CHILD LABOR IN by ipx46851

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 145

									                     U. S. DEPARTMENT LABOR
                                    OF
                           JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

                       CHILDREN'S
                                BUREAU
                            GRACE ABBOTT. Chief




        CHILD
            LABOR NEWJERSEY
                IN
                               PARTI
                EMPLOYMENT SCHOOL
                         OF     CHILDREN


                                    By

                  NETTIEP. McGILL MARYSKINNER
                                and




                          BurcauPublicationNo. 192




                            TjNITED STATES
                      @VERNMENT PRINTINC OFFICE
                           WASHINGTON:
                                     1929




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
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                                                  D. C.
                                             IT

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Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                                                          CONTENTS

                                                                                                                                  Pago
      Letter of transmittal--                                                                                                        v
      Introduction-                                                                                                                   1
      S u m { r a r y -- : . - - - - : - - - -                                                                                       3
              Occupations           other ihan street rvorli_-_ - ___         _                                                      3
              Street work-                                                                                                           5
      Leg.atregulatioo t rh" ;;-pr;il;;a                           ;]-.hilA;;        in-N;; l;ilt __________                         I
      Uhildren in occupations other than street x'ork_ -                                                                            11
              Newark------                                                                                                          II
                     { S e . a n ds e x o f c h i l d r e n - - - - - - - _ _ _                                                     l1
                     Nationalit-v of fathers-__                 _                                                                   t2
                     Kinds of riork________                                                                                         r3
                     Extent and regularity of rvork_                                                                                t7
                     tlours oI work________                                                                                         r9
                     Earnings__-__                                                                                                 .JO
                     lrogress in school____                _                                                                       39
                     .!.lconomie      status of famiiies__ ___         _
                    Accountsof work of individual children_____                                                                    43
             Paterson-----                                                                                                         46
                    Age.andsex of children-_-                                                                                      46
                    Nationality of fathers___                   _                                                                  * l
                    r\lnds oI lvort<_ ______   _
                    Extent and regularit-v of rvork_                                                                               ol
                    H o u r so f w o r k _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                                                                           53
                    Earnings---_-                                                                                                  o/
                                    in
                    :qrogress school_ __               __                                                                          70
                                      c
                    - l j c o n o m i s t a t u so f f a m i l i e s - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
                                                                           __                                                      7l
                    Accounts of work of individual children-                                                                       72
             Employrnent of children contrary to the standards of the                                iial.Lr.
                 raw__________                                                                    "t                               lo
                    Newark---___                                                                                                   /D
                    Paterson-------_                          -
     C h i l d r e n i n s t r e e C w o i i - - - - -- - - -
                                                   -             .                                                                79
             Newark-----------.                                                        ---                                        80
                 !,esal;es;;iao;;i J;;.t.'',;.L-- - - - - - -                                                                     80
                 Nerr.spaper sellers- - -            - _- -                                                                       8l
                      Iiac^e and nationatity of frti;;_                          _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _   81
                      Economic condition'of farnilies_ _- _ -                                                                     8l
                      A g e o f n e r v s b o y s - _ __ _ _ _ _ -                                                                83
                      Duration of street $'ork________                                                                            83
                      Conclitions of rvork_ -_ _ _ _                                                                              84
                      R e g r r l a r i t v o f n ' u r k _ _ __ __                                                               85
                      H o u r s o f l r ' o r k _ _ __ _ _ _ _                                                                    85
                      Earnings----_                                                                                               9r
                      Newsbo.ys in sehool___                                                                                      93
                 1\ ewspaper carrlers_ -_ _ _ _                                                                                   94
                      Race and nationality of fathers_ ___-_                                                                      95
                      E c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n o f f a m i l i e s - _ _ , _-                                            95
                      A g e o f c a r r i e r s - - - - - _ __ _ __ _                                                             96
                      Duration of street i,l'ork_____ __ _                                                                        96
                      Conditions of employment_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _                                                                96
                      Regularity of rvoik_ _____                                                                                  96
                      Hours of work________                                                                                       96
                        Earnings.- - - - -: - - - - -- -- -
                                  -                                                                                               98
                        uarners rn scnool_____                                                                                    98




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       rV                                                    CONTENTS

                                                                                                             Pase
       Children in street work-Continued.
            -
            Nelvark-Continued.
                 Bootblacks----------                                                                    -     99
                         Race and nationality of fathers-                                                      99
                         Economic condition"offamilies-------                                                 100
                         ege-of Uootbtacks--------                                                            100
                         Dirration of street work--------                                                     100
                         Conditionsof 'work------                                                             101
                         Regutarity of t'ork------                                                            101
                         Ho"urs f work________
                                     o                                                                        101
                         bu*i"g.-----                                                                         105
                         Bootblicks irschool----,--                                                           107
                 Peddlers_____                                                                                107
                          Race and nationality of fathers----                                                 107
                          Economic condition'of families-----                                                 108
                          Duration of street work--------                                                     108
                          Conditions of work- -- - - -                                                        108
                          RegularitYof work------                                                             109
                          Ho"urs f work___-__-_
                          -nu*i"gt-   o                                                                       109      i
                                                                                                              115      l
                                            -- - -
                          P;ddie;s in school-----                                                             116
                  N l i s c e l l a n e o u sr e e tw o r k e r s - - - - - - - - - - - -
                                           st                                                                 117
            Paterson-----
            -.^'-i.;il                                                                                        118
                            i"eotutiutiof street l'ork---                                                     118
                  N e l i = p u f r " is e l l e r s - - - - - - -
                  -'-                                                                                         118
                          Iiu.'" anci nationality of fathers-                                                 118
                          Economic conclition-of                   families-                                  119
                          Age of nervsbo!'s---------                                                          l2O
                          D-urationof stieet work--------                                                     l2O
                          Conditions of u'ork-                                                                l2O
                          AegularitY of work------                                                            I2L
                          H o i r r so f w o r k - - - - - - - -                                                l zl
                                                                                                              'L r <
                          Earnings-----
                          Newsbdys in school-                                                                   I25
                  N."lr.aPu..."urriers- -                                                                     ' 126
                          Itace and nationality of fathers-                                 ----- ' -' -'--     I27
                          Economic condition-of families-                                                       127
                          Age of carriers------------
                          -Dit."tiu"                                                                            L27
                                            of street work--------                                              127
                          Conditions of rvork-                                                                  128
                          Re[utaritY of rvork------                                                             128
                          Ho-urs.f ivork________                                                            -   128
                          bu*i"g.-----                                                                          130
                          Carrieri in school- -                                                                 130
                  Peddlers-                                                                                     131
                          Race and nationality of fathers--                                                     131
                           Economic condition-of families-                                                      131
                           eg6 JPuaal"rs-----------                                                             132
                           D"urati6nof street work--------                                                      732
                           Conclitions work------
                                                of                                                              132
                           Regutarity of work------                                                             132
                           Ho"ursof work--------                                                                132
                           Earnings-----                                                                         134
                           Peddleisin school-----                                                               134
                   M i s c e l l a n e o us l r e e t w o r k e r s - - - - - - - - - - -
                                              s                                                                  134
        Appenai*ji;;Iof                N"; Jersey chiltl labor lal's---                                          137




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                        LETTER OF TRANSMITTAT

                        IJNrrroSrarpsDppenrurnr
                                               ;;#tffir^".
       ..Srn:rhereistransmirtuai,"r"*itllou*y:{"y;'"X':ff:il:r3+irif
                                               f ;*
     school children in New Jersey- Ti-';;;;;.iG"tu;';;;""rii,i"r,
     report.was based was_                                       ^tfr"'?erre.al
                                                                           ,r,i.
                             planned_ and .a..i.d %ui-
     supervision of Ellen                         dir;;;" "ra"r,,
                          -Nitrralie uattt                 ;f ln"'l".rar,rst"iut
     division of the children's g"^rou",-u;i"*u. one of several
                                           ""*,
     relatinEto rhe emnroymenr .hii'dr;;in New'ier;.;'-;;;'by studies
                                   of         -il
     Children's Bureau.                                                     thc
                        ir".y qtllr;;;;;    -;lirj" ;i''.,. ?lia'*o,r.,
     andthereport writtdn xeitieF.-rvr"dii"*i rrri#"'si.ro.ru".
                   was         uy
       Acknowt^edsmenr ,&irr" 1""p"*i+'*;;;
                       is ;qa9
                                                        !rr"x,rii* uy
     the. state department of rabor-and"by*-pubric-school
     social asenciei.                                           officiarsand
                                                   Gnecr Avnorr, ChieJ.
       Hon. Jelrns J. Devrs,
                   Secretary oJ Labor.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
      EMPTOYMENT
              OFSCHOOT
                    CHITDRENNEW
                          IN   JERSEY
                                         INTRODUCTION
          This study of the employment of school children in Nervark and
       -
       raterson rs one of a seriesof surveys in child welfare made in New
       Jersey by the children's Bureau in rgzs.r rn"i"Jea l" i[i. ,uriu.
       were sever&l studies of wnploye{ ci{l$r_en-the present, dy, ;       ;t
       secondof children elgaged in industriar' ome.roorf,u"J-u"iirira or
       children in r.egularfull-time. employment.
         rn rhc presentsruyeJ'a list was obtainedof all childrenunder l6
       years.of age attending the public schoolsin l{e*.ark u"J put"r.o"
       u'ho, rn_ans!\'erto their teachers'  inquilies, said that they had been
      epsasedin^any work outside their homesdi*ing tt'tepcri6d tretween
       the closeof school in,June, 1924,and.the date oI the inquiry, Mur;h;
       1925. All thesechildren were inter.r'iewed rchool anf inf<irmation
                                                       at
      regarding their work was obtained from ail of thlm *h; h;d t";;
      employedfor at least26 days,     during that period,;;;;ptli;.;          rr-hose
      only-u'orli was ^rnning -errands ?oing ,iaa jor..;--i.ir;id."" u.ork-
                                        and
           tor pa-reirtsorguaidians\r-ere  incrudid. sbr"rtv-n*^i..^."nt or
      i19
      the schoolchildrenin Ne,warkand g3 per cent of thosein patersorr
      were enrolledin the pu.bJtq    schools, that the stud-v-in"t,id'.a
                                               so                 -itt;';i'ii*r. tn"
      large nrajoritv of the-childrenof schoorugu in ih;                           rn
      Nervark o,2ospublic-"qtrooi   ctrild;";";;l;.    t6 years of ase had been
     cmployedat leist 26 days. They inctud"a.           ia+ifr";; ;?; sli girl*,
     who in the caseof boys,-rvere per cent andin the;;1;;T gi.t. B per
                                     18
     cent of the total eniollment, ,r.,d". i6 il]h;        p"uii""..rr.ftr.'io thu
     .gb.oplyear -1925-26.aStreet *,ork was ,"po.i"a na-t-,h[ of the
     ghiJdlen-,  and o.therkinds of work bv 4.468: n""n-Jt tir"'.u g.o.,p.
     i'cluded 637 children u-hohad done 6othitreet nlorl u"a-otl# typu.
                       the period about ryhich they.u,ereq"".iio""a.- 6;it
     :l:,"_15 $giiU
     40 grls_hadbeencngaged        in.streetoccupations; trad had other
                                                              zbo
     wo1k. In PatersonZ,t:O childrenhad                       ,Sg+'bov;     u;'a f OZ
     q4},-rl'l,o rtere, respectively,^16            ",orked,'f
                                          per ce-nt^"d 2 pL,                1iu
     registrationunder 16 years'of ag6 in the public i"to"i,liihe"""i'of         "ut
                                                                               citv.'
      l'The foilow-ingreports have beon published:
                                         Cbild X.elfare ir
     an                                proyisro,r".
     ror-personner'l'dioioi#"lioo,'pu,r?_state o;o;""I1_I,{iliS"#Sl,l'ft*HTffii:iSfi
        Depeadent Delinouent
               aod                                                      pi,bric;ri;,i"H*,j,1
                               g,n;rgi1,.irj-n.e1;4,;;r";i,"_"dr"a;i'"pl;ilH-:"Flfiiilti#uiflr.rzs,
     ll,..l33:'$ell.1:g,P".,itti.+Sp;'g:l'"il-ry;:$l_':9"-"5,"r,:
                                                             {ti,.gi;i;..                 rzr.
                                                                                          rzr, rzs,
                                                             o'iririi'"l,is"is",ilii"r"""at'Ji"'ia
     fffrli'*"J'1,?iil;S',1.i,
                        |331 ,i$Il*"l"t"1iidlJl;;li^ivi'i'iiiz,                             tr<i*,j
                                                       toathe emptovm€nt inNew.Iersey
                                                                          orminors
                                        "",*.Sru:lt.'"",t ,.f
     gi?i,$ii.ii:1i9i,T?t'"tt
                           ii."r:"X"ffltf
     [t_X:*l*ll+f_i.l#RX',,ffffi**i1"mn,:';;,;i$                ,."lT:,]i.t,*];*.Jlil;iHli,FJii.i
    eri.iiiil"i5,:;:,T:J."'e",ll'i*..::trfitlti,;l""TjTg#$""1Jiljir!:i!,:.,,!?'#3;h*'r"lfl;s.fi'8#.f,:
    !:1t'T.!tt""3'#e'3is,iistr i"ilt.#;,,j *e'.1r.',;',".it,,#h,{iffin
                        l:i!1,8ff*:"llilff I,l*,*g
         year he wouldappeir io eacl oi
    school
                                        -tni'lwo gr;,ib, a;r&;ii
    iit'd;                           !?,",i','.'f"#;''".1ii;ffT.Tf"i''lf""i'Ha'T%-"::i-.
         itrs'Jl,;i+!','"i'Jiibf".;si:"iiiolii'i'"J                    it
                                                               tw',"#tl*g
               l"r1,il-#:.'"'EilH'f*3;-,'.'ffi;}f5',.:ils,:H."xl,$:*i3lt.'""*i1",:inlgt;.
    lo"l;rf..".,",f,n-:                               paterson
    rr:r9?t"T:X'fgfyfr"ugb::B;: f.o-t ortheBoard Educaiion,
                           folltlt
                                               or                    pubric
                                                                          schoors,
                                                                               ro,




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                   EI,IPI,OYI\fENT       OF SCEOOL         CEII,DR      N IN     NEW      JERSEY


         Five hundred and ninety-six,including 16 girls, had done street u'ork,
         and 1,713,including 179 girls, Iiad beel employed in yo-rk of other
         kinds.' Each group contiined 183 children who had been street
         traders and had also had some other kind of employment,'
            Except for surveys of juvenile street v'orker-s,almost,all of-whom
         are schbol children, the"employment of children before and after
                               'during
         school hours and               vacation has received little attention.
         Almost nothing on the subject has been published.o B-ut wherever
         the employmeit of schoolchildren has been investigatedit l'as been
         shorvnihut lutg"r numbers than is generally suppoied.areinvolved.
         The numbersin themselves sufficientlylarge to receiveconsidera-
                                        are
         tion. Whether t'hervork is good or bad for the children is a question
         that needsfurther investigaiing, but the long hours and night work
         reported in all the suroelt of"employed scliool children that have
         beenmadeindicate that many children are working under unfavorable
         conditions.
            In many States employed school children are_     protected_to some
         extent froin adverseconditions of t'ork by a child labor law that
         fixes a minimum age of at least 14 for all engaged gainful e-mploy-
                                                              in
         ment at any time,-prohibits night rvork, and placesreasonable        limi-
         tations unotr th" nirmber of h5urs of u-ork outside school hours of
         children iequired to attend school. To give this protect_ion New t'o
         Jersey children u'ould rcquire changesin tle present New Jersey
         childiabor law. (Seep. ti7 for text"of this law and officialinterpre-
         tation of its provisions.)
            Supplementinglegislative measures,the schools are in the best
         position to see t-hat school children are not employed to their detri-
         ment outside school hours. tr'or such superv-ision     the school coun-
         selorhas shorvnher value. The probiem is one of the nany common
         to both home and schoolin the solution of rvhich the visiting teacher
         also is helpful. Whether or not there is a counseloror a visiting
         teacher, but especiallyrvhere there is none, the classroomteacher
         should be arvaie of the extent and nature of the employment of
         pupils outside school hours, so that she may use her influencewith
         paients to safeguardthe child's interests and can take cognizance       of
         the child's outside 'w-ork estimatins his achievements discover-
                                     in                              or
         ing the c&uses    behind his failures. L moderate amount of regular                                        I
         u'ork, if it is done under suitable conditions,such as under the super-                                    )
         vision of parents, may be expected to ha're a value in the child's                                         t
         training similar to that furnished by householdchoresbefore apart-                                         I
         ment and tenementhouseliving did arvayrvith the necessityof most,                                          .!

         chores. But it is a questionv'hether if the schoolswere equippedto
         do so they could not provide more constructiveand more educational                                         I

         activities than the jobs children pick up, and rvhethel such activities
         would not be 'w'elcome both parents and children in the many
                                                                                                                    l
                                    to                                                                              I
         cases *-hich the work is not done because the necessity earning
               in                                     of               of
         money.
           6Ths Chilltren's Bureau has made two other surveys of the employment of school children in work other
         than street trades,ono ol v'hich hasbeenpublished (Child Labor in North Daliota, U. S. Children's Bureau   X
         Publication No. 129,pp. 41-{3). Some of the resuits of a simjlar survcy in ltlanta, Ga., have besn sum-
         marized briefly in the Elevcnth Annual Report ol the Chief, Children's Bureau, 1923, p. 18. Seo also       :
         Somc Signific_ant Excerpts Fronla Study of Psrt Ti4Ie_Emplo,ymelt_of Inte,rmediste School C_hildleg,
         !v_J. Gle_nn Longwollh, iD.tbe Detroit PducationBl B_ulletin, Septer,nber, 1926,P. ?; School or Work in    :
         Indiala, by Clnrles E. Gibbons, msisted by llarvey N. Tuttle, National Child Labor Committeo, 1927,
         pp. 23-30; and Children Working in Missouri, by Charles E. Gibbons, assisted by garyey N. Tuttlo,
         NatioDal Child Labor Commil,tce, 1927,  pp. IG30.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                    SUMMARY
     _ IT \.yr.tk 6,,205  public-school  children_under yearsof age hacl
                                                       16
     ygrked-'5'441 boys and 824 girls. Two thousandf6ur hundred and
     thrrtv-Iour, rncluding     gtrlr, -had done street work, and 4,46g,
                             _4Q
     including 296 girls, h."ud
                              do;e other kinds of wori.. in bJerson tne
     tolal nurnberof working childrenyls_2,f2-6,   1,g34boys and 192girls.
               596 (of whom.l6.yeregirls) hada.i"".ir""i"**-[,          i,ZiS
     9lrhg."
     (or wnom r'l9 were grrls) lrad engaged other occupations. The
                                                in                 ""a
     y:Tkiirg boys were r8 per cent of the"public-s"h;oi;;;il-errt     urra..
     rri rn .Newark and r6 per cent in Patcrson,and the wo.king girls were
     3 per cent and 2 per cent, respectively.

               OCCUPATIONS OTHER THAN STREET WORK
        The principal occupationI for 4,309 children in Newark and for
      L674cfildren in Pateison had b"e"l"-*i"[               tr."" ..iu"t"t"ua.r.
                        respectively,                "tr*t
                                      had been;*p]"t;d i; Ai, o""""p"tio"
     ^O-11I,i05_*+,252,
     oily rn vacatron.
        About one-fourthof the Newark children and about one-fifth of the
     Patersonchildren worked.for their parenis or guardianr.
     . sixty-eigh! per-centof the Newark workersuia zg pe" c.ot of those
     rn Patersonhad foreign-bornfathers, chieflv Italians.
        More than four-fiftls of the workers irr eich citv wero bovs.
        rn I'{ewar_k357 (s per cent) of the 'nort'".r *u"J           idi"u., ot
                (27
     age, 1,1_63 per cent)-wereund_e1 a1d 1,b08 (tt-p;;
                                           12,                "oa""          *ur"
     14 or 15. .$ryflg the Paterson                                   "LJt)
                                      ehildrentnesecfritjiuJ"ui"l"""a Sr
     ("                (19 per.cent),and 764 (46 per cent), respectively.
        o-o,rg chrldren r-or-tulg during summer vacation 76 -per ceni in
        Pg^,-:u:t],..Y?9
    *,
    t:"yl_"" and./Uper cent rn patersonworked_the          entiro r-aiation,and
    5J per_cent the one city and 47 per cent in the other had rvorked
                 rn
    throughout th.eschoolsesiionfrorn its bugio"inglo S;il-;;;             to the
    ctateot lntervrew between   the followingMarch and Jdne.
    ., rn Newark 79 per cent of the vacati-on     *o.t      u"a 6I'o"" eent o[
    thoseworkrngduring the_school      term, and in paterson7g'percent of
                                                        "rr
    r'ne y&catlonrvorkers.and per.cent of those working during the
                                 67
    schoolterm, worked six or sevendays a week.
                     b.ot,h.$,uring
                                  vacation and during the schoolyear, thc
    ,^:1^:":l_9fty, or
    rsrgesL  number chrrdren    wereemployed stoies,chieflyaideliverv
                                         'sal'es in
    boys and in smaller numbers as              b;y; ;;;' ;i;lr-r;;;;;.r.1
    helpers. The next targesr   ngmberil ;;t;il;       ;;;p?ilr;ifnur."-
                                                                     "itie
    Tgi4r, and the next laigest, bootblacksit i"a"", .i"ria..               ott
    children worked in fact6riq, assisted   puirrt"rr, c_arpenters,   plumbers, ".
    ll::y:l"r"i""l$    b"yp, offiee
                           or     boysoi.girt.,                       ir;ir;";;; p;;i
                                                 "uddier,
    rooms and bowlrng alleys, ianitors' assistrnts, and workers in
                                                                   ]dnch
                                         .        uU.U"r*
                                             "*             "rOr"rr", "".*";;;.*oo**




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        4      EMPI,OYMENTOF SCHooI, CIIII,DREN IN NEw JERSEY

        roorns and restaurants, and engaged in a variety of other work.
        Boys had had a greater variety of work than girls, who rvere generaily
        employed either in stores or as domestic servants.
           In Newark 2I4 ol the vacation workers and 211 of the schooi-term
        'workers in jobs classified as manufacturing and mechanical were under
        14 ;rears of age. Nine hundred and seventy-five of the vacatipn
        workers and 1,214 of the others in mercantile occupations, and 497
        of the vacation workers and 633 of the others in domeitic and personal
        service, were under 14. fn Paterson children under 14 in manufac-
        turins and mechanical occunations numbered 70 in vacation and 81
        durin-s the school term. ihree hundred and twentv-nine of the
        Paterion vacation rvorkers and 396 of the school-terh u-orkels in
        mercantile employments, and 149 of the vacation workers and 195
        of the school-term ryorkers in domestic and personal service, were
        under 14.
           Six hundred and ninety-two (27 per cent) of the Newark workers
        who worked on week days other than Saturdays and 385 (36 per cent)
        of those in Paterson customarily worked mbie than eiqht^ hours a
        day when employed during vacaiion, and during the schdol term 771
        children (26 per cent) in Newark and 402 (34 per cent) in Paterson
        usually t'olked at least four hours on their working days other than
        Saturdays. About half those in Newark and more than half in
        Paterson worked longer than eight hours on Saturdays both in
        summer vacation and in the school term.
           In the vacation months 828 (31 per cent) of the Newark chilclren
        srd 457 (37 per cent) of the Paterson children u'orked 48 hours a
        rveck or more. While attending school 1,147 children (35 per cent)
        in Nev'ark and 543 (40 per cent) in Paterson reported working at
        Ieast 24 hours a week. Newark had 176 children under 12 vears of
        age rvorking 48 hours or more a weel( in vacation, and 256 under 12
        5,-6ars agd rn'orking at least 24 hours a weeii during the school year.
               of
        The Paterson children in these groups rvere g8 and 69, respectively.
           In Newark 887 (32 per cent of those doing afternoon rvork on school
        days) and in Palerson 280 (24 per cent) worked until 8 or later on
        school-day evenings. On Saturdays during the school year 733
        Newark childte.t (zZ per cent of those worEirg on Saturday after-
        noons) and 3S2 Paterson children (32 per cent) worked until at least
        10 p. m.; on Saturday nights in vacation the number of children
        working until 10 or llter*was smaller-l2}         (23 per cent of those
        rvorking Saturday nights) in Newark and 219 (24 per cent) in Paterson.
           N{ore children working in barber shops, at bootblack stands, in
        pool rooms, and in bow-ling alle;rs w-orked long hours and late at
        nisht than children in other occunations.
           For some of the occupations in ivhich the children engaged the State
        child labor law has be-eninterpreted as fixing no minimum age and
        as settins no limitations on the hours of work. But even in occuna-
        tions foi which the child labor law clearly sets a minimum ase or
        limits the hours of worir for children under i6. or both. as in manirfac-
        turing establishrnents and in or in connection with stores, many
        children reported working under the legal age and in excess of the
        lesal hours.
          Both in Newark and in Paterson the workers seemed to have made
        about average progress in school. In Newark chjldren working lhe
        lonsest houri rvbile attendinE school were the most retarded.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                     SUMMAR,Y


         Weekly earnings rvere $5 or more for 30 per cent of the Neu-arl<
       and 40 per cent of the Paterson vaeation workers, and for lg per.ccnt
       of the Newark and 28 per cent of the Paterson children emplor.ecl
       while attendins school.
         fn Nervarli 88 per cent and in Paterson 89 ner cent of the children
       were in families in rvhich the father rvas at home and was the chief
       support of the family.
                                 STREETWORK
         Both Newark and Paterson had street-rvork ordinances, which set
       aminimum age for ne\\'spaper selling and regulated the hours of work
      of newsboys but did not include other street rvorliers under thcir
      provisions. According to sorne interpretations the State child labor
      larv covered newsboys and bootblacki, if not all street workcrs, but
      in Newark and Paterson street work rvas reeulated bv local ordinanccs.
         In Newark 2,261 boys and 36 girls under 1C years of age and in
      Paterson 546 boys and t6 girls hi'd engaged in itreet u'orli as their
      principal occu.pation durin[ the sumniei vacation or rvhen school
      was in session or both. Only 203 boys and 9 girls in Newark and
      only 08 bcys and 2 girls in Paterson had worked only during vacatiorr.
         Thq boys working on the streets of Newarii during the sihool term
      ineluded 467 newspaper sellers, 67g newspaper carriers, 387 boot-
      pla_ckg,243 peddleis, a!4 106 miscellaneous iorhe.s, and the girls
      included- 3 newsiraper seilers, 10 ne$'spaper carriers, 12 peddlers, and
      4 miscellaneousrvorkers. In vacation 4SO of the boys sold papers,
      407-delivered pai--e!son routes, 340 were bootblacks, 345 u'ere pedcilers,
      and 93 rveremiseell&neous   u'orkers; the girl vacation workers-included
      1 newspaper seller, g carriers, g peddlersland B miscellaneous workers.
         Paterson had 108 boys selling paperc during the school term, 128
      carrying papers, 60 peddling, and 67 doing various other kinds of
      street work. During -vacation it had 118 boys seliing papers, 145
      carrying papers, 96 peddling, and 66 doing miscellaneoui street lvork.
      The girls doing street work in Paterson during the school term included
      3 newspaper sellers, 6_carriers, 1 peddler, and 4 miscellaneous worhers,
      and. bhose wo_r]gngduring r-acation included I newspaper seller, 5
      carriers, 3 peddlers, and 4 miscellaneous workers.
         From three-fifths to more than four-fifths of the children doinc     .-
      various kinds of street work in each city had foreign-born fathers.
         ln Nervark about one-fifth of the boyi selling pa.p"e.rs
                                                                were under l0
      y'earsof age, the milimum age fixed by the local street-work ordinance I
      about half were under 12. Eight5'-six per cent of the vacation worl<ers
      had worked throughout the summer vacation, and 70 per cent of the
      others had worked at least 24 weeks during'thc school year, all of
      them having been_interview.edlate enough in the school year to have
      worked at least that length of time. Three-fourths of each gloup
      sold papers six or,seven days a weeli. During vacation 2Zaboys $2
      per cent) sold at least three hours a day on Saturdays, and ziO (St
      per cent) sold at least three hours on other rveek daj'sj when school
      was in session 108 (25 per cent) sold three hours or-rnore on school
      days, and 184 (50 per cent) sold three hours or more on Saturdays.
      About one-ienth of the newsboys sold papers until 8 p. rn. or laier
      both on Saturdays and on other week days, whether ih vacation or
      during ihe school tern.     A few boys soid until 10 p. Dr. or later at




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
         6      EMpLoyMENT oF scgoor, orrTLDRENrN NEw JERSEY

         each season. Among the vacation newsboys were 171 (40 per cent)
         and among those seiling during the school session 89 (20 per cent)
         who worke--dat least 20-hours a week. In vacation 20 per cent and
         during the school term 13 per cent of the newspaper.s€llers earued $5
         or mo"re a weeh. \'Iore than four-fifths were in families in which the
         father was the chief breadwinner.
            Among newspaper carriers in Newark about one-third were under
         12 vears of age-and some wore under 10. Seventy-seven per cent of
         the calriers in vacation had worked throughout the vacation, and 54
         per cent of the carriers with routes during the school term had calried
         bapers at least 24 weeks. Almost all n'orked six or seven days a week.
         hbbut four-fifths of the carders worked less than two hours a day,
         rvhether during vacation or when school rvas in session, but 92 boys
         during vacation and 1 18 during the school term carried papers from two
         to five houls or more a day. X'orty-eight boys in vacation gnd77 at
         other times started on morning routes before 7 o'clock. The great
         majority w-ith afternoon routes-finished before 6 p. m. anll only a few
         boys delivered papers as late as 8. Less than 2 per cent,of the carriers
         eained as *uci ai $s a w-eekin either se&son,and considerably more
         than half earned less than $2. Nine-tenths of the carriers were in
         families in which the father was bhe chief u'aqe eat'ner.
            The Newark peddlers sold pretzels, gurn, post cards, toilet goods,
         and other articles on the streets and from door to door, except, for
         about one-fifth of theil number', who rvere huchsters' assistants. The
         vacation peddlers included 10 per cent who wele under 10 years of
         age and 38 per cent rvho rvere under 12. The boys peddling dqring
         the school termlvere of about the same ages. Dighty per cent of the
         vacation peddlers worked throughout the summcr, and 71 por cent
         of those who neddled durins the school telm had pcddled 24 weeks or
         longer. In vacation 67 per"cent peddled six or sefen days a week, but
         when school rvas in sessiononly 33 per cent did so. Even during tho
         school year 75 peddlers (53 per cent,) rvorlied at least 2 hours on weeh
         days othel than Saturday, and 36 (30 per cent) 3 hours or more a day;
         and in vacation 148 (53 per cent) worked 8 hours or longer, 81 boys
         having a working day of 10 hours ol more; on Saturdays 188 (61 per
         cent,) of the vacation workel's and 109 (52 per cent) of the others
         worked at least 8 hours, 110 boys in vacation and 64 at othel times
         peddling at least 10 hours. Peddlers during the school term rvorked
         at least 20 hours a rveek in 5l (24 per cent) of the cases, and those in
         vacation in t'he majority of inst,ances, 127 (4t per cent') of the latter
         rvorking 48 hours or longer a, weei(, On Saturdays 62 vacation ped-
         dlers (22 per cent) and 39 others (21 per cent) worked until at least
         8 p. m., some until 10 p. m. or later. On other nights somewhat,fewer
         worked as latc as 8 p. m. Eleven per cent of the boys peddling during
         the school term and 32 per cent, of those peddling in vacation earned
         $5 a week or more. Eighty-eight per cent of the peddlers were in
         families havinE fathers as chief breaCwinners.
            About two-frfths of the Newark bootblacks rvere under 12 years of
          a,ge. Almost all working in vacation worked throughout, the summer,
          and 76 per cent of tho boys rvho blacked boots during the school term
         had worked at least 24 weeks when interviewed. In vacation 61 per
          cent, and during the school year 40 per cent worked every da;j or
          every day'except Sunday. Although the great' majority stopped
          work before 6 p. m., both in summer and at other seasons,19 per cent




