER NET FREQUENCY
                                      1                                    Use Net Below
ENTER MWOD                                                                 Example: ABB.BCCC
                                      1. Select 3XX.000 (XX is
1. Enter 300.050                                                           A = Active
                                      date)
2. Select PST, CH 20, Enter                                                BB.B = Net
                                      2. Select PST, CH 1, Enter
3. Enter MWOD                                                              CC = 00 = Basic HQ
4. Select PST, CH xx, Enter           VERIFY/OPERATE                           = 25 = NATO HQll
5. Repeat steps 3-4 for               1. Select 220.000                        = 50 = NONNATO HQll
channels 19-15                        2. Select PST, CH 20, Enter              = 75 = INVALID
ENTER MWOD DATE IN CH                 SELF START INTERNAL                  (TONE)
14                                    CLOCK                                GO ACTIVE
1. Select 3XX.000 (XX is              Select 3, Enter                      1. Select ACT
date)                                                                      2. Observe “A00.X00”
2. Select PST, CH 14, Enter           IF CAPABLE, RECEIVE TOD
                                      VIA GPS OR ON
                                      ESTABLISHED FREQ
                                      1. Request “Mickey”
Havequick ll Training Nets
A00.025 – Net 0               A00.425 – Net 4           A00.825 – Net 8            A01.225 – Net 12
A00.125 – Net 1               A00.525 – Net 5           A00.925 – Net 9            A01.325 – Net 13
A00.225 – Net 2               A00.625 – Net 6           A01.025 – Net 10           A01.425 – Net 14
A00.325 – Net 3               A00.725 – Net 7           A01.125 – Net 11           A01.525 – Net 15
Standard Havequick Training Nets
1-104          PRIMARY             ALTERNATE
A Co          A00.025                 A00.425
B Co          A00.125                 A01.525
C Co          A00.225                 A01.625
BN            A00.325                 A01.725


Aircraft Radio Checklists
Filling the Aircraft KY-58
1. Turn on the SINCGARS radio and the KY-58 control head.
2. Zeroize the KY-58.




140
                                                                                          SIGNAL



3. KY-58 control head—Set to load (LD)/ C-RAD1, and key the mic.
4. KY-58—Set to load (LD).
5. Connect the ANCD and turn on.
6. ANCD—Highlight RADIO and press enter.
7. ANCD—Highlight SEND and press enter.
8. ANCD—Highlight RADIO and press enter.
9. ANCD—Highlight ABN and press enter.
10. ANCD—Highlight Y and press enter.
11. Follow ANCD instructions until complete.
12. KY-58—Cipher (C).
Filling the Aircraft SINCGARS Radio
Note: Self-test and zeroize the radio before starting this procedure.
1. FCTN—LD.
2. PRESET—MAN.
3. MODE—FH.
4. Connect the ANCD and turn on.
5. ANCD—Highlight RADIO and press enter.
6. ANCD—Highlight SEND and press enter.
7. ANCD—Highlight RADIO and press enter.
8. ANCD—Highlight ABN and press enter.
9. ANCD—Highlight N and press enter.
10. Follow ANCD instructions.
11. Press LOAD button.
12. Press the STO button and the channel number associated with the variable you are filling. You must
    do this procedure for each of the variables and lockout sets.
Note: A fill must be in preset #1 position to receive a cold start (ERF).




                                                                                                141
                                                                                    SIGNAL




Aircraft SINCGARS Checklist
Setting Time                      Scanning                         Changing Hopsets
1. FCTN—LD.                       1. FCTN—SQ ON.                   1. FCTN—LD.
2. Press TIME.                    2. MODE—FH.                      2. MODE—FH/M.
3. Press CLR.                     3. CHAN—CUE.                     3. CHAN—As desired.
4. Enter Julian date.             4. Press STO/ENT.                4. Press FRQ.
5. Press STO/ENT.                 5. Display—SCAN_ _.              5. Press CLR.
6. Press TIME.                    6. Enter # (0-8).                6. Enter last 2 numbers.
7. Press CLR.                     To stop scan:                    7. Press STO/ENT.
8. Enter hours, minutes.          7. CHAN or MODE to               8. FCTN—SQ ON.
9. Press TOE/ENT (at 00              different position.           9. MODE—FH.
   seconds).
                                  Sending ERF                      Changing Group ID
Clearing Frequencies              1. FCTN—LD.                      1. FCTN—LD.
1. FCTN—LD.                       2. MODE—FH/M.                    2. MODE—FH/M.
2. MODE—SC.                       3. Press— H•LD/0 and             3. Press FREQ.
3. Press FREQ.                       CHAN #.                       4. Press CLR.
4. Press CLR.                     4. Press—SEND/OFST.              5. Key mic 4 times.
5. Press H•LD/0.                  5. Attempt commo.                6. Enter 00XXX.
6. Press STO/ENT.                                                  7. Press STO/ENT.
7. FCTN—SQ ON.                    Receiving ERF                    8. FCTN—SQ ON.
                                  1. FCTN—LD.                      9. MODE—FH
Loading SC                        2. MODE—FH.
1. FCTN—LD.                       3. CHAN—MAN.                     Late Entry
2. MODE—SC.                       4. Display—COLD,                 1. Press FREQ.
3. CHAN—MAN, CUE, or                 HFXXX.                        2. Press LE/3.
   1-6.                           5. Press STO/ENT.
4. Press FRQ.                     6. Press CHAN #.                 Receive CNV
5. Press CLR.                     7. Attempt commo.                KY-58 RCU
6. Enter frequency.                                                1. CHAN—6.
7. Press STO/ENT.                                                  2. MODE—RV.
8. Repeat for 1-6.
9. FCTN—SQ ON.


Havequick II Checklist
Manual WOD Load
                                                  5. Press tone button (beep).
ENTER LOAD MODE
                                                  6. Repeat steps3-4 for elements 19-15.
1. Enter Mode: Preset channel 20 w/220.025,
   press LRB (beep).
2. Select Manual.

LOAD WOD
3. Select channel 20.
4. Enter frequency.




142
                                                                                          SIGNAL



                                                     11. Select 3 + Day of Month . 000.
ENTER DATE TAG
                                                     12. Press tone button (beep).
7. Select channel 14.
8. Enter date tag.                                   ENTER VERIFY/OPERATE MODE
9. Press tone button (beep, beep).                   13. Enter Mode: Preset channel 20 w/220.000,
                                                         press LRB (beep).
MAKE WOD ACTIVE
10. Select channel 1.
Check if WOD is loaded
1. Select channel 20.                                3. Select 3 + Day of Month .000.
2. Select Manual.                                    4. Move from 20 to 19, then back to 20 (beep).
Note: No beep requires need reload that WOD.
Erase WODs
ENTER ERASE MODE                                     ENTER VERIFY/OPERATE MODE
1. Enter Mode: Preset channel 20 w/220.050,          5. Enter Mode: Preset channel 20 w/220.000,
   press LRB (beep).                                    press LRB (beep).
2. Select Manual.
3. Press tone button.
4. Select preset (wait for beep).


Havequick MWOD loading with KYK-13
1. KYK-13—OFF/CHECK.
2. KYK-13—Connect to fill connector.
3. KYK-13—Mode switch—ON; observe freq/status indicator displays FILL.
4. KYK-13—Address switch—1-6 as desired.
5. Radio Load Button—Press and hold for 2 seconds.
Note 1: A series of beeps and freq/status indicator displays WOD OK. If displays BAD, KYK-13 must be
reloaded.
Note 2: CHAN indicator steps down from 20 to 14 and to 1 for entry of operational date information.
6. KYK-13 Address switch—Next channel and repeat step 5.
Note 3: Load operational date after last WOD has been loaded, press STATUS button, then select date
on MFS switches in the following format ##.***, where # equals any number and * equals any day of
month. Momentarily press the T-Tone switch to Tone and release (wavering tone).
7. KYK -13 Mode switch—OFF/CHECK.
8. KYK -13—Disconnect.




                                                                                              143
                                                                    SIGNAL




Havequick Training WODs
  Day     20        19        18        17        16        15        14
   1    300.050   376.125   376.025   375.925   375.825   375.725   301.000
   2    300.050   375.725   376.125   376.025   375.925   375.825   302.000
   3    300.050   375.825   375.725   376.125   376.025   375.925   303.000
   4    300.050   375.925   375.825   375.725   376.125   376.025   304.000
   5    300.050   376.025   375.925   375.825   375.725   376.125   305.000
    6   300.050   375.825   376.125   376.025   375.925   375.725   306.000
    7   300.050   375.925   375.725   376.125   376.025   375.825   307.000
    8   300.050   376.025   375.825   375.725   376.125   375.925   308.000
    9   300.050   376.125   375.925   375.825   375.725   376.025   309.000
   10   300.050   375.725   376.025   375.925   375.825   376.125   310.000
   11   300.050   375.925   375.825   376.125   376.025   375.725   311.000
   12   300.050   376.025   375.925   375.725   376.125   375.825   312.000
   13   300.050   376.125   376.025   375.825   375.725   375.925   313.000
   14   300.050   375.725   376.125   375.925   375.825   376.025   314.000
   15   300.050   375.825   375.725   376.025   375.925   376.125   315.000
   16   300.050   376.025   375.925   375.825   376.125   375.725   316.000
   17   300.050   376.125   376.025   375.925   375.725   375.825   317.000
   18   300.050   375.725   376.125   376.025   375.825   375.925   318.000
   19   300.050   375.825   375.725   376.125   375.925   376.025   319.000
   20   300.050   375.925   375.825   375.725   376.025   376.125   320.000
   21   300.050   375.925   376.125   376.025   375.825   375.725   321.000
   22   300.050   376.025   375.725   376.125   375.925   375.825   322.000
   23   300.050   376.125   375.825   375.725   376.025   375.925   323.000
   24   300.050   375.725   375.925   375.825   376.125   376.025   324.000
   25   300.050   375.825   376.025   375.925   375.725   376.125   325.000
   26   300.050   376.025   375.825   376.125   375.925   375.725   326.000
   27   300.050   376.125   375.925   375.725   376.025   375.825   327.000
   28   300.050   375.725   376.025   375.825   376.125   375.925   328.000
   29   300.050   375.825   376.125   375.925   375.725   376.025   329.000
   30   300.050   375.925   375.725   376.025   375.825   376.125   330.000
   31   300.050   376.125   375.925   375.825   376.025   375.725   331.000




                                                                           145
                                                                                             SAFETY




                                                                                  Safety
Risk Management
Goal
The goal of the "Risk Management" program is to identify risks associated with a particular operation
and compare these risks against the overall value of the mission. The advantages of "Risk Management"
for commanders are:
• Detect and quantify risks before losses
• Provide risk reduction alternatives
• Encourage better management decisions
• Assist with greater integration of safety
• Ensure increased mission capability
• Requires risk decisions to be made at the appropriate level.
Basic Rules
The four basic rules that apply to risk management regardless of the level of command are:
1. Risk management will be integrated into the planning process. Identify hazards and controls early in
   the planning process. Continue to look for hazards and controls as the plan is developed, published,
   and executed.
2. No unnecessary risks will be accepted. Audacity is bold action in concert with calculation of risk.
3. Risk decisions must be made at the appropriate level of command. When the risk is too great
   (potential resource losses exceed benefits) for a decision at your level, take it up the chain-of-
   command.
4. Risk is acceptable, if the benefits outweigh the costs. Boldness and force protections are both
   necessary for decisive victory. Do not allow one to outweigh the other.
Risk Management Process
All supervisors in this battalion will understand and comply with the Risk Management Process outlined
below:
IDENTIFY HAZARDS
Detect hazards and risks associated with the mission. Look for conditions that can lead to accidents. This
involves gathering information and a completing a close examination of each phase of the operation, to
determine the risks.
ASSESS HAZARDS
Determine how badly the hazards can affect your mission. Consider the risk implications, perhaps
utilizing "Risk Assessment Matrices". Two questions which must be answered are "What is the
likelihood of an accident?" and "What degree of injury or damage is possible?"




