Contextual Factors by accinent

VIEWS: 106 PAGES: 40

									                                       Contextual Factors

Community

       My TWS was completed in a blue-collar community with a population of about 66,800. It

is a diverse community with many different races and ethnicities represented. The break down of

diversity in this community is 81.6 percent Caucasian, 13.9 percent African American, 2.6

percent Hispanic, 0.9 percent Asian, 0.2 percent American Indian and Alaskan, and 2 percent

accounts for people who are two or more races. There are a number of Bosnians who moved to

the area to work in the meat packing industry. This occupational move also brought many

Bosnian students into the school district. The addition of Bosnian students has significantly

increased the need for ELL (English language learners) teachers to help translate in the schools.

There is an ELL teacher in almost every elementary in the district. The amount of people who

speak a language other than English in their home is at 8.3 percent. The community has a median

household income of about $34,092. The community‟s per capita income is $18,558.

Unfortunately, the percentage of people below poverty is 13.7. The state issues a five percent

sales tax, while the community adds on a local sales tax of two percent. There are many different

opportunities for people in the community to be active. There is a YMCA available for anyone

(young and old) in the community to belong to. There are also many after school programs

available for students: pee-wee soccer, flag football, volleyball, karate, dance lessons,

theatre/drama auditions, girls‟ scouts, and boys‟ scouts. These are just a few of the extra-

curricular activities that children in the community can become a part of. In addition, the

community is located adjacent to another town with a major university. Therefore, the

opportunity to attend athletic functions is pretty convenient for families and children.




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District

         The school district serves approximately 10,500 students and operates two regular high

schools, one alternative high school, four middle schools, one alternative middle school, and

fourteen elementary schools. The total in-district minority rate is 34.7 percent, while the

Caucasian rate is 65.3 percent. The races represented in the district include African American,

Asian, Hispanic, and Native American. The amount of Title I students who are disadvantaged

based on socioeconomic needs is around 30 percent. The rate of free and reduced meals for all

students is 54.04 percent. There are 1,599 special education students with a 15.3 percent of total

enrollment. English language learners total 1,133 students with eight different languages

represented. Being a part of this diverse school district offers students the opportunity to grow

and learn from a variety of peers and educators.



School

         The elementary school I am student teaching at is in its second year of being in a brand

new building. It houses approximately 450 students. Of these 450 students, about 24.6 percent

are considered minorities, which is significantly lower than the district‟s percentage. The number

of students who are considered English language learners is 60. They represent about 13 percent

of the student body. The majority of the English language learners‟ population includes students

from Bosnia. Special needs students make up about 8 percent of the population, with 38 students.

The Expanded Learning Program (ELP) includes 22 identified fourth and fifth grade students.

Free and reduced lunch rate is 31 percent of the student body, which is significantly less than the

district average. There are 18 general education classrooms. Special education and ELL students

are included in the general education classrooms; they are served in accordance with their




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individualized education plan by two and one-half education teachers. The specialists department

consists of physical education, art, vocal music, media, and orchestra teachers. Overall, the

school employs 33 certified staff members and 21 support staff members. The school also offers

a mobile cart that holds about 30 laptop computers. These computers are user friendly for the

students, and also have Internet access.



Classroom

       As a physical education teacher I see the students outside of their regular classrooms. I

have the chance to see them perform at their best while moving and being active in physical

education class. The students are privileged as they are able to be mobile and physically active

while learning at the same time. They are also privileged in getting to use a brand new

gymnasium. The gym floor is made of volcanized rubber, and is marked off with black boundary

lines for basketball and white lines for volleyball. The color of the gym floor is a light orange.

There are two main court basketball hoops and four side hoops available. There is accessibility to

put two pull up bars up on the wall. Two purple mats are up against the wall for safety under

each basketball hoop. There are also six sets of silver bleachers folded up snug against one

sideline wall. Since it is a new gym, there were special sound boards installed on the walls to

help lessen the amount of echoing in the gym. The technology available in the gym is the use of

the CD player. The music is played when students come into class and do the instant activity.

       Students are always able to refresh their memories of the classroom rules, as they are

posted on the wall when they come into the gym. The rules include: everybody has fun safely, do

your best, and wear tennis shoes. When students are having a tough day or if they tend to be off




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task, I will tell them to refer back to the rules and ask if they are adhering to the rules. Reviewing

the rules will hopefully get them back on task quickly.

       The gym also has six glass doors on one of the sidelines. On the other side of the doors is

the cafeteria. Students that have class during the lunch hour may be easily distracted by the

commotion in the cafeteria. One instructional implication will be for me to have them facing the

opposite wall during huddle up (instructional time) so that they would not have the chance to

peek into the cafeteria. Another instructional implication has to do with the silver bleachers.

They are made of metal, so I do not want students accidentally running into them and harming

themselves. When teaching I will have to make it clear that students should be at least two steps

away from the bleachers, unless I give them permission to do otherwise.



Student Characteristics

       I have decided to focus on a fourth grade class for my TWS project. This class consists of

thirteen males and twelve females who are 9 or 10 years old. There are five Bosnian students,

two Hispanic students, five African American students, and thirteen Caucasian students. From

my observation of the students in class, many of them appear to be from middle to upper

socioeconomic status. This ties into instructional implications, as many of the students are

prepared for class with proper tennis shoes and clothing. It is also helpful, as the children appear

to be comfortable with viewing adults as authority figures. They are usually not argumentative

with adults/teachers, and come to physical education happy and ready to enjoy class. This is

helpful for me, as I know that many of them will be quick to grasp the message and mechanics of

each lesson. Another instructional implication is the five Bosnian students in my classroom.

Knowing their background, I will have to be aware of the possible language barrier. If they do




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not understand what I am teaching, I will need to demonstrate it differently, choose English

words that they are familiar with, or get a translator in the classroom.

        The students will be working on their physical fitness and soccer skills. From

observation, I feel that most of the class has average physical fitness and soccer skills. Of course,

there are some who are above average and some who are below average. Among the fourth

graders, there is no one with an IEP, and no one with special needs. One girl has asthma, so I will

need to be aware of her condition during the different physical activities that will be performed

in class. There is also a student who is overweight for his age. I consider this to be a medical

condition, as some activities will need to be modified so that he may be successful. Now, I will

discuss a few of the fourth grade students.