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                    SUMMAR.Y


       of the bootblacksworking during the schoolterm and 15 per cent of
       the others (37 boys in one casoand 34 in the other) worked until 8 or
       later. On Saturdaysmore boys stayed out until at least 8, a few-
       until 10 or later. During the schooliarm 73 bootblacks(37 p6r cent)
       worked 3 to 12 hours or moLe, and in vacation 136 (80 per cent)
       worked these hours, 69 boys (30 per:cent) spending at least 8 hours
       a day on the streetsbootblacking. Fitty-six per cent of the vacation
       bootblacksworked at least,24 h"oursa week,^   and 26 per cent,had a
       48-hour working week; of those working duiing the ichool term 22
       per cent worked at, least 24 hours a week. Twentv per cent of the
       boys blacking boots when school.was session
                                            in        and 34-percent of the
       others earnedat least $5 a week. Dighty-sevenper cent of the boot-
       blacks had fathers who were the chief breadwinners their families.
                                                           in
          Among the Newark street workers the newspapersellershad made
       atrout averageprogress school,and the carriersconsiderablybetter
                                in
       than the a,rrerage; peddlerswere somewhat more retardbd than
                            but
       the averasoand bootblacksmuch more retarded.
          In Paterson 15 per cent of the newspapersellersduring the school
       term and 19 per cent during yacation weie under 10 yearJ of age,the
       minimum spbcifiedin the-ordin&nce regulating nei"spapet r-etiing;
       {1 pet cent and 43 per eent in tho respectivegroups were under 12.
       Ilour-fifths of the vacation workers had sold papers throughout the
       summer vacation and 68 per cent of the others, when interyiewed,
       had been selling 24 weeks or longer while attending school. X'our-
       fifths of each gioup sold papers ilx or seven days i week. During
       vacation 64 boys (57 per cent) worked three hours or more on week
       days other than Saturdays, and 72 (69 per cent) w-orkedat least
       three hours on Saturdays. Among the 101 boys selling papels while
       attending school 28 sold three hours or more on schoo-l da-ysand 61
       three hoirs or more on Saturdays. On school-dayevening"s boys15
      sold papersuntil 8 or later, and during vacation on nights 6ther than
      Saturdays a few more sold until at least 8, including 2 boys staying
      out untr,l midnight. On Saturday nights both during the schoo-l
      term and in vacition about three-t"enthi the newsboyi sold papers
                                                of
      until 10 p. m. or later. Among vacation newsboysrvere 58 (50-per
      cent) and among the others were 30 (29 per cent) who worked 20
      hours or longer a week. About one-fourth of each group earned
      $5 or more. More than four-fi.fths were in families in which the
      father was the main support.
          Among newspapercarriers in Paterson one-fourth were under 12
      years of age, and a few were under 10. About three-fourths of the
      vacation carriers had had routes all summer, and 56 per cent of the
      others had worked 24 rveeksor lonser while attendins school. Al-
      most all worked six or seven days a weck. More lhan half the
      carriersworking dqling the schoolterm and almost half thoseworking
      in vacationworled lesJthan two hours a dav: but 73 bovs in the schoo'i
      term and 75 in vacation worked on their ioute. t,wo t"o five hours or
      more a day. In vacation time 73 boys, and when school was in
      session78, started on morning routes before 7. The maiority with
      afternoon'routesfinished befoie 6 p. m., and none worked as iate as
      8. Five per cent of the carriersin each seasonearned$5 or more a
      week, but the majority earned between $2 and $4. About nine-
      tenths were in families supported by fathers.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
        8      EMpr,oyMENT   oF scEoor.   oETLDREN rN NEw    JEBSEY

           Almost all the Paterson peddlers, of whom there rvere 96 working
        in vacation and 60 when school was in session, rvere hucksters'
        assistants. About half in each group were 12 or 13 years of age.
        The great majority (70) of those working in vacation had worked all
        .rmrier, and 44 oi tho*e working during:the school term had worked
        24 rreeks or lonEer while attendinE school. During the summer a
        six or seven day"week was common, but when school was in session
        32 of the 60 peddlers worked only on Saturdays. Very late hours
        were the rule for bovs who huckstered both durins vacation and
        on Saturdays during tie school term. The working da! was more than
        12 hours in some cases. Among boys who peddled in vacation 52
        worked at least 48 hours a week. manv of them 60 hours or more.
        During the school term 29 of tlie 60 worked 12 hours a week or
        longer. Vacation peddlers had a median wage of between $4 and $5,
        but those who worked before and after school earned onlv between
        $1 and g2 a week. Almost all the peddlers (more than 95 per cent of
        each group) had fathers who were the principal breadwinners in the
        families.
          In Paterson both newspaper sellers and newspaper carriers had a
        smaller proportion of boys who were below their grades in school
        than the &ver&ge,but a considerably larger proportion of the peddlers
        than of all Paterson school bovs of the same ases were retarded in
        school.
          X'ewer than 50 children were in any other kind of street work than
        newspaper selling or carrying, bootblacking., or peddling in either
        Newark or Paterson.




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Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       LEGAL REGUTATIONOF THE EMPTOYMENT OF
               CHILDREN IN NEW JERSEY
        The employment of children in New Jersey is regulated by three
     laws, the iompulsory school attendanceand emplolment ceitificate
     Iaw and the so-called   "factory" and "mercantile" laws.l
        The factory law fixes a minimum age of 14 for children at rvork in
     factories,woikshops,and other places  ihere the manufactureof goods
     is carried on. limils'the hours of work for children under 16 inlsuch
     establishments 8 a day and 48 a week, and prohibits their work
                      to
     between p.m.and 7 a."m. and on Sundays. The law alsospecifies
              7
     that children between 14 and 16 emoloved in these establishments
     shall be provided with " age and schoo1n-g certificates in accordance
                                              -and         "
     with ttre compulsoryschoolattendance          employmentcertificatc
     lew.
         In regard to children working in occupations not coming under the
     factory provisions the law is not so clear, questions in regard to inter-
     pretation having arisen as to the proviaion for "age and working
     certificates " in the employment certificate law and as to the scope of
     the mercantile law.
         As originally enacted in 1911 the mercantile law fixed a minimum
     age of 14 for children employed "in" merc&ntile establishments and
     provided that children between 14 and 16 so employed should have
     age and schooling certificates and should be subject to the same hours
     of labor and nigLt-u'ork provisions as for factory occupations. The
     compulsory school attendarce and employment certificate law passed
     in 1914, however, provided that children betrveen 10 and 16 years of
     age might obtain age and working certificates (distinct from the age
     and schoolinE certificates issued to children betv'een 14 and 16 for
     regular employment) to work at selling ne\\'sp&pers, blacking shoes,
     running errands, and other similar employment outside school hours.
     This piovision was held to legalize the iisuance of age and working
     certificates to children between 10 and 16 for work outside school
     hours, not only in street trades but also in connection with mercantile
     establishments provided thev did not work "in" the establishment.
     In 1918 the meicantile law ivas amended so as to apply to work "in
     or in connection rvith" &nv mercantile establishment, an amendment,
     that would seem to invalidate the provision of age and working cer-
     tificates for children bet'n'een 10 and 16 so far as it applied to woii< "in
     connection u."ith" mercantile establishments. In 1924 just, before the
     Children's Bureau study of the work of school childr-en in Newark
     and Paterson, an opinibn of the attorney general 2 held that this
     amendment to the mercantile law "limited"           the application of the
     section of the school attendance and employment certificate law per-
     mitting the issuance of age and working certificates to children
      1 For tho text of these laws seepp. 137-140.
      t Dat6d ADr. 21. 1,t)24




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universi(r'
       10     EMPLOYMENT     OF SCEOOL   CEII,DREN   TN NEW   JERSDY

      b.g-twee,n and 1Q, a^ndthiq 6p;_triotr been interpreted in many
                 10                              has
      citiesthroughoutthe State,includingNewark and Paterson, nulil    as
      fylng the provision for age and work-ingcertificates.
         In regard to .t[e. scopeof the mercantile law, the law applying to
      mercantileestablishments, passedin l9ll,'defined a ineicafrtile
                                      as
      establishment, "any employment-oflabor'other than a factory,
                       as
      workshop,mill, or other place-where manufacture of goods of any
                                              the
      kind is carried on." when the law was amendedin rglE the secti,oil
      defining "niercantile establishments,'    was changedto make the term
      "upply !9 u"I employmentof any-person wiges or other compen-
                                                    for
      sation other than in a factory,.worksho-p,    mill,.pl"ace
                                                               where the.manu-
      faeture.of goods9.f a.*y kild^i: carried--on,   mine, quarry, or in agn-
      clltural pulsuits." The definition under'the earlier ac't rvas sriffi-
      ciently inelusive to bring under the -provisions the act ail occupa-
                                                           of
      tions not included undefthe factory iaw, and the amendmentin 191g
      had the sameeffectexceptthat it eicludtid work in mines and auarries
       (for which.a higher minimum age had already been fixed)'and in
      agrrcultural.p,ursuits.,Under opinions of the gttorney'general,
      nowe\-er,tnrs.rlw has bcen rnterpreted not to apply to emplo.yment,
      ln a.ny_establrshment    "other than a mercantileestablishment     within
      the ordinary signification that term"-that is, a pr"ce *hero -".-
                                   of
      chandise bought and sold. This interpretationis basedupon the
                is
      tact that the trtle of the act refersonly to "mercantileestablishrnents',
      and that the State constitution re,luires that a tu* rnuifl*truc"
      but one object,which mrrst be expreised the title.
                                                   in
         und.er this interpretation neitfier the minimum-a.genor trre hour
      pro\-rsrons the child labor law are applicableto the "workof children
                  of
      outside school hours in establishmenisnot classedas malufacturing
      establishments,rvorkshops,or stores.




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Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       CHITDRENIN OCCUPATIONS    THAN STREET
                            OTHER,
                       WORK
                                    NEWARK
                          AGE AND SEX OF CHILDREN

          Many children said that they had done both street work and other
        kinds of u'ork during the period about rvhich they were asked to
       report. But genera.ll5'  11'["." a child had had two or more positions
       one of them had been held longer than the others, or had claimed
       more of the child's time, or waJotherwiseof more'irnportance,      and
       for this reasonand for greaterconvenience facts in^regardto the
                                                       the
       children's rvork in the caseof those having more than oie position
       were tabulated only for the principal occufation. (For a definition
       o{.-principa_l_
                     occupation ses footnote 3, p. 1.) Although 4,468
       children in Newark reported that they had been employedin occupa-
       tions other than street work, only-4,309 had had lheir principal
       employmentin suchoccupations,       a.rd thb discussion confined,theie-
                                                             is
       fore, L,o
               these4,309 children. Of these,2,969had worked durins the
       summer vacation. Cgntrary to rvhat might have been expeci6d,          a
       larger number, i,604, had held jobs during the schoolterm, bf whom
       3,013were employedat the time they were interyiewed. More than
      half the workers (53 per cent),2,264children,had worked both in the
      summer vacation and during the school year; but 705 children (16
      per cent) had worked only during the vacation months, and 1,840
       (31 per cent) only while schoolwas in session. Possibly one r.eason
      why mo-rechildren were e_mploye4        when intervieu-ediir the spring
      during the schoolsession   than had been employedin vacation is that
      by_springthey were almost a year older than they had been the pie-
      cedingsummer and so were more likely to take jobs.
          The boyswere 11 per cent and the girls 3 per centof the enrollment
      in the Newark public schools. (Seefootnot-e p. 1.) This propor-
                                                        4,
      tion, rvhich was only 9 per cent for boys between 10 and 12 veari of
      &ge,  w&s 18 per cent for thosebetu'een and 14, and 16 per cent,
                                                 12                       for
      thosebetween14 and 16. The decrease the proportion of workers
                                                   in
      a_nlolgthe 14 and 15 year old schoolboys        maybe-accountedfor by
      the fact that many of-those who are liliely to seek after-schoolanh
      vacation jobs are the oneswho leave schoolto go to u.ork as soon as
      they can meet the requirementsof the childlabor and school-attend-
      ancelarvs. Although, like the boys, a larger proportion of older than
      of younger schoolgiilshad been employeci-2 per cent of the school-
      girls betrveen10 ald 12 years of age, comparedwith 4 per cent of
      those who were at least l2-tliere was no falling ofr after the aEeof
      14 in the-proportion  rvho had worked,which wai 4 per cent forlirls
      of 12 and 13 and for thoseof 14 and 15.
           308L2._25__2                                             11




                                                                                   _--


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library,         Georgetown University         :
      12                Elrpl,orrlrENt           oF scgoor-            CETLDREN rN NEw                JERSEY

        More than four-fifths of the working children were boys, lhqugb
      the schoolenlollment under 16 yearsof agev'as about equally divided
      bebween bovs and eirls.
        The workers iniluded school children of all ages. (Table 1.)
      Ts'enty-seven per cenb were under 12 years of age, -of whom 357
      childrenwereunder 10; 38 per cent,werebetween and 14; and only
                                                     12
      35 per cent had reached 14. There was Iittle difference in age
      betweenboys and girls.
      T.tnrn 1.-Eoce and nationality of father, bg age period oJ child; c-hildrenwhose
                                     was other than streetwork, Newark, N. J'
                pri.ncipal occ'upation

                                                                            Children under 16 years ot age



           Rsco and nationality of father

                                                        Num-
                                                         ber
                                                                  Per
                                                                  c€nt
                                                                 distri-
                                                                 bution
                                                                            '"**i
                                                                            UrU"r8
                                                                               l under
                                                                                 years,

                                                                                      10
                                                                                                               14
                                                                                                             years,
                                                                                                             undor
                                                                                                               l6
                                                                                                                       \ge not
                                                                                                                         re-
                                                                                                                       ported




                                                        4. 309    100.0        50 I

      White-----       -- --- -- - --                                          49              744   1.4i9

           N s t i v e - - -- - - - - - - -               939      9 1 .8      121     61      103     341
           F o r e i g nb o r n - - - - -               2,940,     08.2        34     2i3      577   \,rm
                                                                                 I
                  Italian-----------                               30.8         9i     99      m5      545      31-7
                  Russian Jewish--                                 11.0         zl     28       83     167      186
                  Other J€wish                                      7.0         6l     19       50     110      tt7
                  Clerman----------                                             rl     11               6l        61
                  English, Irish, gcotch, and
                    Welsh----- - - -- - - -                                            l5      25                40
                  P o l i s h - - - - - - -- - - - -                J.J                l4                        12
                  Russian,---------                                 1.6                    J   13                22
                  Other Slavic- - ---                                                      6   16                47
                  Other loreign born and for-
                    eign born not otherwise
                    s p e c i f i e d-- - - - - - - -               5. I        I      18      49                79
           Nativity not reportsd-----------                                                     1        I        3
                                                                    9.4         I              62      148      166


         Parents or guardians employed about one-fourth of the workers,
      includine more than one-third of those under 10, one-third of those                                                        I
      bet'ween10 and 12, one-fifth of those between 12 and 14, but only                                                          I
      one-sixthof thosebetween14 and 16. The largestnumber of children
      working for parents or guardialrs,or about half, were employed in
      grocerv-andbther storeJor as delivery boys for stores. The others
      ivorkei in tailor shops, bakeries, barber ihoqs, shoe-repairingand                                                         t
      bootblacking establishments, testaurants and llnch rooms, -gar-a_ges,                                                      I
      on milk roules, on ice and'coal w'&gons, helpers in the building
                                                 as
      trades, and a few (lessthan 10 per cent) in factories.
                                              NATIONALITY OF FATHERS

                                                                      of
         The population of Newark rvaslargely foreign; seven-tenths its
      inhabitanls lvete of foreign birth or had at least one parent born in
      a foreigncountry.l Hence the proportion (68 per cent) of the working
        I Fourteenth Census of tbe United States, 1990,vol. 2, Popul8tion, p. 56. Washington' 1922.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
               CEILDREN   IN   OCCUPATIONS   OTHER   THAN    STREET WORK         13
       children in the study_whohad foreign_bornfathers   is not
       Those it*tiu""rii"r. p.udoti;;;;"J';-"ng the schoolsur
              or                                                 .hilH:Ttf;
       work, as-among the^foreignpop'lation, ."di""i"i"a";;
       the child.en                                              ;; cent of
                  w[osefgfteri wer6 roreigri.b;;';;J;i#          iJirt or urr
       the working schoolchildren. The                   group (lg per cent of
                                           "eiirargest
       the total) were Jewis\ with Jathers-to",,i"T,"..-i,
      countries. other nationalities were re_presented"i'ili"ti",          to."ig'
                                                           in-smarr*
      chief amongwhich wer.e                                            "^r-b"i.,
                                            una'pot"..--O"fv'ii"per'cerrt ot
                                  _German.
      the children interview-ed had                      ;lht.*
                                         "uii"" {hi!; ;;"N;*oril lF"riu 1.)
      Negroescomprised4 per eenr ot it'e-popui;i;
      cent of the workinq ihirdren, incl.ding 20 p.e1                   nt t s p"'
                                                                ot'-i-rr"-;""r.i.,g
                     per cent of the bbys. opfrortuiiti". """t tuoti."arc
      fltl.r, ",n4 7
      lrmlted for negro boys than. for white boys, and _or"
                                                            io.              more
                                                                     lirited fo,
      nesro bovs than for negro girls. tr,"l, .onsir; i; ;^i;;g;
                                                                                 or
      g.ddjobs-and therefore?iaiioi'ruri *"ihr," the scopeof the srrrvev.
                                                                        "-*t.r,t
      Except.fo'Negroes Irarians
                       and     ro-o"s lh"l"it.i i"ry;";ir;il.; i,J,i
      worked) the workers  of different ruiio?outy g.roups
                                               --        includ&i about
      the samc proportion of girls as of boy..

                               KINDS OF WORK
        The children did much-the samekinds of work during the
      vacation as during the schooryear. Aboui hdf ;;;;."iro^to'o"a   summer
      in connection wiih stores u.r,i otn"r-,,'"r"u"iii"                 in o"
                                                         ;;;;it  "#'"it, urrd
      about one-fourth in domestic u"d p.rro"ui.;;il";"iil;iir"i
      both tvpes of work that rend th;;;;i;;                           u"a sl,
                                                   ro parr-time empro.ymenr.
      Nearlv hatf the chitdren.""]pt"ylJ_i"^i.*a" ;;;* ;;ii;"rv'bJy*
      almostone-f                                                         una
              ourthwere
                      sales unarui".
                          uoy.               lg      ir,JX;ri"*1,
         helped-on routes. oth.ir *.t. iltr.
      boys      milk                            ""v
                                       on laundry "i
                                                  wagons, ffi.;t
      wagons, coal,wood,or ice wagons.   and in p""y otq".,typ."J#hifir:.r!.
      service.- The salesgirls.andboy. *ori"a as a rule in
      (manvof them of thJchain varieiv), nrt"r*..it"p;;;ii#;.J"i   Erocervstores
      small confectionery              "ri6ighil.lro"d;;;;;;-ffi;.          .tor"r,
                           .shops, uoa                                         The
      other children woiliing in'stores *"""" g.n"iJ ili;;'.
                                                                    itio"i.rr.t"a
      yjLt":,l{ jobs, althorlgh
                              they ut.o orfr.,--rr"ip"a'?in"..iriiguoa
      oellverlng.
         The laiqest numbel_i1 al-y.q"" occupationof the children
      in personal-anddomestic servicewerd nursemaids-about engaged
                                                                          one-third
      of all the girls and about two-thirds of trro." i"-ao-"rtl""#iJ"rsonal
      se^-ice. The next large.sr  group (5 p..."ni           iii" ui;;;#i
     one-fourthof the bnyJ itr domestic'uod-p""ronat                          abo'r
                                                      "i "ri servrce)  were boot-
     blacks.2 Othersin this glo,lp *"." pio.bo'yr.i" p;;i;;;;;;;il:ri*g
     alleys,servantsin privite hou.e.,'helpeisi"'b;;t;;";'noi..*ii-.or..
                                                 -
               ts,
     pssistan and, in .-a ew_c     ases,
     ln restaurantsand lunch _f rooms. . iaa-i-fi u;d^ ;; iil#r"5riJ       i.r p"r,

                                           ot in
     ;l13ltgS.ii"lfl",".nl,X,o3",.ii,?1f:".:p,1ibuldings.
                                                       Boorbracksworked ,o.l*J
                                                              who    oo




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                EMpT,oYMENT           or. scgoor,   cErr,DB'EN rN NEw          JERSnY
        14

        'i,i:u;ii,
        Trrlr,n 2.-Principal      occupation and industry- during school term and d'uring
                   6i'igi'eirtiiii;i;                                        thanstreet
                                                             occu\mti.on other
                                              ;i"r; pri.ncipi.t       uas
         worlc, Newark, N. J-
                                                         Boys under 16 y€ars oI age-School term


               Principal occupatioD and industry




                                                            Boys under 16 years of age-Vacation




                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  r
                                                                                                  :l




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                     CHILDREN                 IN      OCCUPATIONS             OTITER, TEAN      STREET WORK     15
       Ttll,.1.-                occ,upa.tionand, industry,d,uring school lerm and d.uring
                     f-lincipal
         ,;::;:"rt2:.lrf.se per.xod;strts u'hoseprincipal occupation u.as other than strcet


                                                                                  Girls under t6 years of age



          Principal occupation and industry




      Manufacturing          and mechanical indus.
       tries--
                                                                                                                16


              g
          Sales irls--------                                         I 193
          oenerat netpeis and ;,h;;a------:::-                                                                  58
                                                                        62

                                                                       345i                                     89
          Nusemaids"--_--                                                                  50
          Other srvants in private families- _                                             50
          O t h e r s - - - - - - - - - - - : _ _ _ - _ -_ _ _ _ _ _ - ,
                                                          ___.                                                  30
                                                                                            6                    7
      Clerieal occupations- ------ ____-_ ______-_                                         15                   13
      Other industries._                                                                    3                   ,
        r Includes I girl for whom age wm not reported.


         Besides those employed in stores or in domestic and Dersonal
      servicethe largestnumberof children      {aborrtone-ienth)  ;"i. ;;g'u;;J
      tl.,rlol"ytu"tunng and mechanical                                       'un_
                                           industries,generallyat light,
      skilledjobs. A considerable    number of theseiorkers iuereefirployed
      rn bakeries , suchjobs as cleaning
                   at                        pans,weighinE   douEh,   and wrap_
      pmg bread;man'were employed tailoringshlps in the simpl'er
                                            in
      sewrng   operatrons;.some   workedin box factories,    nailing or ripping
      boxes.or  carrying th-em  from one parr of the plant to un-ottter;    a'te#
      were1nclothingtrades;      and.theremainder    weredistributed    anrong  a
      wrde varrety.of industriesin occupationsrequiring onlv a simiiar
      p9s.."" of. skill. or_strength. Mu.ni                   "with ".uip"n[.r.,
      hJacksmiths,                             .bo.vsrvoiked
                    plumbers,painters,bricklayers,masons,and o'thersin
      sKrlledtrades-rn many cas-es_ parents-and severalgirls were
                                       therr ^A
      dressmakers'   and milliners' helpers.     considerabre  numbeT;i b"y;
      werein shoe-repair    shops.
         Another 10 fer cent^ofthe children were in oecupations        classified
      under transportationor clerical,rhe former mainly farage helpersor
     workers9n^trucks,altho.ugb. few were telegraphri.rei.en[ers,
                                    a                                    u'"a tn"
     rarrercnlenyerrand and.ofhcebovs and sirls.
         Th., remaining workers, eonsisiingof    "so
     ., schoolterm                                    children u-orking during
     the                 and 79-working in summer vacation, were"in othei
     industries;they worked on farirs or in the officesof dentistsor of
     d.oetors,or were ushers, pages, or performers in motion-picture
     theaters or other places oi amusement. Among the rast ivere 6
     chrldrel rangingin agcfrom l 1 to 14yearswho plavedin an orchestra
     or band, and 2 girls, 9 years of age, who danced oh the stage.
        Altho-ughabout the sameproportion of children under 14 years of
     age and 14 years of_ageand,over were emplol.ed             eaclr industry
     represented, the work naturally varied sonie#hat in diftculty antl
                                                             in




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        16     EMpLoyMENT     oF scgoor,   oHTLDREN rN NEw     JERSEy

        responsibility according to the age of the children. (Tables 2 and 3.)
        Of the bovs workins in trade. for instance, about three-fifths of those
        under 14 years of ige were delivery boys (the least responsible job
        reported by the children working in or in connection rvith stores),
        compared x'ith about two-fifths of those 14 years of age and over,
        whereas about three-tenths of the workers 14 years of ago and oyer
        were sales boys and girls (the most responsible position reported by
        children in stores), compared with one-fifth of the children under 14
        years of age. In housework, also, younger children had lighter work
        than older ones. In tailoring shops the younger worhers did only the
        simplest felling operations, whereas the older children were intrusted
        rvith the more difficult felling and with buttonhole making. Boys
        who helped in barber shops began by cleaning the shop and bmshing
        customers; as they grew older they were advanced to waiting on the
        barber and caring for the utensils, and finallv to attending patrons.
           Girls under 10 usually took care of children or helped in stores,
        generally parents' stores. The majority of the boys under 10 deliv-
        ered for stores or helped in stores, very often those of their parents;
        but a number did bootblacking, ran errands, or delivered for bakeries,
        tailor shops, dairies, and other concerns, helped in barber shops, or
        v'orked for cobblers. tr{any of these jobs were done for parents, but
        trvo-thirds of the children under 10 were hired by others than parents
        or suardians.
           As a comparison of Tables 2 and 3 sho'ws,boys engaged in a greater
        variety of work than girls. Somo boys were found in each kind of
        work reported by the children, except that of nursemaid, but the
        gills' work was confined largely to worli in private houses and in
        stores. Half the sirls were emploved &s nursemaids or domestic
        servants and abouf two-fifths in itores. Relatively more girls than
        boys worked as sales persons in stores, but in all other occupations
        in rvhich both girls and boys were engaged the proportion of boys
        exceeded that of sirls.
           Children of different taces and nationalities did different kinds of
        work, reflecting to some extent the occupational habits of their par-
        ents. A larger proportion of the children of native white and of
        Jewish fathers were employed in stores than children of other nation-
        alities, and a larger perceritage of Jewish than other children were in
        clerical occupations. tr'ew Jervish children were in domestic and
        personal s€rvice of any kind. Children whose fathers were Italian
        or Polish, on the other hand, x-ere employed in manufacturing and
        mechanical industries and in personal and domestic service in much
        larger proportions than other white children. Many Italian children
        or children of Italian parentage were bootblacks and helpers in barber
        shops; for example, of the 142 bootblacks'working during the sohool
        term 98 had Italian fathers, and of the 118 children rvorkinsin barber
        shops during the school term all were Italians or had fathels born in
        Italy.   Only one child whose father was Polish 'lrrasemployed as a
        bootblack and none u'as in a barber shop; a large percentage were
        nursemaids and domestics, whereas only a sinall percentage of the
        children with Italian fathers rvere so employed. The majority of the
        colored children at work were in domedtic and personal"service, the
        girls as nursemaids and the boys chiefly as bootblacks or as pin boys
        in bowling alleys or helpers in pool rooms, though many were employed
        in stores for delivery work.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                  CITILDB,EN IN              OCCUPATIONS              OTITER, TI{AN             STREET WORK                     L7
                                  EXTENT AND REGULARITY OF WORK

        - The children's work rvas significant, in its extent and res.la'itv.
       of the 2,948.vacation workers i'ho reported as to the durati,on-;i;h;i;
       work.2,233^(76-            pcr cent) had been employed the ninc rrleelislr.trr*.n
       the close of school il t_hgspring and its opening in the falr. onl.r'
       f 4 p c r . c c ' t h a d w o r k e d l e s s t h i ' s i x w e e l t so f t J r a t p c r i o d . o f r h e
      3 , 5 4 0 c h i l d r c n w o l k i n g d u r i n g t h e s c h o o ly e a r a n d ' c p l ' t i n g a s t o t h e
      e.rtont of their woll<,2,219 (O: per ccnt) had bcen'enrpld ed 24 to
                          40 u'ecks, all haring bben inte^io*-ed at a tinie ,;h;tth.y
      !9:,e.t]ran
      nugirL have \vorked at least 24 rr.eeks.
          In each season the 'rajo.ity of the children, even thoso under 10
      years
                -of age, rvorhed regularl3', 7g per cent of the vacation workers
      and 68 pe-r cent of those worhing *hile school *'as in session having
      been emp.loyed six or seven dals a week. (Tables 4 u"d l.l                                                            i
      6-day week rvaseustomary for childrcn empioyed in {actories and other.
      manufacturilfl
                                l " d m c c h a n i c a li n d u s t r i e s ' a n hi n c l e r . i , ' ao c c u p a t i o n s ,
                                                                                                           l
                          ehiidren^r,r'orl;ing stores of  in
      !u,! lanf
                            n                                                  _cerl.ainkinds (drug storcs,
      d e h c a t e s s e s h o p s ,f l o r i s t s 's h o p s , t c . ) ,a n d c h i l d r e nw o r k i n g i i p r i v a t e
                                                                e
      houses,.ln, Root l,ooms, or at bootblacl< stands u-orhed severi days.
     I'eu'chrld'en u-orked.o.ly o? Salurdays or Sundays, even th6se
     worliing irregularly being emplo.yed qt least some *u.t'auyr.-                                                  O"iy
      14 per cent of those lr-ho lrorlted during the school year relported no
     r'ork on days rvhen school r,r'as session. A six or"..t.o'duu u-eek
                                                              in
     \\'as.as custonrary for gilis as for boys, and little difference adpeared
     tn the.regularity_of the rvolk of the younger ehilclren compared l-itir
     t h c o l d c r o n e s . N r n e _ p e r e n t o f i l r e c h i l d r e n u n d e r l 0 u - o r k e di r r e , g r r -
                                                    c
     larly compared with
                                          Q per eent of the older children, but o.tty i+ p..
     cent of those ,nder 10-the same percentage as
                                                                                                  '' those i0 years
     of age or older-worked less than six dayi a wcek.                                     "-otg
     Ti:::,,1:-{!.^?rr.                nf.dagsof work during a typi.cal                 ue.ek,ofschool         term ar.rtl     o!
                                U
       , ^ 1 r " 1 . , : ? l , bp t i n c i p . ao c c u p a t i o a n d i n d u s t r y ;c h i l d r e nu , h o s e r i n c i p i l
                                                 t                 n.                                              p
        occltpotLott rras otiter lhan slreet u.orL., -\crr.orl,.. .\'. .I.
     .-----
                                                                                    Childre!    utdcr   16 I €ars of age


                                                                                         Nuniber of dals o{ u{,rk durins a
                                                                                                  typicel week
                  Principal occupation and industry
                                                                                    6 or 7 da)'s
                                                                                   __l

                                                                                   Num- | Per



                              SCIIOOL   T}]R]I




        Fu"t^og.g-lq,ITkshop workers- _-
                                    _




     I Not shownwherebasois lossthan 50.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        18           EMPITOYMENT                             OF SCEOOI'                   CEILDREN        IN    NEW      JDBSEY

       Tesrn 4.-Number of days ol work during a typical week of school term anil o!
         uacation, by principal- occupation and industry: children whose principal
         ocrupationiuai other'thanstreit uork, rrrotO,    ,*
                                                       ".
                                                                                                        Children under 16 years of ago


                                                                                                          Number of days of work during a
                                                                                                                  typical week

                      Principal occupati0nand industry
                                                                                                                         Utrder 6      Irregular
                                                                                              Total     6 or 7 dsys       days


                                                                                                        Num-     Per    {um- Per      mo--l p."
                                                                                                         ber    cent    ber cent      ber I cent

                              scEooL TERM-continued
        Domestic and person8lservic€-----------                                                 935       582   62.2 29L 3 1 .1         6!     0
                                                                                                                                               6.. o

           Bootblacks (inside)-- --------                                                         t42      88 62.0            33.I       7 4 . 4.9
           C a d d i e s--- - - - - - - -                                                          'I           5.9      46   90. 2      2 l 3 ..9
           Pin.bo]"sand holpers.inpool rooms and bowling 3llcts-                                               60.2           28. 5            I ..
                                                                                                                                        1 4 1I14
           R p s t a u r a o ta D d l u n c h - r o o mh e l D e r s _ _ _ -- - -
                                                                     -                             36      25                         -'t6-"lt:
                                                                                                                                            I"lt:i
           Nursemaids------                                 - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - _ _ _ 208
                                                                                                  .--     136 65.4       46   ,t.i
           Other servants in Drivate lamilies_--_____--                                           133      7 8 58.6      49   36.8       6l  4.5
           Jonjtors and janitdrs' helpers, -                                                       69      49 7 1 .0     19   27.5       11. I.4
           Barbers'helpers--                                                                      118     105 89.0       II    9.3       21.
           Ot,bers------------                                                                                  43.6     27   49. 1      4   7.