146
                                                                                              SAFETY



MAKE DECISIONS
No operation is “Risk Free”. Leaders must eliminate unnecessary risks. If the risk can not be eliminated,
then it must be reduced and controlled. Controls and countermeasures must be developed. A final
decision must be made at the appropriate level of the Chain-of-Command. It will determine whether
controls are adequate to make the risk acceptable, considering mission benefits.
IMPLEMENT CONTROLS
Integrate risk reduction measures into all orders, SOPs, and command channels. The entire chain of
command is responsible to ensure the full ranges of risk reduction measures are implemented. Leaders
must ensure all of their soldiers know the potential hazards and the control measures selected to reduce
the risks.
SUPERVISE
Monitor, evaluate, and follow-up risk management controls. Enforcement of controls will protect the
force from accidental losses, and contribute to a decisive victory. Assess the operational results to
include effectiveness of risk management controls.
Compliance
Supervisors assigned to this battalion will complete the risk management process prior to all missions.
This process will help determine the degree of risk IAW AR 385-10, FM 100-5, FM 101-5, FM 25-101,
local installation policies, and 1-104th Aviation Battalion SOPs.
METT-T FACTORS
METT-T Factors for Mission Risk Assessments will be utilized to help identify risks associated with
operational military missions. This list is not all-inclusive, but rather the minimum suggested factors.
Consideration must be given to the currency and level of training proficiency of each individual
involved in any operation.
HAZARDS
Hazards will be assessed utilizing the "Risk Assessment Matrix".
AVIATION RISK ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST
The AH-64 Aviation Risk Assessment Checklist will be used to identify risks associated with aviation
missions.
VEHICLE RISK ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST
The Army Motor Vehicle (AMV) Risk Assessment Worksheet will be used to identify risks associated
with driving AMVs.




                                                                                                     147
                                                                                        SAFETY




METT-T Factors for Mission Risk Assessments
Mission
1.   Commander’s Intent           5.   Command and Control            9. Reconnaissance
2.   Situation analysis           6.   Operational profiles               completed.
3.   Duration                     7.   MOPP status                    10. Integrated Fighter Mgmt
4.   Complexity                   8.   OPTEMPO                        11. Fratricide prevention

Enemy
1. Disposition / Strength         4. Doctrine                         7. Density of forces
2. Location                       5. Capabilities                     8. Air defense threat
3. Equipment                      6. Probable COAs
Terrain/Equipment
1. Clear Procedures (8% of human Errors)            5. Individual Factors (48% of Human Errors):
2. Training Factors (18% of human Errors)              a. Discipline
   a. Experience / task familiarity                    b. Stress (Soldier / Leader)
   b. Competence / proficiency                         c. Over / under confidence
   c. Fratricide prevention                            d. Motivation / attitudes
3. Support Factors (8% of Human Errors):               e. Fatigue (Soldier / Leader)
   a. Materials provided                               f. Alcohol / drugs / illness
   b. Facilities / services                            g. Haste
   c. Logistics                                        h. Fitness
   d. Maintenance                                      i. Condition / adequacy of equipment
4. Leadership Factors (18% of Human Errors):           j. Transportation to / from operational site
   a. Standards enforced                               k. Cargo / Hazardous materials

Terrain/Weather/Environment
1. Terrain conditions             2. Climatic conditions                  a.   Surface / Space
   a. Soldier familiarity            a. Precipitation                     b.   Ventilation
   b. Avenues of approach            b. Wind                              c.   Noise
   c. Cover/concealment              c. Turbulence                        d.   Space
   d. Obstacles                      d. Temperature                       e.   Vibration
   e. Road conditions                e. Humidity                          f.   Radiation
   f. Speed Limits                   f. Illumination                      g.   Electricity
   g. Over water Opns                g. Visibility                        h.   Contaminants
   h. Vegetation/Wildlife         3. Hygienic Factors
Time
1. Maximized planning             3. Max execution time               WARNOs/FRAGOs.
   time. (1/3 - 2/3 rule)         4. Prioritized tasks or
2. Maximized prep time               rehearsals.                      5. OPTEMPO




148
                                                                                                     SIGNAL



        RISK                                        PROBABILITY
    ASSESSMENT
      MATRIX           FREQUENT            LIKELY         OCCASIONAL            SELDOM           UNLIKELY
                           A                  B               C                    D                 E
       (RAM)

     CATASTROPHIC         EXTREMELY HIGH
           1


S
E        CRITICAL                                    HIGH
V            2
E
R
I     MODERATE                                     MEDIUM
T        3
Y

      NEGLIGIBLE                                                        LOW
          4




                                            PROBABILITY
FREQUENT            - Individual soldier/item . . Occurs often in career/equipment service life.
                    - All soldiers exposed or item inventory . . Continuously experienced.
LIKELY              - Individual soldier/item . . Occurs several times in career/equipment service life.
                    - All soldiers exposed or item inventory . . Occurs frequently.
OCCASIONAL          - Individual soldier/item . . Occurs sometimes in career/equipment service life.
                    - All soldiers exposed or item inventory . . Occurs sporadically, or several times in
                              inventory service life.
SELDOM              - Individual soldier/item . . Possible to occur in career/equipment service life.
                    - All soldiers exposed or item inventory . . Remote chance of occurrence; expected to
                              occur sometime in inventory service life.
UNLIKELY            - Individual soldier/item . . Can assume will not occur in career/equipment service life.
                    - All soldiers exposed or item inventory . . Possible, but improbable; occurs only very
                              rarely.

                                              SEVERITY
CATASTROPHIC        - Death or permanent total disability; systems loss; major property damage.
CRITICAL            - Permanent partial disability; temporary total disability in excess of 3 months;
                              major system damage; significant property damage.
MODERATE            - Minor injury; lost workday accident; compensable injury or illness; minor system
                              damage; minor property damage.
NEGLIGIBLE          - First aid or minor supportive medical treatment; minor system impairment.

                                             RISK LEVELS
EXTREMELY HIGH      - Loss of ability to accomplish the mission.
HIGH                - Significantly degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standards.
MEDIUM              - Degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission.
LOW                 - Little or no impact on mission accomplishment.




                                                                                                            149
                                                                                               SAFETY



Fratricide Prevention
Contributing Factors
Lack of positive target identification and the inability to maintain situational awareness in combat
environments are the major contributors to fratricide. Every incident of fratricide is a function of many
contributing factors or preconditions. Ultimately, the combination of these factors leads to an individual
or unit error that produces friendly casualties. The primary contributing factors to fratricide include:
1. Mission and C2.
    a. High vehicle or weapon density.
    b. Commander’s intent is unclear or complex.
    c. Poor flank coordination.
    d. Cross-talk lacking.
    e. No habitual relationships.
2. Enemy.
    a. Weak intelligence or reconnaissance.
    b. Intermingled with friendly forces.
3. Terrain.
    a. Obscuration or poor visibility.
    b. Extreme engagement ranges.
    c. Navigation difficulty.
    d. Absence of recognizable features.
4. Companies and Equipment.
    a. High weapons lethality.
    b. Unseasoned leaders or Companies.
    c. Poor fire control SOPs.
    d. Incomplete Rules of Engagement (ROE).
    e. Failure to adhere to SOPs.
5. Time.
    a. Soldier and leader fatigue.
    b. Inadequate rehearsals.
    c. Short planning time.

Common Observations
The effects of fratricide can be devastating and spread deeply within a unit. Fratricide increases the risk
of unacceptable losses and the risk of mission failure. Fratricide seriously affects the unit’s ability to
survive and function. Observations of units experiencing fratricide include:
1. Hesitation to conduct limited visibility operations.
2. Loss of confidence in unit’s leadership.
3. Increase of leader self doubt.
4. Hesitation to use supporting combat systems.
5. Over-supervision of units.
6. Loss of initiative.
7. Loss of aggressiveness during fire and maneuver.
8. Disrupted operations.
9. Needless loss of combat power.
10. General degradation of cohesion and morale.




150
                                                                                                SAFETY



Risk Reduction Measures
The following risk reduction measures will assist leaders in reducing the risk of fratricide:
1. Mission
   a. Tactically sound, simple scheme of maneuver
   b. Complete and concise orders
   c. Doctrinally correct clearance of fires
   d. CPs and TOCs accurately track the battle and render timely reports
   e. Maintain graphics two levels down
   f. Use large scale battalion and regiment sector sketches for detail
   g. Coordinate with adjacent units and track adjacent battle
   h. Aviation and maneuver elements must coordinate and communicate
   i. Get Air Tasking Order (ATO) day prior and see what is flying
   j. Anticipate or assess fratricide risk during planning
   k. Send key leader on objective reconnaissance
2. Enemy
   a. Know characteristics and equipment
   b. Know hostile criteria and enemy aircraft flight profiles
   c. Additional recognition signals/markers
3. Terrain
   a. Navigate accurately – Know location
   b. Fire control measures – use terrain
   c. Unit boundaries on identifiable terrain
   d. OCOKA analysis, identify fratricide risk
   e. Redundant navigation aids or checks
4. Companies and equipment
   a. Always rehearse
   b. Consider limited visibility rehearsal
   c. Know your weapon/vehicle orientation
   d. Maintain situational awareness of units, enemy, and hazards
   e. Anticipate where weapon system density will be highest
   f. Recognize battlefield stress
   g. Use SOPs to simplify operations
   h. Know the ROE
   i. Submit accurate and timely spot reports
   j. Positive target identification
   k. Sustain a good aircraft/target identification training program
   l. Know friendly weapons effects
   m. Conduct live-fire training
   n. Consider the use of vehicle/assembly area markers
   o. Conduct AARs
5. Time
   a. Maximize planning time
   b. Prioritize tasks or rehearsals or reconnaissance
   c. Multiple WARNORDS and FRAGOs
   d. Adjust pace and tempo




                                                                                                   151
                                                                                                      SAFETY

Ground Risk Assessment.
MISSION

BUMPER#                        ROUTE:

1. PLANNING:
                                Tactical                        5. WEATHER:
Guidance            Admin      Day     Night                                            Clear/    Fog/        Rain/
Specific              1         2        3                      Temperature °F           Dry     Drizzle    Snow/Ice
Routine               2         3        4                      60° - 84°                 1         2          3
Vague                 3         4        5                      32° - 59°                 2         3          4
                                                                <32° or >84°              3         4          5
2. MISSION CONTROL:
   Task               Unit Preparation                          6. TERRAIN:
Organization    >12 hrs 12-6 hrs <6 hrs                          Type                 Autobahn 2-Lane Trail/
Convoy              1         4        8                        Terrain                4-Lane Paved Off-Road
Single Vehicle      2         6        8                        Flat                      1       2    3
                                                                Rolling Hills             3       4    5
3. SOLDIER ENDURANCE:                                            Mountain                 5       6    7
Environmental         Sleep in last 24 hrs
Preparation     >12 hrs 12-8 hrs <8 hrs                         7. SUSTAINABILITY:
Acclimated          1          2           3                     Mission          Single         Hazardous
Partly Acclim       3          4           5                     Length            Vehicle Convoy Cargo
Nonacclimated       5          6           7                     <4 hours            1        2      3
                                                                 4-8 hours           3        4      5
4. SOLDIER SELECTION:                                            >8 hours            5        6      7
                         *Driver Experience
Task                >2 yrs 2-1 yrs <1 yr                        8. For all blackout drive operations or NVG operations, add 5.
Simple                 1         2        3
Routine                2         3        4                     9. For vehicle operations greater than 12 hours, add 5.
Complex                3         4        5                     TOTAL =


           METHODS TO REDUCE THE RISK / REMARKS:


              RISK MATRIX
            0 - 15 = LOW - Approved by mission briefer. "Unit Preparation" - Time between warning order and start of mission.
           16 - 30 =MEDIUM - Approved by Company CDR.   "Simple" - TMP Van or sedan.
           31 - 40 = HIGH - Approved by Battalion CDR.  Routine" - HUMMV on or off post. Or 2.5 ton truck or larger on post.> 40
           EXTREMELY HIGH - Approved by the Regt CDR   "Complex" - 2.5 ton truck or larger off post. Or any vehicle with
                                                           trailer.
           Company:_______________ Section: _______________Hazardous Cargo Operations require a "Hazardous Cargo Cert”

           Operator’s Signature______________________________                *Driving experience in unit.