Student Skills

        Student number “Eight” is an outstanding young lady. According to my cooperating

teacher, her prior physical fitness and soccer skills were above average, as she was the top of the

class two years ago. As noted in the community contextual factors, she is one of the students

who are able to take advantage of extra-curricular activities outside of school. She participates on

a soccer team outside of school, so she is more aware of the skills that are performed during

physical education class.

        Student number “Twenty” has made some good strides over the past two years. He is

considerably overweight for his age, and often has a difficult time moving. He was average in his

soccer skills two years ago, but his size often presented a challenge for him to complete tasks

successfully. He appears to be getting around pretty good in physical education class, but he is

still limited to what all of his other peers are doing, due to his size.




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       Student number “Ten” has come to the school from out of state. From observation, her

fitness and soccer skills are average. However, she does have a physical disadvantage; she has

Perthes disease in her hip. Perthes disease is when bone death occurs in the ball of the hip due to

an interruption of blood flow. As bone death occurs, the ball develops a fracture of the

supporting bone. This fracture signals the beginning of bone reabsorption by the body. As bone

is slowly absorbed, it is replaced by new tissue and bone. Student Ten had surgery on her hip

during the summer, so she has to be careful as to how much pounding she does on her legs.

       Having students at different skill levels presents opportunities for instructional

implications while teaching physical education. During the soccer and fitness unit I will create

appropriate challenges for students who are below average, those who are average, and for those

who are above average (implication number one). For instance, this may happen when they are

dribbling (weaving) between cones. A challenge for those who are below average would be to

keep control of the ball without using their hands through the cones. A challenge for students

who have average soccer skills would be to try to keep their eyes up and have control of the ball

while dribbling through the cones. A challenge for those who are above average would be to

keep their eyes up, have control of the ball, and move the cones closer together. Another

instructional implication is when teaching physical fitness I will need to keep in mind ways to

keep everyone engaged and hooked on the benefits of physical fitness. I realize that not all

children get excited to jog, do sit-ups, push-ups, squats, jumping jacks, or stretches. Making

physical fitness activities suitable for all students will be an instructional implication for me.

       The community, district, school, classroom, and student characteristics are essential

factors to consider prior to designing and implementing lessons. Students‟ learning is impacted

by these factors, as well as by their race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In general, students




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in this school come from stable families with middle to upper income. Such families tend to

respect physical fitness. These students appear to view physical education as a class, rather than

as another recess or free time. Having a better understanding of where students come from and

what they are like will help in developing the best teaching-learning process to ensure student

learning.




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                                        Learning Goals

Learning Goal 1 (LG1):
Students will know and understand the components of fitness.

       Standards:
       - National Standard #4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical
          fitness
       - National Standard #6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-
          expression, and/or social interaction.

       Bloom’s Taxonomy:
       - Level one: Knowledge – remembering previously learned material.
       - Level two: Comprehension – the ability to grasp the meaning of material.


Learning Goal 2 (LG2):
Students will increase their level of physical fitness.

       Standards:
       - National Standard #3: Participates regularly in physical activity
       - National Standard #4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical
          fitness.

       Bloom’s Taxonomy:
       - Level one: Knowledge – remembering previously learned material.
       - Level two: Comprehension – the ability to grasp the meaning of material.
       - Level three: Application – the ability to break down material into its component parts
          so that its organizational structure may be understood.


Learning Goal 3 (LG3):
Students will demonstrate their ability to dribble the soccer ball with accuracy.

       Standards:
       - National Standard #1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement
          patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities
       - National Standard #3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
       - District Standard #1 in soccer skills: Student dribbles a soccer ball using left and right
          foot through a set of five cones (ten feet apart) using a weaving pattern down and
          back. The assessment begins and ends with a trap.

       Bloom’s Taxonomy:
       - Level one: Knowledge – remembering previously learned material.
       - Level two: Comprehension – the ability to grasp the meaning of material.




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       -   Level three: Application – the ability to break down material into its component parts
           so that its organizational structure may be understood.


Learning Goal 4 (LG4):
Students will demonstrate their ability to kick the soccer ball with accuracy.

       Standards:
       - National Standard #1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement
          patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities#
       - National Standard #3: Participates regularly in physical activity.
       - District Standard #2 in soccer skills: From a distance of thirty feet a student will
          attempt five kicks into a ten foot wide goal. One point if ball goes in the goal.

       Bloom’s Taxonomy:
       - Level one: Knowledge – remembering previously learned material.
       - Level two: Comprehension – the ability to grasp the meaning of material.
       - Level three: Application – the ability to break down material into its component parts
          so that its organizational structure may be understood.


       The learning goals that I have chosen reflect what I expect the students to know and be

able to do at the end of the fitness and soccer unit. Fitness and soccer compliment each other in

the athletic field. In order to be successful in soccer, students must be well trained in the different

areas of fitness. For students to lead a healthy life they must be familiar with the five components

of fitness. All of the learning goals are aligned with the National Standards for Physical

Education (see appendix A-1). The national standards that align with my goals are #1:

demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of

physical activities, #3: participates regularly in physical activity, #4: achieves and maintains a

health-enhancing level of physical fitness, #6: values physical activity for health, enjoyment,

challenge, self-expression, and/or social interaction. The two soccer goals (LG 3 and LG 4) are

aligned with the district standards for team sports skills (see appendix A-2). In the physical

education domain the district sets up specific standards that align with each sport that may be

taught/learned in school. LG 3, students will demonstrate their ability to dribble the soccer ball



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with accuracy and speed, aligns with the first soccer skills standard. This standard states: a

student dribbles a soccer ball using left and right foot through a set of five cones (ten feet apart)

using a weaving pattern down and back. The assessment begins and ends with a trap. LG4,

students will demonstrate their ability to kick the soccer ball with accuracy, aligns with the

second soccer skills standard. This standard says: from a distance of thirty feet a student will

attempt five kicks into a ten foot wide goal. One point if ball goes in the goal. The learning goals

are also aligned with Bloom‟s Taxonomy. Bloom has designed a chart with six different

taxonomies or ways of learning. The taxonomies range from the lowest level of learning, which

is knowledge, to the highest level of learning, which is evaluation. It is important for students to

get their brains engaged in at least the first three taxonomies of learning: knowledge,

comprehension, and application. The last three levels may be reached as students gain more

experience in the subject matter: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

        The goals are appropriate for the fourth graders, as they have previous knowledge about

physical fitness and soccer. They have learned about fitness during presidential testing in the

spring, and they have learned soccer skills during their soccer unit two years ago. In addition,

some students are in private clubs for soccer, football, volleyball, and many other activities.