                                                                                                292       208 71              19.2      28     9
                                                                                                                                               9.. 6
                                                                                                          178 7 7 . 1    26
                                                                                                           30 48.4       30 48.4
                                                                                                           2L   42.0     20 40.0


                                                                                                                              15.0

                                                                                                                                        19     5.8




                                                                                                                                          8    7.5
                                                                                                                                         o     5.8
                                                                                                                                       101     6.6

                                                                                                                              15.I      2()    6.9
                                                                                                                              15.0      38     5.3
                       h e l p € r sa n d o t h e r s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ -         446       358I 80.8           lr. 4            8.3
        Domestic and personal service--                                                         725       b16 J ?b.S          19.6             t.r
                                                                                                                         29 24.6          7
                                                                                                                         4l   67.2
                                                                                                                          a
                                                                                                                          5               I
                                                                                                                         20   10.4      ll
                                                                                                                         2l   23.1
                                                                                                                          7
                                                                                                                          6    6.t'      2
                                                                                                                          D              2
                                                                                                                              1r.7      19

                                                                                                                                          2

                                                                                                                                          8




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                CEILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER THAN STREET WOR.K                                            19
      Tenr,r 5.-Number of days of uork dttring a typical u:eekof schooi term o,nd oJ
        aacation, by age period and, ser; children whose ptrincipal occupation uas other
        than streetuork, Newark, N. J.

                                                           Children utrder l6 ] ears of age



      Number of days of work dur-
          ing a typical week
                                                                                                            14
                                                                                                         ]'ears,
                                                                                      i,i1.,i."1"i!'     urder
                                                                                                            15


                    TERM
               SCEOOL

           Total------------                                                                                230
     6 or 7 days-------               2,057                7io                                     r33      \n
     UDder6 days----                    i05                2U                                       7l       87
     Irregular---------                 184                 70     43                               31       l4
                VACATION

           Total------------          2, 403                                                       218
     6 or 7 days-------               1,913    130         722                  lr1                163      138
     Under 6 days----                   353    29     63   IJJ                   93      3    13    36       41
     Inegular---------                  r42     t7    34    5l                           3          19       t2

       I Includes I child for whom age was not reported.


                                           HOURS OT WORK

       Many of the childrenx'orkedlong hours during the vacationmonth s
     ald on Saturdaysthroughout the year and relatively long hours e.i'en
     when school was in session. (Tables 6,7,8, end 9.) During the
     vacation months on week days other than Saturday 692 children
     (27 per cent of those employed on such days) worked more than
     8 hours and 308 (i2 per cent) 10 hours or mo.re;on Saturdays 484
     (45 per cent) were employed more than 8 hours, 392 (16 per cent)
     at least 12 hours. On days when school was in sessionthe worhing
     hours were necessarily  shorter, but eyen on such days, u'hen 5 houri
     or more were spentin tire schoolroom, 76 per cent of ihe child workers
     were employedat least 2 hours and 26 pef cent 4 hours or more a day.
     On Saturdays during the school year I,420 children-the same pro-
     portion of the v-orkersas on vacation Saturdays-worked more than
     8 hours, 494at least.12hours.
       About one-fourth bf the children workins in each season were
     employed on Sunday, and for many of these the rvorking hours were
     as long as on week days. Thesechildren rvorkedin storesof various
     kinds, in bakeries,_atd in restaurants; as garege helpers, telegraph
     messengers,   bootblacks, caddies, nursemaids, and janitors, and as
                 and
     mcssenger- crrand,boys drug storesand otlier places
                                 for                              requiring
     such scrvice on Sundayi. Of th; 755 vacation woikers reportin[
     as to their working hours on Sunday 22 pet cent wer.eaccustomed     to
     rvork 8 hours or more, &nd of the 964 school-termworkers 19 per cent
                           'an
     were a,ccustomed   to     equally long rvorking day. tr'ew of these
     children rvorked only on Sundays, and the maJority were employed
     on week days other than Saturday, as well as on Saturdays and
     Sundays.




Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown Universi$'
      20             DMPLOYMENT                        OF SCHOOI, CHILDREN                              IIT NEW   JERSEY

      Tesr,n 6.-Number of hours oJ uork o.n a typical wee.lc _otherthan_Saturd,ag
                                                              -daE
        duringl school tern and, during uaccr,tion, age period anil ser; children whoie
                                                 by
        principal occupationuas other than st.reet
                                                 u;ork, Neu;ark, N. J.

                                                                                         Children under 16 years of age-Bo]'s



       Number of hours of work on a typical week
              day other than Satuday                                                                                       t4
                                                                                                                         years,
                                                                         Num-l cent lyears                               under not ro-
                                                                                                                                ported
                                                                          ber I distri- |                                  I6



                              SCEOOL
                                   TEIiIf
           T o t a l - - -- - - - - - - - -
      Work on week days other tha! Saturday- ----
          Total reported---                                               *t            100.
                                                                                           0
              U n d e r 2 h o u r s _ _ _ - _ _ ..
              2 hours, rnderl--- .. -.
                         r
              4h0urs, nderC.___.
                         u                   .
                                                   _
                                                                          ,,i33 nn
                                                                               i
                                                                            537I
                                                                                         5 1 .3
                                                                                         22.3
                                                                                                                   m4
                                                                                                                   470
                                                                                                                   200
                                                                                                                            134
                                                                                                                            431
                                                                                                                            222
              6hours,uoderE..-----                                               80 I     3.3                       22          3 2l - - - - - - - -
              8 b o u m ,u n d e r l 0 - - - - - - -                                      1.0                        5          r3 l--------
                   8 hourseven---,-----                                          \)                                  2
              l 0 h o u r sa n d o v e r - - _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ - _
                                                                     __           ,i       .1                        I           1     -___-__
         Not reported----                                                                                           36       ,5 ______
      No work on week days other than Saturday-                                                                    186
                                                                                                                               i_ 3
                                                                                                                            r47l

                                                                                                                            86el                5
                                                                                                                   840

                                                                                                           402     798
              Under 2 hoirrs-___                                                                    8       42              43
              2 bours, under 4- -                                           459          2t.7               83     167     172
              4 h o u r s ,u n , l o r 6 . -                                397          18.7      m        93     t32     140
              6 h o u r s , u t r , i e r8 - -                              335          15.8      18       62     129     126
                            ,
              S b o u r s u n d e rl C - . . - - - - - - . _ . _ _          513 I        24.2               76     r97     208
                   8 h o u r se Y e n - - - - -                             201|          9.5      IO               82
              l0 hours, under 12-- -
                                                                                I
                                                                             198|         9.3      T4       36      84      62
              12hours and over---_                                                        2.7       E       10              16
                                                                                 ")
         Nol reportcd-----                                                   117 |                 n                42      33
                                                                                 I
      No work on week days other than Saturday_                             lru                    10       26      68      69
                                                                                      l--------                                                        a




Provided by the Maternal and Child Flealth Library, Georgetown University
                 CHILDREN IN OCCUPATIONSOTHER IHAN                                                            SfREET WORK                  2I

     Te;rg 6.-{umber of hot,s o! worh on a t.yptcalwee.k
                                                           -day -ollrcr tlnn Saturday
       dllrxnqsfrrcot term and during uaeation, age pertod and ser; ciildren whosb
                                               by
       principal occupationwas othei than streetiori, Newark, i/.
                                                                  "f.-Continued

                                                                                                 Children under 16 years of age-Girls



      Number oI hours of work_on a t]-nical week day other
                        tnan Saturday                                                                                 10       12         t,t
                                                                                                                    ye3rs,   years,     years,
                                                                                                                    under    under      under
                                                                                                                               14         t6



                                  SCHOOL TER]I




            10 hours and oyer

        Not reported-----                                                                   4t
                                                                            |
     No work or weekdavffi,than                         saturtlav-----------l               9b


         Total------------                  -                                               b6l                52      100
     'Work                                                                            I
          on weekdaysotherthan Saturday---------                                                                       96      n7
                                                                                      i:=
        Totalreported---                                        _                -          481                45              192         182
                                                                                      I
            U_nder2hours----                                            -        _ - !i     41                          7       17          I1
            t h r r
            2 h ^oruqr s ,r l n ndre r 1 _ -
                          un a 4                                        ___-_-___i 6t       ^^
                                                                                                     lc. 0             17
            4 h o u r s ,u n d e r 6 _ _                                                                                        42          l9
                                                                        -    ---__l too              20-7              30                   JJ
            6 h o u r s ,u n d e r 8 - _                                  ---__-__l i03              2 1 .3
            8 h o u r s ,u n d e r t 0 _ - , - - - _ _ _ _ -
                                                                                                                       l6       37          33
                                                                                     -5
                                                                                     9n              19.6              10       41          40
                 8 h o u r se v e n _ _ _ - - - - -         -           --- --__]                     4.8                        7          ll.
            t 0 h o u r s ,u n d e r 1 2 - - - - - - - - -                                  38        7.9
            1 2h o u s a n d o y e r - _ - _ - - - - _ _ _ _ _ -                      I                                         t7          17
                                                                    -       _-       -i     lb
                                                                                      I
        Not reported-----                             -------------'----                    44                                  ID          12
                                                                        I
     No work on weekdays otberthan Sarurdav---_-_-____l                                     33                                  11          l7
      rlncludes I cbild for whom ago ws not reportod.




Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Flealth Library, Georgetown University
         22                 EMPLOYMENT                            OF SCEOOL                  CHILDREN          IN     NEIM         JERSEY

         TasLE 7.-Number of hours of work on a typi,cal ueek day other then Salurdag
           duri,ng school term and, during uacation, by principal industry; children whose
           pri,ncipal occupat'ion
                                was other than streetwork, Neuark, N. J,

                                                                                             Children under 16 years of ags


                                                                                    Manufactur-
                                                                                    ing ald me-                            Domestic
                                                                                                                          and personal         Other
         Number of hours of work on a                                               chanical in-                             servrce        itrdustries
          typical woek day othsr than                                                 dustries
          Saturday

                                                                                               Per         Per         Per
                                                                                               cent Num cent Num- cent
                                                                                    ber       distri- ber distri- b€r distri-
                                                                                              bution      bution      bution


                             TERM
                        SCEOOL
                  Tot8l- - - ----------------                                                                             935

         Work on week d6ys other than
                                                                                         7                                785

               Total reported- - -----------12, 934                                                                       ;         100.
                                                                                                                                       0
                                                                   694      23.7    ;                   343     22.
                                                                                                                  r       18'       23.9     95
                                                                 , ,169
                                                                   648
                                                                    94
                                                                    26
                                                                     I

                                                                      3
                                                                            50. I
                                                                            22. r

                                                                               .9
                                                                               .3
                                                                                        46
                                                                                         d

                                                                                         7
                                                                                         I
                                                                                                50.
                                                                                                17.
                                                                                                 2.
                                                                                                 2.il
                                                                                                  4l
                                                                                                        832
                                                                                                        315
                                                                                                         50
                                                                                                          I


                                                                                                          3
                                                                                                                53.0
                                                                                                                20.3
                                                                                                                 3.2
                                                                                                                  .6
                                                                                                                          307
                                                                                                                          233
                                                                                                                              JI

                                                                                                                              10
                                                                                                                                    40.2
                                                                                                                                    30.5
                                                                                                                                     4. I

                                                                                                                                      .5
                                                                                                                                            193

                                                                                                                                              5




               Not reported-----                                                                         89
                                   |
        No work on week days other I
         than satuday---
                                   i
                 VACATION

                  Total------------                            ,116,                                                                        379
         Work on week d&ys cther than
          S a t u r d a y -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 ,7 6 3                                                 u7
               'l otal reported---                             ,,*,
                                   --------                                 100.0   307        100.0   , 3{6              630                      100.0
                     Under 2 hours---_------                      200        aa         11      o.D     105      7.8       49        7.9     ,,      8.8
                     2 h o u r s ,u n d € r 4 - - - - - - - -     551       2t.2     51        16.6     295     21.9      r25       n.2      80     %..3
                     4 hours, under 6--------l                    497       19.1     50        16.3             17.3      157                       17.3
                     6 hours, under 8--------                     43S       16.8     39        12.7     218     16.2      114       18.4     D/     n.4
                     8 hours, under 10----_-_l                    608       23.4    120        39.I     325       .L       92       14.8     a1     2t.6
                          8 h o u r se v e n - - - - - - - l      224        8.6     46        15.0     rr8      8.8          m      4.7     31      9.4
                     l0 hours, under 72------                     236        9. I    26         8.5     120         8.9             r0. 6            7,3

                                                                                                                                             *i--....,
                     1 2h o u r s a n d o v € r - - - _ - -        72        2.8      4                  50                   1a              1
                                      I
           Not reported---------------l t61                                                              93
                                      I
        No work on week days other
         than Satuday-- -------------] 206
                                                                                                                                             " I-------




Provided by the Maternal and Child Flealth Library, Georgetown University
                     CITILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTHER IHAN                                  STREET WORK                         23
     Tanrr 8.-Number of hours ol work on a typical Saturdag duri,ng schoolterm and
       during uacati,on, age period and ser; children uhose principal occupation was
                        by
       otlterthan streetwork, Newarh, N. J.

                                                                       Children under 16 years of agFBoys



           Numbor of hours of work on a typical
                       Saturday                                                            10       t2            14
                                                                                 Under   years,   years,        years,      Age
                                                                        Per        10                                      not ro.
                                                              Num.      cent     years   under    uDder         undor      ported
                                                                                           1t       l4            t6
                                                               ber     distri-
                                                                       bution


                              SCIIOOL      TENM

              Total------------                               2, 946               236             1, 124

     W o r k o n S a t u r d a y -- - - - - - -                                                    r , 0 5 1|
           Totrl reporled---                                            100.0

                 U n d e r4 h o u r s - - - _                            18.I              100       184          143
                 4 hours, under 6- - - --- - -- -                        14.3       36      64                    139
                 6 h o u r s , n d e r8 - - - - - - - - , ,
                              u                                          13.0       16      62       158          105
                 6 b o u r s ,u n d e r l 0 - - - . . . - .              18.6       47               174          191
                      8 h o u r se v e D - - - - -                        6.3       n                 50
                 l0 hours, under 12                                      18.1       27               19r          185
                 12hours and over-                                       1? O       72      87                    200
           Not rcported-----                                                        n       l9                     18
     No work on Saturday--------                                                    3l      43         7g
                                 v Af ,{ TtoN
                                                                                           450                    869
                                                                                           419       854          8r7
                                                                                                     8m l-?$
                                                                                    27      84       l12           g5
                                                                                    27               113          1:10
                                                                         14.0       t7      55       126
                                                                         20.4               72       172
                                                                          7.7                         58
                                                                         18.6       19               166
                                                                         17.2                        134
                                                                                    ,1      18        31           26 l-
                                                                                    IJ                54




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       24          EMPLOYMENT O}' SCHOOL CHILDREN IN NEW JERSEY

       Tenr,o S'-liumber_of hours of uork on a tgpical sahrrdag d.uring school
                                                              -principdl     term awi
         during uaralion,bg ageperiod and ser; ihilrtren uhose          occupationwas
         othcrtLan slrce!uorA.,
                              A'euark,N. J. Continued


                                                                                                  Children under 16 years of age-Girls



          Number of hours of work on a typical Saturday
                                                                                                                 Under
                                                                                                                            tl
                                                                                                                           10 |   t2 |   14
                                                                                                                         years, years, years,
                                                                                           Num-
                                                                                            ber
                                                                                                        P6r
                                                                                                        cent
                                                                                                       distri-
                                                                                                       bution
                                                                                                                   l0
                                                                                                                 years
                                                                                                                          '2I"I"
                                                                                                                         under under undgr




                                   SCIIOOI, TIIITM

            Total-.----------                                                                                       63     r20 ,r, i          230
                                                                                                                    50     108    201
          Total reported---
                                                                                                                                        l'*
                                                                                                                                  18'
              Unrler4hours----                    --- -,----,-----------l               153              29.3       19      4l      *
                                                                                                                                   OD   138
              4 horlrs, under 6-_                                                       105                         T2
              6 horlrs, rrnder 8-_
                          u
                                                           _        - -
              8 h o u r s , n d e r1 0 - - - , _ _ _ _ - _ _ - _ _ -- _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r 9 3
                                                                   ,_
                                                                                    I
                                                                                   -l
                                                                                          81
                                                                                                         20. I
                                                                                                         15.5
                                                                                                         17.E
                                                                                                                     5
                                                                                                                            18
                                                                                                                            l8
                                                                                                                                   39
                                                                                                                                        lsl
                                                                                                                                   34 i 4 0
                   8bourseven_-__,--_                                  -                                  6.3                      l3
              1 0h o u r s ,u r d e r 1 2 - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - -       ,
                                                                                    i
                                                                                       I                 12.8                8     l8
                                                                                                                                        t'-
              12 hours and oyer___ -
                                                                                       ]
                                                                                                23        4.4                           l'3
          Not reportcd-----                                                 -         -l        38                           6     19          8
       No work on Saturday-----                                                        I        98                  13      2L     34         30
                                      vrcArroN                                         I




              1 0h o u r s , u n d e r 1 2 - _ _ - _ _ -
                                  o
                                                                                                  48
              r Z h o u r s ' a n O i e i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , 2L
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    1        ;iil             26
                                                                                                                                               7
          Not reporl ed-- - --                                                                  39                          ttl    rg         10
       No work on Saturday--------_--                                                           59                                 22         m
                                                                                                                            "l
        I Includos I child for whom at'e was not reportod.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Flealth Library, Georgetown University
                    CEILDBDN                   IN      OCCUPATIONS                        OTITEIi TTTAN STREET WORK                                                      25
      Tenr,n 9.-Number of hours o! uorlt on a typical Saturday duri,ng schoolterm and
        d,uring uacation,by princi,pal industry; children u-hoseprincipal occupat'ionuas
        other than streetwork, Newark, N. J.

                                                                                      Cbildren under 16 years of age




                                                                                                                                                                  -
               under 4 hours--,-- --- l                     *          ,*   t.-lz l            r+ s        ,8?          16,         tro         ,4.0         1r0    rrj
               4 h o u r s ,u n d e r 6 , , - - - - - l     480 :      15.2I t9                28.0        164          1 0 .E i    140         17.7          77 t, 20.5
               6 h o u r s ,u n d e r 8 - , - - - - - - l   423        13.1I :j9               13.8        197          11.6 i      119         15.0          68 i 18.1
               8hours,under 10-------l                      581        16.4 I 65 I             23.0 I      323          19.0 i      r13         14.2          80 I 2r.3
                    shoursevel-------l                      lsel        6.31 231                8.2         eol          50i         ,15         5.7          35i    e.3

            r 0 h o u r s , u n d e r r z - i ,-r-+ l t t . a l
                                            - -                                      4 01 A . 2 3 r ; l : r . , i l r o r n . ' i                             ,ol        9.6
            l2hoursandover------l           4s4 15.7                                 tt    6.0 313 20.2 130 16.4                                               ,          l.l
                                                             1                          l            i           i                                               ]
        N o t r e p o r t e d - -- - - -    132 ------1                                           tt -------l 20 --------                                     ,r,)       ----
                                         I                                           " ]--------] |
      Noworkonsaturday----------l | -------lrzt                                      30 -------- t+zl--------l r22 --------                                   271-------
                     YAcArIoNl,rllrrli
                                                       'llllllll
             T o t a l - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -2 , e 6 e- - - - - - - - l 3 2 e - - - - - - - -1 , 5 3 1 - - - - - - - - li z ; - - - - - - - - i 3 1 0l - - - - - - -
                                                                                                                  6
                                                                  l             -ffi      l
      work saturday- -.
         on      ------                                in-i liai                          1-            ffi i------_ --=rF
                                                                                                                   i-ffi                                            =
          Totalreported--- t,*i t*"r rri tr."lt,*i t*"i *                                       rr*;t                                                                   100-0
            u n d e r 4 h o u r s - - - -4 1 6 l 1 6 - , B r l r l l l l r i l r + . + tt r s ] r s :                                                                   ,4t
                                                                                                                                                              "L




          Not reported---------------l                      135

      No sork on Saturday-----
                             -----l 2t2




Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Flealth Library, Georgetown University'
         26                EMpLoyrrENToF scgoor, cHTLDRTN NEw JEnsEy
                                                        rN

           The weekly hours also were long. (Tables 10 and 11.) During
         vacation 1,164 children (44 per cent,)reported worhing 40 hours or
         more & week and 828 (31 per cent) at least 48 hours,including 210
         whose working weeli was 64 hours or longer. Even during the
         school year 212 (7 per cent) of the children worked 40 hours a week
         and 1,147(35 per cent) 24 hours or more.
         T,tnr,n 10.-Number ol haurs of work during a typical u,eeko! schoolterm and o!
           oacat'ion,by age peri,odand sex; children whote principal ocatpation uas other
           tlnn streetuork, |{euark, N, J.

                                                                                     Children under l6 years of age-Boys


                                                                            Tota.l
           Number of hours of e-ork during a typical
                            week                                                            Under      10                t4
                                                                                  Per        10
                                                                                                     years,   years,   years,    4Ce       i
                                                                                                                                nof, re-
                                                                                  cent      years    under    under    under
                                                                         Num-                                            16
                                                                                                                                ported
                                                                          ber    distri-
                                                                                 bution


                                  SCHOOL         TERM

                 Total------------

         Total rcported---                                               2,690    100.0

              Under 8 hours--------                                                  13.I      38               160       96
              E h o u r s ,u n d e r 1 6 - - - - - - - - -                           25.3      64      120      255      240
              lA h^nr.        ,rndor     t1                                            .9      46       93      251      250
              94 h^i1r.       Dndar      ?)                                          19.7               82      198
              q9 h^ilrc       ,1ndor     dn                                          10.4      m        ol      102
              r'n h6,rra      rrndpr     4s                                           4.1       6       14
              4R h^rrrc       rrndor     5A                                           1.9       3       1l        I6
                    4 8 h o u r se v e n - - - - - , - - - , -                         .l
              5 6h o u r s ,u n d e r 6 1 - - - - - - - - - -
              8l hoursand ovcr-----------


                                       vACArroN
                                                                       I
                 Totsl------------                               --,. -l 2,408
         Total reported---                                               ,J8?
                                                            |
            Under8hours----                                 |              14,                 11       38                37
            8 h o u s , u n d e r1 0 .     - ..----. -,-----l              266                 16       45               100
            16bous,under24.                          - - -.-l              260                 22       53                96
            24hous,under32..--,--                      -..-l               281                 181      531     101      105
            32hours,uder40...------                       .-l              269                 181      60               100
            40horus,under48.-.                    .....-.-l                271                 13l      45               109
            48bous,under56...----------                   .,1              3n                  18t      54               r22
                 48 hous even,                                              74                  51      16                 24
                                                            I
            56 hours, und.r 64 -. - - -                    -l              m4                                              81
            M h o u r s a n d o v e r .- -                 -l              169

         Not reportetl----------------------                        -l     22r                                             62




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                  CHILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER TITAN STREET WORK
                                                                                                           27
     Tanr,u 70.-Number of hoursof u,o7\,during.atypical u,eek
                                                                 'irireiioi terrn and o!
                                                                 o! st"hool
       uacutio.n, age pe-riort
                by           an,t_si2; rhildren it.iii'prr"rtpot
       than streetwork, Newark, N. ..I.-Continued                              was otr,er


                                                                Children under 16 years of age-Girls



        Number of hours ol work during a typical week
                                                                                                 t2       14
                                                                   Per                         years,   years,
                                                         Num-      cent                        under    under
                                                          ber     distri-                        L4       16
                                                                  butiotr

                                SCEOOL TERM
           Total reported---

     Total reported---

        Under 8 hours--_
        8 hous, under 16                                            m.5        7                  42        39
        16 hous, under 24-                                          33.I                          65        65
                                                                    18.2       8
           hours, under 32_                                         15.2
        32 hours, under 40_                                                    6       t8
        40 hours, under .18_                                         7.1                4                   17
        48 hours, under 56_                                          3.4      -i                   6        ll
                                                                     1.4                   I       3
            48 hous even                                                                                     3

        56 bours, under 64__- -       __
        b 4n o u s a n d o t e r _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - -
    Not reported----

                                  \r.{c.A.TroN
          Total

    Total reported                                        488
        Under 8 hours,, --                                 41
        8 hours, under 16_-                                         8 . 4|     3       8          11        13
        16 hours, under 24,                                69      1 4 . 1I   10       I          26
        24 hours, under 32                                 50      1 0 . 2|    5       8                    12
        32 hours, under 40                                 60      r2.3 |      8      19          I7        10
        40 hours, under 48_                                73      1 5 . 0I    I      14
        48 hours, under 56_                                62      r2.z|       4      10         2l
                                                           6l      12.5 |      2       8         26        25
            48 hours even                                   I       r.8 l-------.
       56 hous, under 64                                   31
       64 houts and over                                            6.4       2        2         t7        10
                                                           4l       8.4                3         19        IE
    Not reported-----
                                                                              8       l9         26        n
     I Includes t child for whom age was not
                                             reported.
             30812._2S_€




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        28        EMpr,oyMENT              oF scEIooL oETLDREN rN NEw                               JERSEY

        Tesr,E 11.-N umber oJ hours work duringa tgptcal u'eek sehool
                                       o!                         oJ      term and-of
                                                        principal occupationuas other
          wiatioi. bu princiial indusiru; chtldren whose-
          than strietiuork, Niu'ark, N. J .