           Commander’s Approval (FIELD): __________________

           MANIFEST (FIELD)
           1. _____________________________________________         6. _________________________________
           2. _____________________________________________         7. _________________________________
           3. _____________________________________________         8. _________________________________
           4. _____________________________________________         9. _________________________________
           5. _____________________________________                 10. ___________________________




152
                                                                                           SIGNAL



HURRICANE AND HIGH WIND PLAN
1. Mission: 1-104th responds to severe weather or environmental conditions.

2. Execution:

   a. Concept of the Operation: Battalion or sub elements of the battalion conduct operations in
response to imminent severe weather and or environmental conditions that have the potential to
adversely affect current operations, cause injury to personnel, damage aircraft, ground vehicles and or
equipment, or compromises safe operations in general. Severe weather or environmental conditions are
unpredictable and usually require immediate action; therefore, all units must maintain situational
awareness and be prepared to respond swiftly to rapidly deteriorating conditions IAW guidance
contained in this FRAGO and ANNEX A.

    b.    Tasks to maneuver units.

•   HQ 1-104th Avn.

         1).   Battalion Commander. Notify the CSM and Higher Headquarters Commander.

        2). Battalion S2. Is primarily responsible for collection and dissemination of weather
information. In the event of a severe weather watch or warning issuance the S2 will immediately advise
the following individuals and sections in precedence order, by the most expeditious means, of
communication, available:

               Battalion S3 or designated representative.
               ALOC
               Affected sub-unit elements

         3.)   Battalion S3. Upon notification the S3 will immediately assess the potential impact on
current operations and determine an appropriate response to the potential threat based on the criteria
listed in Annex A. The S3 will then inform the commander of the situation with the recommended
course of action or actions and request further guidance before implementing. If the Battalion
Commander is unavailable then the decision will be made at the highest level of leader availability IAW
existing chain of command based on urgency. Upon receipt of guidance the S3 will notify all affected
subordinate elements, organic and or attached, by most expeditious means available.

•   Company Size Elements (Organic).

               • Issue warning order to subordinate elements ( if applicable) upon
               notification from the Battalion S2.

               • Implement required actions as directed by Battalion Commander,
               Executive Officer and or Battalion S3.




                                                                                                 153
                                                                                                SAFETY



                •    Advise Battalion S3 of any unique circumstances or compliance issues immediately
                     or as the situation dictates.

                •    Report unit status upon executing command guidance.


•    Attachments.

                • Issue warning order to subordinate elements (if applicable) upon
                notification from the Battalion S2.

                •    Implement required actions as directed by Battalion S3.

                •    Advise Battalion S3 of any unique circumstances or compliance issues immediately
                     or as the situation dictates.

                •    Report unit status upon executing command guidance.

    c. Coordinating Instructions:

                •    Units will not respond independently to potential severe weather threats on conditions
                     without first notifying the Battalion unless imminent danger exists to personnel and or
                     equipment.

                •    If immediate action is required without battalion direction then the unit must notify
                     Battalion operations at the first opportunity available.

                •    Report any serious weather induced incidents immediately along with potential
                     residual affects.

                •    Accountability and safety of all personnel is paramount.

                •    Leaders will conduct hasty risk assessment on all response plans based on known or
                     anticipated variables that either exist or are likely to exist during the operation.

3. Service Support:

     a. Logistics:

                •    Provide timely input to plans development, to the S3, upon receipt of severe weather
                     warning form the S2. This information will be reported on demand or by exception.

                •    Provide guidance and logistical support, to subordinate elements, commensurate with
                     directed reaction plan.




154
                                                                                           SAFETY



               •   Report post-incident status of all equipment as soon as possible through command
                   channels.

  b. Personnel:

               •   Coordinate, assist and support subordinate elements efforts to account for 100% of
                   personnel.

               •   Coordinate medical support if required.

4. COMMAND AND SIGNAL:

  a. Command:

                      •   Chain of Command: AHB-XO, S3, Senior Company Commander

                      •   Command Group Location:

                          •   Battalion Commander; As briefed at time of incident

                          •   Executive Officer: As briefed at time of incident

                          •   S3: As briefed at time of incident

  b.   Signal: Refer to Status Board / Brevity Card

                      •   Frequencies / Call Signs IAW TAC SOP.
                      •   Code word or Password: Refer to Status Board / Brevity Card
                      •   OPSEC Procedures:                METT-T
                      •   SOI Chance over Time:            Changes over at 2400 hours daily.
                      •   Lost Communications Procedures:         Continue to make mandatory calls in
                          the blind.
                      •   Communications Priority: Battalion and subordinate elements will utilize the
                          most effective means of communications available to notify units of
                          impending event.

5. SAFETY: Primary consideration when selecting, implementing and executing desired courses (s) of
action is the safeguard and harboring of personnel / equipment from potential
adverse effects incurred from the severe weather threat itself. All prudent action must be taken to
prevent loss of life, personal injury and equipment damage.




                                                                                                 155
                                                                    SAFETY



OVERDUE AIRCRAFT PROCEDURES


AIRCRAFT OVERDUE IF ON VFR FLIGHT PLAN AND:


1. Two-way radio communication cannot be established
2. Aircraft fails to arrive or report in 30 minutes after its ETA


IMMEDIATE ACTIONS PROCEDURES:


1. ATTEMPT TO VERIFY AIRCRAFT STATUS WITH OTHER AIRCRAFT OPERATING IN THE
SAME AREA WHERE THE OVERDUE AIRCRAFT IS OPERATING ACCORDING TO ITS
FLIGHT PLAN.

2. CONTACT NEXT HIGHER CONTROLING AGENCY FOR VERIFICATION OF FLIGHT PLAN
STATUS AND REQUEST THAT THE AGENCY ATTEMPT TO CONTACT THE AIRCRAFT ON
ALL FREQUENCIES. IF THE AIRCRAFT RESPONDS, REQUEST THE LOCATION OF THE
AIRCRAFT AND THE PILOT INTENTIONS.

3. IF THE NEXT HIGHER CONTROLLING AGENCY CANNOT CONTACT THE AIRCRAFT
VERIFY THE EXISTING FLIGHT PLAN INFORMATION TO INCLUDE THE POD, ROUTE OF
FLIGHT, DESTINATION, ALTERNATE AIRPORTS, ETE, AND FOB.

4. PERFORM PHYSICAL ASSEMBLY AREA LANDING ZONE SEARCH TO VERIFY
PRESENCE OR ABSENCE FROM THE LZ.

5. IF AIRCRAFT IS OPERATING ON A LOCAL FLIGHT PLAN, CONTACT ALL MILITARY
AND/OR CIVILIAN AIRPORTS WHICH WERE PLANNED INTERMEDIATE STOPS. (REFER TO
FLIGHT PLAN OR MISSION BRIEF)

6. IF AIRCRAFT IS OPERATING ON A CROSS COUNTRY FLIGHT PLAN CONTACT NEAREST
FSS AND/OR OTHER FLIGHT SERVICE STATIONS ALONG THE AIRCRAFT'S PLANNED
ROUTE OF FLIGHT TO DETERMINE IF THEY ARE
AWARE OF THE MISSING AIRCRAFT'S LOCATION. RELAY ALL AVAILABLE
INFORMATION AND ASSIST AS REQUESTED.

7. IF STEPS 1-6 ARE UNSUCCESSFUL, FLIGHT OPERATIONS WILL LAUNCH A
COORDINATED EFFORT TO VISUALLY CHECK THE PROPOSED ROUTE OF FLIGHT,
TELEPHONICALLY CHECK ALL ATTENDING AIRPORTS CAPABLE
ACCOMMODATING THE MISSING AIRCRAFT AND PHYSICALLY CHECK ALL
UNATTENDED AIRPORTS ALONG THE PROPOSED ROUTE OF FLIGHT.




156
                                                                   SAFETY




  NOTE: THE BATTALION COMMANDER HAS OVERALL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE
EXECUTION OF THE SAR EFFORT. THE BN ASO IS DESIGNATED AS SAR COORDINATOR.
THE BN S3 IS THE 1ST ALTERNATE SAR COORDINATOR. THE PARENT COMPANY OF THE
MISSING AIRCRAFT WILL BE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE THE AIRCRAFT AND CREW TO
CONDUCT THE SEARCH.

8. IF STEPS 1-7 ARE UNSUCCESSFUL AND THE AIRCRAFT IS OVERDUE FOR 60 MINUTES
OR MORE, FLIGHT OPERATIONS WILL INITIATE SEARCH AND RESCUE (SAR)
PROCEDURES THROUGH THE FAA.




IN-FLIGHT EMERGENCY AND EMERGENCY
LANDING PROCEDURES


IMMEDIATE ACTIONS PROCEDURES:


1. NOTIFY BN COMMANDER AND SAAO
           BN COMMANDER       TAC CP OR METT-T DEPENDENT
           COL LATCHFORD      1-717-861-8826


2. NOTIFY DART TEAM MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL TO RESPOND TO DISABLED
AIRCRAFT.


3. IF THE AIRCRAFT CANNOT BE RECOVERED AND IT IS LOCATED IN A
TRAFFICABLE AREA, NOTIFY THE STATE POLICE IN THE JURISDICTION WHERE THE
DISABLED AIRCRAFT IS LOCATED. (EMERGENCY NUMBERS, PRE-ACCIDENT PLAN
MANUAL) LEAVE A POINT OF CONTACT AND PHONE NUMBER.


4. INSTRUCT THE PILOT IN COMMAND TO COMPLETE AN ABBREVIATED
AVIATION ACCIDENT REPORT (AAAR DA FORM 2397-AB) AND GIVE IT TO THE BN
AVIATION SAFETY OFFICER.




                                                                        157
                                                                                              SAFETY



PREACCIDENT PLAN


     OFF AIRFIELD IMMEDIATE ACTION STEPS

1. Obtain as much of the following information as possible:
       a. Location of mishap. Be as accurate as possible
       b. Type and number of aircraft involved.
       c. Number of personnel involved.

2. Notify BN CDR and BN ASO.

3. Notify and direct Crash Rescue Team/ Emergency Response Team to mishap site by grid location.

4. Notify next higher controlling agency ____________________________ or back-up VHF
                                            (Phone Number)
radio____________________________ .

5. Notify 911 County Emergency Center to direct medical assistance.

       NOTE: If county cannot be rapidly identified call
           911 and let them decide county

6. Notify State and Local Police
        State Police Phone Number______________________________
        Local Police Phone Number_____________________________
Advise police that no one is to enter the mishap site except for medical assistance until the proper
military personnel arrive.


