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					                                          Income Taxes
                                           Chapter 16

Differences in the timing of the recognition of revenue and expense for financial reporting
versus tax reporting cause differences between financial income and taxable income. These
differences give rise to differences in income tax payable (per income tax return) and income tax
expense (per income statement).

There are two categories of differences between financial income and tax income: (1)
permanent differences and (2) temporary differences. Permanent differences are caused by
provisions of the tax code which exempt certain types of revenues from taxation, e.g., interest
income on municipal bonds, and prohibit the deduction of certain types of expenses, e.g., fines for
violation of laws. Nontaxable revenues and nondeductible expenses are never included in the
computation of taxable income for tax return purposes but are included in the computation of
financial income on the income statement. Thus permanent differences cause no particular
accounting problems.

On the other hand, temporary differences arise from timing differences as to the reporting of
income or the deducting of expenses. A common example of a temporary difference is
depreciation expense. The tax code allows accelerated depreciation on tax returns whereas
most companies use straight line depreciation on their income statements. These temporary
differences create deferred tax liabilities for future taxable amounts and deferred tax assets
for future deductible amounts. See Exhibit 16-2, Page 958 for examples of common temporary
differences. Accounting for temporary differences is referred to as inter-period tax
allocation.

Example 1 on Page 955-6 is an example of a simple deferred income tax liability. In this example
financial net income is $30,000 and taxable net income is only $10,000. At a 40% tax rate,
income tax expense on the income statement is $12,000 but only $4,000 on the corporate tax
return. The journal entry to record this event would be as follows:
       Income Tax Expense                   $12,000
              Income Taxes Payable                         $4,000
              Deferred Tax Liability                        8,000

Example 2 on Page 957 is an example of a simple deferred tax asset. In this example financial
net income is $50,000 and taxable net income is $60,000 arising from the different treatment
of warranty expense. At a 40% tax rate income tax expense on the income statement is $20,000
but totals $24,000 on the corporate tax return. The appropriate journal entry to record this
event is as follows:
      Income Tax Expense              $20,000
      Deferred Tax Asset                4,000
             Income Taxes Payable                    $24,000

Deferred tax assets can be complicated by the following issues:
     (1) The likelihood that a company will continue to show profits and
         thus be able to realize the deferred tax asset in the future
      (2) Changing tax rates

FASB Statement No. 109 uses the asset and liability method of inter-period tax allocation. The
advantages of this method are that is it is conceptually consistent with other asset and liability
standards and it is a flexible method that recognizes changes in circumstances and adjusts the
reported amounts accordingly. The disadvantages of this method are it may be quite complicated
and that some users disregard any deferred tax items when analyzing financial statements.

The computation of deferred tax assets and liabilities under FASB Statement No. 109 involves
four steps as follows:
   1. Identify the types and amounts of existing temporary differences
   2. Measure the deferred tax liability for taxable temporary differences using applicable
      current and future rates
   3. Measure the deferred tax assets for deductible temporary differences using applicable
      current and future rates
   4. Reduce deferred tax assets by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some
      portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The valuation allowance
      should reduce the deferred tax asset to the amount that is more likely than not to be
      realized.

Example 3, Pages 961-4, involves Roland, Inc. and a deferred tax liability. The difference
between depreciation expense for financial reporting and tax purposes creates a taxable
temporary difference as is shown in the table covering the years 2008 through 2011 on Page 961.

In 2008 financial income is $75,000 using straight line depreciation but taxable income is
$60,000 using accelerated depreciation. The appropriate journal entry to record this event in
2008, assuming a 40% tax rate, is as follows:
      Income Tax Expense                    $30,000
            Income Taxes Payable                           $24,000
            Deferred Tax Liability-Non-current               6,000
In 2009 Roland again reports financial income of $75,000 but taxable income of $70,000. The
appropriate journal entry is:
      Income Tax Expense                    $30,000
             Income Taxes Payable                        $28,000
             Deferred Tax Liability-Non-Current             2,000

In 2010 since the depreciation amounts are the same on the financial statement as on the tax
return, the following entry should be made:
      Income Tax Expense                    $30,000
             Income Taxes Payable                        $30,000

Finally in 2011 when depreciation expense is $25,000 for financial reporting purposes but only
$5,000 for tax purposes, the following entry should be made:
       Income Tax Expense                    $30,000
       Deferred Tax Liability-Non-Current      8,000
              Income Taxes Payable                          38,000

As you can see, this final entry eliminates the deferred tax liability.