                                                                    Children undor 16 years of age


                                                           Manulactur-                       Domesticand
                                                           ing and me-                         personal          Other in-
                                                           chanical in-                                          dustries
         Numbor of hoursof work dur-                                                            serYtce
                                                             dustries
            lng a typical week

                                             lPer         I                                                            Per
                                        Num- _cent lNum-l                                                    Num-l cent
                                       I be|li.trr' l ber , distri- J b?r           distrr- I ber I drstrF    b e r l distri-
                                                                                                              ber I d r s i r l -
                                                 uutrool
                                       I                            luutionl      luutionl          lbutionl           lbution
                scEooLrERM         I
                                       l-l-l-l-l-t-l-t-l-l-
                                        t      |     |       |    I       I    I     I     I
              Torar-------------------- --------t szl --------lle2ll_.,.._:nr, __..,.1:rn'-_,-,-
                                    3.604
                     .
        rorarreported--- ffiffiG1ffitffitmtAiffi16m

                     -,. lisl ?lt ffiilnl ii!i'iilrq'i
                            |s:3|
                         3??i 3!ii!il lSililiiliilrlil l!:l
             Hn"',ii,?ttHiia.........j ?i!1
             iilrri,r*rii t,ilI 'iti | ill
             40hours,under48----.----- t3
                                   128
             *olli,';,i,11',i#-----'--. i:3
                                  3 4    .r r i
                                                ]
                                                                        .3
                                                                               :i I i:3I t3
                                                                                              -
                                                                                               ^r.Il
                                                                                                     i|
                                                                                                         ^:i
                                                                                r r .2 -..-.--- --r---: ---:
                                                                                                      ]-
                                            :l        :i               ":.|

        *""-0""',1^.;;,;.- - - - - - - - l ' l "l 'ul.-'-'-
                 '".-."-'l
                     i------r
                       "i I"'i"'-"-l|
                                         --------l 329- - - 1,
                                    2.e.4e
              Total--------,---------                        1!_::::_::_]25,::::_::]:31___:=
        Totalreported---               l,tji5    1 0 0 . 0r 3 0 0     100.0 1,382    100.0    663    100'0       330
                                                                                                             ]         _100.0

             Yfff,:l,ll;u:';, - '3:31 '6:31,?il!il r!:[ iil fi
                          .'. ll:
             l ch o u r!,u n d e i 24-
                                       16l
                                       7,3
                                           ,!,!l
                            iii li,f,i ,i.3j19?il:lI ;ii iliI iiI it,!
                            ;i? iig|
                            iii ii,ii '3.ii:il 'i:!! rs'sl 'i'.?
             #ilsilrlliliii..:-. iil ii,i'lil ii,il'ssi rslii:i
             frii:$[;niiiiii,,,,,,,, iiilii,il'si, 1i il,g
                                                         il'gi
             *'l$ii;,ll11'-^'.-- '1:il?rlii'i,
                            'l,l       li                '3:31
                                                         i3       li'
                    .,.,. ' 31i ?31;? i:3 ltl '3:3lt 'd3\ i'',
          3ll3$n'"x".'3i'f,'.                                     '+l
        Notreporred-----               -i
                                          l       l | 'i--------l 4r]-------
                                               1il1--------l
                            *r --------l ------i
                                                             I

           A long tiay usually meant not only a lo4s week for tle children but
        often night'work aJso. Not many children worked-early in the
        morningf 50 (3 of whom were girls) reported-bcsip-niry before 6. a. m.
        during iacation, and 40 (1 of whom was a gir!) said the-y-bega.n,before
        6 whe-nschool was in session. The majority of bhesechildren delivered
        milk. Late hours at night, hower-er, were-not, at all unusual, not only
        on Saturdays s'hen the- shops were open during the g^veningbut also
        on other iveek days. (Tabl-es12, !3,'14, and 15.) Of the 2,4.43clil-
        dren working on" rveek days other tbtn Saturday in vacation and
        reporting as-to the hours they usually stopped, 6Q pet cent were
        e*plovicl until 6 p. m. or latei and 26-per cent until at least 8. Of
        the,.Iaiter 143 rvorked until 10 or later' Late hours were eYen more
        frequent among the children who worked during the school year than
        u-ots the vac"ation workers. Of the 2,816 children working on week
        days 6ther than Saturdays during the school term and reporting the




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         CITILDRI]N                IN        OCCUPATIONS                   OTEER     TITAN        STRDET WORX                            29
         hour they stopped 31,per ce.nt customarily worked until g p. m. or
        later on schooldays: 223 childlen (8 per icnt) usuallv worried until
         a t l e a s t 1 0 , a n d 5 3 u n t i l m i d n i g h t . T h e c h i l d ' e r rw o r l t i n g I a t e a t n i g h t
        were employed in stores, oftenneighborhood variety stoies or gr'ocery
        stores but also many other kinds, such as drug sioris and deliiatessen
        shops, in garages,barbcr shops, bowJing alleS:s,                                  restaurants, at lu'ch
        countels, ^asbootbl_pcks,as nulsenaids-and bther seryants, and in a
        number o{ othel iobs.
                                     "more
                    Saturdays                    children worliod. late tlian on other nights.
          .,On
        Almost lialf of those working on saturdays, both in vacalion"and
        during the scho.olyea.r, .lvereemployed until 8 p. m. or later, and. about
        onclourth until l0 p. m. or later. Sixty-seven (3 per cent) of the                  '(4'per
        vacation workers employed on Saturdayi and gb                                                     cenL) of the
        school-term worliers worlied on -saturday nights urLiir nridnight oi
        l a t e r . A n e . r c n l a r g e r n u m b e r o f s t o r e s a n d o f p l a c e so f a m r r s E m e n t ,
        such as pool rooms, \\rere open up to a later hour on Saturday than
        on other evenings.
        'I'.qs\x,
                      \2.-Hoyr              of. ending ajternoon uork on a lypiral ueeh d.ay ofher than
            6 a l u r d a y . d u . r i n g s c h o o l t . e r m a n d d . u r i n . gu a c a t t o n , b y a g e p e r i o d a n d " s c r ; c h i l d r e n
            whose prtncxpaLoccupalion uas olher lhan slrcet uork, Neu.ark, \'. J.


                                                                                            Children uDder 16 years of age-Boys



          Ilour of ending afternoon work on a typicBl
                                                -
                week day other than Saturday'                                                                             t12
                                                                                            Per
                                                                                                                                     11
                                                                                                                            years, 1 ICfrs-           Age
                                                                                                                                                     not re.
                                                                                    Num-    ceDt                          I under ] under
                                                                                                                                   l                 ported
                                                                                     ber   distri-
                                                                                           bution
                                                                                                                          l-l         l16
                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                                      I

                                                                                                                          i;l
                                                                                                                                      l-
                                 SCEOOL TERY
                Total-.---.. -----
                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                                      I r, ors
                         n
       . { f t e r D o o w o r k .- _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ ,.
                                             _                                                                                 877        81e
                                                                                                                                  i
             rlour reported-----___--                                                                                          8?4         _
                                                                                                                                  I        dlJ

                   Before p. m-----, -_____-_-__-
                            6                                                                                                  rs4|        1r8
                   QP . m . , 6 e f o r e p . t " - , . . - - - - - - - - - - - -
                                        s
                                                                                                                               ;3!
                                                                                                                                 I         396



             I l o u r D o t r e p o r t e d _ _ _ _ _ _-
                                                      _ -_
                                                                                                                                ;ll
                                                                                                                                 3I
                                                                                                                                           196
                                                                                                                                            o6
                                                                                                                                            L7   I
                                                                                                                                                 I
      MorolDg work only___-__-_____.
      No wor-k-on eek daysotber than Satllrday__
                   w
                                                                                                                                ,tl
                                                                                                                               186 I
                                                                                                                                            67
                                                                                                                                           147
      'l]me of
               day not reported____-                                                                                            ,rl
                                   VACATION
               Total----------                                                                                                ,rl          869
      Afternoon work                                                                                              374         763
            Hour reportcd----                                                                                     3i3 i       763
                  B c f o r e p . m _ . _ _ _ _ ._ _ _
                             C                       .                                      37.5
                  6 p . m . , t i e f o r ep . m - - . . - - - - - - - - - - . _ _
                                           *                                       714      35.I       46                                  270
                  8 p . m . , b e f o r c 0 p . n _ _ - . - _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ l 408
                                           l                                                20.5                                           743
                  l 0 p . u r . , L e f o r o Z p . m _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _|_
                                             t                       .              89       4.5         2                                  32
                  t 2 p . r n . a n d a f t e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ - _ _ __ _ _ _30
                                                                                -l           1.5                                            l0
          Eour not reporrcd---------                                                  2
                                                                             I
      Morningworkonly-----.                                                  I       127                I                                  54
      N o w o r ] {o o w e c k d a y s o t h c r t h r D S r t u r , J a y - _ l     173               l0                                  69
      'rlme ol oay Dot
                             relrorted_-____                                         119               19
                                                                             |




L -




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
          30                EMpLorrMENf                            oF scgoor,   cHTLDRTN rN NEw            JERSEY

          Treue L2.-Hour o! cnding alternoon uork on a typiral ueek da-y other than
            Saturdayduring irhooLteim'and during uacatiort, .age-
                                                           bg           and'-ser:^children
                                                                  perio.d
                                     was other than streetwork, Newark, N. "I'-Con.
            whosepiincipa[ occu'pation

                                                                                      Children undgr 16 years of age-Girls



             flour of cnding afternoon work on a typical week
                          day other than Saturday                                                          10                  l4
                                                                                                   Under years,    years,    years,
                                                                                                    10                       under
                                                                                                   years under
                                                                                                           1t
                                                                                                                   under
                                                                                                                               16
                                                                                                                     T4




                                                                                                                      235|       230
                                                                                                                                 171

                                                                                                                      174|       10e
                                                                                     16S                               47
                                                                                     191   36.I               39       77
                                                                                   I 135   2$. I                       40
                                                                                      N     3.9                I        I
                                                                                                                        I

                IIour not reporLed----------                                          8                                 6             ,
          M orniogwork only- ------ --- ---                                           5                                 2          3
          No work on week days other than Saturday-----------                        95                                35         49
          Time of day not reported------                                                                               18          7
                                                YACATION
                    Total- -------------------                                                               r00
          A f t e r n o o n o r k - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- . .
                          w                                                                                   77
                flour reporled----                                                                            77      13?

                       B e f o r e6 p . m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                  48.7                        92
                       6 p . m . , b e f o r e8 p . m - - -                                20.5                        43
                       s i,.m.i befuerdp. m-------.--------------                          19.5                        37
                       1 0p . m . , b e f o r e 2p . m - - - - - - - - - .
                                                1                                           5.0                         I
                       1 2 p . m . a n d a f t e r -- - - - - - - - - - . -                  .2 __-                     I

                Ilour not reported------ -- - -                                                                         1

          M o r n i n gw o r k o n l y -- - - - - - - - - - - -                                                                    8
          No work on week days olber than Saturday----------                                                                      t7
          Time of dsy not reported----- - - - - - -                                                                               i3

             I Includss 1 child for whom age was not rsportsd.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                       CTILDREN IN OCCUPATIONSOTITER fI{AN                                                                 STREET WORK                       31

    Te^nr,r 13.-r1o:tr of . enrling alternoon work on a tupical u'eek dau other than
      ;aturdaa during school  .l.ermand during uacation, prtnctpal irtdu.itry;cJtildren
                                                        bg                     -
      whose  principal occttpation                    uoi.k, Nrrhit , N. J. "'
                                   u'asothertian street


                                                                                          Children under 16 -yesrs age
                                                                                                                  of


                                                                                       Manufac-
                                                                                      turing and                                Domestic
                                                                                                                               and personal        Other
    Ilou of ending afternoon work                                                     mechanical                                                 industries
       o.n a typical week day other                                                    industries                                servrce
       than Satuday


                                                               NuI
                                                                        Per cen
                                                                         distri                distri-   *"--l      Per enl
                                                                                                                     distri-                    Num cent
                                                                                                                                                           Per




                                                                                                         ;l
                                                                ber                                                                              ber distri-
                                                                        butiotr                bution               bution
                                                                                                                                                          bution

                    SCEOOL TtrRM

              Total- -------------------                                               324                                     935
                                                                                                                          -t
          Hourreported-----------                             f r , 8 1 6i r 0 o , i , , , 8                         1 0 0 . 0 ,50               337       100.0
                                                                                                                             I
                 Before p. m ----------l 6;9 r]
                             6                                      r f rH                       42. 5    302         20.7 I 1 5 9      2r.2     104        30.9
                 0 p. m., bFfore p. m___11,250 lq. s | 99
                                          8                  |                                   36.I     768         52.6 |            n.5                 48. 1
                 8 t , . m . , b e f o r el 0 p . m _ I C 0 4| 2 3 . 6 I 5 l                     19.0     304         2 0 . 8 | 256     34. 1     53
                 l 0 p . m . . b o f o r o1 2p . m _ l I 7 0 |                                                                                              15.7
                                                                6 .0 |    4                       l. o                 5 . 4 ) 72        9.6                 4.5
                 t 2p . r u . u d f r e r _ _ _ _ $ _ l t . o - -
                            3 a                               _                                              8                   42      5.6          3       .9
                                                                I     I
          I l o u r n o t r e p o r t e d- -                            2                                                         7)                  I
                                                           I "l-__----l
   \ l o r n i n gw o r k o n t r ' - - - - . . - - - - - - l                                                                       l

                                                                                                         i ;:i
                                                       ll9 l--------l              6                                            12 1                  8
   \o work on week dals other I                              I               I
      r h a n s r r u r d a ! . _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 2 ; l _ _ - - - - - _ l B l
                                                       __l                                                                          I
                                                                                                                               150                60



                                                                                                         1,""^l
   T i m e o f d a y n o t r e p o r r e J - _ _ - _ _t_ ls
                                                        r 1 _ - _ - - _ _ _ 1l   l                                              Iti l             18
                                                              lrl
                    vAc.{.rroN
                                                  i        |            |
                                                                        | s-
             T o t a l _ _ _ - _ _ - - - _ - _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ l : . s o s l -2 e ________
                                                                                        1,536                    l___-_--_ i25 I-------- 379
   . { f t e r n o o nw o r k - - - - - - - _ - - _ - - _ _                                                                58e l____-_--
         Hour reported----                                    o 411       lm.0                 r 0 0 . 01 . 2 4 7
                B e f o r e6 p . m - - - - - - _ - _ _ _        ,68        39.6                           418                  213      36.2     Li2       48.I
                6 p. I]1.,before 8 p. m_-_                      835        3.1.
                                                                              2                           521                           4.0      108
                8 p. m., b€fore 10 p. m--                       497        20.3                             2                  191      32.5      38       12.2
                10 p. m., before 12 p. m                        112         4.6                            66                            5.4      10        3.2
                12 p. m. and after_- -                           31                                        t0                   17                 3        1.0
         Ilour not reported----------                               3                                       2                    I
  \Iorning work only-- - - -------_                             154                                        97                   31
  No work on week da]-s othcr
    than Saturday_-                                             206 l                                                                            ,1
  Time of day not repbrted-------                               163 |                                      93                  27                3l




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                          EMpT,oYMENT oF scgoor,                                                 oETLDBEN rN NEw                        JERSEY
       32

        TtI3tn 74.-Hour o! endingalternoonwork on a lypical Satu.rday     during school
                                                                                   occu-
                                   ii-ii"
         term and dur4rtg aacatrci",      irrtod 'n!,sex;"ihildren u'hoseprinctpa;
         pation was otherlhan slreetwork, Neuark, N' J'

                                                                                                            Chiklren under 16 years oI age-Boys


         flour ol endins               ons tvpical
                       "tJil""l3l"*o.n                                                                                                   72        1,1     Age
                                                                                                       l-                              y€ars,    years,
                                                                                                  I rer
                                                                                                                                                          not re-
                                                                                                                                       under     under    poried
                                                                                             Num- I cent                                 l4        16
                                                                                              ber i distri-

                                                                                             -t-       I
                                                                                                           bution

                                         TENM
                                    SCEOOL
                                                                                              z,oml-------                                                     10
                  Total------------

        A f l e r n o o nw o r k - - - - - - - - - - - -                                      2,285
               Ilour reported---                                                                279                     *                 880       838

                                                                                                582                     6t       119      223       176
                      B e f o r e p . m - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - l
                                6                                                                                                                   178
                      0 p . n r . ,t r e f o r ep . m - - ' - - - - - - . - - - - - l
                                                 S                                              52r          22.9       40        96      203
                                                                                                507                               84      199       193
                      8 f . m . , l r e f o r e0 P . m - - - - - - - - - - -
                                              l                                                                                                     254
                      r 0 D . m . , b e f o r el 2 P . n - - - -                                             25.3       18        85      2r9
                                                                               ---               92           4.0        2        17       36
                      1 2p . m . a n d a f t e r - - - - - - - - - -                     |
                                                                                                 10                                         2         2
               Ilour not rePorted---------                    I
                                                           --                                   3,19                                      133       L
        Morning work onl]'-------- --                    -    I
                                                                                                223                              43                  74
        Nowork ou Salurday-------- ------ ---- -l                                                                           t7   15        36        77
        T i m e o f d a y n o 1r e p o r t e d - - - - -                                         85
                                                              I
                                  v.{c-{rloN                  I                                                     I
                                                                                                                    I

                                                                                              2,408                 |   176      450      908       869
                   rotal------------                                                     I
                                                                                                                                          716
         A f t o r n o o nw o r k . - - - - - - - - - - -
                                                                                                                                          710
                Ilour reported---
                                                                                                 544                             109       213
                                                                                                 430                        34    &1       161      149
                                                                                                 39S                              61       166      148
                                                                                                 41.2                        I    69       153      181
                                                                                                  66                                        23

                                                                                                   I                         I     1
                 E l o u rn o t r e p o n e d - - - - - - - - -
                                                                                                 307                        23    64       107
          Morning work only--------- -- ---                                                                                       31        54
          No work on Saturdav-----                                                               153                        IO


          Time of doy not roported-- - - - -- -- -
                                                                                                                            20    to




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                    CEILDREN                 IN      OCCUPATIONS         OTHER        THAN           STREET WORK                   33
          term and d,uring aqcation,bA age period a,nd,ser; ;l;ildren whose"princin"ot orru-
          pation uas other than streetworlt, Neuark, N.
                                                        "I.-Continued

                                                                                Children under 16 ]'ears of agrcirls



      Eour of ending aftemoon work ot a typical Saturday
                                                                                                                 r0l1214
                                                                                                               ]'ears, years,   years,
                                                                                                               under I under    under




                                   SCFOOL TER}T

                                                                                                                 12eI      B       %o
     Afternoon work                                                                                               eOl    151i      163
                                                                                                           I
                                                                                      100.0                       QO     14R       16l


                                                                             1 6 7|    38.0                       4zl     s3l       42
                                                                             102 i     8.2                        19l     461       32
                                                                           t r07 i     24.3                       141     331       50
                                                                              61 |     13.9                        9i     15        36
                                                                               3.7                                                   I
                                                                                  I
          Elour not reported                                                   5 l-_-_----                                           ,
     \Iorning work only, - -----------                                                                 5          t2      34
     \o work on Salurday---------
     T i m e o f d a y D o tr e p o r l , e d - _ . _ _ _ _
                                                                             aRl                      l3                  u         30
                                                                             3 1l - - - - - - - -      5           6      I6         4


                                                                         :a:5 6 1i - - _ _ _ - - _               100               191


          Elour reported----

                Bofore p. m-----------
                          6
                o p. m., 6erreb p.;--------------------------
                8 p . m . , b e f o r el 0 p . m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -
                10 p. m., belore t2 p. m_,_
                1 2p . m . a n d a f t e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _

          flour not reported

     \Iorning work only- ---------- - -
     No work on Saturday---------
     Time ol day not reported- - - - -

       I Includes 1 child for whom sg€ was not roportsd,




L-




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universit-v
        34               EMpLoyMENT                          oF scgoor.                   crrrLDREN rN NEw                                 JERSEv

        Tenru l5.-Ilour    of ending afternoon work on a tEpical Saturday dtrling school
          term and, during u_acation, principal industry; chi,Idrenwhoseprincipal occu-
                                     by
          pati.onu,:as
                     other than streetwork, Neuark, N. J.


                                                                                               Children under 16 years of age


                                                                                     Manufac-
                                                                                    turing and
                                                                                    mechanical                 Trade
        flour of ending afternoon work
             on s typical Satuday                                                    industries


                                                                  Per I                    I    Per |      | Per
                                                          Num-l rent                            cent lNum-J ccnt
                                                             "-
                                                           ber I distri
                                                                 bution
                                                                          "*         "*         "*       "*
                                                                                               distril ber ldistri
                                                                                               butionl     lbution
                                                         |         lb,rtr;;l lili;;l    lili;;;i lfii;;;l lilr.;.
                                                                                           t_1_L_


                     scHoo'-rERMllllllllll
                     SCHOOL       TERM
                                                         ,-l-'-l-i-i-l


                                                                            4' 4 ___ _ -
                 T o t a l _ - - _ - _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ 1 3 . 6 03 2_l--_ _ _ -_ -_ . 1 r . 9 2 1    c 3 . : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _4 l - : - : : j :
                                                                                                                      l             4:
                                                                                                       __.-.__'
                                                                 - f_
        A r t e r n o o n w o r k - . - - - - - - - - - - _!_ , : T i T : f f i
                                                                                                =-==eol-
            rlourreported---------                ]r,?rr t*,o rr? 100.0 I r00i I 6r"r
                                                            1                           |rJro                        ]-roo.o aor
                                                                                                                              1    1-roorc
                 B e r o r e o p . - - - - l - z r s ir ? * I , ' r ] r t r ] * l
                                                                        ,                          *"i*]                        'i 1
                                                                                                                        ,-i-rml-m,
                 onp mn ,. b e eo roerl qp . m m6 ig r - , r s i i
                                ,f           e l. l o j 2
                 6 p . . i n ,. h f ,f e r e 8 pr.p . ' 1 't " l . i2:..9 1l i 7ll , A9 . sB n r l r i . i lI i s s o l i i1 h c 4 l 3 ti .:0
                       r                                                                    l
                                                                                     . '1 BrI ir r r ol 2 ..6                        5 d
                 q . .                     0               614r
                   8 p . m . , b e f o r e r 0 p . m .1 4 2 2 ..6 11 3 6 1 t 8 .. 3 1 3 8 1 2 5 ..0 111 3 2 1 l t0 . 0
                                                                      2 6        61 8 31 81              5 0 321 1 .0                                          5
                                                                                                                                                            c 5 ii     2 t .. i5
                     0        m ,bef f r re 2 mm_l
                   l 0 ll ,,..m . . , b e o oe r 2l p .p . _ r3 q q 2 3 ..5 l l 9 ll
                                                           6 63       3 5            4 .. 6 1 4 3 6 1 : S . n l1 l ; 3l 1 2 s ..0
                                                                                          61 361 8 6 r r                    s 0                               o
                                                                                                                                                            : 0 ii      t i. 6
                                                                                                                                                                        6
                    1 2 p . m . a n d a f t e r _ _ - _ _ _.lr l  ,            ,i        r.ol ,ul t.u) 13l t.oi 4l l.J
                    r rn r t e ro t - - - rr ] - -l
              r l o un o to erp op t erd e-d - - ---------]----------------- l I l - - -------- l 8 i - _- - -_i|- - b l_ _--- -_ - - _1 ll _--- -------_
                                                     tb                    ] r -              - r - _ -- r -- _ ---i - _
                                               tltlltl
        M o r nIi u o r * on ttt y---- - ----- - - --_-,-*-3I_ _-_- -_--i_ -*l ir ll _ _ _ - _ _ -1t?t7_-_-_ _ - ----_'ll* 0_ - - - _ - ----1] ;l i ----_---- - -_-
                       n s ko . y - -
                                   o                  - 43 -l _  l                 8                   t- l        --- 10 " _-- -- ? l             t            _
        ' g o e , pd s a u r d p o r t _ . _ -l1_lO
                           yD          e                    -r l , _ _ _ _ _I _ - ? o
        l r rIm r Jo:r ona S e t rortdrA va y _ _e d - -I--_??__I l- t
                        n         r
                                                            _f _
                                                                                   _
                                                                                   q ! _ _ _ - . 1 4,? _ _ _ _ _ )_ _ _, 2. _ - _ - _ _ - - : ; - _ _ - _ - _
                                                                                                        ta                  rr
                                                                                                                            12
                                                                 l - _ _ _ - - - _ I t - _ - _ - - - - t t 8 - - _ _ - _ _ - it 5 i - _ _ _ _ - _ -2 2 _ - _ - - - -
                                              r rl l
                        Y A c ^ r l o N l r l r i l l llit l l l
                T o t a l - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ r 1 , - -6 9 _ - - - 3 2 9l - - - - _ _ _ _ ' t , s-a o _ - _ - - li z s ,- - _ _ _ - _ -a l s l , - - _ _ - -
                                                                        9 __           l                              _-                                   i
                                                                                                                                  :i84                 -;
        Arternoon ------------- r,'N -:::
                *ork-                                                               roq:                ffi        -:         -           -_-                     ==-                  t
              Eour worked-----                           2,2ss                                                                                                                         (
                                                                   ] l0o.
                                                                        0           tos         100. r, 216 r00.tl sa+j rml
                                                                                                   0                                                        z0z      roo.
                                                                                                                                                                        o
                                                                                                                                                                                       r
                                                                                                                                                                                       t
                                                                                                                                                                                       l




        l \ - I o r n i n g w o r ko n l 1 , - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 8 5 - - - - - - - - t19 --------l     l42 --------         t ]--------         57 -------
        ,\oworr{oDsaturday_-_____---
        ' l r r e o l d a y n o t r e p o r r e d _ _ - _ _ _ _2 t 2 _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ 3 l _ _ _ _ _ - _ - ll 0 J _ _ _ _ - - _ _ 4 9 _ _ _ _ - - _ - l 2 X - _ _ _ _ _ _
                                                                      r
                                                                     t 3 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ i , , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - l; 3 _ - _ _ _ - - - , r _ _ - _ _ - - L ! d . _ _ _ _ _



           Children under 12 t'cars of ase averaEed almost ss manv hours o-[
        rvolk a day and a,\{-eekas older-childrenl and girls almost a"s                                      manv as
        boys. (Tables6, 8, and 10.) Althoueh children under l0 repoited
        s o m e w h a t s h o r t e r h o u r s t h a n o l d e r c h i l d r e n . e \ - e nt h e v w o r k e d t n a n v
        hou-rsa_day and of-ten had a long weeli. During vacaiion 31 per cent
        of the children under 10, compaied lvith 36 pcr cent of those oi 10 and
        over, worked eight hours or more on days other than Saturday, and
        42 p^ercelt, compared with 53 per centirvorlied eight hours oi more
        on Saturdays. During the schbol year 20 per ce;t of the children
        under 10, compared with 27 per cenl of those of 10 and overrtrr-orlied
        four hours or more a day on days other than Saturdays, and on Satur-
        days 41 per- cent, compared with SZ per cent, worked'eight hours or
        rnore. Children undei 10 reporting a l'eek oi 40 hours o'r more dur- |
        ing vacation were 37 per cent, andthose reporting 24 hours or more ,


                                                                                                                                                                                   i
                                                                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                                                                   I




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
           CEILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER IHAN              STREET WORK         35
    during the schoolterm were 26 per cent, rvhereas childrenof 10 ancl
                                                             for
    over thes.e  proportions    u.-ere per cent_and per cent, respectivcly.
                                     44                  36
    cirls under 10 weregenerailynursemaids helfed in sfores(in most
                                                      or
    cases  owned by parints), -i.ty of which k;pt;p;;"iii-u"t,il"               rro""
    every evening. tr4anvof the younger bovs alsoworked in such stores
    or wcrc bootblacksat standsoperatinE           until a late hour at niEht.
        FTorrrs worJ<
               of       and late emplbymenidependcd someexteit upon
                                                              to
    the kind of u'ork in which the childrenv:ere engaged. (TablesZ, g,
     11,.13,and 15.) Amongsales         boys.and   girls,amoig children occu-
                                                                            in
    pations elassedunder lransportal,ion (generallyIarase helpers or
    u'orkorson trucks), and ambng bootblacksloriE               "houis
                                                                        of work in
    vacationu,-ere  more commonthan amongchildreni-nother occuDatiorrs.
    From 39 to 43 per cent of thesechildren-reported workinEu-eek at
                                                              a                 of
    lenst 48 hours in vaeation,u'hereas none of the other "occupations
                                               in
    did the proportion of children working 48 hours or more exceed81
    p.er cent., During the school      vearras.duringracation, a largepropor-
    tion of the bootblacks      and of the chiidrenin stores       ieporied'exccp-
    tionallv,long.hours, but only.a comparatir-eiy            small froportion bf
    rne cnllctren ln.transportatron     30bshad very long hoursexceptduring
    the summer. During thc months when sclioolwas in session pro-           thc
    poltion o-fchildrenwhor orked,       long hoursin barbe-r    shops, poorroorns
    anrl.bowlingallevs,and bootbiackingstandswas largei ihan that of
    chlldrcn_worrrngrn stores-; per_  69_      eent of those u.olJ<ing barber
                                                                          in
    shops,59 per cent of the bootblacl<s, per eent of the"ehildrenin
                                                  34
    pool rooms and bowling allc.ys,        and BB per cent,oI the children in
   slores- reported that thcy worked 28 hours or morc a week outside
   school hours. Hours of-w-ork in restaurants and at lunch counters
    also.were long, but the number of children woriring in such pi;;;;
   durrng the sehoolyeer was small.
     . In general odcupations rvhichthe iv.eekly
                  the                 in_                    hourswercrongwcre
    the samein which childrenu-orkedlate at night." During vacaiion the
   proporlionscustomarily,employed            until at"leastg p. m".*"r" g7 pc,
   cent of the childrenworking_on         week-dayevenings-other       than Satur-
   days in pool rooms aud bowling alleys,g*3          per ceit of thosein barber
   shops,  and 68 per cent of thoseworhinfu bootblacks. In the school
                                                   as
   r-ear90 pcr cent,88p9I cent,andg8 p"I cent of thescgroups,           -The respec_
   Irvely, were customarilyemplo.ved          until at least g p. rn.           next
   largest  groupof childrenworliing.late evenings
                                                on            oth'erthan S;t";d;t
   or sunday r.r'as  salesbo.ys.   and.girls-and    generil helpersin stores;i"n
                                                                 ^on
   vacation38 per cent,of the saleschildren at work                  such.rr"ti.rg.
   and.31 per cent of the helpersand 42 and B1 per c-ent,t"rp"ct1"elfl
   in the school term were gmployed                 g
                                             -unti! p. m. gr lat& on'ev".r,ogs
   other than saturd,ayor sunday. rn all odcupationssaturday hou"rs
                                           .
   t'ere much later than hourson other davs.
           prineipal,occupations the girls selling.in
                                     of                        store_s working
   aslh:clomestrcs (.atmost                                           _and
                              lrne-tenths of the girls included in the studi
   lere 9mr]9yed eit'herin trade or in dom"estic
   almost.entrrely,in
                                                            and personal.o.ri"",
                         _stores in private houses domestics
                                 or                       as             and nurse
   grrls) drflereda little as to houls. Girls in storesgenerallyhad at least
   as longr, worki3s week as thosein domesticserviie *"a ,irt
   one. . O,fthg 171 employed trade drrringthe vacation*or-,ih, .,iho
                                    in                                   " "-l"rrg",
   reporte(t  tncrr nou.rs work 55 (32per ccnt) worked4g hoursor more
                           oI
   a week,as compared      with 65 (2a pei cent) of the 266 girls in domestic




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
         36     EMPLOYMENT     OF SCHOOL    CHILDREN   IN   NNW   JERSEY


         service; and of the 208 emplo5red trade during.the schoolyear who
                                             in
         reporte.ltheir hoursof woik iO (S+per cent) workedat least24 hours
         a week,ascompared      with 71 (23per cent)of the 34 in domesttcservlce.
         ti,"  piopottioir of girls of various ageswas practically the same in
         the two occuP&tlonar
         -                       groups.
            if*itt U".ten ftomihere fiEure.that many Newark school       children
         **t.Ja".ing      the summerrionths as Iong hours.asif ilrey had left
         school for refular work. In many instancesboth during vacation
         and when scliool was in sessionthey worked earlier in the morning,
         iater at night, and longer hours than-the_law w-gul.d    have permitted
         tlem-ttr" a5 nira they 6een out of school in full-time employment'
                 to
         f"f        sreat maioritY were under 14, and many were under
                               "10years age. G_rowing
         iZ and evEn under               of                 children require both
         '".r.uiio"  and long hours of slee-p,  and when they work an adrrlt's      I
         *o,king day thev ire losing somewhere. Children worl.ing for their
                                                    -                               li
         narents"are"likelvto receiv:e   more considerationthan those working
         io" oth"tt; childien working until 9 or 10 in the evening,forexample,
         in their fathers' stores, baiber shops, or shoe-shiningparlors may
         have worked under less exacting conditions than hired children, but
         even they could have had littli time for other essentialactivities.
         Mor"orr"i, the great majority of the school children at work and the
         great majority"of those"whose      working d.ay rvas very,.long,did not
         frork for iru.rirtr or guardiansbut under the sameconditionsas other
         wage earners'
                                         DARNINGS

             The great majority of the school children at work receivedwages.
          The la&est number"of the 2,904 reporting cash earnings-   during the
          schooltErm (593children)madebetween and $2 a week,ald more
                                                    $1
          than half made lessthan $3. wages during vacation,as would have
          been expected,  were somewhathigher. The largest number of the
          2,407  vication workers reporting iash earningsmade $6 or more a
          week, though even in vacation 45 per cent reportrng cash earn-rngs
                                              -cent
          made less fhan $3. Nineteen per           of the school-term workers
          reoortins cash earnings but 30-per cent of those employed during
          vaiation"hadearnedat least$5 a week. (Table 16.)
             ih" older children Eenerall.yearned more than the younger. Of
          those under 10 years o.-f reporting cashearnings,o.nly
                                  agg                                     cent'
                                                                    18.,per
          of tl" vacation ivorkersaid 13-percent of thoseworking while school
          was in session earnedas much a3gB a week. Of the children between
          the ases of 10 and 14, 44 per cent of the vacation workers and 35
          oer cint of those working during the schoolyear earned$3 or more,
          ir,ndof the 14 and 15 year old children 7-5pqlcent and.6.5.per  cent,
          respectively,earned at Ieast $3 a week. Iounger chlldren were
          more likelv ihan older to receiveno cash earningsin return for their
          rvork. A6out three-tenthsof thoseunder 10 years of age, and about
          one-fourthof thosebetween10 and 12 were not paid in cash,if at all,
          comparedwith about one-seventh those who were 12 years of age
                                             of
          or older.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                 CEILDBEN IN OCCUPATIONS OTHER, TITAN STREET WORK                                               37
     Tesr,n 16.-Earnings durlng _a typical.-ueek of school term and, o! aacation, bg
       principal occupatio-n
                           and industry; children whoseprincipal occupation uas ;th;r
       than streetwork, Neuark, N. J.