6. Go to Pre-Accident plan red binder and continue executing the plan in full detail.
   (RED TAB, Pre-Accident plan manual)




158
                                                                                               REPORTS




                                                                                   Reports
Administrative Reports
Battalion to Brigade Reports
      Report            As Of          Due In            Report         As Of       Due In
   PDS (RED 1)        0600/1800    1100/2300             Closure         ASAP       ASAP
   PRR (RED 3)          0600            1100        CDR SITREP           1600        1700
                                                     (BLUE 1)
   ACR (RED 5)         As Req.          ASAP       ASR (BLUE 14)       1200/0001   1300/0100
   PSR (RED 2)         As Req.          ASAP             OPSUM         0600/1800   0700/1900
     INTSUM           0800/2000    1000/2200           CDR              As Req.     ASAP
                                                   INCIDENTREP
                                                     (BLUE 2)
 SITREP(GREEN 2)       As Req.          ASAP               BDA          ASAP        ASAP
  RFI (GREEN 3)        As Req.          ASAP              NBC           As Req.     ASAP
 LSR (ORANGE 3)       0800/2000    0900/2100              EPW           As Req.     ASAP
   FARP STATS         0800/1600    1000/1800           Pilot Debrief    As Req      ASAP

Company to Battalion Reports
        Report                  As Of          Due In
 March Unit/Serial Report       RP/SP          ASAP
          ACR                  As Req.          ASAP
     Closure Report             ASAP            ASAP




                                                                                                   159
                                                                                                REPORTS



Personnel Daily Summary (PDS) – RED 1
 REPORT NUMBER:
 DTG PREPARED:
 FOR PERIOD ENDING:                                (CLASSIFICATION) UNCLASSIFIED
 UNIT: 1-104TH AVN BN                                                                     PAGE____ OF____
                                                PART I UNIT STRENGTH
      UNIT             REQ      ASGD      DEPLOY    KIA WIA MIA I/NBL    GAINS     REPL   RTD   OPER        %
                      (MTOE)   (+REAR)   STRENGTH                                                STR
        A               B         C          D       E     F   G     H      I       J      K      L         M
                  O
                  W
   HHC/1-104TH    E
     AV BN        C
                  T
                  F
                  O
                  W
             TH
    A/1-104       E
     AV BN        C
                  T
                  F
                  O
                  W
             TH
    B/1-104       E
     AV BN        C
                  T
                  F
                  O
                  W

    C/1-104
             TH   E
     AV BN        C
                  T
                  F
                  O
                  W
             TH
    D/1-104       E
     AV BN        C
                  T
                  F




160
                                                                    REPORTS




Personnel Requirement Report (PRR) – RED 3
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENT REPORTS (PRR)
REPORT NUMBER:
DTG PREPARED:
PERIOD ENDING (DTG):
UNIT:




PART I – PRR
 SSI/PMOS    GRD ASI REQ   ASGN   RQMT   SSI/PMOS   GRD ASI REQ   ASGN   RQMT




PART II - REMARKS




                                                                           161
                                                                                    REPORTS



Abbreviated Casualty Report (ACR) – BLUE 14


Line 1: Unit.                                          Line 44:   Place of incident.
Line 2: Type casualty.                                 Line 45:   Activity at time of incident.
Line 3: Casualty status.                               Line 46:   Circumstances.
Line 9: SSN.                                           Line 47:   Inflicting force.
Line 10:       Name.                                   Line 48:   Diagnosis.
Line 11:       Sex.                                    Line 49:   Place hospitalized.
Line 12:       Race.                                   Line 57:   Received religious ministrations.
Line 15:       Grade/Rank.                             Line 66:   DTG of death.
Line 17:       Org./Status/Home station.               Line 67:   Place of death.
Line 18:       Duty MOS.                               Line 68:   Cause of death.
Line 35:       Next of kin to be notified.             Line 69:   Status of remains.
Line 43:       DTG of incident.                        Line 70:   Remarks.


Personnel Spot Report (PSR) – RED 2



                             PERSONNEL SPOT REPORT
     PART I:
     UNIT:

     DTG PREPARED:


                                                             WARRANT
          LOSS CATEGORY                      OFFICER         OFFICER         ENLISTED         TOTAL
                KIA
                WIA
                MIA
        NON BATTLE LOSSES
            TOTAL LOSSES
     PART II:

     REMARKS:




162
                                                                                        REPORTS



INTSUM
The INTSUM provides a summary of the intelligence situation covering a specific period of time
dictated by the commander. Other items may be added as appropriate i.e. political, peace accord
violations, etc. Use the abbreviation “NSTR” for “nothing significant to report” where applicable.
Report BDA in the standard 229 Aviation Regiment format. A graphic INTSUM is also acceptable
provided that it includes all of the information below.

Sample INTSUM Format

   1. Issuing Unit:
   2. DTG of issue:
   3. Summary of enemy activity
          a. Last 24 hrs


           b. Next 24 hrs


   4. BDA last 24 hrs:



   5. Assessment:




SITREP – GREEN 2
The SITREP is a standardized report which provides procedures for reporting information about the
enemy’s situation.
SAMPLE SITREP

UNIT: TO_________________ FROM_______________INTREP:
LINE 1 – Enemy front line trace (EFLT)
LINE 2 – Enemy loses: vehicles by type, and personnel (include POWs)
LINE 3 – Summary of enemy activity
LINE 4 – Priority intelligence Requirements
LINE 5 – Information Requirements
LINE 6 – Enemy’s most probable course of action

Received by:______________________________________________ Original source

DTG of report: _________________________________________ Journal #:
____________________________________




                                                                                                163
                                                                                            REPORTS



RFI – GREEN 3
Requestor Log #_________ Regiment Log #___________ DTG received _______________

S-2 REQUEST FOR INFORMATION (RFI)

Originator/Requestor Information

1 - Date/Time of Request (when called into higher)

2 - Print your Name

3 - Print your Unit and Company

4 - How can we get a hold of you? Print telephone number and call sign

5 – Who can best answer your question? Circle one:        G2      RS2      NCOIC        Analyst

6 - Write down your questions in as much detail as possible, as if you were asking the question(s) (who,
what when, where, why, grids, names, etc)

7 – To avoid duplication of effort, list the type of research you have accomplished at your level. (ie.
POC's, Telephone numbers ect.)


8 - Suspense. When do you need this information?

9 - What is the last possible day and time the information requested will be of value to you? (LTIOV)

Instructions to requestor:

Email, fax or radio your RFI in the above format. Log the request and record the log number in the
upper left hand corner of this page.

Instructions to RTO receiving this form:

Log the receipt of this RFI and record the DTG and log number in the upper right hand corner of this
form. Give this form to someone in the S2 section.
S2 section: Respond ASAP to all RFIs. Record the response below, weather the response is verbal,
email, fax or other. Then file the form with response in S2 files.

DTG of response _________________
Response:




164
                                                                                               REPORTS



LOGSTAT Report (LSR) – ORANGE 3


 AS OF:
 CLASS I (RATIONS)

        DODAAC        DTG OPNL      LOCATION    # PERS SPTD    RAT CYCLE      T RAT ON HAND MRE ON HAND
                                      (GRID)




 CLASS I (WATER)

        DODAAC        LOCATION        H2O         GAL O/H     DAILY DEMAND RESUPPLY DATE       Days of Supply
                                    CAPACITY




 CLASS II (CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS)

        DODAAC       DOC NUMBER       NSN       UNIT ISSUE      QTY REQ




 CLASS III (BULK)

         TYPE         GAL O/H       CARRY CAP   DAYS OF SUP   5 DAY FORCAST   Re-supply Date    Re-supply
                                                                                                 Amount
 MOGAS (unleaded)

 JP8 GENERATOR

 JP/8

 Other

 CLASS III (PACKAGE PRODUCTS PLL)

        DODAAC       DOC NUMBER       NSN       UNIT ISSUE      QTY REQ




                                                                                                         165
                                                                                    REPORTS




                             LOGSTAT REPORT (CONTINUED)
CLASS V (AMMUNITION)

       DODIC         DESCRIPTION   BASIC LOAD   O/H QTY   STATUS   REQ NEXT 48hrs
                                      QTY
PV29           HELLFIRE

PJ04           STINGER

A576           .50 CAL API

H462           2.75 FLECH

H464           2.75 MPSM

H164           2.75 HEVT

H163           2.75 HEPD

A059           5.56 BALL BLANK

A063           5.56 LINK BLANK

A131           7.62 B/TRACER

A363           9mm BALL

B506           40mm RED SMK

B508           40mm GRN SMK

B509           40mm YEL SMK

B535           40mm STAR

B546           40mm HEPD

C995           AT 4 ROCKET

G881           GREN FRAG

G900           GREN INCEN

G930           GREN HC SMK

G940           GREN SMK GRN

G945           GREN SMK YEL

G955           GREN SMK VIO

L305           STAR GREEN

L306           STAR RED

L307           STAR WHITE

L311           PARA RED

L312           PARA WHITE

L314           PARA GREEN

L495           TRIP FLARE




166
                                                                                 REPORTS



                            LOGSTAT REPORT (CONTINUED)
CLASS VII (CMD)

     LIN             DESCRIPTION                 QTY       O/H QTY   FMC   PMC    NMC
                                              AUTHORIZED
H28647       AH-64A
             SOF 64-0009 – Inspection
             upper and lower surface span
             wise and cord wise for cracks.
             All aircraft must be checked
             prior to flight.
H3110        OH-58C                           N/A
A21633       OH-58D                           N/A
K32293       UH-60A                           N/A
H31079       CH-47                            N/A


G11966       5KW GEN

G18358       3KW GEN

G74711       10KW GEN

H948244      FARE

J35492       15KW GEN

V12141       TPU APPAR

T61494       M998

T07543       M1037

T38844       M9972 AMBUL

T48944       FORKLIFT

T58161       M978, HEMTT(FUELER)

T87243       M978, HEMTT(FUELER)

T59278       M977, HEMTT (CARGO)

T39518       M977, HEMTT(CARGO)

T63093       M984A1, HEMTT (WRECK)

T41203       M1084, MTV

T60149       LMTV, w/w

T60081       M1078, LMTV

X40794       M923, 5 TON TRK

X40931       M925A2, 5 TON WINCH

X62340       M109, 2 1/2 SHOP VAN




                                                                                        167
                                                                                         REPORTS



                       LOGSTAT REPORT (CONTINUED)
CLASS IX (CRITICAL SHORTAGES GROUND)

 DOCUMENT #           NSN                 QTY   UNIT OF ISSUE   REMARKS

N/A




CLASS IX (CRITICAL SHORTAGES AIR)

 DOCUMENT #           NSN                 QTY   UNIT OF ISSUE   REMARKS

N/A
2. SERVICES
  A. COMMENTS




  B. LAUNDRY REQUIREMENTS           N/A




  C. GRAVES REGISTRATION            # REMAINS   REMAINS O/H     BAGS O/H   NUM REMAINS
                                       EVAC
                                    N/A




168
                                                                                              REPORTS



                      LOGSTAT REPORT (CONTINUED)
   D.                            Location   Time of Use     Shower Heads    Shower Heads
 SHOWERS
                                                            Male Latrines   Female Latrines




 3. TRANSPORTATION
   GROUND REQUIREMENTS            AERIAL      REQUESTED      Support Unit
                                 DELIVERY




 4. ADDITIONAL REMARKS
   A. FARPS                      LOCATION      CLASS III       CLASS V         Remarks        Time Open
                                   (GRID)




FARP Status
UNIT          GRID       SATUS    JP8       % CAP          HELLFIRE         30MM         RKT       SM
                                  0/H                                                             ARMS
                                 (GAL)



                      TOTAL:
LEGEND:
Green: 80%-100%      Red: 40%-59%
Amber: 60%-79%       Black: <40%




                                                                                                     169
                                                                                    REPORTS



Closure Report
Submitted as soon as possible after closing. Always include DTG with your report.
Line 1:       Unit.
Line 2:       CP location.
Line 3:       Personnel on hand       Officers/     Warrants/    Enlisted/
Line 4:       Aircraft on hand.
Line 5:       Vehicles on hand        HMMWV/        HEMTT/       FMTV/
Line 6:       Sensitive items accounted for?
Line 7:       Remarks.