During the past soccer unit, they practiced dribbling, passing, and goal shooting. I have

confidence that they will be able to increase their knowledge and skills during the upcoming

fitness/soccer unit.




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                                             Assessment Plan

         Goal #1

         Students will know and understand the components of fitness.
     Learning Goals        Assessments           Format of Assessment              Adaptations

                                                                             Read quiz aloud or have
                                                                              someone translate for
                          Pre-Assessment     Written Quiz-matching: 5 points students who may have
                                                                                trouble reading or
                                                                             understanding the quiz.


  Learning Goal #1                            Checking for understanding:
Students will know and                       review components of fitness        Have translator if
                       Formative Assessment
    understand the                          each day of class. Monitor daily        necessary.
components of fitness.                                 progress.


                                                                              Read quiz aloud or have
                                                                               someone translate for
                         Post Assessment     Written Quiz-matching: 5 points. students who may have
                                                                                 trouble reading or
                                                                              understanding the quiz.




         For LG1 I will administer a five point post-assessment quiz at the end of the fitness unit.

This will be the same matching pre-quiz that the students take for their pre-assessment. The five

components of fitness are cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance,

body composition, and flexibility. The students‟ objective will be to match the components with

the correct definition. My proficiency goal for LG1 is for 70 percent of the students to answer 3

out of 5 questions correctly on the post-quiz. The school where I am student teaching awards the

students their grades based on a number system. The students are not given a letter grade; rather,

they are given a 1, 2, or 3 on their report card. One represents a beginner or novice. Two

represents a proficient student. Three represents an advanced student. Making my proficiency

goal 70 percent is similar to saying that I would want the students to score a 2 on their report

card.



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         The pre-assessment for LG1 will be the same five point post assessment quiz given to the

students. This pre-quiz will be given to the students at the beginning of the fitness unit. During

the unit I will review one of the five fitness components each day in class. I will continue to

show how the activities in class relate to cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular

endurance, body composition, and flexibility. I will be able to see how the students are doing by

monitoring their progress daily.



         Goal #2

         Students will increase their level of physical fitness.

     Learning Goals       Assessments             Format of Assessment                Adaptations

                                                                               Keep an eye on students
                                                 Mile run: each student runs a      with medical
                         Pre-Assessment        timed mile run at the beginning conditions(obesity) and
                                                      of the fitness unit.     asthma – advise them to
                                                                                 walk or use inhaler.


                                                                                 Keep an eye on students
  Learning Goal #2
                                                 Teacher observation during      with medical conditions
Students will increase
                        Formative Assessment   fitness stations. Monitor daily   (obesity) and asthma –
their level of physical
                                                           progress.             advise them to walk or
        fitness.
                                                                                       use inhaler.


                                                                                 Keep an eye on students
                                                Mile run: each student runs a
                                                                                 with medical conditions
                                                timed mile at the end of the
                         Post Assessment                                         (obesity) and asthma –
                                                 fitness unit to see levels of
                                                                                 advise them to walk or
                                                        improvement.
                                                                                       use inhaler.




         The post-assessment for LG2 will be administered as the students run the mile at Fourth

Grade Mayor‟s run. As the students cross the finish line, they will look up at the running clock

and right down what their time is. I will also have a parent volunteer videotaping the end of the

race, so I can double check what the students‟ final time is. My proficiency goal for LG2 is for

70 percent of the students to decrease their post-mile run by ten seconds or more.


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         The pre-assessment for LG2 will be administered by a mile run at the beginning of the

fitness unit. This will be unannounced, and will be run outside on the track. As the students pass

me on the track, they will be given a straw to keep track of how many laps they complete. Their

goal is to finish with four straws, which equal one mile. I will have a clipboard to record each

student‟s time and a stopwatch to keep track of the elapsed time. It will be their job to remember

their time as they cross the finish line, as I will be shouting out times continuously as everyone

finishes. I will continue to assess them through observation during fitness stations, jogging, and

walking in class.



         Goal #3

         Students will demonstrate their ability to dribble the soccer ball with accuracy and speed.

     Learning Goals           Assessments           Format of Assessment              Adaptations


                                                                                 Provide challenges that
                                                  Teacher observation during
                             Pre-Assessment                                      are appropriate for each
                                                    soccer skills practice.
                                                                                       ability level.


  Learning Goal #3
     Students will
                                                Teacher observation during       Provide challenges that
  demonstrate their
                          Formative Assessment soccer skills practice. Monitor   are appropriate for each
 ability to dribble the
                                                       daily progress.                 ability level.
   soccer ball with
       accuracy.

                                                    Total points possible: 4
                                                    1) Start/end with a trap     Provide challenges that
                            Post Assessment         2) Control of the ball       are appropriate for each
                                                    3) Use of no hands                 ability level.
                                                    4) Finished in 20 seconds




         For LG3 I will follow the district standards for team sports skills, and set up the soccer

skills test with five cones that are ten feet apart. The students will be assessed based a five point

checklist. Their goals will be to start and stop with a trap, control the ball, use of no hands, finish


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within 20 seconds, and to attempt the entire skills test. I will be holding a clipboard with the class

list so I can record how they do on the five-point checklist, and I will also be timing them with a

stopwatch when they start and stop the test. My proficiency goal for LG3 is for 70 percent of the

students to score 3 out of 5 points on the dribbling skills assessment.

         I only get to see the students two days a week for 25 minutes. It makes it very difficult to

have a true pre-assessment soccer skills test for LG3 and LG4. To make it fair for the students,

they will do activities and games in class that will prepare them for the skills test. During initial

instruction I will be observing and recording how the students are doing on their dribbling and

goal kicking skills. For LG3 students will be dribbling around in general space. I will be looking

for three parts as I formatively pre-assess the students when they dribble around the gym. These

three parts are using a trap when I stop the music or say „freeze,‟ having control of the ball

(should be close to their feet), and not using their hands when the ball gets away from them.

They will get a plus one point if they are doing the part correctly, or zero points if they are doing

it incorrectly.

         Goal #4

         Students will demonstrate their ability to kick the soccer ball with accuracy.