                                                                           Children under 16 years of age



                Principel occupation and industry

                                                                                      Under
                                                                                       $r

                         scEooL TEnl{
           Total------------                                                            4n
    Manufacturing and mechanicalindustries-___-____-_-_          324                                             50
    Transportation- -                                             82                     14                       7
                                                               t,92r                    196                     269
        Salesboys and salesgirls----                            480         471                                  43
        D,ttid#6t;fid ii?iil-- -.-_--_-__-::::::::___-_
                                                     867                    850         115                     r55
        General helpers and others - ---- - -                    5i4        568                                  7I
    Domestic and personal service--                             e35         906         157                     121
                                                                       |
                                                                 t/f.l      130                                 20
                                                                  5rl        D1


                                                                1r3 |       120                        l0            8
                                                                 36 1        34             5           6
                                                                208 i       198                        28       29
                                                                133l                    27             27       30
                                                                 6el         69         l6              7        I
                                                                1 1 9 tr7
                                                                 -l |                   ?2
                                                                                        13
                                                                                                       l7
                                                                                                        7
                                                                                                                 8
                                                                                                                 3
    Clerical occupations---------- - - - ---
    Other industries- -                                          'i
                                                                N2 l          I
                                                                             49          7
                                                                                                47
                                                                                                 6      4
                                                                                                                80


                                                                       l
                                                               2,969 I 2,902                    414
                 and      industries-___----__-__3 2 p i
    Manufacturing mechanical
    Transportation---
    Trade,-----------                                          1533
                                                                  i                        -il|
        Sales boys and sals girls                                           36'         14              lsr      34
        D e l i Y e r yb o y s a n d g i r l s
        DeliYery boys and girls-- - - - - - - - .                           70li        ?01 1t2l       t27l     ln
                     a;,i6;ftii- ::--:----:--
        odneraitreirieii                                                    {3ei ,'l                            66
    Domstic    8nd personal servim- -                                       'iu         116
                                                                                                "l
                                                                                                118|
                                                                                                       "l
                                                                                                       86
                                                                                  I                         J   8e
        Bootblacks (inside)- - - -------
        Caddim-- - - - -- - - -
        Pin,boys and helpers in pool rooms and bowling
          aleys--__--______                                                  44          I              I        2
        Rstaurant and lunch-room helpers-- ----------_--
        Nusemaids------                                         193         190         oo      43     2l       a
        Other servants in private families- -                    91          90         l6      l6     to       ID
        Janitors 8nd janitors' helpers--                         39          38          8       7               6
        Barbors' belpers- -                                      95                     16             ID        o
        Qthers-----------                                        14          4l          o       7      7        I
    Clerical occupations-------- -- - --                   -    2t4         212                 30     32
    otherrndustiG----::--:-:-:---::--::-------      -            79          74                 II      7        I




L




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
          38                  EMPLOYIIENT                              OF SCHOOL                         CHII,DREN         IN    NEW      JERSEY

          Tesl,s 16.-Zarn'ings during a typical week of school term aniL ol aacation,by
            principal occupationand industry; children whoseprincipal occupat'ion
                                                                                was other
            than streetuork, Newarlr, N, ,/.-Continued

                                                                                                                       Children under 16 )'earsof age


                                                                                                                        Earnings reported
                           Principal occupation and industry




                                                                                                                      I"***
                                                                                                                      I *0,      $6
                                                                                                                                and
                                                                                                                                        No
                                                                                                                                        cash
                                                                                                                                over    earn-
                                                                                                                                        rngs



                    Total------------
                                                    TERM
                                              .SCHOOT



          Manufactuing and mechanical industries-- - -- -- - - -- -
                                                                                                                      l; 19       26
                                                                                                                                          620
                                                                                                                                           73
                                                                                                                                                        80

                                                                                                                                                        l4
          Transportation- --                                                                                              7       10        I            t
          Trade                                                                                                         149      107      39.1      :
                 Salesboys and salesgirls- ------                                                                        50       38      159
                 DCtwd#uovJmo giris-- - - -- -- ---- --- --- ---- - - -                                                                    93
                 C e n e r a lh e l p e r sa n d o t h e r s - - - - - - -                                               46       36      142
                                                                                                                         60      118
                                                                                                                         I3       2).
                                                                                                                          3        5

                                                                                                                                  58         4
                                                                                                                          1        4         i
                                                                                                                                             8
                                                                                                                          7        1         3
                                                                                                                          6        4         9
                                                                                                                          4       lo        20
                                                                                                                                   6         0
                                                                                                                         N        16        62
                                                                                                                          7        5         I
                                                 vrcaTro)i
                    Tolal------------                                                                                   243
          1\4anufacturing and mechanical industrim                                                               17      261      81        60
          T r a D s l o r t a ti o n- -                                                                           6       91      2l
          T r a d o -- - - - - - - - - - -                                                                      103                       294
                 S a l e s o y sa n r l s a l 6 g i r l s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . - - - - . - - i
                         b                                                                                      n |      3^       67      122
                 Doliyery boys and girls-________                                                        -l     i7 |     48 i     95       EO
                 Ceneralhelpersandothers__-__-__                                                         -I     asI      nOi               92
          Domesticandpersonalservice-                                         __-- - _- __--_l                  65 ]     64      105        57

                                                                                                                                  t6
                                                                                                                          6       24
                                                                                                                          2        7
                                                                                                                         19        I
                                                                                                                         t0        6
                                                                                                                          3        I
                                                                                                                          2       10
                vuxclb-        _ _- ____-_-                                                                               7        I
          C l e r i e a lo - c c u p a t i o D s - - - - - - -----_- __ _                                                11       38
          utner rDdustnes_              _                                                                                 I       t3



           Earnings also differed with the occupation. ExceptinE work in
         pqivate louses for _rvhichthe wages were not entirely iir caEh and for                                                                              I
         which,. therefore, the money received did not repre;ent actual earn-                                                                                ll
         ings, th_ejobs in which the largest proportiou of the children received                                                                             5
         the trighest wages _(for examp-le_,$5_-oi m_orea ryegk) were caddyirg                                                                               iC
         and helping in pool looms and bowling aileys. Theie were also"thE
         jobs in which the smallest per cent oflhe children received ress than                                                                               ;
         $2 a week. Twenty-one of the sixty-one children working as caddies




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                   CITILDREN   IN   OCCUPATIONS   OTHER, TEAN       STREET WORK            39
      during the vacation months and 8 of the bl children so emploveddur-
                    year had earned$5 or more, and only t in'ea<ih
      ing,the sch,ool                                                    group
      had earnedlessthan $2.. Thirty of the f_orty-t-wo   ehildre.t
                                                                     'rracuiion
      as pin boys or helpersin pool rooms and bowling alleysin "-pToyud
      and 7l of the ll6 so employed    during the scho6lterin had earned
      $5 or more, and only 4 and 13, respectively,less than $2. Next to
      the caddie.s
                 a.nd.piqbgfp and-helpers pooli'ooms
                                          in             and bowlingalleys,
      the bootblaeltsincludedthe largestproportionof childrenwit"heaini
     ings_ $5 or more, but the proportionwas eonsiderably
           of                                                   smailerthan
     in the other two groups. Thirty-three of the ninetv-onebootblacks
     working in the vacationmonths who were paid in clsh and reported
     their earningsand 34 of the i14 working during the schoolyear 6arned
     $5 or more. The earningsreported inc-luded   t-ips,if the children were
     employed in- al -occuqatibnin yli.4 tips rverdcustomarily received,
     and.tipsprobablyaddeda gooddeal to the weekl.y        earnin"gs bootl
                                                                      of
      blacks, eaddies, workers pool roomsand bowlinqallevs.
                      and          in
                     of
       ^The,earning-s the childrenrvcrein direct proportion"to   trieir hours
     of rvork-thg.lq"g-ut the hours the-higLgr the earningsin every kind
                                           *This
     ol'work in which they were.engag.ed.- might haie beenexirected
     from the fact that the children-had no skill but only their time to
     barter.
        About one-fifth of
                           $e employed children receivedno cash wages.
     This proportion varied accoidirig to the kind of work. x'or child-ren
     enrployed  duringvacationit rangedfrom 8 per cent of thosewho were
     rn personal_ domestrc
                  and           servlceto 25 per cent of the childrcn who
     wcreerrand,messenger, officeboysor girls,and for childrenworlting
                             or
     durrng the sehoolterm from I per cent of thosein domesticand per"-
     sonalservic to 24 per cent of thosein manufacturinEand mechariical
                 e
     pursuits. Almost all these children who receivedio waees worked
     for parents.orguardians,  though-Tary p-arents  employing-   their chil-
     oren pald th.emregular, rl usually small, amounts. Children who
     were.not_paid  often worl<ed lo.nghours as thosereeeivingwages.
                                  a.s                               -no
    of the 471 working when schoolivas in session        who had          c"ash
    wagesand rep-ortedtheir hours of work 66 per cent worked 12 hours
    or more a rveek, per cent worked24 hoursor more (compared
                      34                                                 with
    3f ler cent of all the_ehildrenworking d_u1i1g schoolierm), and
                                                    the
     12 per cent worked 36trours or longer. of th; vacation u'orkeis who
    receivedno w&gesald. reported t[.eir hours, 2g per cent worked 4g
    hours or more a wcek (compa_red   with 81 per cenf,of ail the children)
    and only 39 per cent rvorkedlessthan 24 hours.
        About one-fourth of those who received_ pay did not report the
                                                no
    numberof hoursa week th,atthey worked,.wlieieas thai to per
                                                            ress
    eent of all the children did not i"qqt! their hours. This proba[ly
    indieates that_many more of the rihildren workinE for pa.[.ttr unil
    wrthout pay than of the hired childrenworkedirre[ular [ou.s.
                                    PROGRESS IN SCHOOL

      A few of the working school children were high-schoolstudents-
    2.49 per cent) of the vacation rvorkersand B7f (1r per centj of the
        Jg
    children who had worked during ,uhe school y"uri, HGii-school
    children, at least the younger ones, seemed,rd more tit?ty tt u"
    -'-T.,iylt-*r. tho timotheywerointerviewed
                 Bv                          ir   tho"spring tha[ viii otuiiJwoiii u]ve enrereo
                                                           oi
    ill-fxliT8fl




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
           40                 EMPLOYMENT                            OF SCIIOOIJ CITILDREN                                       IN       NEW            JERSDY

           children in the elementary grades to be employed; the high-school
           students und-er-16_years age employed duiing vacation were only
                                                     of
           5 p e r c e n t , o f t h e l i i g h - s c h o o i ' e n r o i l m - e nu n d e r i l O , a n d h j g h - s c h o o l
                                                                                     t
          students under 16 employed during the school session welre 7 per
          cent of this enrolhnent, whereas all the workers represented 7 per cent
          of the total school enrollment of thcir ages. A few also (73-in each
          grgup) were inL-          ungraded rooms and Binet classes for the mentally
          subnormal. The iemaining children were distributed throueh ail
          t h e g r a d e sf r o m t h e s e c o n dt o t h e e i g h t h , b u t m o r e t h a n h a l f i i e a c h
          g r o u p h a d c o m p l e t e da t l e a s r t h e f i f i h g r a d e .
              One of the first ctuestionsin resard tb the work of school children
          is rvhether or not it has an unsatiJfactory efiect on their school work.
          In order to give a final &nswer to this question, a careful study of
          the indiyidual children would have to be made,'and all the faciors
         invoh'ed in the success or failure in school of each would have to be
         given careful consideration. Such a study was impracticable in this
         sllrJey; but the.childre_n's ages and grade-sbeing known, it was pos-
         sible to ascertain to rrhat extent thi child woikers were below'the
         g-rades considered normal for their years, whatever may have been
         the causes for their backwardness in school. Thirtr-thiee Der cent,
         of the 2,769 .childre-n betrveen the ages of 8 and tO a working only
         during vacation and 31 per cent of the 3,843 children of the same
         a-gesworking during the school term were below the grades which
         they should have reached at their ages.5 These percentages of
         retirded pupils are about the same uE th" proportion ;;;;t
         Newark public-school children of the same agei; of the children 8 "ji                                             to
         15 years enrolled in the public schools of Nervark in the fall of 1g26
         immediately followin_g tlre year of the Children's Bureau survey, 35
         per -cent,were in grades below normal for their years.6                           -parentage
             The proportion of workers of native white                                                       who were
        retarded was about the same as ihat of *-orkers bf foreig:n parcntage;
         30 per cent of the former, whetlrer working in vaeation'or duri-ng
         the-school year, and 29 per cent, of the latter working only in vacatioi
         and-27 pgl cent of those working during the schoofyeai, were below
        grade. Of the colored children 8 to lt years of age, 69 per cent,
        whether working in vacation or during the school term, were ietarded.
             As no information was obt,ained resardins the vears the children
        had worked nor the hours they had w6rked in yeais other than that
        of t.h-"survey, and as the hours of work during fhe year of the survey
        could not have affected their progress in school uniess a similar con-
        di',ion had existed in previous ye&rs, it is not possible to draw any
        definite conclusions as to the relation between ihe number of hours
        children spent at_work and their progress in school. Among the
        children rvorking-during-the school yeaiat the time of the studJ' the
        la1qer amount, -of retardation was found among the group woiking
        24 hours a rveek or more, a group which included neilher-an unduE                                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                                                                                                              {
           a'The age brrsisupon irhich retardation has besn calculated is that adopted by the U. S. ltureau of Edu-
                                                                                                                                                                                              .l
        catioD. Oilildr€n.are exp€cted tr)€!tor-the first gredo at the age oI 6 or i years and to complet€ one grade
        e t c h y e r r : 3 c h i l d i s I h e r e f u r e' a n s i d p r e de t a r d e di f h e i s S o r o v e r o n e n l e i i n c I l r e f i r s t g r a d 6 ,9 o n e n t i r i n g
                                                          ,                  r                                                                                                                e
        the_s_econd,       €tc. Children unCer 8 years of age are not included in cornputing the peiientage ot retarded
        :hildren as those under 8 can noi be retarded.
           I As children working oDIy during vacation in the year of th€ survey might have worked during tho
                                                                                                                                                                               school
        term in other years, and vice versa, and as school progress could not be afiected sufrciently to calse retarda-                                                                       c
        tion unless the children had \yorked several years, the difference in these percentagesis not significant.                                                                            t
           o-Compiled from.ngur-es furnished by the superiDtendent of tho Ngwark public schools. Fig"ures
                                                                                                                                                                              by sor
        0r by race or nativity of father woro not availablo,                                                                                                                                  n




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                CHII,DREN          IN   OCCUPATIONS             OTITER, TEAN            STREET WOR,K                   4L

     proportion of older children (who are more retarded than younser
     ones) nor of negroes. Of the children working less than 12 hours a
     week 23.per cent, of those u,-orking between 12 and 24 hours 35 pcr
    g-e-nt,         of
             gnd_ those working 24 hours or more 42 per cent were retardld.
    Weekly. hours of .ll'ork were longest for boys in stores, in barber
    ghops, in po_ol rooms and borvling alleys, and ut bootblack stands.
    In spite of their long hours only 2"6per-cent of the sales bovs and 2g
    per cent^o^fthe bo;'s doing delivery
                                                                       _work for stores were"retarded,
    whereas .32 per cent of _the ba_rbers'helperq, 41 per cent of the pin           .rooms,
    boys and others in bowling alleys and dool                                                    ancl.42 per cent
    o f t h e b o o t b l a e k sr v e r e r e G r d e d . P r o b a b l y b o v s w o r k i n q i n s t o r e s
    m a d e . r e l a t i ' e l 1 -s a t i s f a c t o r vs e h o o l
                                                          .                         i
                                                                    _ p r o g r e s i n s p i t e o f t h e "h a n d i c a p
    of a large amount of _outiide rvorli, blcause-like                                            boys in clerical
    jobs, among whom only 21 per cent were below tror-ul Erades for
    their ages-the demands of their jobs resulted in their bein-"g some-                                       a
    what selected group as compareri with bootblaeks and baiber-shop
    and pool-room boys.

                                 ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILIES

      - It- was not possible in this survey to discover how many of the
     chrldren rvere working outside- school hours beeause their "earnings
    w e r b r e a l l y n e e d e da t h o m e a n d t o w h a t e x t e n t , i f a n v . t h c v c o n t r i 6 -
    uted,.to               ruqp.gTtof. the
                    *9,                              _ f a m i l y . . T h e e c o n o m i c 's r a i u s o f t h e
    r a m l r r e so t t n e c h r l d r e n r s r n d r c a t e d i n a q e n e r a l w a y b y t h e f a c t s
    obtained as to whether the family rv,assulported by th6 father, as
    t o w h e t h e r t h e m o t h e r w a s e m p l o v e d , a n d ' a s t o i h e o c c u p a t i o n so f
    the chief breadwinners. Eightv-eight per cent of the child workers
    were from homes in which tlie father wbs the chief breadwinner, and
    in the families of many of the remaining children, thoush the father
    was absent or unable to rvork, someonJother than the-mother took
    his place as the chief.vrage earner in the family.                                (Table 17.) Only
    6 per cent of the children u'ere in families suiported chiefly by thc
    mother, so that iew we'e u'orl<ingto support widou'cd fanririeJ. Horv-
    ever, 32 per cent of the other ihiid worl<crs had mothers who were
   gainfully employ-ed. This proportion of rvorking mothers is unusually
                                     -
   l g r g " . { n q l l y d y o f f a m i l i e s o f P h i t a d e l p h i am - a d eb y t h e C h i l d r e n r s
   {ylqu" in 1927,it was found that 17 p6r cent of the mothers rvith
   children under 16 interviewed in a houie-to-house can\rass in typicai
   industrial neighborhoods (and hence representative of an unseiected
   group.of wage-earning families) were employed at the time of the
   tntervterv, not counting mothers who v-ere the chief breadwinners for
   their families.T The proportion of the employed schoor children in
   Newark rvhose mothefs were chief breadwinnei. wa. the same as the
   pro.portion of chief bread_winners among the Philadelphia mothers,
   which, in indicating that the Nervark chilldren were in n'ormal familiesi
   as regards the support of the. family by the father, suggests again
   that rl there was an economic motive behind the emproymeni of
   school children in Newark it was the need to suppleme"i th"" father's
   earnings rather than to contribute to the suppori of fatherless homes.
     7Ilnpublished figure. Sixteen per c€nt of the philadelphia mothers
                           _                                            and g per cent of the Newark ctlildren
   were negroes,among wtrom the Forh of morhers is piobably more customaiy_tbao ;m;nt-;hiles,
   that it misht bo expectedthat the proporrion ot wage-darningfoorbdsil;h;Fditii6iirf,ii'iffiiiies          ;;
   be larger rha! in tbo Newark group.                                                                  wout,r




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
         42           EMprroyMENT             oF scHoot.         oETLDREN rN NEw                       JEBSEy

         Tenr,o- 17.'4ccupation and,_industrg chie! breadwinner,by relar,ionsltip chief
                                              of                                 oJ
           breadwinnerto ihild; chi,Idrenwhise'priniipal occupation"wasother iian street
           uork, Netoark.N. ,1.

                                                                                Children under 16 years of age


                                                                                         Relationship of chief bread-
                                                                                               winner to child
              Occupatlon and industry of chief breadwinner

                                                                                 Perl       I     i      lxo
                                                                       Nurn- | cent
                                                                        #'l- | di:li. ]FatherMother otn* | f|;"i-
                                                                               l,utionI     i            I;i;;;,


         Industry reported                                  _l I. zzl i roo.o 3,7{i2             2s2         ng
                                                                                                        =ffi
              Manufacturing d mechanical
                          an           industries- - - - - - l:;;-
                                                 --                   -:ffi
                                                               - -- -i--         iz,oso1:os
                Macbinists mechanics otherwise
                          and         Dot           spec-|
                _if;ed_--__-__-_-_            ---_-_:- _l rrr |             2 . 8|   1 0 4- - _ - - - - -
                                                                                            4;|               'i
                                                                                                              14
                 *fli11?$fd"gtfl?Tiuia;-.------------l '.i I il --:::::: --                          -
                 Bu'ding-trade      wo.*...---__-'_11'_l_llllll_:__:_l,Ji :_:_:-_: 'i;    ,i3I ,i:3I   i
                    c _ o n t r a c t o r s atn d e m e n - - - - _ - _ _ - - _ - - _ _ _ - - l
                                              or                          61|    r.s I
                      Skilledmechanios                             '     160     lzl       ,l
                                                                                          qo r r _ - - - - - - -   i




                                                                                                                        l



                                                                                                                        t




         t Includes 2 chitdren lor whom relationship
                                                     of chiet breadwinner was not reported.

           The chief breadwinners \l-ere engagedfor the most part in occupa-
        tions that u-ould indicatc fuirly re"guiaremplnymeni ,i,ia-ui-lio.t u'
        a,v.qrlgervorking m.an's *.age. A6out one-fifih (lg per               th"
        chrtdren carne {rom homes in u'hich the heads of the household rvorked
                                                                     ".nt)-of
        as laborers or in personal and domestic service -ihe- ;;;; h";[.tur.    o,
        peddlers. But in the                               ""
                                .famities of fulty half                 ;i;; chief
        breadwinners    were skilled or semistoiltea          "hitd#
                                                      woit.r'; il-T;";oii", o,




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                  CITII]DREN            IN    OCCUPATIONS                 OTEER          TEAN         STREET WORI{                       43
    workers in skilled tra.des-enginee{r -machinistsand mechanics,    tail-
    ors, cobblers,electricians,etc.-and'in those of one-fifth of the chil-
    iren they were prop-rietorsand ma,nagers stores, real-estateand
                                                 of
    lnsurflnee agents,and commercial    salesmen._ few engaged pro_
                                                    A              in
    fessional pursuits,and a srnallnumber werefarmers. Tliremairider
    were in. public service or in clerical occupations. on the w-hole,the
    conclusionseemsw-arrantedthat the occupationsof the chief bieatl-
    winners of theseworking children did not indicate that under normal
    conditions the children's earningswer.enecessary    for the support of
    the family.
                       eicouxrs               oF woRK oF INDTvTDUAL
                                                                  CHILDREN
       tr'rom the accounts of .the 4,30g chiidren working in Newark the
                 -w-ere
    lgllowing 25       selectedat random and can be ucc-epied at least
                                                                  rs
    rllustratrveof the difierent conditionsunder which the cirildrenworhed:
           A 14-year-old .bo-yof . Russian-Jewish parentage had been emploved for the
    gili1:^y".::r:,.1                        in,hi,s               drrig srore." Ilis duties in"i,ia"a-r,.inging
     notrLesrrom Ll)el"]ry1        Descment, ,u.ncte's of flrc sodl forrntain, rlelivering ordiers]
                                                    laking eare
    taking care of tlrc postal substation located in ilre store, ,ria i.juiiins-on eus-
    tomers n'hcn neecssary. -During the summer he *'orkecl' from g to T2 in the
    morning and from I to 6 in the afternoon every day cxcept Sunday. when
    school *as in-sespio-n rvorked from 4 to 6 in ilre aife;;;;"";J-i;;i;
                                          he                                                                                Z b ll
                                     d a - 1 1 , p n d , f r o m2 m . t o 6 p . n r . a r r df r o m 7 - p . * . ' t " - r z p . * .
                                                               t
    l l t : 1 . ! : l : " h o g l rrr addltion he
    on D3t_llr(t3.vs.                                                                                         g a. m. to 12
                                                           _workecl  er.ery other sunda-vfrom
    m. and from 1 p. rn. to 6 p. m. He was not niakins satisfact'ori:p;;g.ei. in sctroot.
               lil'flilgll              r.l an I,ta]ian famil.r. rr.asa booihlack in a shoe_shining                            par-
    ,^_A fle nao \\'orKec[
    ror.                          lqt 1I]rouglr
                                                      the entire sllmmer r-acetionand ri.asstill cmitol,od
    when intervien'edthe folloring sp.ring.                                l.orking *".t *r.longlioui                         a.f.
    a n'eek from 8 a. m. to 9 p..-" wittt"arr ,His off at fioon-anaai'uigT,t iJr.-"^i{
                                                                      horrr
    whcn school *'as\rot i" .g..1,o1,and 6ve dg,vs-!r9p a untii o-[-"t?ir""*,o                                                wu.;
    and on s^aturdays-heworked from 8 a. m. to 10.30 p. -., u.ra'o"-3u.rdri t.orn g
    a. m..to 6 p' m. - IIo *g! paid $4 a n'eek and was ariowecil" k""p hil tiis, whicrr                              -'''"
    usually averaged$4. Hc s.as below the normal grade for hi";;;." "
    .. A-l0-year-old boy of .Italian .parentagehad bee.nempro'ed regurerlv during
                                   q{l t.oyin a 6ollingi,uey,
    11"-10^,:::.!l'^T,lrom I p._m..to I a. m. on [orking                                        i;;;'8;. ;.1;f i.:o p. ,n.
    on wceK oe)'s, and                                                             Satrrrdays.         and-Srrnda1.s.              receiving
    $5 a week. His father owned a barber shop ancl his *otrr".                                                                      i",-a.li
       A 13-1'ear-o1d             girl of. Italian parentage had worked in her father,s ice-crearn           ".o-irr"a*iiii,
   p.arlorreguiarly throughout tlre l'ear- During thc summer vu.*tiiniti'".u,
   tlre store on q'eek da'r'i from 2 to 6 every aftErnoonand from z io ti'at r'lor,t                                                         ln
                                                                      '
   on sundal's she.s'as-Jreeat r0,p-. n. br.rrig-the .cirooi
   week.9ays-from 4 to Q p. -. ald-from 6.30 to io p. m.; on saturdar,-sfilm                                 -rrea;;["-;;di-;li
   6 in the efrcrnoon and rrom 6.80 ro_r0 et nigtrtfJnd;; S;;d."; iid-'i'to                                                               s to
   the afternoon and from 7 to 11 at night. HEr iither p"iJ rr".."$s ;i;;k.                                                               o in
      A r0-year-old girl of native n'hite parentage worked in her failrer.s genernr_
   merctrandise            store. The.fanrity.rived'in the i;";;i';h"';;iidi"i,,ira"f"il                                                   ilr"
                                         assistedthc father. During-the fir;C-ir;rf'"T^t:hc'year in
   Tp,tI_.l,111.gi.ygh_hl
   w h i e l rt l r e s t r r d vr v a sm a d e t h e c h i l d l r r d o n l y f i l l e d - o r d " r st ,u i a t t i r e i i i e
   intorv.icrv                                                                                                                          ot tne
                     she *'as selling., In the. srrm.mer,'uiththe exceptionti'u iiio'"n.r.u'
   vacetion, she-had workFd e'er.v_dav,incrdding srir1t"i..,irt,]., ib*to'ii                                                           in tr'',
   morning and from- 1 to 6 in the ir,fterioon ancl fi6rn 6.30"td ib.a-oii ,rteir?l
   the opening of -school her n-orking hours rvere rert.i.i"a o" ..rroii a'u'v."io with
   4 to 6 in the afternoon and fromB.eO to 10.80 ;r ;isht b;t;;;;iiJdit"                                                                 r.o,,'
   as during va.cation on the days when she was not in Jcliool. H". iutrr".'iia u,"-"                                                '
   pay her for her rvork but ,,sometimes gave her-mon;t;;r-Sr"d;"";j;""'                                                                   "ot
                                 negro girl,-whosc father was a laborer, had been a nnrsernaicl
   ,,-t_l_5;l-""l9ld u'eeks
   durrng the nine                        of the summer vacatio' at sb a week. she wo.L"a ro
   hours a clay, 7 days a week, Duri.g the school term she iracl worked
                                                                                                                                    4 weeks
             30812.-2H