CDR SITREP – BLUE 1
CLASSIFICATION:
ORIGINATOR:
PERIOD/TIME SUBMITTED: ____________AS OF ____________
HEADING/OWN SITUATION
UNITS LOCATION:
HHC/1-104TH AV BN
A/1-104TH AV BN
B/1-104TH AV BN
C/1-104TH AV BN
D/1-104TH AV BN
CURRENT MISSION READINESS DEGRADATION:
OPERATIONS:
INTELLIGENCE:
LOGISTICS: NO DEFICIENCIES
  A. TRANSPORTATION:
  B. POL:
  C. AMMUNITION:
  D. MEDICAL:
  E. FACILITIES:
COMMUNICATIONS: SOME DEFICIENCIES
  A. TACWEB:
  B. IWS:
  C. CSSCS:
  D. ASAS:
  E. FM:
  F. MSRT:
  G. SCAMP:
  H. DNVTs:
  I: COMMERCIAL:
PERSONNEL:
SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL/MILITARY EVENTS:




170
                                                                       REPORTS



Aviation Status Report (ASR) – BLUE 14


                                                                            EXP
                                 A/C                               REASON
 UNIT     LOCATION TAA NAME            MTOE    O/H     FMC   NMC            FMC
                                TYPE                                NMC
                                                                            DATE



                                               Non-
                                CBT    Combat
 UNIT      CREWS     FMC RATE                 Combat
                                PWR    Losses
                                              Losses




Crew Endurance Tracking


                      Date:
UNIT       Mission    0601-0800 0801-1000 1001-1200 1201-1400 1401-1600 1601-1800
A/1-104
B/1-104
C/1-104
           Mission    1801-2000 2001-2200 2201-2400 0001-0200 0201-0400 0401-0600
A/1-104
B/1-104
C/1-104




                                                                             171
                                                                     REPORTS




OPSUM
1-104TH AV BN Operational Summary (OPSUM)

    1. The enclosed unit update is provided as of:
    2. Readiness:

        a.Cdr's Overall Unit Rating:

        b. Individual Unit Readiness Rating:



UNIT            TYPE/AUTH               O/H          FMC   REMARKS

A/1-104TH       AH64/6

B/1-104TH       AH64/6
C/1-104TH       AH64/6

TOTALS          AH64/18
4. Unit Locations:

  a. Command Post / Center Mass:

     (1) HHC/1-104TH:

     (2) A/1-104TH:

     (3) B/1-104TH:

     (4) C/1-104TH:
     (5) D/1-104 TH:

5. Operational Summary:

    Deep:

    Close:

    Rear:

    Security:

    Reserve:

    SIGACTS:




172
                                                                                                   REPORTS



CDR’s Incident Report (CIR) – BLUE 2
1. Purpose. The items listed below are considered serious by the 229th Aviation Regiment Command Group and
require immediate notification of the Brigade Commander throughS3, Current Operations.

2. As much information as possible should be included in the initial report but immediate notification should not
be delayed unnecessarily; additional information should be provided as soon as possible. If appropriate,
follow-up report will be provided within 48 hours with details of corrective action taken.

3. Incidents to be reported include, but are not limited to:
  a. Death, suicide, or serious injury of a soldier.

  b. Serious illness of any O3 and above or any E8.

  c. Aircraft accident.

  d. Serious vehicle accident.

  e. Actual or possible compromise of classified material.

  f. Loss of weapon(s), ammunition, or sensitive items.

  g. Actual or suspected terrorist activity.

  h. Rape, kidnapping, or violent assault.

  i. Any obvious racial incident.

  j. Any missing soldier.

  k. Any unusual incidents involving groups of soldiers or weapons.

  l. War Crimes, including mistreatment of EPWs, Geneva Convention violations or indications of defection.

4. Information to be reported. In general, the questions, who, what, where, why, and how, need to be answered.
Specific information
includes but is not limited to:
   a. SNL and unit of soldier(s) involved.

  b. DTG of incident.

  c. Location of incident.

  d. Extent of injuries.

  e. Location of soldier at time of report (name of hospital, for example).

  f. Type of equipment involved, to include bumper number or tail number.

  g. Circumstances of the incident.

  h. Status of any investigation, to include who is conducting it.

  i. Damage to government or civilian property.

  j. Unit which is securing accident site.




                                                                                                            173
                                                                                        REPORTS



Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Report

Unit: _____        As of: _____
                              A                B             C                D                E
                        Start on hand      Received     MEDEVAC          Total EVAC       End on hand
    1: Field Grade
    2: Other Off.
    3: NCO
    4: Other Enl.
    5: Esc/Evdrs
    6: Deserters
    7: Civilian
    8: Total
    9: Remarks
    Note: Initial Red 4 report is due upon EPW capture. Subsequent reports must be submitted any time
            there is a change to the previous report.



March Unit/Serial Report

Submitted by the march unit/serial commander to the EOC, TOC, or TAC by radio when crossing the
SP on the move and at the RP at the objective after a move.
Line 1:       March Unit/Serial.
Line 2:       March Unit/Serial Commander.
Line 3:       Personnel on hand      Officers/       Warrants/  Enlisted/
Line 4:       SP/RP Time.
Line 5:       Vehicles on hand       HMMWV/          HEMTT (F)/ HEMTT(C)/ FMTV/
Line 6:       Sensitive items accounted for?
Line 7:       Remarks

.




174
                                                                                                            REPORTS




Pilot Debrief
Date:________________ Unit:_______________________________ Call Sign: ________________________________

Pilots:________________ PC:________________________________ Tail #:_________________

Mission:____________________________ Time:____________ Location: __________________________________

Condition: Day___ Night___ NVS___ Goggles___ Instruments___ Multi-Aircraft___ Terrain Flight___ Chalk/Gun #___
Total A/C in flight___

SPOT Reports

Size - ____________________                 _______            Size - _____________________________________

Activity - ______________________________________              Activity - ______________________________ __

Location - _____________________________________               Location - _________________________________

Unit/Uniform - _________________________________               Unit/Uniform - _________________________ ____

Time - ________________________________________                Time - ____________________________________

Equipment - ___________________________________                Equipment - ________________________________

Counter on TEAC/8MM machine __________________                 Counter on TEAC/8MM machine _______________


Significant Terrain changes
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Differences not on map
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Weapons/Equipment noted during mission
_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Enemy ADA/Radar/AAA activity (APR-39/AVR-2 activations/warning, verbal, visual types of systems, Mode IV returns, IFF
interrogations, etc)___________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________

Crew Members Comments
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________


Debriefed by _____________________________________________                       Position
________________________________________________

S - 2 Assessment:
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________




                                                                                                                 175
                                                                               REPORTS




Tactical Reports
SPOT Report – GREEN 1                         NBC 1 Report
                                              Line B:        Position of observer.
SALUTE                                        Line C         Direction of attack from
•   Size                                                     observer’s location.
•   Activity
•   Location
                                              Line D:        DTG of attack.
•   Unit                                      Line E:        DTG attack ended.
•   Time                                      Line F:        Grid of area attacked.
•   Equipment                                 Line G:        Type of attack (air, ground,
                                                             artillery, spray).
BDA                                           Line H:        Type of agent/burst
                                                             (persistent/non-persistent).
Equipment (ACAPAM)                            Line I:        Number of munitions or
•   Air defense artillery.                                   aircraft.
•   Command vehicles.                         Line K:        Description of
•   Armor/anti-tank systems.                                 terrain/vegetation.
•   Personnel or mechanized troop carriers.   Note: Line items B, D, H and either C or F are
•   Artillery.
                                              always reported.
•   Miscellaneous.

Location                                      NBC 4 Report
•   Grid .
                                              Line H:       Type of burst/agent.
Time                                          Line Q:       Location of sample and
•   DTG.                                                    sample type.
                                              Line S:       DTG contamination detected.
FARM Report
•   Fuel in hours & minutes.
•   Ammo, 30mm remaining.
•   Rockets remaining.
•   Missiles remaining.




176
                                                                                           GLOSSARY




                                                                          Glossary
A
Air Control Point
An easily identifiable point on the terrain used to provide necessary control during air movement. ACPs
are generally designated at each point where the flight route or air corridor makes a definite change in
direction and at any other point deemed necessary for timing or control of the operation.
Air Corridor
A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and established to prevent friendly
aircraft from being fired on by friendly forces. Used to deconflict artillery firing positions with aviation
traffic.
Airspace Coordination Area
A restrictive fire support coordination measure that establishes a three-dimensional block of airspace in
the battle area in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. Aircraft and
indirect fires are separated by time, space, or altitude.
Area of Influence
A geographic area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or
fire support systems normally under the commander’s command and control.
Area of Interest
A geographic area from which information and intelligence are required to execute successful tactical
operations and to plan for future operations.
Area of Operations
A geographical area, including the airspace above, usually defined by lateral, forward, and rear
boundaries assigned to a commander, by a higher commander, in which he has responsibility and the
authority to conduct military operations.
Assembly Area
An area in which a command is assembled preparatory to further actions.
Assigned
See Command Relationships on page 9.
Attack by Fire Position
If the enemy situation is vague, as in a movement to contact, and the commander has been assigned his
own sector, ABFs may be used. Less restrictive than BPs and better suited to a fluid battlefield. Not used
in conjunction with a maneuvering ground force.




                                                                                                      177
                                                                                            GLOSSARY



Attached
See Command Relationships on page 9.
Avenue of Approach
An air or ground route of an attacking force leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path.
Axis of Advance
A general route of advance, assigned for purposes of control, which extends toward the enemy. A
commander may maneuver his forces and supporting fires to either side of an axis of advance provided
the unit remains oriented on the axis and the objective. Enemy forces that do not threaten security or
jeopardize mission accomplishment may be bypassed.


B
Base of Fire
Continuous and active suppression from a support by fire position to reduce or eliminate the enemy’s
capability to interfere by fire and movement with an assaulting force.
Battlefield Operating Systems
A list of critical tactical activities.
1. Intelligence.
2. Maneuver.
3. Fire Support.
4. Mobility and Survivability.
5. Air Defense.
6. Combat Service Support.
7. Command and Control.
Battle Handover
A designated point (phase line) on the ground where responsibility transitions from the stationary force
to the moving force and vise versa.
Battle Position
An area designated in which attack helicopters can maneuver and fire into a designated engagement are
or engage targets of opportunity. Ideally suited for close-coordination attacks, such as those conducted
in the ground unit’s sector in the defense or deep attacks where there is extensive intelligence or
operational reason mandating the specific place in the battle-space from which the attack must be made.
Begin Morning Nautical Twilight
At this time, the sun is 12-degrees below the eastern horizon.
Be-Prepared Mission
A mission assigned to a unit that might be executed. It is generally a contingency mission which will be
executed because something planned has or has not been successful.




178
                                                                                            GLOSSARY



Block
A tactical task assigned to a unit that requires it to deny the enemy access to a given area or to prevent
enemy advance in a given direction or an avenue of approach. It may be for a specified time. Units
assigned this mission may have to retain terrain and accept decisive engagement.
Bump Plan
In movement, a plan that describes in detail which individuals and equipment in each designated load or
chalk has priority over others.


C
Canalize
A tactical task used to restrict operations to a narrow zone by the use of obstacles, fires, or unit
maneuvering or positioning.
Checkpoint
A geographical location on land or water above which the position of an aircraft in flight may be
determined by observation or electrical means.
Choke Point
A geographical location on land or water that restricts the movement of forces and can be natural, man-
made, or created through the disposition of forces.
Clear
A tactical task to remove all enemy forces and eliminate organized resistance in an assigned zone, area,
or location by destroying, capturing, or forcing the withdrawal of enemy forces such that they cannot
interfere with friendly unit’s ability to accomplish its mission.
Close Operations
Involves forces in immediate contact with the enemy and the fighting between the committed forces and
the readily available tactical reserves of both combatants.
Coil
An arrangement of vehicles or attack helicopters on the ground forming a circle and providing 360-
degree security in an assembly area or holding area with the primary weapon systems facing outward.
Commander’s Critical Information Requirements
Information required by the commander that directly affects his decisions and dictates the successful
execution of operational or tactical operations. Normally result in the generation of three types of
information requirements:
1. Priority Intelligence Requirements.
2. Essential Elements of Friendly Information.
3. Friendly Force Information Requirements.
Communication Checkpoint
An air control point that requires serial leaders to report in.