     Learning Goals         Assessments           Format of Assessment              Adaptations


                                                                               Provide challenges that
                                                Teacher observation during
                           Pre-Assessment                                      are appropriate for each
  Learning Goal #4                                soccer skills practice.
                                                                                     ability level.
    Students will
  demonstrate their
  ability to kick the
   soccer ball with
      accuracy.                               Teacher observation during       Provide challenges that
                        Formative Assessment soccer skills practice. Monitor   are appropriate for each
                                                     daily progress.                 ability level.




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                                                Total points possible: 5
                                                                               Provide challenges that
                                           Students get 5 attempts to kick
                        Post Assessment                                        are appropriate for each
                                          ball into goal. 1 point if ball goes
                                                                                     ability level.
                                                      in the goal.




       LG4 will also be administered by following the district standards for team sports. I will

set up cones that are ten feet apart to represent the goal, and I will place an „X‟ on the floor

where they will shoot the soccer ball 30 feet away from the goal. My proficiency goal for LG4 is

for 70 percent of the students to score 3 out of 5 points on the goal kicking skills assessment.

       For LG4 students will practice goal kicking to the wall with a partner for their pre-

assessment test. They will try to get the ball in-between the cones set up against the wall. One

partner will get to kick five times, and then they will switch. I will be walking around the gym

giving students one point when they make a goal or zero points if they miss a goal.

       There are five Bosnian students in the fourth grade class. For the most part, they seem to

understand directions and activities. One of the adaptations that I have available is a translator

to help out in class. I have contacted the two translators in the building to make sure at least one

of them is available during the fourth grade class, if needed. There is also a good chance that the

Bosnian students or Hispanic students will not be able to read the quiz that will be given to them.

If they are unable to comprehend the quiz, I will have a para-educator available to read the quiz

aloud to them. When the students run the mile, I will have to pay close attention to those who

have a medical condition. There are only a few students in the fourth grade class that have

asthma. I will make sure that they have their inhalers readily available during the mile run. I will

also encourage students who are obese, not as physically fit, or the student who has Perthes

disease to power walk for the mile. During the soccer skills and activities it will be imperative to

create challenges for each skill level. If I provide a challenge for below average, average, and


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above average students, each one should be able to be engaged in the activity doing his/her best.

I am aware that the student with Perthes disease will not be as heavily vigorous during all of the

activities. Her challenge will be to do her best while keeping excessive weight bearing

movements to a minimum.




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                                                        Design for Instruction

                                                             Table 1 (LG1)


                                                            Pre Quiz Scores

                                 6

                                 5
               Scores (5 max.)




                                 4

                                 3                                                                                    Pre-quiz
                                 2

                                 1

                                 0
                                        1

                                            3

                                                5

                                                    7

                                                        9

                                                             11

                                                                      13

                                                                                15

                                                                                      17

                                                                                            19

                                                                                                  21

                                                                                                       23

                                                                                                            25
                                                                Students



         After taking the fitness pre-quiz (see table 1) I found that almost half of the class did not

understand the differences between the five fitness components. Knowing this, I will make it a

point to discuss briefly about at least one fitness component each time the fourth graders have

class.

                                                                  Table 2 (LG2)


                                                                  Pre-Mile Run

                                        21:36
                                        19:12
                                        16:48
                                        14:24
                                 Time




                                        12:00
                                                                                                                          Pre-Mile
                                         9:36
                                         7:12
                                         4:48
                                         2:24
                                         0:00
                                                                           11

                                                                                 13
                                                                                       15

                                                                                             17
                                                                                                  19

                                                                                                       21
                                                                                                            23

                                                                                                                 25
                                                1

                                                    3
                                                        5

                                                            7
                                                                  9




                                                                           Students




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       The results of the pre mile run (see table 2) indicate that many students are not in very

good physical shape. I will take this into consideration, and add cardiovascular activities and

stations to each lesson. These activities will also work on their muscular strength, muscular

endurance, flexibility, and overall body composition.

                                                                 Table 3 (LG3)


                                                    Pre-Assessment: Trapping the Ball

                                      1.2

                                        1
                     Score (1 max.)




                                      0.8

                                      0.6                                                                   Pre-trap

                                      0.4

                                      0.2

                                        0
                                            1   3    5   7   9    11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
                                                                      Students



                                                                 Table 4 (LG3)


                                                     Pre-Assessment: Control of Ball

                                      1.2

                                       1
                 Score (1 max.)




                                      0.8

                                      0.6                                                                 Pre-Control

                                      0.4

                                      0.2

                                       0
                                            1
                                                3
                                                    5
                                                         7
                                                             9
                                                                 11
                                                                       13
                                                                            15
                                                                                 17
                                                                                      19
                                                                                           21
                                                                                                23
                                                                                                     25




                                                                 Students




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                                                             Table 5 (LG3)


                                                 Pre-Assessment: Use of No Hands

                                   1.2

                                    1
                  Score (1 max.)


                                   0.8

                                   0.6                                                               Pre-No hands

                                   0.4

                                   0.2

                                    0
                                                             11
                                                                  13
                                                                       15
                                                                            17
                                                                                 19
                                                                                      21
                                                                                           23
                                                                                                25
                                         1
                                             3
                                                 5
                                                     7
                                                         9


                                                             Students



       From the results of the dribbling pre-assessment (see tables 3, 4, 5), I have found that the

majority of the students understand how to trap the ball consistently, and they also realize that

they are not able to use their hands at all while dribbling. However, the less than half of the class

exhibited very good control of the ball while dribbling. I realize that possessing great control of

the soccer ball takes time and practice. Most of the students who showed great control are on a

soccer team outside of school. Knowing the students‟ dribbling skills from the pre-assessment

test, I will add activities and games that involve extra practice with controlling the soccer ball.




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                                                         Table 6 (LG4)


                                                   Pre-Assessment: Goal Kicking

                               6

                               5
              Score (5 max.)



                               4

                               3                                                   Pre-Goal kicking

                               2

                               1

                               0
                                   1   3   5   7     9   11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
                                                         Students



       From viewing the pre-assessment goal kicking test (see table 6) I have found that over

half of the class was able to make at least three goals. The students showed that they are able to

aim at the target in-between the cones, and most of them exhibited success in the pre-assessment.