Provided by the Maternal and.Child Heatth Library, Georgetown Universi{
           44      EMPI]OYMENT       OF SCEOOL      CHII,DREN     IN   NEW   JEBSEY

           at general housework, 1)l hortrs after school on Friday, 4 hours on Saturday,
           and t hour on Sunday, earning $3.45 a week.
              A l3-5rear-oldbo1' of Russian-Jewishparentage, whose father kept a fruit and
           ve,getable  store, had rvorked as delivery boy for his father 18 weeks during the
           school term, 21f bours on school days, and 7 hours on Saturdays, earning $3.50
           a weeK.
           ^ A l4-year-old boy of native rvhite parentage, whose father was a factory
           foreman, had lvorked as off,ce boy in a boys' club 29 weeks during the school
           ]'ear. His hours were from 7 to 9 p. m. on school-day evenings. He earned
           $3.25a week.
              A l4-year-old bov, the son of a native white railroad engineer, worked as a
           delivery boy in a grocery store for 25 weeks during the schoofterm.earning $3.50
           a week. His hours were from 7.30 to 8 a. m., 11.30to 12, and 3.30 to 6 p.rtr.
           daily except Saturdays, when he worked frorn 7.30 a. m. to 6 p. m. exceit for
           an hour at noon. For two weeks before being interviewed in April he had been
           deliveringnrilk, rvorkingfrorn 4.30 to 7 a. m. dvery week day and receiving$3.50
           a week,
           - A l2-year-old negro boy in the second grade, living with a cousin who was a
           housemaid,had delivered ioe for 25 weeks during the school term one hour in the
          afternoons of school days and two hours on Saturdays, earning $6 a week.
           - A bo.v of 12, of Italian parentage, besidespicking strawberries on a truck farm
          for several-we-eks   during the summer, had helped his Iattrer, a janitor in a bowling
          alley, and had worked as a pin boy also for four weeks before the interview. I{e
          helped clcan the borvling alley ii the mornilg from 5.30 to 7 on school days,
           6 to 12 on Saturday, and 6.30 to 12 on Sunday. His rvork as pin bo_vw&s oD
           Saturday and Sundiy afternoons on|y,9ll houis in all.
              A boy of 11, whose father, a Russian Jew, was a huckster, had worked l4 weeks
          as a salesboy in his uncle's men's furnishing shop on Saturdays from l0 a,.m. to
           8 p. m. with two hours off for meals. Four weeks before the interview he had
          taken another job as delivery boy for a dry cleaner, where the pay, $3, was twice
          as much as his ur'rclehad given him. His hours in this place were from 4 to 6
          after school and from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m. on Saturdeys with an heur for lunch.
              A.n ll-year-old boy, whose stepfather, an ltalian, had a grocery store, had
          wotked 12 weeks during the school period delivering bread for a baker5'. He
          n'orked 3 hours on school days, 8 hours on Saturday, and 2!l hours on Sunday,
          earning S3 a week.
          - A bo1' of 11,,the child of a German derrick rigger, helped in a butcher shop 2l
          horrrs after school and l.lllhours on Saturday (until 10.30 F.m.), earning $1.50
          a rl.eeh. He had had no work in vecation but had worked 33 weekg during the
          schoolterm.
              An 1l-year-old boy of Italian parontage helped his father, who delivered bread
          for a bakery, on Saturdays and Sundays, having been at work throughout the
          summer vacation and the school year up to the time he was interviewed, a period
          of 42 weeks. He worked from 4.30 a. m. to 12 m. on Saturday and from 8 to 9
          a. m. on Sunda;,'s. He earned 75 cents a week.
              A boy of 12, whose father, an Austrian, was a salesman, sold papers for sir
          s'eeks in the summer, and after school began had had a job for seven weeks as
          delivery boy f^ora laundry and tailor shop, working l)$hours on school days and
          2fuhours on Saturdays, earning $3 a week.
              A l3-1'ear-oldboy, whose father, d, Russian Jet', was the proprietor of t'w.oshoe
          stores, had run errands for his father one week during tlie summer, and for four
          weeks had worked as gener^al      helper at a gasoline service station at g3 a week,
          working on week days from 8 a. m. bo 6 p. m. with the noon hour off. After schooi
          began he had s'orked as a grocer's delivery ho-v for three weeks, an hour after
          school daily, and I hours on Saturdays, and then had quit to run errands for his
          father. He had had the latter job for 29 weeks, and worked from 4 to g p. m. on
          school days, wilh-an hou_r for supper, and from g a. m. to 9 p. m. on Saturdays,
                                       off
          with 2 hours off for meals.
              The l5-year-old son of a Poiish Jew, a furrier, had helped a huckster through-
          out-tte sullmer, and for 10 weeks during the sehoolterm had worked in a bakdry
          packing rolls in bags from 7 to 9 p. m. on school-day evenings, earning $5 a weet.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
            CEILDR,EN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER, TEAN STREET'WORK                             45

      .A l4-year-old b^oywhosefather, a native white, was a horse dealer, worked on a
    mrlk route from 6 to 8 ?. *.,on saturdays and sunda-vs        arrd from 5 to 2.30 a. m.
    gl 9!l"l .d"vp' ,,TIe had uorked when iirterviened 42''*'eeks,                   a ueek.
    tlq $'as in ol)ly the fourth grade.                                 "ainioe-g3
       A child of a Russian-,Iewishleathe.rtanner, l2 ye,.rrs age, had picked up ancl
                                                                of
    packed hottleslcft in amrrsement.parks foirr r.ceksaqlin'g tri" .piingiic"diring
                                             for
    $3 a week from the soda concessibnaires the park.^ HGi;;;';;-.?hooid"t;
                                                in
    ygff ITf I p. rn. to mr'dnight and on Saturdayiand Sundays i.o^ f to-f f p. ,1i
    I{rf,nan nour on tor 6upper.
       A, l2-vear-old boy of Ituliuo parentage had herpeclon a haker,s truek for 48
    weeKs' rn lne summer vacation, q'hen he was onlv ll, his hours had been from
   6 a. m. to 1 p- rn. on saturdaS's,from 6 a. m. to 6 p. in. r:ith haii;; hour-f"ortuncrr
   on othcr week days, and from 8 a. m. u'ti[ noon on sundays, a-worling \r.eet ot
   68)l hours. \\'hln sehoolbegan his wo.[in!-f,o,,.. had been;J;;;J'?"              28% s,
                            nere,the same on Satur:daysand Srnard-o.         otf,.."aryr'nu
   :::5ll"l-1!."r"gh_they
   worKeoonry aller scnool. ftls.mother,the chief breadrvinner the family, carned
                                                                      of
   $12 a week as a laundress,and.a sistei in a reather recto.y carned"$10.^*tG b;t
   earned $1.50 a rveek. He was in only the third grade.
      A l0-year-old.bov,   whosefathcr, an Italian, was a laborer,had hclpedon a milk
   route tnre€ wecl(sdunng ilre_school-.vear,   n'orking from 6 to 7.30 a.-m. on school
   oa)'s&no Dunoays,e&rnlng$J a n-eek.
      A native white.boy of 14, whose father had a business of his own putting up
   metal ceilinq.s,  bad helped put up.sign boards in front of a motion-pictiiretheater
   four weeks,durin_g_   summer vacation- (when he was 13-years old),'"u."irg
   to the theater. He had worked in_theeveningsfrom g io s.a0ir;."erluil; 1r"r"",      I)ur-
   ing the spring.of the school year he became"a     irclper i"     uug"iu8r"l#re at u:J
   a week, clealing,- delivering orders, and waiting-o^n^custom6rs,*o.li"g
                                                                  "
   weekday. o_n      schooldays his hours were from 4'to g.gop. m., witn inieelrourrns".,0".y
                 off for supper, and on Saturday he worked iZX'ni"i",          otolping at
   9f 1n.lour
   ru p. m.
      A boy of 12 in I native,white family was employed as salesand delivery boy in
   a drug store at.$3-50-a week during vacltion and"$2.50 a week dr;i;g il'e scrroot
   ygqf. He worked.56tl h_qyrs wiek during the summer and 86 hJurs a rveek
                                   a
   wnlre attendrng school. His nig^htwork in summer ended at 9.80, but at other
   seasons.h_e_worked except Sun_days
                       daily                 until l0 p. m.,5 hours ori eue.v."froot
                                                                        - --"
   day and 11 hours on Saturdays. His ?ather was a poli'cedetectivc.
      4 FoV gf ll.of native,white,parentag.e                 as
                                              yas.e_mplo;.ecl a dclivery boy in a
   printing shop in which his mother woiked. He'worked o" ..noor 'ar"s from
   I tg .5p..m., and.on Saturday mornings from l0 to 12, earning gt.iS a wdt.    He
   had had no vacation work.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown Universitv
                                     A"rn*oPtl"ETo}roou*
           The number of school children under 16 vears of ase in Paterson
        who reported that they had worked in the period c6vered by the
        bureau survey in occupationsother than street work was 1,713,but,
        only 1,674 reported their principal w-ork in such occupations (see
        p.47, and footnote3, p. 1). Of these,1,137were'workingat the
        tirne t,hey were interviewed. As in Newark, the majoritv (929, or
        55 per cent) had worhed both in the summervacation and rvhileschool
        was in session, 252 (15 per cent) had beenemployedonly in the
                        but
        summer months and 493 (30 per cent) only during the schoolyear.
           Jobs were much more customary for boys than girls, or oppor-
        tunities were much greater. Nine-tenths of the 1,674workers were
        boys. The worhing boys lvere 12 per cent of the net registration of
        boys in the public schools, but the working girls were only 2 per cent
        of that of girls.8 Older school children, boys and girls, had bcen
        employed morc than younger-l0 per cent of the public-sehool      bovs
        of 10 and 11 yearsof age,comparedwith 24 per cent of thoseof 12
        and 13, and 32 per cent of thoseof 14 and 15 had rvorked;and 1 per
        cent of the public-schoolgirls of 10 and 11, comparedwith 2 per cent
        of thoseof 12 and 13,and 5 per cent of thoseof 14 and 15 had worked.
        Paterson, unlike Newark,                deelease the proportion
        ra0erson, unllKe l\e\\rarK, showed no oeoreaseln tne proportron oI
        Paterson, unlike Newark, snoweo no deelease in the proportion of
        public-school cnrldren rvho worKect aller reacnlng tne age oI 14.
        pllDlrc-scnool
        nublic-school children rvhc worked after reaching the age of 14.
                               wno                                                                        Al-
                                                                                                          AI-
        though many more of the older school children-than oT thc younger
        oncs had worked, the working school children were
        oncs had worked. the workins school children were of ali asesfrom
                                                             ali ages from
        7 to 15 yea,rs;20 per cent were under 12 years of age, 35 per cent were
        12 or 13, and 46 per cent were 14 or 15. (Table 18.) A larger pro-
        portion of the girl rvorkers (24 per cent) than of the boy wolliers (19
        per cent) were under 12 years of age.
           About one-fifth of the childrcn worked for their parents or guardians
        at other work than home chores-more than one-fourth of the workine
        children under 10 years of age, one-fourth of those between 10 and
        12, about one-fifth of those between 12 and 14, and one-seventh of
        those between 14 and 16. By far the largest number employed bv
        parents or guardians worked in stores or as delivery boys for stores ol
        other mercantile establishr,rents; others worked in barber shops, tailor
        shops, bakeries, ga,rages,shoe-repairing and shoe-shining shops, and
        in a variety of other establishments, including a number in factories
        and workshops. A group of Paterson silh-mill rvorkers had set up
        looms in a rented lofiat ri''hich the members of their families worked
        and several other parents emploving their chiidren orvned bookbind-
        ing. shops, fulniture-repair shops, cigar factories, or other manufac-
        turrnE concelns.
          8 Annual Repor[ of ths Board oi Education, for the year ending June 30, 1925,Paterson Public Schools,
        pp. 86, 87.

                46




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                    CEILDREN                     IN      OCCUPATIONS                            OTIIER      THAN       STREET WONK                 47
                                                         NATIONALITY OF FATHERS

        Three-fourths of the population of Paterson was of foreign birth
      or of foreign or mixed parentage.e Among the school children at
      work 73 per cent were .foreign born or had foreign-born fathers.
      (Table 18.) Negroescomprised2 per cent of the workers, whereas
      only I per cent of the population of Paterson was negro. Children
      with Italian fathers outnumbered any other nationality and u'ere
      30 per cent of all the working children. Jervishchildren of foreign
      parentagewere the next largest group, but thesecomprisedonly 16
                                                           ^of
      fer ce.tf of the total. A somervhl,tl-aigerpercentage boys than
      bt gi"ts were of Italian parentage andla niuch larg"erpercentageof
      girls than of bo5'swere Jewish.
      Tesr,r        l8.-Eoce    and nationalily oJ fcther, by aoe period of ch.ild; chilrlren uhose
                       principal occupalion uas other than street uorlt, Paterson, N. J.


                                                                                                        Childrcn under 16 I'ears oI ago



                Raco and nationality of father                                                                                       1'     t4    Ags
                                                                                                                                  I'ears, years, n o t
                                                                                                                                  under under     re-
                                                                                                                                     I4     l6   ported




      $'hire-----------                                 --------]r,orli                          es.r1 8]           t2      ,{r             740

         Native-----------                                             1 -i                      ,*l     4i         rr]      68             t95
         Foreisn  born-----                                    -----l1,22r        |              72.9  | 3          50]     u4              546
                                                                                                            I                               ^
           I t a l i a n - - , - , - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -;-o - - l
                                                                              -+                 s or I T l
                                                                                                     .              1,i      sJ     2I r'   t6l
                 RussianJewish---------------------l 125                                          7.51      1l       5i     1.1              78
                 O t h e rJ e w i s h - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l 1 4 9       8.9 i     1 |     16 |    t5       4'      75
                 English, Irish, Scotch, and \Vslsh---l                                87         5.2 -------l       2 |     8       2l
                 Polish------------------------------l                                 74         4.4 -------l       2 |     7       35      30
                 German-----------------------------l 70                                          4.2 -------i       2 |    12       19
                 Other foreign born and foreign born I                                                         I        I
                   n o t o t h e r w i s es p e c i f i e d - - - - - - - - - - - - l 2 \ 2 I    12.7 -------l       4 I    35       84

           Nativityrotreported--------- I                                              r2i         .7        tl      ,l      1        2


                                                                               I * | ' - l- - - - - - l ' l
      co ro re d ----.----.                                                                                                  b        6


                                                                      KINDS OF WORK

         The kinds of work at n'hich children were emnloved out,si<le school
      hours in Paterson were rvith a few exceptions the si,me as in Nerva,rk,
      and much the same in vacation as durinq the school term. In each
      season about half were employed in or in connection with stores or
      other mercantile establishments-one-half of these as deliverv bovs.
      more than one-fourth as general helpers, and the remainder as saies
      bovs and Eirls-and about one-fifth in vacation and about one-fourth
      duiine the"school term v-ere in personal and domestic service. (Tables
      tg and Zo.) Among the vacation worhels the lareest number of
      children in personal and domestic service were caddies and the next
      largest number were barber-shop helpers. Among the school-terrn
      rvorkers the larsest number were pin bovs and helpers in pool rooms
      and bowling aileys; almost as -urry ivere caddies, and the next
        e Fourteenth Census af the Uuited States, 1920,vol. 2, Populatiou, p, 56, \4'asbingtoD, 1922.




L




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown Universif-l'
          48                 alrpLoyMENT                             oF scroorr   cHrrrDREN rN NEw          JgRSEy

         largest group \\'ere helpers in barber shops. Few children worked in
         p o o l r o o m s a n d b o u ' l i n g a i l e y s i n t h e s r r m m e rm o n t h s , t h e s e a r n u s e -
         ments being less popular in the summer than in the'winter. but a
         good deal of caddying was done after schoolopenedin the fall anci
         rn the spring as well as in the summer. - Compared with Newark,
         fewe-rgirls rvorked &s nurse girls or u'ere household servants; about
         one-fourth the girls ^were.nursemaids,                       and about one-tenth weie other
         servants in private families.

         T1:!r_,19.
                                             3nd industry.durtng s.choolterm anil during
                       .Principal .oc,cupation
           ,Jiiit,"F;,2!rff."nf.rl.oo, boys whose principal occu,pationtas other than stredt



                                                                                      Ro)'s under 16 years of age-school term


                           Principal occupation and industry




         Manufacturing and mechanical industrics_ ___- __- _- __




        Domestic and personal service- -

               33S'JI3:Y _::-:-----
                          1:1"'")
                              --:.___
               "illJJ_: tuncn:mm t ellieii -;;ai,b;ini'
                                                                                                      5
                        :11.:::::::.': :_ -___:,
               Restalrant.and
                                 _ry1-rIil                                           63               4
                                                  _____                               8
                          janttors',belpers__
              JADllOrS.Atrd                                                          {4
                          --."
               5?t3ff_1'll* ----                                                     60
                                                                                                      o      19


        C l e r i c a lo c c u p a t i o n s - - - - - - - _ _ _ - - - _ _ _         M               10      19
              Mesenger, enand, 8nd off ce boys__ - _- - ___- -_ ___-
              Orharc                                                                  a

        Other industries




                                                                                                                                ;
                                                                                                                                I



                                                                                                                                ll




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                    CHILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTITER TTTAN STREET WORK                                                                    49

       T-lnr,n 79.-Principal occupation and. industry during schoolterm and' iluring
         iacotion, bll age'period; boEswhoseprincipaLoccupationu'as olher than street
          u'ork.Pateison N. "/.-Continued
                                                                                                          :-
                                                                                            Boys under 16 )'ears of age-VBcation




       Tenr,n 20.-Princi,pal   occupalion and industry iluring school term and duri'ng.
         uacation, by age'period; jirls u'hose principal occupalion u'as other than slreet
         work. Paterson, N. J.


                                                                                           Girls under 16 years of ago


                                                                              School t€rm                            Vecation
                   occupation industry
           Princtpsl        8nd                                                                                 ----t---f----i-
                                                                L             ||                        l--,
                                                                I        r,-- | to I rz'tt              I        rTh- lo I 12r14
                                                                 ^'"-' a'eirb iliT-';
                                                                 rotar                       -
                                                                                     u,lt.',-'- 9i:'"0 il;?l";
                                                                                                     il:l:l  il111';
                                                                            i,i?i-'; iflfl.';'rotar uor$".|,1?"'u13u'
                                                                |      J;;;,r'o*r,unt*'          v;;.s
                                                                tttt'tt
       ili;;l                                                                          ;,-*;;'                     ","i ;;


                        ; ;t;tltll:=
       ""..-,":*.J::;'-".':,'J::::::::::lTllTi
       D o m o s t i c a n . * * * t * . ' *;.'- - -;-l - -*-l- -* l " l * l t l t l " l n
                                               1                 l
                                                                 '3                  'il
         ili#i-*1'f-1i;i;-ri,i"-"t.,-iii,i'iii--:l' l il \il,- - -\l- - - g] - l ' l 3,
         otheB-----------
                                            lil-.:l ;l
                                       -l rl------l-----l             'l  o-  -  ---
        c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o o r - - - - - - - - - - - -? - - - - - - - - - - - l
                                                                     -             l l           3r1l          gl----------=l al             2
        o t b e , i r d u s t i i e s - - - - - - - - - - - - - , - - : : : : i:- : : - - - l - - -t-l - l t l : : - : - - l i l
                                                              ;-                : l                                                'l        4




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown Universitr
        50      ExrpLoyMENToF scnoor. oETLDREN NEw JERSEy
                                             rN
          The proportion of child-renemployed in manufacturins
                                                               establish_
          tfe"d"tt.:l;T"i;T"i]iTlii*,HH,i.*"tr4,1*"f.hJhm
        ilf
        the school-term
                                            -rr
                       workers122childr"-" z p;; .t';i ri-;
                                                                -iil'-ur,rtu"_
        turing and mechanical  industries. u"i'" in"" itlu"-to,]rtt.'oi tt
        in eachse&son the year_had
                      of               beenin t".l".r*,^*u"ilr.'.ilt          "ru
        at suchunskilled                                                   -itt.
                         iols-as dc,ffers,
                                         g"";iJh;ip;;,^;;d'.il;;rs,          arrd.
        at suchsemiskille<I as_boblln-b;i;; q;ifi..]'"ila-*i"fri..
                          jobp                                              'rhe
        majoritv of the or[:,.:_h_.lq:dptuin6eis,';i;"tJi;;;," tjiii..,''itr,r,
        illx?iil"ilirf
                   llil?.';-.s"r,l'].!Jl:,3ir?11t";out"u'ork"."",andd
          Between 3 and 5 per cent of the chiidre.,*-"'r" in occupations
        under transportation, fcl as telegraph                          crassed
                            a

              t:ir#::rrrH:-$":it"rx1t_?.lT#*J
        f*#:il$iffi
          E-lgven-pe1
                                  tr
                        cent worliing in the sunrner. months and 3 per
                                    -r9"r
       rorking du,ringthe schoor                                           cent
                                          ii".ri, otrr".o..up"ti",i lo"a ;nau._
       tries th an th osemen oned "above. I{;;j- ;i;h;;;;;r;"f
                             !i                                    *#ilb o.".r,
               werg ernplovedi' motionlpi.tu.""tri"oi;;" ;;; "";h;;' piu"..
       1 f9w                                                                 nf
       3#ffi
          rffih3il1'8?fi ,ilTf
                   dT;;",,:"Tf
                             '1?'1,{;:l*l*:*t"x,in:;
       generally cnrployed in sto'es und:in do,rrestrc
                                                       and personal service
       t_hal vacation u.orkers. T[ith vacation r
       J"l''                                                        for all-
                                       a greater n-;Xi:&T ffj{,'tunitr
          vl ""'r]rii*"JJii.,,tting.in
             lrn lew exceptronstrttre diffe-rence
                                                appeaied in the kinds of work
       *:l_" ly, olderandy-ounser      "hitd;;. .'tr;tG^1d";fi'Td.; Chil_
                    j:?l'.,i1,ft9!#i?;".T::#:,liTf,TjTl'.-:*';;'r"_X
       i!".tJi.'itil'and bg p". .u"t a"tng trr" r1rr""it"ilr'rrlu.o
       12 in the summer
       plo.vcd stores
              in         compared                                          o--
                                  :i'ittr ++p". "olTen ;0;;;
                                                     ;;
       of 12 and o'er. older childr'."--ir" ";;? ttranyounge.oiri-o.t"..
                                                                ""ri nere sales
       bovs and girls and ger3gl.g'-dere
                                      h"ip;;;;;her lhan d.elivery    bovs and
       gl.!,Fifi               ch
                      )-ounser-ildren
                    " .andborvring                      ;! .;;i;,"#h    erpers
       rn poorrooms                   a[eys. ";;l;;"4 t
                                               Arinoit      tt toyi'ina"i Jo
       we.e deli'r'erv bovs. and ex"cept                "tt
                                                    -ofin" "
                                          ior u-G* ln srores not more than 2
       or 3 u-ere anf oth"' or'"-tl;d;i;;;i;
                in                                             rl"enffil,ed girls
      'ndjr JQ yqg.r bf age 8 rvere
                           -ou.ned                       Two childre^n
      rvorkedin silk mills              "".."^uiJ..                     under l0
                                   iry tt     p-i"it*
                                          "i,
        lhq Sirls'rvork s'as.co"fi"ei iu.g"l;, il;;ili"g in storesand domestic
      rvo'li in pri'ate families. (T"br" io.i Ad;;ih;ii';h;;;i.,;herher
      at rvork durine 'acation or during ihe scrroor
                                                           ter.m,.u.e'e i. stores,
      a'd more thai one-thira *u."                    or domestic
      the ferv girls nor enrpjoved .;td^si$F;;;"-".tiJ.'if servants. of
                                         "."'ptly""i
      housestlie larser nuirrrir ru"r. g"r..ii-ir"rp"., rn
                      -Bovs         ".                                    i.il,utu
                                                             sto.es "ir"ili"
      torvu'orke.s.         huau '''ii."rr'gr=;i".'r;i;tly ir:".t- or were fac-rs.l
      The largest
                    lymbii, 3bour h.la ?h;;:;ri.u., in "i  each season,   were in
                                jl*i'lxJigJ:i{
      l#?i3"1i","ill.lxt:.'J,:':,?$f
                      #:t.',",i',L",r;
      otirer nra_nulactur.ing mecharri";i i;;
                           arrd
                          -, n in
                     ;;;i;? ir <! ;";; il ri# 3Fh"i;
      ll-;i;:li;;i';d; bootbiacking,caddyiig,,.h"iping"iii iiT ?,T,lli
                                                                  Ili
      sc'vrce,such as
      borvlingalleys, and barber shofis,*J"u.rirorng
                                                     "1,,i        f,oit""oo,n*,
                                                         lanrtoxs.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
             CEII,DREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTHER, TEAN STREET WORK                          51

       children of different nationalities did somewhatdifferent hinds of
    work. Those of native white parentaEe and Jewish children of
    foreign parentage_ more often than Itetian children were employedin
    stores. Jervishchildren more often than native white childreir *".u
    salesboys and girls and less often delive'v bor-sand eirls. Jtalian
    and Jewishchildrenmore oftcn than those-of    _nltivervhiteparentage
    worked in factories and in other manufacturing and mechanicaliii-
    dustries, and Italians rnuch more often than either Jewish or native
    white children were in -domesticand personal service. practically
    all the bootblacks and
                            .barbers' helpeli were Itaiians. Few JewisL
    children were in domestic and persoial servrce.
                            EXTENTAND REGULARITY WORK
                                               OF
     . The majority of the childrenhad u-orkedmany u-eeks, regularly
                                                           and
    six or sevendaysa u'eel<. of the 1,170 vacatiorirvorkers re"porteil
                                                           *-ho
    the n,mber of weeks-   that they had been employed g21 childr'en (20
    p9t c.gnt)had worked the g w-eehs the summer r-acationand only
                                       of
    192,(16per cent) Iad rvorkedlessthan 6 of the g; and of the 1,89?)
    children,workingdrring the schoolyear who reported horv long ihev
    had rvorked790 (57 per cent) had been emploved24 to betrvien88
    and 40 weeksbetrveenthe openingof school-andtheir interview wilh
    the brreau agent,all ha'ing beeninterviervedlate enoughin the school
    year to enablethem to have rvorkedat least 24 weeks]
       sixty-sevenper ^cent the children working du-ringthe schoolyear
                            of
    and.78per cent of the vacationrvorkers   rgqorte_{uiit ot."r,"o"duy
    week as customary. (Tables 2l and 22.) \fhen sehool*.as iir
    session per cen_t the children w-ere
            12          of                  employedonly on saturdays
    and 4 per cent only on Saturdavs and Sundayi.
    T,rnr,r.2l.-Number of 4ou:        u'orh,during a ty4ical u1.ek,o! schoolterm and. ol
                                  lI
      u.acatio.n, ag.eperiod and ser; children-whoie principal occupatioriirns other
                 bg
      than streetuorlt, Palersni, N. .I,


                                              Children under 16 Jears of age


                                                                               Girls
      Number of days of rrork
       during I typical we€k




           SCEOOL TERM

        Total------------




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universitr
        52                   EMprroylrENT                             oF scgoor,      cHrr,DREN rN NEw                          JERsEy


             uacation, by principal occu,pat'tonand industrg; children whose principal occu-
             pation was other than streetwork, Paterson,N. J.


                                                                                                             Children under 16 years of ags


                                                                                                             Number of days of work during a
                                                                                                                      tl'pical week

                              Prifcipal          occupation and industry                                                      Less than 6
                                                                                                             6 or 7 days
                                                                                                              per week         days per
                                                                                                                                 week


                                                                                                            Num.
                                                                                                             ber


                                                  SCEOOL TER}I
                   Total---------            -- -                                                                              396127.81691           4.9

        Manufacturing and mechanical indusiries- ---------------                                   I                      I
           W o r k e r si n s i l k m i u s - - - - - - , - -                                          83 1 ! ? 63. c
           otler iactor:;end *oitsirop                            --- : -------: -: -: :               59 i o l 86.4
                                                         "'o.lro^                                      30 l 2 3
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                       43   ler
                                                                                                            I soz 63.8
               Sales boysand sales         girls-- - - -- -                                        160                 69.4
               oerive# rrovi ma gi-ris - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - : - -- -.   370                 67.0
                         b            s
               G e n e r a l e l p e ra n do t h e r s - - - - - - -                               m7                  7r.5

        Domestic 8nd persoDalservice. . - - -                                                      364                 59.1
           Bootblacks (inside)-                                                                        m         19
           Caddies-----------,                                                                         79        20
                                                                                                       83        59             A
                                                                                                        I         5              4
                                                                                                       4S        27             19
                                                                                                       45        2a             17
                                                                                                       B1
                                                                                                       1'
                                                                                                                 ot
                                                                                                                  6    :l:       I
                                                                                                                                 5

        C l e r i c a lo e c u p a ito n s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                              74.6
        Other industries--                                                                                       24
                                                     VACITION
                  Total------------

        Manufactuing and mechanical industris-------                                                               J
                                                                                                            i 121El.8           20 13.5        7l    4.7
           w o r k e r si n s i l k m i l l s - - - - - - - -                                               i 321
                                 and x'orkshop workcrs                                                      i sel
                                                                                                            | 30 1
                                                                                                            tl
                                                                                                                       9:
                                                                                                            | 50 I 9 0 . 9       4l 7.31 ll          1.8
                                                                                                            | 4 2 e l78.1       e 0 1 6 . 4i 3 0 I   5.5
               Sals boys and salesgirls- - - -                                                              -m       *          24 22.01       4     3.7
               Delivery boys and girls----                                                                  l 2251 I 78.        4 7 1 1 6 . 5 11 3 1 4 . 6
               Goneral helpers and others-

        Domestic and personalservice-.                                                             254
                                                                                                            l'"1
                                                                                                            | 1781
                                                                                                                       79.4

                                                                                                                       70.I
                                                                                                                                19112.31 131 8.4


                                                                                                   19            17
                                                                                                   76            40                                  io.s
                                                                                                   10             7
                                                                                                   45            34
                                                                                                                 L7
                                                                                                   50            43
                                                                                                       ID         7

        C l o r i c a lo c c u p s t i o n s- - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
                                            -                                                       45            34                           5
        Otherindustries--                                                                          130           110                           5

           I Not shown where base is less than 50.