                                                                                                       179
                                                                                            GLOSSARY



Constraint
Restrictions placed on the command by a higher command to dictate an action or inaction, thus
restricting the freedom of action the subordinate commander has for planning a mission by stating things
that must or must not be done.
Controlled Supply Rate
The rate of ammunition consumption that can be supported. It is expressed in rounds per unit,
individual, or vehicle per day. A unit may not draw ammunition in excess of its CSR without authority
from its next higher headquarters.
Coordinated Fire Line
A line beyond which surface fire support means may fire at any time within the zone of the establishing
headquarters without additional coordination.
Coordinating Point
A control measure that indicates a specific location for the coordination of fires and maneuver between
adjacent units.
Coup de Main
Achieving the strategic objective in a single major operation.
Culminating Point
The point in time and space when the attacker or defender can no longer accomplish his purpose. This
can be due to factors such as combat power remaining, logistical support, weather, morale, and fatigue.


D
Decision Point
An event, an area, a line, or a point on the battlefield where the tactical decisions are required resulting
from the war-gaming process before the operation order. DPs do not dictate commander’s decisions,
they only indicate that decision is required, and they indicate when and where the decision should be
made to have the maximum effect on friendly or enemy courses of action.
Decisive Engagement
An engagement in which a unit is considered fully committed and cannot maneuver or extricate itself. In
the absence of outside assistance, the action must be fought to a conclusion and either won or lost with
the forces at hand.
Deep Operations
Those operations directed against enemy forces and functions which are not in contact at the FLOT, LD,
or friendly perimeter and are between the FLOT or perimeter and the forward boundary of the unit
conducting the operation. These operations defeat the enemy by denying him freedom of action;
disrupting his preparation for battle and his support structure; and disrupting or destroying the coherence
and tempo of his operations.
Defilade
Protection from hostile observation and fire provided by an obstacle such as a hill, ridge, or bank.




180
                                                                                         GLOSSARY



Defile
A narrow gorge or pass that tends to prevent easy movement of Companies.
Demonstration
An attack similar to a feint, with the exception that no contact with the enemy is sought.
Display
A deception technique to mislead the enemy’s observation.


E
Economy of Force
The allocation of minimum-essential combat capability or strength to secondary efforts so that forces
may be concentrated in the area where the decision is sought.
End Evening Nautical Twilight
Occurs when the sun has dropped 12-degrees beneath the western horizon.
Engagement Area
An area along an enemy avenue of approach where the commander intends to contain and destroy an
enemy force with the massed fires of all available weapons. Sectors of fire are usually assigned to
subordinates to prevent fratricide.
Essential Elements of Friendly Information
The critical aspects of a friendly operation the, if known by the enemy, would compromise, lead to
failure, or limit success of the operation, and therefor must be protected from enemy detection.


F
Feint
Type of attack used as a deception intended to draw the enemy’s attention away form the area of the
main attack. Usually a limited-objective attack ranging in size from a raid to a supporting attack.
Fire Support Coordination Line
A permissive fire control measure established and adjusted by the ground commander in consultation
with other affected commanders. Forces attacking targets beyond the FSCL must inform all affected
commanders to allow necessary coordination to avoid fratricide.
Fix
A tactical task in which actions are taken to prevent the enemy from moving any part of his forces either
form a specific location or for a specific period of time by holding or surrounding them to prevent their
withdrawal for use elsewhere.
Forward Assembly Area
A temporary area where aviation units gather to prepare for a mission that is forward of the aviation
regiment’s assembly area, but not far forward as the attack position.




                                                                                                   181
                                                                                           GLOSSARY



Forward Edge of the Battle Area
The foremost limits of a series of areas in which ground combat units are deployed, excluding areas in
which the covering or screening forces are operating, designated to coordinate fire support, the
positioning of forces, or the maneuver of units.
Forward Line of Own Companies
A line indicating the most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a
specific time.
Free Fire Area
A specific designated area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with
the establishing headquarters.
Friendly Force Information Requirements
Information the commander and staff need about the forces available for the operation. This includes
personnel, maintenance, supply, ammunition, POL status, and experience and leadership capabilities.


H
Herringbone
An arrangement of vehicles at left and right angles to the line of march used to establish security during
an unscheduled halt.
Holding Area
A site located between assembly area or FARPs and BPs that may be occupied for short periods of time
by attack helicopters while coordination is made for movement into BPs.


I
Infiltration
A choice of maneuver that entails movement through or into an area occupied by an enemy or friendly
force by small groups or individuals at extended or irregular intervals in which contact with the enemy is
avoided.
Initial Point
A well-defined point, easily distinguishable visually and/or electronically, used as a starting point for the
bomb run to the target.
Interdiction
An action to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy’s surface military potential before it can be used
effectively against friendly forces.




182
                                                                                            GLOSSARY



K
Key Terrain
Any locality, or area, the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant.


L
Light Line
A designated line forward of which vehicles are required to use black-out lights at night.
Limit of Advance
An easily recognized terrain feature beyond which attacking elements will not advance.
Line of Contact
A general trace delineating the location where the two opposing forces are engaged.
Line of Departure
A line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements.
Low-Level Transit Route
A temporary corridor of defined dimensions established in the forward area to minimize the risk to
friendly aircraft form friendly air defenses or surface forces.


M
Main Battle Area
That portion of the battlefield in which the decisive battle is fought to defeat the enemy. Extends from
the FEBA to the rear boundary of the command’s subordinate units.
METT-T
The phrase or acronym used to describe the factors that must be considered during the planning or
execution of a tactical mission
MISSION
The who, what, when, where, and why that must be accomplished.
ENEMY
Current information concerning the enemy’s strength, location, disposition, activity, equipment, and
capability and a determination as to the enemy’s probable course of action.
TERRAIN (INCLUDING WEATHER)
Analysis of vegetation, soil type, hydrology, climate conditions, and light data to determine the impact
the environment can have on current and future operations for both friendly and enemy operations.
COMPANIES
The quality, level of straining, and psychological state of friendly forces, to include the availability of
weapon systems and critical equipment.




                                                                                                       183
                                                                                           GLOSSARY



TIME AVAILABLE
The time available to plan, prepare, and execute operations for both enemy and friendly forces.
Mobility Corridors
Areas where a force will be canalized due to terrain constructions.


N
Named Area of Interest
A point or area along a particular avenue of approach through which enemy activity is expected to
occur. Activity or lack of activity within an NAI will help to confirm or deny a particular enemy course
of action.
Neutralization Fires
Renders a target out of the battle temporarily by causing a minimum of 10 percent casualties.
No-Fire Area
An area in which no fires or effects of fires are allowed. Two exceptions are:
1. When establishing headquarters approves fires temporarily on a mission basis.
2. When the enemy force within the NFA engages a friendly force, it may fire in self-defense.
No-Fire Line
A line short of which artillery does not fire except on request or approval of the supported commander,
but beyond which they may fire at any time without danger to friendly Companies.


O
On-Order Mission
A mission to be executed at an unspecified time in the future. A unit with an on-order mission is a
committed force. The commander envisions task execution in the concept of operations; however, he
may not know the exact time or place of execution. Subordinate commanders develop plans or orders
and allocate resources, task-organize, and position forces for execution.
Operational Control
See Command Relationships on page 9.
Organic
See Command Relationships on page 9.
Overwatch
A tactical technique in which one element is positioned to support by fire the movement of another
element by observing known or suspected enemy locations and engaging the enemy if he is visible or
tries to fire on the friendly element. The overwatching element must be told if it is to destroy, suppress,
of fix the enemy.




184
                                                                                             GLOSSARY



P
Passage of Lines
See Passage of Lines on page 58.
Passage Point
A specifically designated place where units will pass through one another either in an advance or a
withdrawal. Located where the commander desires subordinate units to physically execute a passage of
lines.
Phase Line
A line used for control and coordination of military operations, usually along a recognizable terrain
feature extending across the sector or zone of action. Units normally report crossing PLs, but do not halt
unless specifically directed.
Point of Departure
In night or limited visibility attacks, a specific place on the line of departure where a unit will cross.
Priority of Fires
The organization and employment of fire support means according to the importance of the supported
unit’s missions.
Priority Intelligence Requirements
Those intelligence requirements for which a commander has an anticipated and stated priority in his task
of planning and decision-making.
Pull
The need for user of information or supplies to request each item individually and wait for the higher
unit to furnish the items or fill the request.
Push
In intelligence and communications, the broadcasting of information to multiple stations simultaneously
without the need for them to request or interrogate the host system. In logistics. The delivery of a
predetermined amount of supplies to a user on a scheduled basis without the user requesting them.


R
Raid
See Operations and Their Forms on page 6.
Rally Point
An easily identifiable point on the ground at which units can reassemble and reorganize if they become
dispersed, or aircrews and passengers can assemble and reorganize following an incident requiring a
forced landing.
Rear Area Threat Levels
Levels of response to threat activities.




                                                                                                        185
                                                                                           GLOSSARY



•   Level I: Threats that can be defeated by base or base cluster self-defense measures.
•   Level II: Threats that are beyond base or base cluster self-defense capabilities but can be defeated
    by response forces, normally MPs, with supporting fires.
•   Level III: Threats that necessitate the command decision to commit a combined arms tactical
    combat force to defeat them.
Reconnaissance by Fire
A method of reconnaissance in which fire is placed on a suspected enemy position to cause the enemy to
disclose a presence by movement or return of fire.
Reconnaissance in Force
See Operations and Their Forms on page 6.
Release Point
A well-defined point on a route at which the elements composing a column return under the authority of
their respective commanders, each on of these elements continuing its movement toward its own
appropriate destination.
Relief in Place
Also known as Relief on Station. See also Battle Handover on page 64. An operation in which, by
direction of higher authority, all or part of a unit is replaced in an area by the incoming unit. The
responsibilities of the replaced elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are
transferred to the incoming unit. The incoming unit continues the operation as ordered.
Required Supply Rate
The amount of ammunition expressed in terms of rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired
by weapons, and in terms of other units of measure per day for bulk allotment and other items, estimated
to be required to sustain operations of any designated force without restriction for a specified period.
Restricted Operations Zone
A volume of airspace of defined dimensions designated for a specific operational mission. Entry into
that zone is authorized only by the originating headquarters.
Restrictive Fire Area
An area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions
may not be delivered without prior coordination with the establishing headquarters.
Restrictive Fire Line
A line established between converging friendly forces (one or both may be moving) that prohibits fires
or effects from fires across the line without coordination with the affected force. It is established by the
next higher common commander of the converging forces.
Ruse
A technique of deception operations designed to deceive the enemy, characterized by deliberately
exposing false information to the collection means of the enemy, thereby obtaining an advantage.




