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					                                              Outcome/Historical           CONSTITUTIONAL
CASES                 Quick Summary
                                              Significance                 CONCEPTS/Enduring Issues
                                              The Court found that the
                      Steven Frasier was      district had the             First and Fourteenth Amendments v 10th
                      suspended for           constitutional authority     Amendment
Bethel v              making what the         to limit Frasier's speech
Frasier(1986)         Bethel School           because of the               Bill of Rights/Civil Liberties/ Rights of
                      District considered     educational authority        the Accused/States Reserved Right of
                      an obscene speech.      that is given to schools     Education
                                              by the tenth amendment.
                      A group of parents                                   First Amendment Establishment Clause
                      and students                                         and Fourteenth Amendment v First
                                              The Supreme Court
                      challenged the New                                   Amendment Free Exercise Clause and
                                              decided that the prayer
Engel v Vitale (1962) York State Board of                                  Tenth Amendment.
                                              violated the Separation
                      Regents mandatory
                                              of Church and State.
                      non-denominational                                   Bill of Rights/Separation of Church and
                      prayer in school.                                    State
                                        The Court established
                                        that in student
                    Lopez, along with
                                        suspension cases a                 Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments v
                    other high school
                                        formal hearing was                 Tentth Amendment
                    students were
Goss v Lopez (1975)                     required and that only
                    suspended for more
                                        after a hearing could a            Bill of Rights/ Due Process/States
                    than 5 days without
                                        district suspend a                 Reserved Power of Education
                    any formal hearing.
                                        student for more than
                                        five days..
                      Kathy Kuhlmeir,
                      editor of her high      If a school paper is part
                      school newspaper        of the curriculum and it
                                                                           First Amendment and 14th amendment
                      appealed the            goes against the
Hazelwood School                                                           vs Tenth Amendment
                      principal's decision    "mission of the school,"
District v Kuhlmeir
                      to censor the paper     school administrators
(1988)                                                                     Bill of Rights/ Freedom of the Press/
                      because it contained    may place restrictions
                                                                           States Reserved Power of Education
                      articles dealing with   on the paper and can
                      student pregnancy       censor it.
                      and divorce.
                      Florida law
                      permitted the
                      coporal punishment      The Supreme Court
                      of students.            ruled that the Eighth
                      Ingraham and other      Amendment's                  Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments vs
                      students accused        prohibition against cruel    Tenth Amendment
Ingraham v Wright
                      school officials of     and unusual punishment
                      inflicting this kind    did not apply to student     Bill of Rights/Due Process/ States
                      of punishment in        discipline in the schools,   Reserved Power of Education
                      violation of the        thus allowing the
                      cruel and unusual       Florida law to stand.
                      provision of the
                      TLO was accused of
                      smoking in the         Court rules that schools
                                                                          Tenth Amendment reserved power of
                      bathroom. The          can search students with
                                                                          education vs Fourth and Fourteenth
                      principal searches     reasonable cause. This
New Jersey v TLO      her pocketbook         case lessens the Tinker
(1985)                without her            doctrine and gives
                                                                          Bill of Rights/Due Process/Search and
                      permission and         school officials greater
                                                                          Seizure vs police and education reserved
                      discovers cigarettes   lattitude in disciplining
                                                                          power of the school.
                      as well as other       students
                      illegal substances.
                       Three public school
                       students wore black
                       arm bands to school
                                             The court declared that
                       to protest the
                                             "student rights do not
                       Vietnam War.
                                             stop at the schoolhouse
                       Principals in their                                First Amendment free speech, Fourteenth
                                             gates." The wearing of
                       school district had                                Amendment vs Tenth Amendment
                                             black arm bands was
                       prohibited the                                     education as a reserved power.
Tinker v Des Moines                          protected by the
                       wearing of
School District (1969)                       Constitution. Students
                       armbands on the                                    Bill of Rights/Civil Liberties
                                             enjoy protection of the
                       ground that such
                                             Bill of Rights unless
                       conduct would                                      Vietnam War
                                             their actions materially
                       provoke a
                                             disrupt the educational
                       disturbance, so the
                       students were
                       suspended from
                      James Acton refused    As in the NJ v TLO
                                                                          Tenth Amendment Reserved power of
                      to participate in a    case, the Court ruled
                                                                          education vs the Fourth Amendment
                      random drug test in    that there was no right
Vernonia v Acton                                                          right to privacy and the Fourteenth
                      order to play a        to privacy protection
(1995)                                                                    Amendment.
                      school sport as        and it gave the school
                      prescribed by the      district the right to have
                                                                          Bill of Rights/Civil Liberties
                      school district.       random drug testin.