As the students continue to work on soccer skills in class, I will have them practice their goal

kicking, while giving the advanced students a challenge to make it more difficult. For example, I

may have them practice their goal kicking with their non-dominant foot, or practice goal kicking

by using a scoop kick.




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Unit Overview
                 Week                    Day 1                                 Day 2
                                       No school                             No school
                   1

                             Orientation, running checklist,      Stop and Go, running checklist,
                   2               walk/jog/skip laps               pace of jogging, continuous
                                        LG 1, 2                            jog/walk/jog
                                                                              LG 1, 2

                                       No school                     Mile pre-test out on track
                   3                                                         LG 1, 2

                           Fitness pre-quiz, overview of five   Fitness stations stop and go, energy
                   4         components, soccer dribbling         balance lesson, soccer pass/trap
                                       with instep                            with partner
                                         LG 1, 3                               LG 1, 2, 3
                              Fitness stations stop and go,     Fitness stations stop and go, discuss
                   5       discuss body composition, soccer      cardiovascular endurance, soccer
                                tackle tag, ghostbusters              scoop kick with partner,
                                      LG 1, 2, 3, 4              combination station goal kicking
                                                                             LG 1, 2, 3, 4
                             Sit-up relay, discuss muscular      Sit-up and push-up relay, discuss
                   6       strength and muscular endurance,       flexibility, dribble maze through
                            soccer throw in, body trap, pass                 line of cones
                               back, juggling with partner                   LG 1, 2, 3, 4
                                      LG 1, 2, 3, 4
                                        Fieldtrip               Soccer dribbling skills test, fitness
                   7                                                 interactive board game
                                                                            LG 1, 2, 3



Activities

1. Fitness Stations Stop & Go

     When students come into class they are to begin the “instant activity” written on the dry erase

board. During the fitness unit, students will come into class and perform Fitness Stations Stop &

Go. The materials needed for this activity are: one activity printed a sheet of paper, sticky tack,

CD player, and CD. There will be a fitness activity posted on each one of the four walls in the

gym. These activities will be push-ups, sit-ups, squats, and stretching. Many of the instant

activities in physical education class involve the use of the CD player and music CDs. When the

music is playing the students will jog around the gym in a counterclockwise direction. When the



21
music stops the students will stop at the nearest wall and perform the activity posted. They will

continue the activity until they hear the music start back up. Students need to continually be

aware of ways to be physically active and fit. After they take the fitness pre-quiz they will be

understand part of the reason why they are in physical education class. This activity is related to

my goals (LG1, LG2), because performing Fitness Stations Stop and Go will help the students

know and understand the components of fitness, and will help increase their level of physical

fitness. From viewing the results of the pre-mile run, I have realized that the students need to

work on their cardiovascular endurance. Some of the students will be able to do the Fitness

Stations Stop and Go without any trouble, while others may struggle more. My goal is that they

will be able to build up their cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance so that

the at least 70 percent of the students will be successfully performing Fitness Stations Stop and

Go by the end of the unit. During this instant activity I will be using formative assessment by

observing the students at each station. I will walk around to make sure each student is on task the

entire time and make necessary adjustments in instruction.



2. Scoop Kick

     During the middle of each lesson will be a skill for the students to practice. One skill that

they will learn is the scoop kick. The materials needed for this lesson will one soccer ball for

every two students. This is a type of kick that students may use when shooting a goal. There are

five points that they want to keep in mind: look at their target, look at the ball, step next to the

ball with their non-dominant foot, point toe down, and kick (scoop) the ball with the top of their

instep. Safety is always a concern whenever there are balls involved in class. Students will need

to keep the scoop kicks below the waist. They will perform this skill with a partner about 10 feet




22
away from each other. From viewing the results of the formative pre-assessment of goal

kicking, I found more students prefer to use their instep when goal kicking. Therefore, doing the

scoop kick lesson will give the students a chance to practice another type of goal kick before

they perform their post-assessment. The scoop kick is related to my goals (LG4), because the

students may use it during the goal-kicking test when they try to accurately make five shots in

the goal. While the students are kicking back and forth with their partners, I will use formative

assessment as I walk around and observe their scoop kicking skills, adjusting instruction as

necessary.



3. Ghostbusters

       Towards the end of class the students will do a culminating activity. It is during this time

that students will tie all of their skills together. The students will be playing Ghostbusters. The

materials needed are four cones and one ball per student. There will be a cone in each corner of

the gym. The cones are their goal or target to kick at. There will be a goalie, or a „ghost,‟ in front

of each cone. Everyone else, „ghostbusters,‟ will be dribbling around in general space trying to

hit the cones. If a ghostbuster hits a cone, he/she will trade places with the ghost. They will be

working on keeping the ball close to and controlled while dribbling, and shooting at the cone

with their instep kick. Balls should remain on the floor when being kicked. After watching the

students during their pre-assessment, I have found that many need to work on keeping the ball

close to their feet while dribbling. Ghostbusters is related to my goals (LG3, LG4), as the entire

activity will help students work towards being able to dribble the soccer ball with accuracy and

speed, as well as being able to kick the ball with accuracy. As they are playing the game I will

use formative assessment by roaming around the gym observing their awareness, dribbling




23
skills, goal kicking skills, and attitude. I will also be making adjustments in instruction as

needed.



Technology

          In physical education class it is often difficult to find a variety of ways to incorporate

technology. In the school where I am at, the gym has access to a CD player. I also have been able

to access the Internet to retrieve some lesson ideas, and to correspond with University professors

about special needs accommodations. I also plan on having a parent videotape the fourth grade

Mayor‟s Run. This will allow me to watch and record my fourth grade students as they cross the

finish line. I only get to see the students twice a week for 25 minutes. There is not enough time

right now in the curriculum to involve any extra technology. A quick, fairly inexpensive type of

technology would be pedometers. If the school would allot some money, I am sure my

cooperating teacher would jump on the idea to purchase enough pedometers for students to wear

in every class.



Contextual Factors

          As I am preparing my design for instruction I keep reminding myself of the brand new

facility that I have the opportunity to teach in. The gym is huge and I am eager to take advantage

of all of the space and equipment that is available to the students. The large space in the gym

allows the students to be successful when practicing their physical fitness skills and their soccer

skills.

          As I stated earlier, most of the students have average physical fitness and soccer skills. I

will certainly take this into consideration when implementing my lessons. If I begin teaching a




24
skill that the majority of the class seems to be proficient in, I will quickly need to come up with a

challenge for them to perform in class. The chemistry of the class is pretty good, as there are not

many disciplinary problems. They are pretty good about being willing to work with anyone.