186
                                                                                        GLOSSARY



S
Screen Line
A control measure, usually named as a phase line, established forward of the main body during
defensive operations. Once occupied it becomes the FLOT and the limit LOA. For all friendly forces
although permission can be obtained from the establishing headquarters to go beyond it.
Sector
An area designated by boundaries within which a unit operates, and for which it is responsible.
Normally, sectors are used in defensive operations and have a FEBA designated by a higher
commander.
Slice
The normal apportionment of combat support and combat service support elements allocated to support
a maneuver unit.
Sortie
In air operations, an operational flight by one aircraft.
Spoiling Attack
A type of attack executed from a defensive posture to seriously impair a hostile attack by striking the
enemy when he is preparing for his own attack and is vulnerable in assembly areas and attack positions.
Standard use Army Aircraft Flight Route
Routes established below the coordinating altitude to facilitate the movement of Army aviation assets.
Routes are normally located in the corps through brigade rear areas of operation and do not require
approval by the airspace control authority.
Start Point
A well-defined point on a route at which a movement of vehicles or aircraft begins to be under the
control of the commander of this movement.
Support by Fire Position
Normally used in conjunction with the ABF position, as a base of fire or overwatch position. It can be
used to engage a target while ground or air assets move to or around it. The engagements from the SBF
may range from suppression to destruction of the target, but the primary mission is to fix the target so
another force may maneuver.
Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses
CAMPAIGN SEAD
Operations that are preplanned, theater-wide efforts conducted concurrently over an extended period
against air defense systems normally located well behind enemy lines.
COMPLEMENTARY SEAD
Operations that involve continuously seeking enemy air defense system targets to destroy them.




                                                                                                     187
                                                                                           GLOSSARY



LOCALIZED SEAD
Operations that support tactical air operations, Army aviation operations, reconnaissance, and the
establishment of corridors for Air Force and Army assets.


T
Targeted Area of Interest
The geographical area or point along a mobility corridor where successful interdiction will cause the
enemy to either abandon a particular course of action or require him to use specialized engineer support
to continue, where he can be acquired and engaged by friendly forces. Not all TAIs will form part of the
friendly course of action; only TAIs associated with high-payoff targets are of interest to the staff. TAIs
differ from EAs in degree. EAs plan for the use of all available weapons; TAIs might be engage by a
single weapon.
Target Reference Point
An easily recognizable point on the ground used to initiate, distribute, and control fires. TRPs are
designated using the standard target symbol and number issued by maneuver commanders. If approved
by the Battalion FSO, TRPs can be designated a s indirect fire targets using the standard target symbol
with letters and numbers issued by the Battalion FSO.
Task Force
A battalion-sized unit consisting of a battalion control headquarters, with at least one of its major
organic subordinate elements, and the attachment of at least one company-sized element of another
combat or combat support arm.
Train
A service force or group of service elements which provides logistical support, that is, the vehicles and
operating personnel which furnish supply, evacuation, and maintenance services to a unit.


W
Weapons Free Zone
An air defense zone established for the protection of key assets of facilities other than air bases.


Z
Zone of Action
The offensive operational area assigned to a unit or commander that is defined by forward, rear, and
lateral boundaries as well as a coordinating altitude.
ZULU Time
Universal Time. Formally called Greenwich Mean Time.




188
                                                                       ACRONYMS




                                                        Acronyms
A                                              B
AA        avenue of approach                   BAI      battlefield air interdiction
ABCCC     airborne battlefield command         BCD      battlefield coordination
          and control center                            detachment
ABF       attack by fire position              BNCDR    Battalion Commander
A2C2      Army airspace command and            BDA      battle damage assessment
          control                              BDAR     battle damage assessment/repair
ACA       air control area                     BDZ      base defense zone
ACE       analysis and control element         BMC      battle management cell
ACM       airspace control measures            BMNT     begin morning nautical twilight
ACO       airspace control order               BOS      battlefield operating systems
ACP       air control point                    BP       battle position
ACR       armored cavalry regiment             B/P      be-prepared mission
AD        armored division                     BSA      brigade support area
ADA       air defense artillery
AFAC      airborne forward air controller
AGL       above ground level                   C
AHO       above highest obstacle               C2       command and control
AI        air interdiction                     CADE     corps air defense element
ALO       air liaison officer                  CALFEX   combined arms live fire exercise
ALOC      administration and logistic center   CAP      combat air patrol
AMB       air mission brief                    CARS     combat arms regimental system
AMC       air mission commander                CAS      close air support
ANGLICO   air/naval gunfire liaison company    CCIR     commander’s critical information
AO        area of operations                            requirements
AOI       area of interest                     CCDR     Company Commander
AOR       area of responsibility               CCP      communications checkpoint
APC       armored personnel carrier            CDS      container delivery system
ASP       ammunition supply point              CFA      covering force area
ATACMS    Army tactical missile system         CFL      coordinated fire line
ATM       air tasking message                  C4I      command, control,
ATP       ammunition transfer point                     communications, computers and
ASO       Aviation Safety Officer                       intelligence
ASOC      air support operations center        CINC     commander in chief
ATO       air tasking order                    COA      course of action
AVIM      aviation intermediate                COMINT   communications intelligence
          maintenance                          COMMZ    communications zone
AXP       ambulance exchange point             COMSEC   communication security
                                               COBCOM   corps support command
                                               CP       command post



                                                                                  189
                                                                      ACRONYMS



CPX      command post exercise               FASCAM    family of scatterable mines
CS       combat support                      FCC       flight coordination center
CSAR     combat search and rescue            FCL       final coordination line
C-SOF    counter-special operations forces   FDC       fire direction center
CSR      controlled supply rate              FEBA      forward edge of the battle area
CSS      combat service support              FFA       free-fire area
                                             FFIR      friendly forces information
                                                       requirements
D                                            FIST      fire support team
DEFCON   defense condition                   FLE       forward logistics element
DIBCOM   division support command            FLOT      forward line of own troops
DMZ      demilitarized zone                  FMC       fully mission capable
DOA      direction of attack                 FO        forward observer
DOCC     deep operations coordination cell   FOC       flight operations center
DOS      day of supply                       FRAGO     fragmentary order
DP       decision point                      FSCL      fire support coordination line
DS       direct support                      FBCOORD   fire support coordinator
DSA      division support area               FSE       fire support element
DSM      decision support matrix             FSO       fire support officer
DST      decision support template

                                             G
DTG      date time group

                                             GMT       Greenwich mean time
                                             GPS       global positioning system
                                             GS        general support
                                             GSR       general support-reinforcing
E
                                             H
EA       engagement area
ECM      electronic countermeasures
E&E      escape and evasion                  HA        holding area
EEFI     essential elements of friendly      HE        high explosive
         information                         HET       heavy equipment transport
EENT     end evening nautical twilight       HF        high frequency
ELINT    electronic intelligence             HHC       headquarters and headquarters
ENY      enemy (graphics)                              company
EOD      explosive ordnance disposal         HIDACZ    high-density airspace control
EPW      enemy prisoner of war                         zone
EW       electronic warfare                  HMMWV     high-mobility multipurpose
                                                       wheeled vehicle
                                             HPT       high-payoff target
F                                            HQ        headquarters
FA       field artillery                     HUMINT    human intelligence
FAA      forward assembly area               HVT       high-value target
FAC      forward air controller
FARP     forward arming and refueling
         point




190
                                                                          ACRONYMS



I                                               LRP
                                                LRS
                                                          logistics release point
                                                          long range surveillance
ID       infantry division; identification
IFF      identification, friend or foe
IG       inspector general                      M
IMC      instrument meteorological              MBA       main battle area
         conditions                             MEDEVAC   medical evacuation
IMINT    imagery intelligence                   METL      mission essential task list
INTSUM   intelligence summary                   METT-T    mission, enemy, terrain, troops,
IPB      intelligence preparation of the                  and time available
         battlefield                            MIJI      meaconing, interference,
IR       infrared                                         jamming, and intrusion
ISB      intermediate staging base              MLRS      multiple launch rocket system
                                                MOOTW     military operations other than
J                                               MOPP
                                                          war
                                                          mission-oriented protective
JAAT     joint air attack team                            posture
JFACC    joint force air component              MOUT      military operation on urbanized
         commander                                        terrain
JFLCC    joint force land component             MP        military police
         commander                              MRE       mission rehearsal exercise
JSEAD    joint supp. of enemy air defenses      MRR       minimum risk route
JSTARS   joint surveillance target attack       MSL       mean sea level
         radar system                           MSR       main supply route
JTF      joint task force                       MTF       medical treatment facility


K                                               N
KIA      killed in action                       NAI       named area of interest
Km       kilometer                              NBC       nuclear, biological, and chemical
KN       Korea (North)                          NCS       net control station
KS       Korea (South)                          NEO       noncombatant evac operations
                                                NFA       no-fire area

L
                                                NFL       no-fire line
                                                NLT       not later than
LC       line of contact                        NMCM      not mission capable, maintenance
LD       line of departure                      NMCS      not mission capable, supply
LD/LC    line of departure is line of contact   NOTAM     notice to airman
LLTR     low-level transit route                NVD       night vision device
LNO      liaison officer
LOA      limit of advance
LOGPAC   logistics package                      O
LOS      line of sight                          OEG       operation exposure guide
LRSD     long-range surveillance                OKOKA     observation, concealment,
         detachment                                       obstacles, key terrain , and
LRF/D    laser range-finder/designator                    avenue of approach




                                                                                         191
                                                                             ACRONYMS



OP        observation post                        SAM        surface to air missile
OPCON     operational control                     SACCOM     satellite communications
OPLAN     operation plan                          SBF        support by fire position
OPORD     operation order                         SEAD       suppression of enemy air
OPSEC     operational security                               defenses
OPTEMPO   operational tempo                       SERE       survival, evasion, resistance, and
OT        observer-target                                    escape
                                                  SF         special forces
                                                  SIDPERS    standard installation division
P                                                            personnel system
PAA       position area for artillery             SIGINT     signal intelligence
PD        point of departure                      SINCGARS   sin. channel ground/air radio set
PIR       priority intelligence requirement       SITMAP     situation map
PIREP     pilot report                            SITREP     situation report
PL        phase line                              SME        subject matter expert
PMCS      preventive maintenance checks           SOF        special operations forces
          and services                            SOFA       status-of-forces agreement
POD       point of debarkation                    SOI        signal operating instructions
POE       point of embarkation                    SOP        standing operating procedures
POL       petroleum, oils, and lubricants         SP         starting point
PP        passage point                           SPOTREP    spot report
PW        prisoner of war

                                                  T
R                                                 TAACOM     Theater Army Area Command
RAS       rear area security                      TAC        tactical command post
RFA       restrictive fire area                   TACON      tactical command
RFI       request for intelligence                TACOPS     Tactical Operations Officer
RFL       restrictive fire line                   TACP       tactical air control party
RIP       relief in place                         TACSAT     tactical satellite
RL        release line                            TAI        targeted area of interest
ROE       rules of engagement                     TBM        tactical ballistic missile
ROZ       restricted operations zone              TCF        tactical combat force
RP        release point                           TCP        traffic control point
RSO&I     reception, staging, onward              TDA        table of distribution and
          movement, and integration                          allowances
RSR       required supply rate                    TF         task force
                                                  TIRS       terrain index reference system
                                                  TOC        tactical operations center
S                                                 TOE        table of org. and equipment
S/A       surface to air                          TOT        time on target
SAAFR     standard use army aircraft flight       TRP        target reference point
          route
                                                  U
SAR       search and rescue
SALUTE    size, activity, location, unit, time,
          and equipment                           UAV        unmanned aerial vehicle




192
                                                             ACRONYMS



UHF
UTM
      ultra-high frequency
      universal transverse mercator   W
UW    unconventional warfare          WARNO   warning order
                                      WFZ     weapons free zone
                                      WIA     wounded in action
V
VFR
VHF
      visual flight rules
      very-high frequency             Z
                                      ZOS     zone of separation
                                      ZULU    universal time




                                                                   193
                                                                                                                                       INDEX