          The work of the Paterson boys seemed to be somewhat more regular
        than that of the girls. Although the majority of the girls as \r'ell a,s
        the boys were accustomed to & six or seven day week, 79 per cent of




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                  CTILDREN             IN     OCCUPATIONS             OTEER    TTTAN STREET WORK                  53
     the bovs-in_vacation comparedwith 6g per cent of the girls, and 6g per
     cent of the boys at rvork during the schbolyear conrpa"red rvith 5l irer
     cent of the girls rvorkedat-lea-st days a ueek. Gi.ls in domestic
                                       six
     servrce were olten employedo-nly_two three days a week. younger
                                           or
                                     -almost
     children worked the Tuli week           as often as the older chilar-en
     exceptthat more of the,14 and 15 yea-rold workers than thoseof any
     other agegroup uorlied six or sevendays.
                                                      HOURSOr Wonx
       Tables23,24,25, and 26 show the number of hours a day renorted
    by the,trro^groupsof ^wor-king children-in Paterson. On week days
    ol,herthan Saturday536 (50per cent) of thoseemployed    during vaca_
    tron and at rvork on week days rverecustomarilyemflo.yed   atleast g
    hours a day and 385 (36 per bent) more than 8 houri.   "Among
                                                                   them
    185children(17per.cent)  1'orkedt0 hoursor nlore and 50 (5 pe?cent)
    at least l2 hours a day. Quite commonlythe children's   wbr'kingday
    in vacation w&s &slong orlonger than tliat of older brothers ani siJ-
    terswho had regularlyenteredindustr.y. \\-henschool    wasin session
    and 5 hoursor more of schoolattendance   rvererequired,940 children
    (79 per cent) among thoseempioyed schooldays w-orked least2
                                        on                     at
    hours and 402 (34 per cent) 4 hours or more a day on their working
    oays.
    Tenre 23.-lf umber ol h,ours work.on a,typtcal week.dayother than saturilay
                                  ol
      durlng schooL ternt and durlng uacation,by age period and s(]r; cltildren uhosb
      principal occupationwas olher than slreet iork, Paterson,N. J,'

                                                                       Children under 16 years of BgFBo!ts


    Number of hours of work on a typical week
           day other than Satu"day                                            Under
                                                               Num              10                           no[ rg-
                                                                              years                          portod
                                                                ber


                                                                                                             L




    \l:ork on week days other than Saturday-
         'fotal reported-
              UDder2 bours.
              2 hours, uDder 4
              4 hours, under 6
              6 b o u r s ,u D d e rR - - - - - - - - - -
              8 h o u r s ,u n d e r I 0 - - - - - - - - - -
                   8 b o u r se v e u -
              l0 hours, under 12- - - ---
              rz houri'ana ovn,---:-:-- ----- :- ---
        Not reported-----
    No work on we€k days otber than Saturday-




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universi(r'
        54            EMPLOYMENT OT' SCEOOL OEILDREN IN NEW JERSOY

        Terr,n 23.-. Nztnber o!          uork on a-typical ueek d,ag otlm tlLan saturilay
                                !,o1"*s.oJ
          during schoolternt and during aacation,by age period aid se.r; children whoie
          pr'incipal occupationwas othir than striet uork, Paterson,i/. ./.-Continuecl


                                                                Children under 16 years of age-Girls


                                                                1'otal
        Number of hours of work^oDa typical week day otber
                           Intn Salutoav                                            Under     10     72     14
                                                                      Per             10
                                                                                            years, years, years,
                                                             Num-     cent          years   under under under
                                                              ber    distr!                   12     74     16
                                                                     bution


                                     SCEOOL TERM
             T o t r l - -- - - - - - - - - -
        W'orkon weekdaysotherthan Saturday--__---_---_-
                                                               100

                                                               E           I
                                                                         34.                              l4    I
                                                               46        42.2                             t0   25
                                                               l.i       15.6                                   8
                                                                 5                                              I
                                                                3
                                                                2         t.8                ---..1__._..      2
                                                                                I
                                                                I                               I r- --
                                                               32                               .l
                                                                                                ll




        Work on week days other than Satuday___



                                                                5         4.5 |
                                                               15        1 3 . 6|
                                                               18        1 6 . 4|
                                                               25        22.7 |
                                                               33        3o.oI
                                                               16        r4.5
                                                                             |
                                                               11        10.0I
                                                                3         ,.,
                                                                                )
                                                                2               I
                                                               16




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                                                                         -:
                                                                                                                          a



                                                                                                                          =
                                                                                                                          =
                                                                                                                          =
                                                                                                                          =
                                                                                                                          =
                                                                                                                          =
                                                                                                                          -
              CHILDREN             IN    OCCUPATIONS               OTHER     TITAN      STREET WORK                 oo    =
                                                                                                                          =
    T.e,sr,n24.-Number of hours of uork on a typical week day other than Salurd,ag                                        =
      during scltoolterm and during aacation, by principal industry; children uhose                                       =
                                                                                                                          =
      princi.pal occupationwas other than streetworlc,Paterson, N. J.                                                      =
                                                                                                                          =
                                                                                                                          ==
                                                                                                                          ==
                                                                   Children under 16 years of age                         =
                                                                                                                           =
                                                                                                                           =
                                                                                                                           =
                                                           Manufactur-
                                                                                                                           =
    Number of hours of work on a                           mechanical                                                      =
     typical week day othor than                           industries                                                      =
     Saturday
                                                                                                                           =
                                         uo--                                                                              =
                                                                                                                           =
                                                 ""ii
                                          ber I distri-                                                                   a
                                              I blrtion
                                                                                                                           =
            SCIOOL TDRM
         'Iotal-
                   ---- --------------   '.*l                                                                             z
                                                                                                                          3




                                                                                                                          z
    Work on q'eeli da1'sother than
     Setluday----------
                                                                                                I
                                                                                             2e3l__-____- l*,             e
                                                                                                                          a

                                                                                             * f_Ir"_I        131         1
                                                                                                                              I
                                                  2 1 .0     .16                     19.1      5 91 2 0 . 1   29
                                                             69                      49.8    1C9 3;.2
                                                                                                   I          58
                                                  28.7       35              r66             r o ei 3 7 . 2   31
                                                   3.6                        ls      3.0      1 5'  5.1      10
                                                   1.3        I                4       .7       li    .3       2
                                                    .5        E                I       .2                      I
                                                    .2        l
                                                              2                              .__._"1.____._

               VAC,{TION




                                                                             486     100.0
                                                   4.7        7       5.0     nl      q"s
                                                  13.4       1l       7.8     s9 I   18.3
                                                  14.I       t7      12.I     E7 i   17.9
                                                  17.3               16.3     79 |   16.3
                                                  32.5       66      46.E    130 |   26.7
                                                  14.0       43      30.5

                                                                      10.0    43 |    9.9
                                                              3       ,1      31 I    o.l

                                                              3                8




L




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universitr
          56                  DMPLOYMENT                                 OF SCEOOL                  OHIIJDREN           IN   NEW    JERSEY

          T,tnr-n 25.-Nu,nher ol hours of work on a tgpical Saturilay during schoolterm anil
            dttri,ngaacation,bg age period and sea; children uhose principal occupationwas
            other than streetwork, Paterson,N. J.

                                                                                                           Children under 16 years of age-Boys


                                                                                                   Total
                 Number of hours of work on I typical
                             Satudsy                                                                                Under                     years,         Ag0
                                                                                                          Per         10                                    uot ra.
                                                                                                Num-      cent      years                     under         ported
                                                                                                 ber     distri-                                16
                                                                                                         bution


                            SEOOL TERV
                    Total________-___                                                           l, 280                                          610
          \ \ ' o r k o n S a t u r d a y -- - - - - - -                                        I,180                                           owl                z
                Total reported---                                                               r. r69                              400   I     sos]               2
                       Under 2 hours-                                                             134      1I.5         6            50          53 1      1
                       { h o u r s ,u n d e r 6 - -                                                 0      19.7               29     68         126 l__--_-__
                       6 hous, under 8-                                                           159      13.6         7     I      46          7Rl
                       8 hours, nderl0-- -----
                                    u                                                             229      19.6         I     30     68         1 2 2l - - - - _ _ - -
                            8 h o u r se r e n - -- - - - - .                                      ot       7.8
                       I 0 h o u s , u n d e rl 2 - - - - - - - - .                               191      16.3         I     20                 85 _____--_
                       I2 hous, andover---------                                                  226      19.3         6            91         101i     1
                                                                                                                                                   I
                Not reported- - --                                                                 ll                   I     4                    'l--------
                                                                                                                                                   1l


          ^Io work on S8tuday-----                                                                100                   o     13     34          u)
                               YACTTION
                   Total------------                                                                                                            14el
                                                                                                                                                        I          1
          Iilork on Satuday- - ------                                                                                                           Aztl               4
                Total reported---                                                                                                   363         *l                 ^
                       Under 4 hours- --
                       ,l hours, under 6- -
                                                                                                 100       10.2         I    22      do          3rl         ,
                       6 hous, under 8- -
                                                                                                 182
                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                             6
                                                                                                           18.
                                                                                                           rt o        o     20
                                                                                                                                     oo
                                                                                                                                     17          911 r
                                                                                                                                                 oo l--------
                       8 h o u s , u n d e rl 0 - - - - . - - - - .                              m7                    I     a
                            8 hous even--------                                                   86        8.8                      34          o'
                       l 0 b o u r s ,u n d e r 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .                186       t 9 .I            30      69
                                                                                                                                                        l--------
                                                                                                                                                 74 l_--____-
                       r z h o u i ' a n d o l ' e r - -- - - - - - - - - - - : - - - - - - -    rto       17.9        0                         671       l
                                                                                                                                                        I
                Not reported----                                                                  l0                    I     I       1           -il - - - - - - - -
                                                                                                                                                  l

          No work on Saturday-----                                                                67                          8                  26i--------
                                                                                                                                                        I




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                    CHILDR,EN IN OCCUPATIONS OTHER TEAN STREET WORK                                                  57

      Tasr,n 25-Numbel oJ hours.ot,worlcon a typical Saturday during schoolterm and
                            -age
        during aacotion, by      period and ser; childrenwhoseprincipal occupationuas
        other ihan streeiworli, Paterson,N. "I.-Continued

                                                                       Children under 16 years of age-Girls


                                                                       Total
          Number of hours of work on I typical gsturday                               Under
                                                                                                 10         72
                                                                                               years,     years,   years,
                                                                             Per        10
                                                                             cent     yoars    under      under    und€r
                                                                            distri-
                                                                                                 1t         I4       1.6
                                                                            bution




                                                                                         10                            58
                                                                                         10                            58

                                                                                          3           8                l1
                                                                                                      2                 I
                                                                                      -""-t'          t                 7
                                                                                                                       t3
                                                                                          I

                                                                                          I
                                                                                                      1                 3

                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                      I




      W o r ko n S a t u r d a y - - - - - - - - -                                       10i

           Totalreported---                          -"-"------   I   i09                10
                 Under4hours---                                       n        m.2                            l1
                                                                                                                       1l
                                                                                                              5         2
                                                                                                              8        14
                                                                                                                        5


                                                                                                                        2

                                                                                                                        I

                                                                                                                        I




 I
 I
 I
 i-



Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
          b6                E]\fPLOYMENT                            OF SCHOOL                      CEILDREN                      IN      NEW            JERSEY

          Tear,s 26.-Number of hoursof worh on a typical Saturilaryduri,ng school term and,
            du.ring.uacation, princi,pal indystrE; children u:hosepr'inci,paloccupation was
                              b11
            otlLerthan slreetuork, Paterson,N, J,

                                                                                                     Children under 16 years of age


                                                                                        Manufactur-                                         t *DqJnestrc
                                                                                                                                            I                                Other
                                                                                         mechanical                        Trade            I and personal                 industries
           Number of hours of work on a
                                                                                         industries                                                servrco
                t-vpical Saturday
                                                                                                                                            I
                                                                                                                                  Pcr                         Per
                                                                                       xum- ieii                                  cent Nur                    cent
                                                                                         ber          distri-                    distri. ber                 distri.
                                                                                                                                 bution                      bution




                                                                                       -!t
                                                                                                                t                 36 .
                                                                                                           7 3 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ ' 4_ - - - - - _ _ lr 4 v l - - - - _ _ _                   L
                                                                                               --:-:::-                                                I
                                                                                          1 5 1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ E- - - - - - - - l : t i ; - - - - _ - _ _ 1 3 0
                                                                                                           69                                             l
                                                                                                                      -oso                                             I         l__---_-
                                                                                          152 roo.
                                                                                                 o
                                                                                                                  ]          rool 1 lrr roo. I r s 4 lr o 0 o
                                                                                                                                               o
                                                                                           :o             lrll          ? s ] 1 1 r l 4 s f l b r i 1 6I 1 1 . 9
                                                                                                                                                  I
                                                                                           78             5 1 . 3| 7 1 i           10.3          62 I          19.7 I      3i i       27.6
                                                                                           ls             1 1 . 8 83 i
                                                                                                                 |                 12.0i         46 i          14.6 I      25 |       20.9
                                                                                           2 0)           1 3 . 2I 1 3 8 i         20.0 |        68            2r.6 I      3r |       23.1
                                                                                           tt]             ,.rl n                     orl r,| 10.2rri e.0
                                                                                                                                                  |
                                                                                             8 |           5.3|
                                                                                                                             I
                                                                                                                 ril I 21.7 39|                                12.4
                                                                                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                                          )                                       |
                                                                                                                                                                  I         14 L      10.4
                                                                                             2l            L 3 j 170 24.6 r'
                                                                                                                     j    |                                    16.5         .l        6.0
                                                                                                                                                                  |
                                                                                             -r------'l' l------"-l l'------
                                                                                             nl                   '
                                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                              I                                        I    cl

                                                                                           181---__-_-l                 3ei_--__- *l-------_l                              ."t-
                                                                                                   tl                                      lll
                                                                                         l-l - -
                                                                                             R
                                                                                                   II
                                                                                                   - - - - - - - lI
                                                                                                                             tttl           l
                                                                                                                       & 9 r - _ - _ _ - _ _2 5 4 1 _ - - _ _ - _ _ l
                                                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                           nol"--.
                                                                                                                                                                                 -
                                                                                         r31-------                    5 2 t - - - - - - - _ - 2 2 8 - - _ - _ _ _ _ l, i l - - - -
                                                                                                                  l
               T o l c l r e p o r t e d -- - - - - - - - - - - - l , 0 3 5              128i 100.0
                                                                                                   i                                         oI
                                                                                                                       5 r 1 1 o o . o l z z I m i I ,10iroo.o-
                                                                                                                                                      ,--f
                                                                    122       tt.2         's            t4rl           561 10.71%l                            r1.1i23I               11.0
                                                                    m2        t 3 .6      63             49.2 | 6 3 I       1 2 . 1I 3 2 |                     r 4 . 2|
                                                                                                                                                                    44 I              21.0
                                                                    136       12.5        13             1 0 . 2| i 3       1 0 . 2I 4 r I                     1 8 . 1|
                                                                                                                                                                    n I               lJ.8
                                                                    239                   17 I           13,3| 101    I     i9.4 | 49I                         2 r . 7|
                                                                                                                                                                    72                34.3
                                                                     98        9.0        tr             10.2 , r J u . t l 2 2                                n.tl * |               i3.3
                                                                                            i               |                                                          |
                                                                    204       1E.8        13I            10.2 t n
                                                                                                            L       24.s1 ela                                 r+.olx I                i3.8
                                                                                                    l i2 2 . 6* ^ . u l , 6 . 2
                                                                                            :1 "'l 16e-------l1i ----'--lt-t-------
                                                                    182       16.8
                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                               'i              '?                                                           rl

                                                                     34                    .:.     ,t,i__---- ,u -______l ------
                                                                                          ,, ________l                 tn
                                                                                                            )            I

           .,-Saturday hours were .practically the same throughout the year.
          (Tables 25 and 26.) Filty-eight per cent of the r."acation *.oiLer,.
          employed on Saturda):s en-d 54 per cent of the w-orl<ersduring the
                  term
          ?Shgol b s , reported that they spent at least 8 hours on Saturd"ay at
          their jo    a n d 3 6 a n d 3 4 p e r c a n t , r e s p e c t i v e l r ,t h a t t h e y s p e n i 1 0
          hours or more. In the lacation monthi, thc pioportion oI Saturday
          worliers with au reasu an,6_-I1our-oay ord. not gIeS,tIy exceed the pro
          \rulr\tifs wrLrt at least,an,8_-hour-day not ireatty exceedthe pro
                                                 did
          portion v'ith at least an 8-hcur da5is.                                                             other wleek days, but the pro-
          portion working l0,hours
                                                  _ormore \\.as rnuch largerjeO per cent on
          Saturdays compa,rcdwith 17 pel cent on other weeh davs.
          S&turdays
           . brxteen per_cen_t
           _ Sixteen per,cen_tof the childlgt n'orking either dur-ing Yacation or
                                        oI        chrld.ren $'orking           duling
          d u r rrng t h e s c h o o l t e r m w o r l i c d
          during the school term worked n n S r r n d . - o y - i n
                ins                             w_orked on Sund-ay-in q 1 6 y a q " j in bakeries,
                                                              Sunday-in       stores,
                                                                              stores,"in
          @orgarage heloers. telesra,ohlrusbtrlrBur-s,
          a,s5(rraSurrrElyrr-,
                          helpers, telc'graphmesseneers.
                                       ucrL:Brapu      messengers,ua,u.cues, prll horrqi. h^-.,]i--
                                                                  ,.o.ddio" nin boys in howling
                                                                  caadies, pin Doys ln nowlrng
                i-,^ ^t-^*^^      :-' --- )'
          a,lleys, lhelpers rn restaulants, nurses, other servants, ianitors, and



                                                                                                                                                                                                 _ -:--

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library,                                                                                    Georgetown University
                    CHILDREN            IN     OCCUPATIONS                      OTEER, TEAN         STNEET WORK                   59
   barbers'helpers,ancl_in feqother occupations. of the lg0 children
                            a
   repoftrnghours rvorkudg+ Sunday.in.the.vacation months 81 per
   cent, and of the 223 rvorking on tiris d.ar in the schoofy.". io
   cent,worhedat ]east 8.hours a day, and is per cent and"lg p"" .attt i,""
   in each gro.up,respe_ctively,_ "employed hou"r;;-;;.;'
                                were            io
      lhe \\orklng week was long. In vacation_620        children (56 per
   ce.nt)worked 40 hours or more a week, including +sz
                                                             Gi per ceirt)
   u'ho had at least a 48-hourwe-eJr, many worke,T noii.. i. iongu".
                                   ag$.                sa
   \vhen schoolwas in session54i children"worked.     uile-u.t-zi-hours a
   rveeh,of yrhom 67 worked at least 40 ho_urs.
                                                    _1r"1t., zi-";d-t-g.j
                                                                 *L*oog
    . Only a few Patersonchildren worked in the.early-9."i"g.
   the morning,r.r'orl<ers 85 r'acationworkers"and-rs 3inu". *to
                           were
   began work before 6 a. m. The majority of these helped oo -ilt
   routes.
   T'rnr,n 27.-ly'umber of hoys.ol work
     aacati,on, ag,epeiiod and
               by                       .during a typical w.ee\ol schoor   term and oJ
                                 _sex;chiLdren whose'
     Ihan streetu.ork, Paterson,N. J .
                                                     princip"i k;;i;;;";'ias      other


                                                                                  Cb.ildren under 16 years of age-Boys


                                                                          Total
           Number of hours.of work during a
                    tr14)lcalweek                                                                  10
                                                                                           Under years,                 t4
                                                                                 Per        l0               years,   ye8rc, Age
                                                                   Num.          cent      years under       under    under not 16-
                                                                                                                             portod
                                                                    ber         distri-                        14      IO
                                                                                bution


                     SCEOOL  TXNM
           Total------------                                         l, 280                   &                439      610        2
  Total reported--__                                                t,219         lm.0        50    158        4r4      595        2
                                                                       1 4 0|     11.5        10     27
                                                                       a7|          .5        l3     45        t25
                                                                       274 |      22.5        L4     36        702
                                                                       308 i      25.3                          89
                                                                       1 5 2|     12.5               t2         32
                                                                        321        26         1          o
                                                                        r5 i       1.2                           6
                                                                         3t         .2
                   ,
    5 6 h o u r s u n d e r 6 4 _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ - - _ _ - _ _ _ _ _|l
                                                                             Z       .6                          I
    o { u o u r sr o o o y e r - _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - _ _ - - _ _ - _ _ _ - _ l
                                                                             4       .a
                                                                                 |
                                                                                                         I       I
 Not reported-----                                 -_---__--_l              or l----_---      1
                             YIC^TION
          Totat__---_-__--_                              -_---lr,oss                                                   ,rnl
                                                                   l-_---___ 60                                393                4
 T o t a lr e p o r t c d - - - -                 _ _ _ _ - - _ _ - - i s s z 1 r o oo
                                                                                     .       44    142         368     434t       1

      gt"."t;1,1,*xn*                  fir Bi I t2I 34 ;r-r
                  --::-:::::::::::::::::::l
      ,ifi3H!;$"'$iIil_:::::::_::_:._:::::::::l,Tl l5i3ll - - - - - - - -
      32hours,  40-___ -___--:_:__--::l i,l:l
            under
                                                   E
                                                  r4
                                                     N
                                                     4t
                                                                                                                        oo i_--____-
                     ___             iil   i0:i o l4                        I                                           47 1      I
      i3lSH3;H33i13-::.:-::::::::::::::::::l                            -i9 | -;
                                                                        ii? ift
        4 8h o u n e v e n _ _ _ - - _ _ _ - - _ _ - _ - - - - : - _ - : _ _ l]
                                                                                   2l         4
                                                                                              8
                                                                                                               44
                                                                                                               66
                                                                                                                        72 1
                                                                                                                        E2 l
                                                                                                                                  l
                                                                                                                                  I
                                                                                 d  7                                   26l--------
      ff13$i:'"H'3;#-:::::::::::::::_:::-::::i
                            till ieBl     n
                                          w
                                                                                              6
                                                                                              o
                                                                                                               49
                                                                                                               16
                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                        12l--------
                                                                                                                        44t--------
 Notroported-----                                 --__-_-___lot l-_-----_l                    0     to         25       roI
                                                                                                                          l--------
            80812._29__5




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown Universifr
                            EITpLoYMENT                             oF scrloor,   oETLDREN rN NEw                  JERSEY
            60

            -';'";;;":;,                                                                                                              termand
            T , r s l n 2 7 . - N u m b e r o f h o u r s o f w o r k d ' u r i n g a , t y p i c a l . w e e k - o f s c h o o . l . was other' . o f
                                ai is, iri;oa'";;e :',;; ;t!Ii'ii"                  *n'i'b principat bccupat'ion
                than street                               1V.
                                  worlc,Paterson, J.-Uontrnueo

                                                                                        ChildreD under 16 years of age-Girls




                 Number ot hoursof work during a typicsl week                                             Under years, Years'
                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                 Per       10
                                                                                    Num-         cent     years under i under
                                                                                     ber        distri-
                                                                                                bution




                                                                                                                                    5

                                                                                                                                 5
                                                                                                                                 3
                                                                                                                            -----3-


                                                                                                                               .:
                                                                                                                                    1
                  56 hours, under 64---------
                  6 4h o u r s a n d o v e r - - - - - - - - - - - - -

             Not reported-----
                                                  YAC,ATION
                     Total - -- ---------

             Total reported---
                  Under 8 hours----                                                        8        6.6
                  8 h o u r s ,u n d e r 1 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -            m          16.5
                  16 hours, under 24-- - --- - - - - - - - - - -                                   10.7
                  24 hours, under 32-- -- -- - - -                                         10       8.3
                  32 hours, under 40---------                                               I       7.4
                  40 hours, under 48---------                                              2t
                  48 hours, under 50----------                                             17      14.0
                        4 8h o u r s e Y e n - -- -                                         5       4.L

                   56 hours uoder 64                                                       13      10.7
                   64 hours and over- - ----- -- - - - -                                   10

              Not reported-----




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                     CITILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER TITAN STREET WORK
                                                                                                                                                61
       Tesln.28.-N'iLmber.o!-hours oJ work d,uring a typical ueek of sch,oor     term and oJ
                                            chilctren"whosi'prrncipat irrrp,irion-'ias other
         aacalion, bu nri.ncinal indu.s.[ry-;
         than street uork, Pater;on, N. i'.


                                                                                         Children under 16 years of ago


                                                                                                                 Domestio
                                                                                                                and personal       Other in"
         Number oI hours of rvork                                                                                                  dustries
          during a typical week                                                                                    service



                                                                                                                Num
                                                                                                                 ber


                scnool IERM
                                              I
             Total- - - --------- - - __- _- _ t, 422
      Total reported- _-

                                                           r66        12.3         18      11.4                   56      15.g     19         lJ.   O
                                                           336        24.I         44      27.8                   80      22.5     36
                                                           304                                                                                25.5
                                                                                   42      2t).6                  72      20.3     39         27.7
                                                           316       23.4          42      26.6                   73      20.6     28
                                                           160                                                                                19.I
                                                                     11.9           4                                     14.I     II
                                                            38        2.8                                                                      7.8
                                                                                    5      3.2                             4.2         9       1.4
                                                                      1.2                  1.3                        3

         5 6h o u r s .u n d e r 6 4 - _ - - _ - - - - _
                                                              3                                                       ,     .8
                                                                                                                            .6                ,t_i
                                                              I                   --i'                            2
         u + o o u r s a n d o Y e r _ _- _ _ _ _ - -
                                       -                      {                                                   I
                                                                                                                                               1.4

      Not reported__-_-                                     73                    t4                              I
                    VACATION

                                                                                  148                           251
     Total reported

                                                            66        5.9
                                                                                                                                             1
                                                                                                                                           - - 00.0
                                                                                   8               X      5,4    20        8.4   '10
                                                           r04        9.3          6               63    13.2             10.0      6
                                                            87        1.6         10               38     7.4    n        12.I     10
                                                           1',I)    11.1                                                                      4.6
                                                           113
                                                                                                   70    13.6    22        ot      19         8.7
                                                                    10.2                           63    12.2    18
                                                           163      14.6
                                                                                                                                  ID          6.8
                                                                                  4I               46     8.9    26       10.I    50         22.8
                                                           r98      17.8          30               /o    14.8             12.l    63         28.8
                                                                     4.9          tl               L2     2.3     6        3.3               10.5
        5 6 h o u r s ,u n d e r 6 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _l - o |
                                                           3        1 1 .?
        6 4 l l o u r s a n d o v e r -_ _ _ _ - - - _ _ l ! 9 I
                                                                                                   63   L2.      n        12.I    31         74.2
                                                                    u.6                            63   12.
                                                                                                          2      42       17.6    I5          6.8
     \ot reported------_--_--                              0 8l _ - - - - - _ _                    34            l5               1I




        MalX worked l-ate- night. Among the 1,000 ya,cationworkers
                            at
      reporting hou-rsof afternooinwork on days otiier than Saiur:dayzr
                                                                      -pe.
     per.cent, and among the 1,144 s-chool-t"e'm-rvorkers-Z+
                                                                            ce't,
     *'orked in the eveniig..on #eek days-tn" auv, i"nln infiL nou*
     u'ere the shortest-until at least 8 p. -., a cori.ideiabi" ou-b.r in
     qlch g.ro-qnuntil 1_0 m. or after anri u f"; ;"tii-itol.lo"r]*'ir"ut",
                         p.
     39 and 30.) on Saturdays they worked even rater. .t"u"rt ti*r tnu
     Saturday evening rvorkeis,  -boih during the summ"r lu"uiio" u,,a
     ourung  the schoolterm, workel until q.-.or later on Saturdays,
                                            .g
     and one-fourth during.-vacation and ibout one-third auri"g irr.i
     school year.workedgtll- tO p. m. or latei, a considerabie       ou*U." u,
     late as 12 o'clock. (TablesBi and 82.)




 t


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                          IN NEW JERSEY
            62              EMPLOYMENT OF SCEOOL CEILDREN
                                                                         ueek daa other than
            Tsnr,n2g._Hour     oJ.ending alternoon work on-..a tupicar
                                    rii* iia d.uring aacation,  uiEg, period artd-set; children
             saturdag d,uring sthoot
              whose                          other tfran streetworh' Paterson' N ' J '
                   principatr occupati-on-tiai

                                                                                                         Children under 16 years of age-Boys




            Eour ol endins"afteraoon
                                  XSt#fnd"?t"nt""t                                                                                                         not re-
                                                                                                       Per                                                 ported
                                                                                             Num-      cenE
                                                                                              ber     distri-
                                                                                                      bution


                                       ECEOOL TEEM
                                                                                             1,280
                     T o t 8 l - - - - - - -- - --
                                                                                             r,052
             Aftprnoonwork--
                                                                                              l,049                            135
                  Eour reported---                                                                                             ;                 *
                                                                                               328        3 1 .3      1 5I              105      lco
                         Before p. m----------------
                                    6                                                                     45. 5                         146      263
                         6 D - 8 . . b e f o r e8 p . m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -      15r        14.4         8                          65
                         E il.  m . , b e f o r e1 0p . m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                                                         46
                         l 0 - p..m . , b e f o r ol 2 p . m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
                             D
                         12 m. and after-------------'--'----
                                                                                                18
                                                                                                           7.L
                                                                                                           1.7        _.1                8         7

                                                                                                                       2                               1
                  Eour Dotroported
                                                                                                                                         16           6
                                                                                                 30
             M o r n i n cw o r ko n l Y - - - ---- - - - - -- -                                180                                      61          oo
             ir;;-;;i;;;;t           6aYsother than srturday- -                                  12                                       7           I
             Time of day lot reported----------
                                            YACATION
                                                                                                                                        393
                                                                                              1,053

             Atternoonwork--
                                                                                                          100.0
                                                                                                              I
                                                                                                                      {3
                   flour reportec---
                                                                                                100       ;;l          10
                                                                                                                       l5
                                                                                                                                   61
                                                                                                                                   44
                                                                                                                                        140
                                                                                                                                        116
                                                                                                                                                  178
                                                                                                                                                  t44
                                                                                                320        3 5 . 7I                                48
                                                                                                1          r 3 . 8I     6          23    17
                                                                                                            4 . 4I                       16        15
                                                                                                 39                                                 5
                                                                                                 13
                                                                                                             "' ll-
                                                                                                             "
                                                                                                                                          6


                    Eour not reported
                                                                                                          -------l         1             26
              M o r n i n s w o r k o D l Y - - - - - - . -- - - . - - - -
              iit;Ti          il;-;I-6gfs
              lfime of day not reporrco-----'--'-
                                                       o-tber saturdgv--
                                                            tban                                    16    _::::::l         I        8
                                                                                                                                             8




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
                         CEILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEDR fHAN                                                        STREET WORI(                            63
      Tfr!"          29.-Hour                 o!. ending afternoon uorlc on a typical ueek dau other than
                                             g
         D o t l L r d a t J . d u . t l n . s c h o o l t . e r m a n d d u r i n g t ' a m t i o r t , ,b y a g e p e r i o d a n d - s e ; t ; c h i l d r e n
         'u'nuse
                     ltrtnnpal occupalron was olher than street u:ork, paterson, ly'.
                                                                                                                                       "I._Con.