Overall, the students‟ attitude towards physical education and fitness is pretty good. Since many

of them come from a middle to upper socioeconomic family, they are more inclined to want to be

active and fit. This stems from the fact that their parents may be good role models, and/or that

they are providing their children with opportunities to be active at home or in the community.

Most of the students understand that physical education class is not „recess‟ time. They come

ready, and open-minded to learn about new physical activities, health, and fitness.

       My instructional design will also make adaptations available for Student Twenty and

Student Ten. For example, if Student Twenty is running the mile, I may motivate him to jog for

ten seconds, then power walk for twenty seconds. For the same activity I will need to take

Student Ten‟s Perthes disease into consideration and tell her to walk the mile, so she will not

aggravate her hip by the extra weight bearing of running. Due to Student Ten‟s disease, I will

individually address her about how to modify running/pounding activities.




25
                                  Instructional Decision-Making

       There are several decisions that have to be made to make for a successful unit and to

meet the goals set for student learning. Throughout this unit, many changes were adapted to help

each student be successful and to aid them in meeting the goals of the unit. Next, I am going to

discuss two changes that were made in this unit that effected student learning in a productive

manner.

       During the fitness unit the students‟ instant activity was fitness stations stop and go.

While the music was playing the students‟ job was to run around the gym in a counterclockwise

direction. When the music stopped, they were to perform the fitness activity posted on the wall

that they stopped closest to. The four different fitness activities were: stretching, sit-ups,

stretching, and push-ups (LG1, LG2). I did not verify what type of stretch to do at the two

different stretching stations. I just assumed that they would stretch one body part at the first

stretching station, and a different body part at the second stretching station. To my surprise,

when the music stopped, students would flock to be in front of a wall that had stretching on it. As

I scanned the class using formative assessment, I realized that they were trying to get out of

doing sit-ups and push-ups. I also realized that when they were at the stretching station, they

were not sure what type of stretch to perform; so, many students just stood there and waited for

the music to start again. Seeing what was happening, I stopped the class and brought their

attention to me. I modified the instant activity by demonstrating how to do the calf stretch at one

of the stretching stations, and then I demonstrated how to perform the tricep stretch at the other

stretching station. After I verified that they understood how to perform both stretches, I went on

to inform them that they were not to be at any station more than once. For example, if they were

near the sit-up wall when the music stopped, and they had already been at the sit-up wall, then




26
they would run to a different wall and perform a fitness activity that they had not done yet. They

finished up the class performing fitness stop and go the way that I had originally saw it in my

head. The next time they came into class, fitness stop and go was an even bigger success. The

majority of the students remembered the modifications that were made, and did a nice job of

following directions.

       A second time that I needed to adjust my instructional decision making occurred towards

the end of the class period. During this particular lesson the students‟ culminating activity was to

perform dribbling through a maze of five cones. I divided them up into groups of five students at

each set of cones. I demonstrated how to weave in and out of the cones, stressing to try and keep

the ball in control, close to the feet. I told them that the first person in line would weave in and

out of the cones, and when he/she got back to the beginning, he/she would finish with a trap

(LG3). Once the ball was trapped, the second person in line was free to begin. As I surveyed the

class during my formative assessment I noticed that there was a lot of standing around, as only

five people were dribbling at a time. I also noticed that it was taking some students quite some

time to weave in and out of five cones. Looking at the pedagogical development of fourth

graders, I realized that they are not as physically able to weave through five cones as quickly as a

high school student might be able to go. Thinking on my feet, I quickly interrupted the activity

and made a couple of modifications. I took two cones away from each group, so that they were

only weaving in and out of three cones. I knew this would increase the number of times each

student would get to dribble through the cones. I also told the students who were not dribbling

(waiting in line) to do work on the components of fitness, (LG1) and do jumping jacks, sit-ups,

or push-ups while the dribbler was weaving in and out of the cones. Once the students started

back up with the activity, I was able to see some improvement. There were about 25 students




27
moving at a time, instead of just five. Each student also had more chances to practice their

dribbling skills.




28
                                             Analysis of Student Learning

                                                     Table 7 (LG1)


                                                     Fitness Quiz Scores

                             6

                             5
           Scores (5 max.)




                             4
                                                                                               Pre-quiz
                             3
                                                                                               Post-quiz
                             2

                             1

                             0
                                                       11

                                                            13

                                                                 15

                                                                      17

                                                                           19

                                                                                21

                                                                                     23

                                                                                          25
                                 1

                                     3

                                         5

                                             7

                                                 9




                                                        Students


       My proficiency goal for LG1 was for 70 percent of the students to answer 3 out of 5

questions correctly on the post-quiz. The number of students who answered three or more

questions correctly was 15, or 60 percent (see table 7). Unfortunately, the class as a whole did

not meet my 70 percent proficiency goal. In summary, the graph shows that over half of the

students have a good understanding about the five fitness components, while many are still not

quite sure how to differentiate between the five fitness components.




29
                                               Table 8 (LG2)


                                                   Mile Run

                  21:36
                  19:12
                  16:48
                  14:24
           Time




                  12:00                                                                      Pre-Mile
                   9:36                                                                      Post-Mile
                   7:12
                   4:48
                   2:24
                   0:00

                                                 11

                                                      13

                                                           15

                                                                17

                                                                      19

                                                                           21

                                                                                 23

                                                                                      25
                          1

                              3

                                  5

                                      7

                                           9

                                                  Students




       My proficiency goal for LG2 was for 70 percent of the students to decrease their post-

mile run by ten seconds or more. The amount of students who decreased their mile run time by

ten seconds or more was 60 percent, or 15 students (see table 8). That did not quite meet my 70

percent proficiency goal. Amazingly, of the 15 students who improved their times, 9 of them

decreased their mile time by two minutes or more. In summary, the graph illustrates that over

half of the class was able to decrease their pre-mile run by ten seconds or more. In response to

LG2, he was able to decrease his post-mile run by almost two minutes.