Example 4 involves Sandusky, Inc. and a deferred tax asset. In this example, the only
difference between financial and taxable income is the treatment of warranty expense.
Estimated amounts of warranty expense are deducted on the financial statement whereas only
actual amounts can be deducted for income tax purposes. In 2208 financial income is $22,00 but
taxable income is $40,000. At a 40% tax rate, the following journal entry would be made:
       Income Tax Expense                   $8,800
       Deferred Tax Asset – Current          2,400
       Deferred Tax Asset – Non-Current      4,800
            Income Taxes Payable                          $16,000

Note that the total deferred tax asset is $7,200 (the difference between income tax expense
and income taxes payable) and that because one-third of the tax benefit will be realized in 2009,
one-third of the total benefit is shown as a current asset and two-thirds is shown as a non-
current asset. Appropriate journal entries for 2009, 2010, and 2011 are shown on Page 965.

Example 5 involves the Hsieh Company and both deferred tax liabilities and assets. To make this
example simpler, however, the authors have just combined Examples 3 and 4 mentioned above.
For reporting purposes current deferred tax assets and current deferred tax liabilities are
netted against each other and reported as a single account. Similarly, non-current deferred tax
assets and liabilities are netted as a single amount. See Pages 965-8.

FASB Statement No. 109 requires the deferred tax asset be reduced by a valuation allowance if,
based on all available evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred
tax asset will not be realized. The valuation allowance is a contra asset account that reduces the
deferred tax asset to its expected realizable value.

Carry-back and Carry-forward operating losses are discussed beginning on Page 970. If you were
profitable in prior periods and paid taxes, you can get a refund up to and including all those tax
payments in the current period for which you incur an operating loss. An NOL carry-back is
applied to the income of the two preceding years starting with the second preceding year and
moving forward to the immediately preceding year. The effect of a carry-back is journalized by
establishing a current receivable for the tax refund claim and reducing the operating loss of the
current period (see Page 971).

If an operating loss exceeds income for the two preceding years, the remaining unused loss may
be carried forward to income earned over the next twenty years. Under FASB No. 109 a
deferred tax asset is recognized for the potential future tax benefits from a loss carry-
forward.

Scheduling for enacted future tax rates is discussed on Pages 973-4. You are not responsible for
this topic for exam purposes.

For disclosure purposes, the income statement must show, either in the body of the statement or
in a note, the following selected components of income taxes relating to continuing operations:
     Current tax expense or benefit
     Deferred tax expense or benefit
     Investment tax credits
     Government grants recognized as tax reductions
     Benefits of operating loss carry-forwards
     Any adjustments of deferred tax liability or assets arising from changes in tax laws
     Adjustments in the beginning of the year valuation allowance because of a change in
       circumstances

Companies must also disclose the specific accounting differences between the financial
statements and the tax return that give rise to deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities.
FASB Statement No. 95 requires separate disclosure of the amount of cash paid for just two
items:
       1. Cash paid for income taxes
       2. Cash paid for interest

Income taxes are reported in the operating activities section of the cash flow statement. In the
direct method, cash paid for income taxes is shown as a separate line item. In the indirect
method, adjustments to convert net income into cash from operations are needed for changes in
income taxes payable and receivable accounts and for changes in deferred tax asset and liability
accounts.

The United States uses the comprehensive recognition approach for income taxes that requires
recognition of all temporary differences between financial accounting income and taxable income.
The international community has moved to this approach and Revised IAS 12 is very similar to the
U. S. standard for income taxes.

				
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