                      The state of
                      Louisiana enacted a
                      law that required
                      separate railway       The Supreme Court
                      cars for blacks and    ruled that the "separate
                      whites. In 1892,       but equal" provision of      Fourteenth Amendment equal protection
                      Homer Adolph           the Louisiana law was        clause vs Louisiana's Tenth Amendment
Plessy v Ferguson
                      Plessy--who was        constitutional. The case     Reserved power right to legislate.
                      seven-eighths          established this
                      Caucasian--took a      principle of segregation     Equality/ Federalism/Jim Crow/
                      seat in a "whites      until it was overturned
                      only" car of a         in 1954.
                      Louisiana train. He
                      refused to move to
                      the car reserved for
                     blacks and was
                     Linda Brown denied
                                             In one of the most
                     enrollment in an all
                                             celebrated cases, the        Fourteenth Amendment equal protection
                     white school near
Brown v Board of                             court struck down            clause vs School's Tenth Amendment
                     her home challenges
Education Topeka                             separate but equal and       Reserve Power of education
                     the separate but
Kansas (1954)*                               ordered integration in
                     equal policy of the
                                             the nation's schools with    Civil Rigths/rights of ethnic minorities
                     Topeka school
                                             "all deliberate speed."
                     Differences in
                     property value, tax
                     resources, and the      The Court decided that
                                                                          Fourteenth Amendment equal protection
                     amount of state and     even though education
                                                                          clause vs School's Tenth Amendment
San Antonio v        federal aid available   may be a fundamental
                                                                          Reserve Power of education
Rodriguez (1973)     for schools created     right, school districts
                     great per-pupil         could allocate aid based
                                                                          Civil Rigths/rights of ethnic minorities
                     funding disparities     on property wealth.
                     between districts in
                    One of the first
                    media trials of the      Eloquently argued by
                    century, John            defense attorney
                                                                          First Amendment establishment clause vs
                    Scopes was               Clarence Darrow and
                                                                          State's Tenth Amendment reserved
                    convicted of             prosecuting attorney and
Scopes Monkey Trial                                                       power of education.
                    violating a              former presidential
                    Tennessee law            candidate William
                                                                          Evolution vs Creationism, Roaring
                    prohibiting the          Jennings Bryan, the
                    teaching of              state court ruled that
                    evolution in public      Scopes broke the law.
                     During World War
                     II, Presidential
                     Executive Order
                     9066 and
                                             The Supreme Court
                                             ruled that the President
                     statutes gave the
                                             had the right to issue the   Fourteenth Amendment equal protection
                     military authority to
                                             Executive order as           clause, vs Article II power of the
                     exclude citizens of
                                             Commander-in-Chief.          president.
Korematsu v U.S.     Japanese ancestry
                                             In 1988 Congress
(1944)*              from areas deemed
                                             passed a law giving          Civil Liberties/Rights of ethnic
                     critical to national
                                             $20,000 to all ancesters     minorities/World War II/Power of
                     defense Korematsu
                                             of Japanese-Americans        President in Foreign Affairs
                     remained in
                                             who were put in these
                     California and
                     violated Civilian
                     Exclusion Order No.
                     34 of the U.S.
                                                                          Fourteeth Amendment equal protection
                       Pa. failed to provide   The District Court ruled
P.A.R.C. v                                                                vs Tenth Amendment Reserved power of
                       education to            that it was the obligation
Commonwealth of                                                           education.
                       mentally retarded       of Pa. to provide such
Pa. (1971)*
                       children.               an education.
                                                                          Social Issues/Equal Protection
                       Wshington DC
                       failed to provide an    The Supreme Court            Fourteeth Amendment equal protection
Mills v Board of       education to            ordered the DC school        vs Tenth Amendment Reserved power of
Education of DC        emotionally             board to provide such an     education.
(1972)*                disturbed children as   education to those
                       well as gifted          children.                    Social Issues/Equal Protection
                       Alfonzo Lopez, a
                       12th grade high
                       school student,
                       carried a concealed
                       weapon into his San
                       Antonio, Texas high
                       school. He              The Supreme Court
                       wascharged under        ruled that the law was       Article I Section VIII commerce clasue
                       Texas law with          unconstitutional because     giving Congress the authority to pass the
                       firearm possession      the Federal government       Gun-Free Zones Act vs Tenth
U.S. v Lopez (1995)
                       on school premises.     failed to prove that there   Amendment reserved powers of states.
                       The next day, the       was a compelling
                       state charges were      national interest to have    Federalism/Limits of National Power
                       dismissed after         such a law.
                       charged Lopez with
                       violating a federal
                       criminal statute, the
                       Gun-Free School
                       Zones Act of 1990.
The following charts summarize topically the
11th Grade U.S. History and Government syllabus.
The charts include every constitutional case
mentioned in the syllabus, as well as additional cases
that enrich teachers' and students' knowledge.
(Charts designed by Sandy Scarpinito, Curt Lader

American History through Constitutional Law Instructor.s)

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