                                                                                                     Index
                                                                   Attack Warnings...................................... 42
  A
                                                                     B
A bag........................................................35
AAR .......................................................126     B bag........................................................ 35
ABF Occupation ......................................63            Basic Loads ........................................... 101
ACAPAM ........................................63, 184             Battalion Aid Station ............................. 103
Actions on Contact                                                 Battalion Commander................................ 1
  Air ........................................................62   Battle Handover....................................... 67
  QRF......................................................87      BP Occupation......................................... 63
Actions on the Objective..........................63               Brevity Words ......................................... 66
ADA Systems...........................................85           Bug Out ............................................. 53, 69
Aid Station .............................................103
Air Assault Security...................................7             C
Air Defense Warning Levels ...................42
Air Operations Enroute ............................54              Call for Fire ............................................. 74
Airborne Assault Security........................79                Callsigns ................................................ 144
Aircraft Decon .......................................120          CAS ......................................................... 75
Aircraft Lighting ......................................41         Chaff ........................................................ 62
Aircraft Operations in an NBC                                      Chemical Detection Team ..................... 115
  Environment.......................................118            Close Air Support.................................... 72
Aircraft PCI..............................................40       Clothing Exchange ................................ 103
Aircraft Survivability Equipment ............62                    Code Words ............................................. 66
Aircrew ......................................................4    Combat Cruise......................................... 54
Aircrew Duties Enroute ...........................60               Combat Fence Check............................... 60
ALOC.......................................................94      Combat Spread ........................................ 54
ALOC Layout ..........................................94           Combat Trail............................................ 56
Ammunition (CAS)..................................75               Comm Schematic .................................. 143
Anti-Tank System ....................................84            Command Relationships............................ 9
APC Systems ...........................................84          Commander’s Backbrief.......................... 31
Area Defense..............................................6        Commander’s Confirmation Brief........... 31
Area Reconnaissance ...........................7, 80               Commander’s Guidance .......................... 11
Area Security .............................................7       Commander’s Initial Guidance ............... 10
Artillery....................................................71    Commander’s Update.............................. 95
Artillery Munitions ..................................73           Commo Check....................................... 144
Artillery Systems .....................................86          Company Commander............................... 3
Assigned.....................................................9     Company Mission Briefing Outline ........ 28
Attached .....................................................9    Company Planning Cells ......................... 26
Attack Codes............................................42         Company Rehearsal................................. 33
Attack Company Organization ..................8                    COMSEC............................................... 146
Attack to Destroy, Attrit, Delay, Disrupt...5                      Comsets ................................................. 145



                                                                                                                                         194
                                                                                                                                   INDEX

Confiscation of Civilian Property ..........103                     FASCAM................................................. 72
Contact Team ...........................................97          Fat Cow ................................................. 106
Controlled Exchange................................96               feint and demonstration ............................. 6
Convoy                                                              Fence Check ............................................ 60
  Brief .....................................................50     Field Sanitation...................................... 103
  Checklist ..............................................50        Fighter Check-In...................................... 75
  Commander..........................................49             Fire Distribution ...................................... 64
  Speeds and Intervals ............................49               Fire Support............................................. 71
Convoy Main Body..................................48                   Agencies .............................................. 72
Convoy Operations ..................................45                 Call for Fire ......................................... 74
counterattack ..............................................6       Fires in the FARP .................................. 107
Course of Action Development ...............12                      First Sergeant............................................. 4
CP                                                                  Fixed Callsigns ...................................... 144
  Main .....................................................88      Flight Following ...................................... 61
  Rear ......................................................94     Flight Operations..................................... 90
Crew Chief PCI........................................39            Flight Packet............................................ 27
CSM ...........................................................2    Formation Flight Checklist...................... 57
                                                                    Formation Line-Up Procedures ............... 58
  D                                                                 Formations
                                                                       Company ............................................. 56
DART.......................................................97          Team.................................................... 54
Decontamination of Casualties ..............117                     Forms of the Defense ................................ 6
Decontamination Team..........................115                   Forms of the Offense ................................. 6
Delay ..........................................................7   Forms, and Records................................. 97
Deliberate Attack .......................................6          FRAGO Format ....................................... 18
Detailed Decon Sites..............................120               Fratricide Prevention ............................. 158
Disorientation...........................................59         Free Cruise .............................................. 54
Downed Aircraft/Crew Recovery ............65                        FSE .......................................................... 71
                                                                    FSO.......................................................... 71
  E
Echelon ....................................................56
                                                                      G
EEFI .......................................................139     Graphical Naming Conventions .............. 43
Egress.......................................................68     Graves Registration ............................... 102
Enemy ......................................................84      Ground Risk Assessment....................... 160
Engagement Priorities..............................63               Guard ......................................................... 7
EPW Collection .....................................103             Guidons Call.......................................... 145
Equipment Decon...................................120
Executive Officer .......................................1            H
Exploitation................................................6
External Load Operations ......................112                  HA Occupation........................................ 70
                                                                    Hand & Arm Signals ............................. 127
  F                                                                 Hasty Attack .............................................. 6
                                                                    Havequick Checklist
FARP......................................................104         Aircraft Radio.................................... 151
  Operations ..........................................104          Havequick Training WODs................... 153
FARP Safety Checklist ..........................109


                                                                                                                           195
                                                                                                                                  INDEX

HURRICANE AND HIGH WIND PLAN                                       Military Decision-Making Process.......... 10
 ............................................................161   Mission Analysis ..................................... 11
                                                                   Mission Debrief..................................... 125
  I                                                                Mission Essential Task List....................... 1
                                                                   Mission Planning..................................... 10
III/V Platoon Leader Checklist ..............105                   Mission Statement ..................................... 1
Inadvertent IMC.......................................58           MKT ...................................................... 101
Individual PCI..........................................37         Mobile Defense ......................................... 6
Intelligence Officer ....................................2         MOPP Level .......................................... 113
IR Jammer................................................62        Motor Stables ........................................ 100
                                                                   Movement to Contact ................................ 6
  J
JAAT
                                                                     N
  9-Line Briefing .....................................75          Naval Gunfire .......................................... 72
JAAT Operations .....................................75            NBC Alarms .......................................... 115
Jump FARPs ..........................................106           NBC Control Party ................................ 114
                                                                   NBC Operations .................................... 113
  K                                                                NBC Recon.............................................. 53
                                                                   NBC Teams ........................................... 114
KY-58 Fill Checklist..............................149              Net Control Station................................ 142
                                                                   Nets........................................................ 143
  L                                                                Nine-Line................................................. 75

Laser Codes............................................146
Laser Switch Setting ................................72
                                                                     O
Laundry Service .....................................103           Oil Samples ............................................. 97
Lead Change ............................................57         OPCON ..................................................... 9
Lead/Wingman Teams ...............................8                Operational Decon Team....................... 118
Liaison Officer ...................................2, 129          Operations and their Forms ....................... 6
Light/Heavy Teams....................................8             Operations Officer..................................... 3
Lighting....................................................41     OPORD Format ....................................... 15
Lightsets...................................................41     OPORD Issue .......................................... 14
Line Formation.........................................54          OPSEC................................................... 138
LNO ...........................................................2   Organic ...................................................... 9
Logistics Officer ........................................3        OVERDUE AIRCRAFT
LOGPAC meeting....................................96
                                                                     PROCEDURES ............................ 164
Lost Commo.............................................59

  M                                                                  P
Maintenance                                                        Packing Lists ........................................... 35
 Aviation................................................96        Passage of Lines ...................................... 61
 Vehicle .................................................98       Pave Penny .............................................. 76
Mask Removal Procedures ......................47                   PCI........................................................... 37
Media Operations...................................139             Personnel Officer....................................... 2
METL.........................................................1     Planning Cells.......................................... 26



196
                                                                                                                                      INDEX

Platoon Leader ...........................................5               OPSUM ......................................... 180
Plugger Checklist ...................................147                  Personnel Data Summary .............. 168
PREACCIDENT PLAN ..................166                                    Personnel Requirement Report...... 169
Precautionary Landings ...........................65                      Personnel Spot Report ................... 170
Precombat Operations..............................37                      Pilot Debrief .................................. 183
Preflight....................................................40           RFI................................................. 172
Preflight PCI ............................................40              Serious Incident Report ................. 181
Priority of Work.......................................53              Tactical .............................................. 184
Pursuit ........................................................6         BDA............................................... 184
                                                                          EPW Report................................... 182
  Q                                                                       FARM............................................ 184
                                                                          NBC 1............................................ 184
Quartering Party.......................................45                 NBC 4............................................ 184
  Responsibilities ....................................46                 SPOT Report ................................. 184
Quick Reaction Force ..............................87                Retrograde Operations............................... 7
                                                                     RFI Checklist
  R                                                                    Fires ................................................... 133
                                                                       Intelligence ........................................ 134
Radar Jammer ..........................................62              Logistics ............................................ 137
Radio Checklists                                                       Maneuver........................................... 130
  Aircraft...............................................149         Risk Assessment
  Ground ...............................................147            METT-T Factors................................ 156
Radio Operations ...................................142              Risk Management.................................. 154
Radio Operator PCI..................................39               Route Reconnaissance......................... 7, 81
Radiological Survey Team.....................114                     RP Actions............................................... 63
Raid ............................................................6   RTS........................................................ 143
Receipt of Mission ...................................10             Rucksack ................................................. 35
Reconnaissance ..........................................7
Reconnaissance in Force............................7                   S
Recovery Matrix ....................................124
Recovery Sequence................................121                 S1............................................................... 2
REDCON Levels .....................................41                S2............................................................... 2
Refuel/Rearm Sequence.........................106                    S3............................................................... 3
Rehearsals ................................................31        S4............................................................... 3
Relief on Station ......................................67           Safety..................................................... 154
Reports                                                              SBF Occupation ...................................... 63
  Administrative....................................167              Screen ........................................................ 7
     Abbreviated Casualty Report.........170                         Security Levels ........................................ 42
     Aviation Status Report...................179                    Security Missions ...................................... 7
     CDR SITREP .................................178                 Serial Commander Responsibilities ........ 49
     Closure Report ...............................178               Services ................................................. 102
     FARP StatusReport........................177                    Shift Change Brief
     INTREP..........................................171               ALOC .................................................. 94
     INTSUM ........................................171                TOC ..................................................... 91
     LOGSTAT Report .........................173                     SINCGARS Checklist
     March-Unit/Serial Report ..............182                        Aircraft Radio.................................... 151
                                                                       Ground Radio .................................... 148


                                                                                                                             197
                                                                                                                              INDEX

SINCGARS Fills
  Aircraft Radio ....................................150
                                                                    W
  Ground Radio.....................................148            Wargaming Steps .................................... 13
spoiling Attack ...........................................6      WARNO Issue............................. 10, 11, 13
Staggered..................................................56     Weapons Control Status .......................... 42
Standard Loads.........................................40         Wedge...................................................... 57
Standard Uniforms ................. See Uniforms                  Wet Wing .............................................. 106
Supply ....................................................100    Wingstore Configurations ....................... 40
  Ammunition .......................................101           Wire Operations .................................... 142
  Clothing, General Supplies ................101                  Withdrawal ................................................ 7
  Construction Material ........................101               WODs .................................................... 153
  Major End Items ................................102
  Medical Items.....................................102             Z
  Personal Demand Items .....................102
  POL ....................................................101     Zone Reconnaissance .......................... 7, 80
  Rations ...............................................100
  Repair Parts........................................102
Systems PCI .............................................40

  T
TAA Occupation................................53, 69
TAA Operations.......................................87
TACON......................................................9
TACSAT Checklist................................147
Tactical Missions .......................................5
Tactical Roles.............................................1
TALOC ....................................................94
Tank Systems ...........................................84
Target Priorities .......................................63
TOC..........................................................88
TOC Configurations.................................92
Transponder .............................................62
Transportation ........................................103
Troop Decon ..........................................120

  U
Uniforms ..................................................34
Unmasking Procedures ....................47, 119

  V
Vehicle Operator PCI...............................39
Video Reconnaissance .............................83




198

								
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