30
                                                         Table 9 (LG3)


                                                              Trapping

                          1.2

                           1
     Score (1 max.)




                          0.8
                                                                                                     Pre-trap
                          0.6
                                                                                                     Post-trap
                          0.4

                          0.2

                           0
                                                         11

                                                               13

                                                                     15

                                                                          17

                                                                               19

                                                                                    21

                                                                                          23

                                                                                               25
                                1

                                    3

                                        5

                                            7

                                                9




                                                          Students


                                                         Table 10 (LG3)


                                                    Use of No Hands

                          1.2

                            1
         Score (1 max.)




                          0.8
                                                                                               Pre- No hands
                          0.6
                                                                                               Post- No hands
                          0.4

                          0.2

                            0
                                                    11
                                                          13
                                                                15
                                                                     17
                                                                          19
                                                                               21
                                                                                    23
                                                                                         25
                                1
                                    3
                                        5
                                            7
                                                9




                                                    Students




31
                                                                 Table 11 (LG3)


                                                                 Control of Ball

                              1.2

                               1
             Score (1 max.)




                              0.8
                                                                                                       Pre-Control
                              0.6
                                                                                                       Post-Control
                              0.4

                              0.2

                               0
                                                             11

                                                                    13

                                                                         15

                                                                              17

                                                                                   19

                                                                                        21

                                                                                             23

                                                                                                  25
                                    1

                                            3

                                                5

                                                    7

                                                        9




                                                                 Students




                                                                 Table 12 (LG3)


                                                        Timed Dribble Post-Test

                       50
                       45
                       40
                       35
     Time (sec.)




                       30
                       25                                                                              Post-dribbling
                       20
                       15
                       10
                        5
                        0
                                1

                                        3

                                                5

                                                    7

                                                        9

                                                            11

                                                                   13

                                                                         15

                                                                              17

                                                                                   19

                                                                                        21

                                                                                             23

                                                                                                  25




                                                             Students



                       My proficiency goal for LG3 was for 70 percent of the students to score 3 out of 4 points

on the dribbling skills assessment. The number of students who scored three or more points was

22, or 88 percent. The students went above and beyond the proficiency goal that I had set for


32
them at the beginning of the unit. When viewing each of the four graphs individually (tables 9,

10, 11, and 12), I can see the break down of the four points awarded or not awarded. The number

of students who were able to start and end with a trap was near perfect at 96 percent, or 25

students (table 9). The other characteristic of the test where 84 percent, or 21 students were

awarded a point was their ability to not use their hands (table 10). Many students lost points, as

they were unable to keep good control of the ball. The number of students who kept control of

the ball was 10, or 40 percent (table 11). Finishing in 20 seconds or less was the test

characteristic that produced the lowest score. The number of students who finished in 20 seconds

or less was 6, or 24 percent (table 12). In summary, Tables 9 and 10 indicate that almost every

child has the basic mechanics of soccer mastered, being able to trap and being able to not use

their hands. Tables 11 and 12 indicate that the students need continued practice with dribbling,

so that they will be able to have good control of the ball.

                                                Table 13 (LG4)


                                                          Goal Kicking

                            6

                            5
           Score (5 max.)




                            4
                                                                                            Pre-Goal Kicking
                            3
                                                                                            Post-Goal Kicking
                            2

                            1

                            0
                                1

                                    3

                                        5

                                            7

                                                9

                                                    11

                                                         13

                                                              15

                                                                   17

                                                                        19

                                                                             21

                                                                                  23

                                                                                       25




                                                     Students




33
        My proficiency goal for LG4 was for 70 percent of the students to score 3 out of 5 points

on the goal kicking skills assessment. The results of the post-goal kicking test reveal that 21

students, or 84 percent, were able to make 3 or more goals (see table 13). The students were able

to meet and go above the goal that I set for them at the beginning of the unit. Students 5, 6, and

13 were consistently perfect in their five goal shots. Students 7, 9, 17, 18, and 20 were able to

increase their pre-goal kicking scores by two points during their post-goal kicking test. In

summary, the graph shows that the majority of the students have a good handle on aiming and

making the soccer ball into the goal.



Individuals

        In regards to LG1, Student Eight scored five points on the pre-quiz and five points on the

post-quiz (see appendix B-1). From the initial assessment on day one I could see that this student

was bright and athletic. It is important to understand the learning of this particular student, as she

is at the top of her class. She is a role model for her peers, is able to listen quietly, follow

directions correctly, does her best, and respects others. When teaching a lesson, I needed to keep

in the back of my mind the fact that she would always be ready for something new, or a different

challenge. When looking at LG2, she was the first girl to finish during the pre-mile, as well as

the first girl to finish at the Mayor‟s Run. She not only cut time off her pre-mile run, but she was

able to decrease her post-mile run by 37 seconds. After coming in first out of all of the fourth

grade girls in the community, I asked her if she is an avid runner. She said that her siblings are

involved in cross-country, and that she enjoys running with them. Once again, her physical

fitness/activity is influenced by her home life. In regards to LG3 she was proficient in scoring 3

out of 4 points. She was also proficient in scoring 3 out of 5 goals for LG4. I noticed that she got




34
a little nervous and was not quite herself during the post-assessments for her soccer skills. This

may be attributed to the fact that she may be a perfectionist and gets nervous when being tested

on certain sports skills. Overall, she was a pleasure to have in class and one who I can count on

being an active role in the fitness and sports field.

        In regards to LG1, Student Twenty scored two points on the pre-quiz and one point on

the post-quiz (see appendix B-2). As his classroom teacher may attest, he may not be the

brightest, but he usually gives his best effort. I truly think he gave his best effort on the quiz. In

his defense, he did miss the small review the day before we took the quiz, because he was absent.

I feel that he may have scored two or more points if he were to hear the review before taking the

quiz. It is important to understand how he learns. He is a big guy, one whom I like to refer to as a

lovable teddy bear. During instruction time he does his best if he is able to sit up in the front, so

that he can focus on what the directions are. He also performs and responds well to feedback

during class. When looking at LG2, he was able to decrease his pre-mile run by almost two

minutes at the Mayor‟s Run. I told him that in order to improve his time, he did not have to run

the whole mile. I gave him the strategy to run for a while, walk a little bit and then run again. He

was able to perform this cycle and he was pleased that he finished the mile in less time. In

regards to LG3 and LG4 he did a great job. He is naturally athletic, although his size sometimes

gets in his way. Being overweight slows down his speed and agility; however, he does a nice job

of maneuvering his body to perform skills to the best of his ability. In regards to LG3 he was

proficient by scoring 3 out of 4 points. He was also proficient in scoring 4 out of 5 goals for

LG4. Overall, he was also a pleasure to have in class. He kept me on my toes when making

adaptations for him in class, and by cracking a few jokes here and there.




35
                                  Reflection and Self-Evaluation

        The learning goal in which the students were most successful was LG3, students will

demonstrate their ability to dribble the soccer ball with accuracy. I was pleased to see that 22 out

of 25 students in class were able to score three or more points on the test. First of all, I will

attribute most of their success to being on a club soccer team outside of school. Soccer is a huge

up and coming sport throughout the world and America. Many students love the idea of getting

to play outside, be with peers/friends, and be physically active. Their parents have done a great

job in providing them the opportunity to play on a club team. Even if they are not on an

organized team, many students enjoy kicking a soccer ball around by themselves or with friends.

Another possible reason for success, could be that the students had many different chances to

practice their dribbling skills in class. Each day of class I provided them with at least one soccer

activity in which they were working on their dribbling skills. Before the post-dribbling test I

thoroughly demonstrated how to begin with a trap, weave in and out of the five cones, keep the

ball close, and end with a trap. I feel that this demonstration and specific directions played a part

in helping them be successful in the dribbling test.

         The learning goal in which the students were least successful was LG1, students will

know and understand the components of fitness. The number of students who answered three or

more questions correctly was 15 out of 25. I was disappointed to see that more students did not

increase their score during the post-quiz. There are a few factors that may have played into why

only 60 percent of the class was proficient for LG1. One reason for the lack of success may be

due to the fact that there are five Bosnian students and two Hispanic students in my class. They

may not have understood what the words were on the quiz, and/or they may have been guessing

for their answers. If I was to give this quiz again, I would wait until everyone had their quiz,




36
then I would read it aloud so that they could follow along with my voice. I could also have an

ELL translator come in to help the ELL students. Another reason for the lack of success may

stem from the fact that I only explained each component for about five minutes of a lesson.

Knowing how important the concepts are that align with the five fitness components, it was

difficult for me to only allot five minutes of my lesson to explain what the components mean. I

feel that the students were cut short on the amount of instructional/lecture time regarding the

definitions of the five components. If I were to teach this unit again, I would have the students

come in and do their instant activity and skill for about half of the 25-minute class period, and I

would end the lesson with a 12-15 minute interactive lesson about the fitness components.

       The adaptations that I had set up for LG1 were not very effective, as I did not bring in a

translator, and I did not read the quiz aloud. The adaptations for LG2, keeping an eye on students

with medical conditions and advising them to walk or use their inhaler, worked out well. I saw

this in effect during the pre-mile run as I encouraged many students to at least continue power

walking, if running was too difficult for them. I especially made sure to keep an eye on student

“ten” as she needed to be very careful and not overdo weight-bearing activities. She was

persistent and walked the entire mile without any problems or stopping. The adaptations made

for LG3 and LG4 were to provide challenges that are appropriate for each ability level. I found

that I effectively adapted to individual ability levels on a daily basis. Walking around the gym I

would see students dribbling out of control, some with average control, and others with excellent

control. For those who were dribbling out of control, I would have them work on slowing down

their pace and trapping the ball if it would get away from them. Those with average control I

would have them continue to keep the ball close, but try to increase their speed, while using a

trap if the ball would get away from them. For those who have excellent control, I would have




37
them work on keeping control of the ball at a fast speed, while trying to use their non-dominant

foot more than their dominant foot. Similar to watching dribbling practice, I also saw an array of

ability levels in the goal kicking practice. As I walked around and watched students I would give

them a challenge based on their ability level. For those who were below average, I would tell

them to move into about eight feet from the goal, and to practice their instep goal kick. Those

who portrayed average goal kicking skills, I would tell them to practice from about 15 feet away,

make ten with their dominant foot using their instep kick, then try ten with their non-dominant

foot. Those who were above average, their challenge was to practice from 20 feet away, make

ten with their dominant foot using their instep kick, ten with their non-dominant foot, ten scoops

kicks with their dominant foot, and ten with their non-dominant foot.



Professional Development

       One of the main concerns in any classroom is ultimately management. I have learned a

lot about management in the eight weeks that I was at this school. As an educator, I realize that I

need to continually grow in my plethora of knowledge. One of the best ways that I feel I can

become more aware of excellent classroom management strategies would be to observe a

number of teachers. During my observation week I was very impressed with the different styles

of teaching in the school building that I was at. I would like to expand my management horizons

by watching other physical education teachers in the area. Being able to manage a group of

students in a small classroom is a bit different than being able to manage them in a huge space,

such as a gym or outdoor field. Another way that I can increase my understanding of

management would be to attend a seminar or workshop that is addressing this topic. Being able

to hear experienced speakers and teachers discuss their tricks and strategies would be great for




38
me to hear. I would also be able to increase my networking by meeting new teachers at the

workshop.

        Another concern I have about having my own classroom is establishing routines and

expectations with the students. My cooperating teacher has an excellent system down, one in

which the students know what to expect from her and one where she knows what to expect from

them. Going back to what I said about management, I feel that one of the best ways to pick up

great ideas is to observe other teachers. I would like to take a week and do this. I realize that it is

different once I am alone in front of an entire class. Everything seems so easy while watching an

experienced teacher, but it seems entirely different when the spotlight is on me. Another way to

work on enforcing routines and expectations is to practice them. I learned from my first

placement that once students have a routine set in place; it is difficult for them to pick up a brand

new one. I was fortunate to have such an organized cooperating teacher, as I was able to keep her

same routines and expectations across the board. The TWS has been a great learning tool. I look

forward to put what I have learned to good use in my teaching career. With continued experience

and a high enthusiasm I am eager to facilitate student learning, while giving them the confidence

to engage in life-long fitness.




39
                                  References and Credits


Community Physical Education Guidelines. Checklist for Team Sports Skills: Soccer

Community Statistics. Retrieved October 1, 2006 from the World Wide Web:

       http://www.community.k12.ia.us

Legg-Calve’-Perthes Disease. Retrieved October 20, 2006 from the World

       Wide Web: http://www.nonf.org

National Standards for Physical Education. Retrieved October 20, 2006 from the World

       Wide Web: http://www.aapherd.org/NASPE

U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 19, 2006 from the World Wide Web:

       http://www.census.gov




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