                                                                                                  Children under 16 J*ears age-Girls
                                                                                                                         of


                                                                                              Totrl
      Elour of €nding aftcrnoon work on a typical week day
                                        ay                                                                      Under          10          12           14
                                                                                                                             years,      years,       year8,
                                                                                                     Per          10
                                                                                           Num-      cent       years        under       under        under
                                                                                            ber     distri-                    t2          I4           16
                                                                                                    bution

                        .                 SCEOOL         TERU
                T o t a l -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ - "                           142                                               38            70
     A f t e r n o o n\ r o r k - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                            95                                                              35
                                                                                                                           12031
            flourreported___                                                                 G        100.0            "      20               31            *
                    Before p. m---- _-_-_----___-_-__-__--
                              6                                                                       4 1 .I           7                       l3            10
                    6 p. m,, before p. rrt --____-
                                            I                                                         2 1 .I           2                        5             7
                    8 p . m . , b e f o r cl 0 p . m - - - _ _ _ -                                                                             11            10
                    1 0 p . m . , b e f o r el : I i . m . - - _ _ _                                   10.5
                    1 2 p . D ] .a n r j a f r e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
                                                                                                                                                           -:
            Hour not reported

     Morning worh only- ------_____                                                                                                             2            l1
     No worli -on rveek irai'i ;,ha; th;; s;iur(i;t--                       _-__: - - __                               2
     'Iirne oI day not reported,
                                    , _-_                                                                                                -.:                ?:
                                 YACATION
               Total- - -----_-_.-_                                                                                   1I          23          38            56
     A f t e r n o o nr v o r k - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ .                           105                       10          19          33            43
            Eour rcported- --                                                               104      100.0            10          19                        42
                   Before n. m-, --------.
                            6                                                                61       58.7             7          lo                        l8
                   6 p. m., before 8 p. m----                                                t2       11.5                                      2            8
                   8 p. m., before0 p. m--_______-_
                                         i                                                   24       23. I            I           3           o
                   1 0p . m . , b e f o r e 2 p . m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,
                                           l                                                  7        6,7                         I           I             5
                   12 p. m. and after

           Ilour not reported                                                                 I                                                              I
     Morning work only----- -------                                                           6                                                              2
     No wor-k_on week days other than Saturday-----_---__
     Time of day not reportod- - - - - - -                                                    I
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                               3
                                                                                                                                                            t1




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universit-v
         64                  EMpr,oyMENT                          oF scgoot,             ogTLDREN rN Nnw                         JnRSEY

         Tanr,n 30.-11 our o! ending alternoon worlc on a_typical;wqk Qay. other than
         '"{;i;r-i;,
                     aiiiis inooL teim ind, during uacation,by principal ind_ustrg;cltildren
            whosepiincipal, occupalion uas olher thon streetwork, Paterson' N ' J '

                                                                                             Children under 16 years of age


                                                                                      Manufactur-                          Domestic
                                                                                         ins and                                             Other
                                                                      Tota]                                 Trado         and personal    itldustries
         Elour of onding afterDoon work                                               neclanical                             servrce
           on I typical week day othsr                                                 industries
           tb&n Saturday

                                                                  Num
                                                                            Psr
                                                                            cent      ,i,*-l  Per
                                                                                              cent       rIm-
                                                                                                                  Per
                                                                                                                  cettr Num
                                                                                                                              Per
                                                                                                                              cent
                                                                                                                                                        Per
                                                                                                                                                        cent
                                                                   ber     distri.
                                                                           bution     "*l    distri-
                                                                                             bution
                                                                                                          ber    distri-
                                                                                                                 bution
                                                                                                                         bor distri-
                                                                                                                             bution
                                                                                                                                          b€r distri-
                                                                                                                                                        bution


                               TENM
                          SCEOOL
                                                                   422                 172                                 364            149
                   Total- - - ----------------
                                                                                                          577              285            r{        |
         Afternoon work--                                          t47                 too

                  flour reported---                                144         0
                                                                            100.       roo     100.0      574     100.0 85        100.
                                                                                                                                     0    tn             100.0

                         Before 6 p. m-----------                  367                  89       57.I     151      26.3     78             49             38.
                         6 p. m., b€fore 8 P. m--.                 497        43.4               36.5     327      57.0     62     21.8                   39.
                         8 p. m., b€fore l0 P. m--.                177        15.5       7                         72.7     77     2i.0    20
                         l0 p. m., before l2 P. m--                 85         7.4                1.9                       54     18.I                    5.
                         1 2p . m . a n d a t t e r - - - - - -     18         1.6                           2              14      4.9                    1_



         Morning work only--------:.---                              14                  4                 ,1                8                 I
         No work on week days o[ner
          tban Saturday---                                          2t6                 10                 101              7L              16
         rinra      ^f    aorr    n^i   Foh^rta.l                    13                                      8

                                 VACITION

                    Total- - --------.-------                       181                118                549                4             230

         Aftornoon work--                                          , 001                                  440              2t6             213

                  Ilour reportod- - -                              , m 0 100.
                                                                            0          132          0
                                                                                                 100.      440    100.0              0
                                                                                                                                  100.                    100.

                         B e f o r e6 p . m - - - - - - - - - -     461       46. r     97                 140     31.8     93     13.3    1 3 1|          61.
                         6 p. m., before8 p. m---                   332                 n        20. 5     204     46.4     44     20.5     ot |           26.
                         8 p. m., before l0 P. m--                  r48       14.I       6        4.5       ol              59              16
                                                                                                            26              13      6.0             lo
                         l0 p. m., betore l2 p. m-                   46        4.6       I         .8               5.9
                         12 p. m. and after------                    13        ta        I         .8                        6      2.8
                                                                                                                                                    lr.
          Iloruing work only- ----------                                                 I                  43              12                 t2       I
                                                                                                                                                        1-"'
          No work on week days othel
            than Saturday---
          nirn^     ^t    iov     n^t   '-h^rldd
                                                                     87
                                                                     L7                      I              OJ
                                                                                                            ll
                                                                                                                            25                 3
                                                                                                                                                        t::::::




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         CEILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER TEAN STR,EETWORK
                                                                                                                                                       65
       T.rnr,p 31.-rlour                    oJ cnding alternoon uork on a typical gaturday d,urino school
                                                                                                        ternt
           anddurins.aacation,asbpertod ':i;'
                           bv         ita                                                                            ,ii''i1rii"tifiTll'upouon
            u'as olher than streetwork,- Paterson, J.
                                                 N,                                                   "titiiiii

                                                                                                 Children under 16 years ol ago-Boys


        Eour of ending aftornoon work on I typical
                        Saturday                                                                                        10         t2     14
                                                                                                Per                   years,     years, years,  Age
                                                                                  Num-          cont                  under      under under not r€.
                                                                                                                                               ported
                                                                                   ber         distri.                  12        l4      lo
                                                                                               bution


                                SCEOOI,
                                     TEN,M
                  Total------------                                                                                                439
      Alternoon work- -                                                                                                            348
                                                                                      265        26.5                    ol        105       95
                                                                                      208        20.8                    I8         54      126
                                                                                      198        19.E                    3l                  E6
                                                                                      2p6        25.6                    30        99       r56
                                                                                                  3.2                              14        13
      lv,lorni"g work only- - - - ___                                                 169                                          ol        89
      NO WOrf,  On baiurday                                                           100                                t3
      'rm0 or oay nol r€ported____-                                                                                                34        44
                                                                                                                          1         6         I
                                  VAC TION
              Tot8l- -------------------                                           l,053                                                    440
      Afternoon work

           B e t o r e6 p , m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .                  NT       36.0                     45
           o p . m ..,,6 e t r o r e p . n i _--:_:_ _:---:-:-:_:-:_:-:_ _ _ _ - _ - _ I D /
                 ru oe oree        d       m : : --                   : :
                                                                                                                                  L2l       105
                                                                                                19.4                     24        15        et
           8 p . m . , b e f o r el 0 p . m - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                      159      19.7                     27
           l 0 p . m . , b e f o r el 2 p . m - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ - - _ _ _ - -                                                61        62
                                                                                       181      22.4                     2l                  78
                                                                                         20      2.5
                                                                                                                             +     10         6
                                                                                     166                                 24        50        88
                                                                                      67                                  8        26
                                                                                                                          4                   t


                                                                                                      Children under 16 years of age-Girls

                                                                                                   Total
             Ilour of ending afternoon work on a typiml
                              Satuday                                                                                  l0                  t,       74
                                                                                                          Per Under years,
                                                                                                                 l0                      years,   years,
                                                                                               Nun-       cent years under               under    mdsr
                                                                                                ber      distri-       12                  74       t6
                                                                                                         bution
                                    SCEOOL TERU
             'I
                  Otai
                                                                                                                                                      70
             work---- ---------
     Afternoon
                                                                                                         -                                            OU
                                                                                                  33          3'.4                 6        13         I
                                                                                                              20.6                 2                  10
                                                                                                  24                                         6
                                                                                                  23                               ,         4
                                                                                                   1          1.0                                      I
    Mornirg work only-- - - ---
    NO WOr.K.On                                                                                                                    6t        6         8
                 sA[Urday____--_-__                                                               18
    'I me or oay nol reported_____

                                       vlcrTroN
                                                                                                                        l1        n                   oo
    Afternoon work--                                                                                                    10        l6                  36
        IIour reported---                                                                                    r00.0      l0
            Belore p. m-_-____-__-__-_
                      6                                                                          3l           35.
                                                                                                                6        5         I                   5
            6 p . m . , b e f o r e8 p . m _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _                               11           L2.6       4
                                                                                                 18
                                                                                                              31.
                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                              20-7
                                                                                                                                   ;                  l5
                                                                                                                     :::-:]:
        Ilour not reported
                                                                                                                                                       I
    MorDing work only--- -----
    NO  w o r - K o n S a t u d a y _ _- - _ _ _ _ _
                -
    'rlme                                                                                                                                              I
           or day nol reported___-_




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
          66                  EMpr,oyMENT                               oF scgoor,   oETLDREN tlr        NEw      JERSEY

          T !Bn"s '2.-Hour of eniling alternoon uork on a typical saturd,ay dur.ing.schoolterm
          -
            i"a iiil"i            bg"principal industly; ciildren whose principal occupation
                         ua,cation,
                                                 N.
             u'asotherlhan slrecluork, Yaterson, J.

                                                                                     Children under 16 years of age



                                                                                                                         Other
                                                                                                                       industries
          Eour of endins alternoon work
              on I typiaal Saturday




          A f t e r n o o n$ ' o l k - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   1 ,1 0 1

                                                                         298

                                                                         222
                                                                         31!)


                                                                         190
                                                                         118


                                v -{C-{TION




                  IIour not rePorted

          tr4orning ork only- -----------
                   w
          No work on Saturday----------
          Time of day not rcported-------



             Children undcr 12 years of agc worhed on the aYexage as.-m-aly
          hours a dav and a week as thostl2 years of age and older. (Tables
          i3,25, and 27.) Although about haif the chiidren under 10 working
          irr'"*utlotr  were ernploy"ed 8 hours a day and 48 hours a \r'eek and
          about one-fifth during ihe school year worked 4 hours or rnore on
          .chool days and 24 hdurs or n]ore a week, the lounger children had
          co".iderably shorter working hours when school was in session,
          thouEh not"during vacation, than the older children.
           --Ciit.
                    reported ihorter hours than boys. In the vacation months
          the averade number of hours of work a u'eek reported by the girls
          was 36 un"dby the boys 41, and during thc schoolyear the girls aver-
          aged 17 hours a weeli and the boys 21. The difference was drre in
          p-u.i to the fact that a large proportion of the girls were emp.loyed
          l, nur."-uids or as domelstic servants, oecupations in which the
          hou.r of work were a little shorter for the child wolhcrs than in other
          occupations. Girls working in stores had a little longer working




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
            CEILDREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER THAN STRXST WORK               67
      hours.than. girls in domestic service. Those
                                                       _employedin occupa-
      trons rn which boys also were employedworked just as long hours as
      Doys.
      . Certain,occupations-such sellingin stores,bootblacking,
                                     as                                 help-
      lng ln restaurants  and lunch rooms, and helping in barber jhop._
      were conspicuous long.hours. (Tables24, L6,2g, 80, and'82.)
                         for             .
      M?+y barber shops and shoe-shinins-     parlors customarily keep open
      untrl a late hour rn the_  evening. The stores which manv of ihe
                                                       in
      children, wero employed were neighborhood       stores, g"o.""y' stores,
      clry-goods  shops,shoe stores,,stores  selling automobileaccessories,
      rlardw^a_restores,and many others that often did not closeuntil g oi
      10. often the family lived_above or behinrl the store u"a Gpl il
     op-en  until they wenl to bed. During the vacationrnonthssencral
     helpers..rn  stores and.caddies,and during thc schoolvear   _-S"ili;ti;
     in bowling.,alle4s. pool rooms, also h"adlong hou16. "hildren
                         and,
     stores,bootblacking,    helpingin p-ool.rooms  and-bowlingalleys,-and
     h.elprng barber shops,more often than other occupaLioni
               rn                                                      neces-
     sitated working late at night.as well_as a long day. of ttre
     workrng alternoons in va-c_ation reporting tiieir hours of worli,
                                        and                         "hildr.r,
     39 of the 88 sales.girls boys, 10 of tlie r8 b"ootblacks, of th; i-6
                              g.nd                               14
     rn pool roomsand bowling alleys,and 33 of the 4g childrenin barber
     shopswere accust_omed work until at least g p. m. on *"u[ auyt
                               to
     9lh"Lthu+^Saturday;      and of the children working on ,"t"ot-a-uJi{
     40 of the 127 salesboys and gi$s, ]! of the 19 bootblacks, of itre
                                                                   z1
     8l childrenin pool rooms.and     bowlingalleys,and 48;fth; ss
     o{en berber shops       worked until 8.p.T.or later.. On Saturdays,"l.,lt-
     whenT  chrldrenwere apt,-to worli late in almost all their occupatiols,
     they worked latest in these.

                                  EARNINGS

       one thousand and thirty-four vacation workers and 1,26b others
     were.paid fo_rtheir ygr!. in cash and reported the amouni of th"i.
     earnings. Ne.arly^halfthe p_aid  rvorkers during the .chooi-term and
     about trvo-tifthsof thoservo-rking vacation had earnedlessthan g3
                                       in
     a week,but 28 per cent-and40 per cent, respectively,   iua         $;
     or more. As in Newark, the-lalgestnumber of woikers during the
                                                                 "urn"d
     school year earned between $1_*"4 $2, and the rargesi              in
     vacation earned$6 or more. (Table BB.)                     ""-[".




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown Universi(r
         68               EMpLoyMENT                           oF scEoor,      cETLDREN       rN NEIM rERsEy

         Tenru 33,-Earning9 iluring a _tgpical we_eh school term ond of aacation, bg
                                                       of
           principal occupotion and, industrg;, children uhose principal oZcupation was
           other than streetworlc,Paterson,N. J.


                                                                                          Cbildren under 16 years of age


                                                                                                    Estnings rsported
                        Prlncipal occupstion and industry
                                                                                 Total
                                                                                                          $r,   $2'
                                                                                                   Under under under  $3,
                                                                                          Total                      undor
                                                                                                    $r    $2    $3    $4

                                         scEool       lERlt
                 Total- ----------           -                                   t,1t2    t,406      t53      m0     208     166
         Manufecturlng and mechalrical industries_ _-- __- - _- - _                         169      L2        25       l8   n
         Trsnsportatlon___                                                          43       43       I        l0        6
         Tredo------- --_ _-                                                                7n       72       150    t2r     97
              Sa]esboys and salesgirls-_______                                     lBo      157       8
              Delivery boys and girls- - - -- ________                             3?0      368      {8       93             D'
              Gsneral helpers and oth€rs_   ________-                              n7       w        t6       JO        25   30
         Domostic and porsonal s€rvic6- - ___                                      364      359      62       u         4E
              Eootblacks (inside)- - ----__-_                                                         ,
              Caddies---- --_- __                                                   79       78           I    I        I    IO
              Ph,boys md helperc il pool rooms and bowling
                 ueys---_________                                                   83       E3       3        2        12
              Restsurant and luucb-room belpem____- - -- - _- __-                    I        I           I
              SerYmts h priyat€ famillos- _                                         49       48                8        1
              J anrtors.md jmitors' belpers-___----                                 45       41               lt        6
              s$mrs'ndp€rs__                                                        6l       61      r3       IJ        a
              uln€rs- - __---- _--                                                  t2       tt       a                 I
         Clerical o€cupatiomr------_---__----                                       7l                        14        10
         ulner mouitrres-                     _-__-__---_-_--_--                             35       I                 o



                                                                                 l, 181   I, r04     o,       168    r35     140
         MBDufscturing and mechanical industrios_ _- _- __--__
                                                 _                                 148      145       8       21             t0
         Transportation- -               -----                                                                 4        8     5
         rrsde----------------::--:-:::-                                           549      542      1l       94             84
              p.alll boys and ssl€s girls_--_--_-                                  r09      r07       6       t2        16   ll
              u e l r v e r y o o y sa n d g u l ! - - _ _ - _ - _ - - - _ _       a5       283                              OJ
              ueneral nelpers and others- ____--_                                                    l0       n              18
         Domestic aud personal s€ryico_ - __-__                                      I      249      36       30             n
              Poo.tblacks (inside) ___- ---_--                                      l9       19       I                 t
              IloPs-----.-.-   -.                                                            71                1
              fln,boys and help€rs in pool rooms aDd bowling
              _ aueys------____                                                     t7       l7                2        t
              .tlestauant and luncb-room helpen_---_--___----                       l0        I                         I
              SereaDtsin privst€ fEmiliss-____--                                    45       15      n         4        6
              Janltors.and Janitors,helpe6___  ----                                                            4
              sArDers' nelp€rs_-                                                    50       49       I       t2
              ulllers______-_---                                                    ID                I        t        I
         Cleriml o-ccupetions-------_-----___                                       {5       15       I        c
         urner rnousEles_ _                                                        130      128               1t        3




                                                                                                                                   t


                                                                                                                                   r
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                   r




Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University
                       CEILDR.ENIN OCCUPATIONS
                                             OTEER :[EAN STBEETWORK                                                                                         69
      r^:::^!j:-!^:::jy!.
        prxncxpar              lyr:rys typicat.,week schoot
                               and ,a
                     occupatLon industry;children
                                                   o!      term and,of aacation,
                                                                               by
                                                  whoseprincipaloccupation othir
                                                                         was
        thanstreet    uork, Paterson. .I.:Continucd.
                                     N.

                                                                                                                Children under 16 years of age


                                                                                                                 EarniDgs reported
                     Principal occupation atd industry

                                                                                                                                     No                  rngs
                                                                                                   $4'   $5,              s6                            not re-
                                                                                                  und6r under                       cash    Irregular
                                                                                                                         and
                                                                                                                                    earn-               ported
                                                                                                   $5     $6             over               amounts
                                                                                                                                    ings



               Total-_____-_--__                                                                       109       133       215        141         t6         16
     Manufacturing :nd mechanical industries-- ____--__.
     Transportation___
                                                                                                        l0       18         42         n
                                                                                                                  7                     2
     I'radel-------------------::-:::::-::::__-__:::_:::_:                                              49       08         68         95
                                           g
            p g l e sb o v s a n d s a l e s i r l s _ - _ _ _ _ _
                                                      _                                                 14       1E
            u e i l y e r y D o y sa n d g l r l s _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _                                                             30
                                                    -                                                   r6       32                    24
            uereral Delpersand others_______                                                            t7       IE         19         4.
     Domestic and pcrsonal servics_ ___-_-_-_
                                   _                                                                    39       n          79         ll
           qoot.blacks (inside)_- - _______
           u a o c l s _ _ __ - . - - _ , -                                                             2l           d
           rm,ooys cnd helpers in pool rooms and bowling
                           -         _ _
              a l l e ] ' s__ _ _ __ _ ___ _ _ _ - - _ _                                                    I               42
           Restaurant and lunchlmm he-tpe-rJ_ _- _: _::- _-
           Servants in -priyate familios
                                                         -                                       -----;-                     1          I
           J anltors.and Janltors, helpcrs-____--                                                                            I          I
                                                                                                            I        I                  3
           xaroers'Ilelpers-_                                                                               o
           uthers-_________-                                                                                                    I       1
                                                                                                                     I          I
    Clerieal occupations---_ --_______-
                            __                                                                              5
    uIDer Ino6tnes_                                                                                                         l0        IO           3
                                                                                                            I                o
                            VACATION
              Total--_--_--___-                                                                                  LT2
                                                                                                       84                 nl         130          l4
    M a n u f a c l u r i n g s n d m e c h a D i c ailn d u s t r i c s _ - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ -          3
    TraDSportauon-__                                                                                                       46
    'I raoe_______-___-                                                                                 2            7
                                                                                                       45                  62
           Salesboys aDd saleseirjs__-_
           D e l i v e r y b o y s a n d c i l l . __: : _ : - _ _ : : _ : _ _ _ : : : : : _ ]                   L2        l5                                2
                                                                  -             :                                                     A           4
           u e n c r a l n e l p e r sa n d o t b e r s _ _ _ - _ __ _ _ - _ _ _ _ l
                                                                  -_                                   IJ        l0        l4         n
    Domestic and personal servi@- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. _____
                                                                      I                                          m                    17
          Bootblacks(inside)---------- -- -              - - |
          L aooles__________                                                                                      I         5
                                               _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ll t                                     0        39
          Pin.boys and helpers in poot roomiinO ubiiirii-l
            aueys__-_-___--___-____                                         t
          Restauant and luncb-room . _ - . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ - _ : - l                                 I         10        --;-
          scrvenrs
                in.privaru                                                                                       I          I
                         to.,,'... lllllll --: : :: :: _:_::l                                     -'- -:-        I
                   janitors,
        Janitors.and                                                    _ __
                                            h e l p e r s _ _ - _ ____ _ _ : : : : : : l
        Barbe_rs'   helpers---- __- __:- ___- - : _- - __- : : : : : : : : : _
                                                                                                         I       2          3          t
                                                                                                         4                  5
                                                                       -_ -_ _- - l
        urncrs-___-_____-                                                                                                              5
                                                                                                                 1          0          I
                                                                                           |
    llericao
    Clerical l - c c u p a t i o n s _ - - _ - _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _|
    )the i
    Otherr irn d u s l . r i e s - - - - _ - _ - - - - _ _ _ - : : _ : : : : : : : : : _ _ _ : : : : : : _ l      5         I          7          1
                                                                                                         6       ll        78          6


         Earningsdep_ended
                        upon age,
                                occupation,and hours   of work. Of the
      uGren u-naer yeam of aEe onlv 24 Der cent of the vn.csfinn wn"l.o.o
    gljl$1e3      to
            under IU years
                         of;A;;;rfi?-;;;;o"t orin.               *;.j,H:
                                                       ";";;i";
    Iegeiyinc^yages t3 per"ce,"f th;;;fi4_6"-;;;il;;.'urr,",t
                   aid           if                                     u.
    muchass3 a week,_whereas children
                           of the        between and t+ veamof
                                                 r0
    ege49 per cent_ 82 per.cent,
                  and           and of-thosela y-ea".
                                                    oiugu'* orr."
    7-? cent a,nd per.ienr.,
      p:"         69        earned leastbe-.-
                                  at           "BJ; I; i?li"oo_,
    &ncr Do\ylng                    Flteys dunng the winter and caddies duiing the summer
                                             ring -the winter
    --;*;"         _*".u6uvev
                                                "oo,pe";.;; caddies aril"g-tfi" *L-""
                                                waq.es,r c r                                                    fi^r^gi"",i; d
    :"*:lh^"^Tgle-si
       thg second reporting
                                                vy@5rr, uu.I
                                                             ilr
                                       "fth" -n"a "Hat ",ia?r"
                                                                                     ucrru ul ule ltfs[ group             an                6I pgr cent cent
    9l
    manufacturing           _at least $5 a weerr.      the woikers in
                                            aid mdchanical
                                                         piisuitr                                                        earn"d^^6s"ir''-oru.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'nUniversity
           70           DIIPLOY}'IENT             OF SCEOOL            CEILDREN            IN    NE]M      JERSEY


           Store workers received much smaller sums; only one-fifth to one-
           fourth, according to the season, had made as much as $5 a week.
           In both seasonsof the year the longer the hours of work the higher
           the earnings in everv kind of work.
              About 10 per cent of tbe Paterson school children rvho had worked
           had receivcd no p&y. Nlost of these rvorhed for parents ol guardians.
          'l'he
                proportion w-orking without cash wapJes   l1'asas little as 4 per cent
          amongg children in transpoltation n jobs (generally garage helpcrs and
          {lmolr childlen in transpoltatio
          tnreli worliers) in r.acation and as little as 3 per cent among children
                                        personol servlce rtul'rng tne
          engaging in domestic and personal service during the school year.
          engagmg ln domestrc
          ln many cases the unpaicl u'orkers spent just as much time at their
          jobs as those u'ho rvere paid. Of those recelvrng               anct repolt-
          JODSfis tnose I\'no were parct. uI tno )se receiving no cash and report-
          ing their hortrs of rvork during vacati ion practically the seme propor-
          tion (42 per cent) as of all the rvorking children worhed at least 48
          hours a weeli. But durins thc school year a smaller proportion of the
          unpaid workers (29 per c"ent,)than oi all the *orking children (40
          per cent) .lvereemploved 24 hours or longer.
                                                 PROGRESS SCHOOL
                                                         IN
               To a much greater extent than in Ne*'ark the Paterson ,workersrvere
          high-school student,s; 19 per cent of the vacation rvorliers and 25
          per.cent_of the others attended high school- (See footnote 3, p. 1.)
          Unlike the Neu'ark worliers, high-school children under 16 vears oi
          age had been emploved to a greater extent than children in"the ele-
          mentary grades, for the vacation workers rvho attended hish school
          u^er.e     9.pe1 cent, and u'orliers during the school term were 14 per cent,
          of the high-school enrollment undef 1G,n'hereas all the school-clilclren
          a t .u ' o r l i r v e r eo n l y 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e p u b l i e s e h o o le n r o l h r r e n t . r 0 O f t l r c
                                    l
          g l n t l e - s c i r o o p u p i l s .a b o u t . t h e s a n i e p r o l r o r t i o n o f t h o s e u - o r k i n g i n
          each season, more than half, had cornpleted at least the fifth gracle at
          the beginning of the school year in which they were inteivien.ed.
         Tu'enty-one of the r-acation group and 26 of the others u-cre in urr-
         graded ol in special_classes,                          and 2Z children in each group attended
         the vocational school.
              The workers appeared to have made somewhat less satisfactory
         progressin school than the average in Paterson; of the children g to 1-5
         years.of.age 22 per cent of the vaiation workers and 1g per cent of the
         sehool-time rvorkers were-retarded (9eB footnote 4, p.'1), comparecl                                                          t
         with 17.per cent retarded among all Paterson pubiid-school childre'                                                               I
         in
              , 1 9 2 5 . r ' B r r t . p a r t o f t h e d i f i ' e r e n e en f a v o r o f t h e u . h o l eg r o r r p o f
                                                                              i                                                        I
         p.u  blic-school children is explained by their being youngcr on L[e w irole
         than the working group, and the extent of schodl retandation increases                                                        I
         wrth the age of the children. The proportion of retarded children                                                             I
         among the wolkers was about the same for children of foreign parent_                                                          -
         age as for those of nativo parentage.                                                                                         I

           .Am.ong children worki"g less-Ihon 12 hours a week during the                                                               r
        echool period the proportion who were retarded was as qr€at as                                                                 I
        among those working 24 hours or longer. As no informaiion was
        o.btarned regardrng the number of years the children had worked
        thcse.hours,or.even the.number of years they had worked, and as no
        lndrvldual studres of the chlldren were made, the eflect rlf thcir
        work upon their school pr.ogress could not be de.termined.
          r0 Calculatcd ftom ngures in Ann^lal-Report ollhe Board of Educstion,
                                                 -                              Patersou public schools, tcr tbo
        y€ar onding June 30, 1925,pp. 86, EZ,89. u lbid., pp. 88, 89.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                CITILDR.EN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEER, TEAN STREET WONK                                          7I

        Variations appearedamong the different occupationalgroupsin the
                         :'eo among tne drlterent occupatronal groups rn the
        oportions of retarded, sim-ilar
      proportrons of-ietarded. sim-ilarto those found in Ne#srk. n,ndno
                         rded, srmrlar     those found     Ne#ark, and no
                                                           Newark,
      doubt due to similar factors. (See p.41.)     Twelve per cent of the
      salesboy_s, per cent of the boys in clerical positions, and 20 per
                  !6
      cent,of the boys doing delivery work were retalded, comparedwith
      23 per cent of those fn personal and domestic service,including BB
      per cent of the pin boys and others in bowling alleysand pool rooms.
                                ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILIES

          Only 11 per cent,of the school children at work in Patersonwere
      from homesin which someone      other than the father was chief bread-
      winner. . Six per cent were_infamilies supported chiefly by mothers.
     A very large number of the children, however, had-mothers who
     were gainfully emploved. Not counting those who were the chief
     support of their families,the mothersof 213 children (26 per cent of
     thoseinterviewed) were working and supplementingthe familv earn-
     ings. This proportion mav bc compar-edwith tlat found"in the
     Children's Bureau Philadelphia study (referred to on p. 4l), in
     which 14 per cent of the white mothers reported that ihev were
     employed at the time they were interviewed,-exclusive thoie who
                                                               of
     werechief breadwinners.l2 As in Newark, the proportion of children
     in Paterson whosemothers were the pri4crpa.!     igppgrt of the family
     was about the same as the proportion of Philadelphia mothers wh-o
     were chief breadwinners. The silk mills of Patersonemplov manv'a
    women. -[n this connection is interestinE note that jn
                                   it               to                studv
    in Passaie,   which is also a textile citv, thJ United StatesWomenis
    Bureau found that half the women wbrkers of the city were or had
                                                             -were
    been married. Nearly seven-tenthsof the matrons                mothers
    and eight-tenths of these.gainfully employed mothers were living
    with breadrvinninE    hrrsbands.13
       . In the presentsiudy the chief breadwinnersof 45 per cent of the
    children. were .employed in- factories,._g no! unexpected finding
    consideringthe importance of the silk mills in Paterson. tr'ewof thE
    factory workers were unskilled laborers; almost all were semiskilled
    operatives,   skilled workmen,managcrs,_foremen, owners,gener-
                                                        and
    ally of a few looms held in common bv a number of formei mill
    operati.r.es. The chief breadwinnersof 16 per cent of the children
    were in other manufacturing and. mechanical pursuils, chiefly as
    skilled .workmen, .such as machinists, engineeri, mql{grq, tailors,
    skilled .workmen, .such as machinists, engineer^s,moldbrs, tailors,
    shoemakers,
    shoemakers,  electricians,
                 electricians",and in.cluding only o-ne'.rJ.nskilled'_lagorgf.
                               lnd including
    Twenty-five per. cent of the children iere in families in which the
    head of the family was in- transportg,tionor tradg, for the most part
    proprietorsor managers stores,drivers or chauffe_urs, s&lesmen,
                            of                              and
    although a few were peddlers. SLx per cent had fathers or othei
    chief breadwinners domesticand peisonalservice. The remainder
                       in
    (8 per cent) of _theheads of familiei were in professionalor clerical
    occupations, public service,or other industries. (Table 84.)
      u unDublished figuro. Two per cent of the Patorson children were negroes,
                                                                                   and tbis may account for a
    small part of tbo differenc€ between the pateison'ana tu?FEiiaaetpEa iiinitlli ir i[i:p.oi"rilii of work-
    ing mothers.
    _tt Faqlly Status of Breadwinning- Womon iu Four Seloctod Citios, p. f45. U, g. Wom6n,s Buroau
    Bulletin No. 41. Washington, 1925.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universih
          72                   E]\IPLOYMENT               OF SCIIOOL               CHIIJDR,EN IN         NE\\r    JERSEY

          Tasr,r,34..-Occ.upati.on and,industry oJ chiel _breailwinner, relationship of chiel
                                                                      bg
            g7so,-flytjnner child; children whose pri,ncipal occupation was other than street
                         to
            work, Paterson,N. J.


                                                                                                Children undsr 16 years of ago


                                                                                                         Relationship of chief brer{i.
                                                                                                               winner to child
                 Occupation and industry of chief breadwinner




                   Totrl------------                                                            :|;
          Ihd'rcrrrr      r^n^r+-,1
                                                                                     I, OOJ

                X{anufacturing and mechanical industries- - - - - -- -               1,014


                                                                                        49        3.0
                                                                                        23
                                                                                         6
                                                                                                  8.0
                                                                                                   l.o
                                                                                        87
                                                                                        n         1.3
                       Factory workers-
                        --                                                            748        45.3
                           o#nerl, supeiin-tenoentl,
                                                  ti,i;;;-               - :::::      tn          7.7
                           Operatives- - - --
                                     --                                               428          .9
                              Laborers---------                                        26         1-O
                              Skilled workers- -                                      t67        10.I
                       Tailors--------- ------ -- -                                               1.9      32l--_-___-l_--_-__
                                                                                                                           I ___-_--
                       Shoemakersand cobblers                                                      .7
                       Others------------- ----                                                    .7
               Tratlsportation---                                                                 6. I
                       Drivers and chauffeurs--- - -- ---.                                        2.2|     35
                                 a;ti"6;s; ;"ii-;ii,;;
                       conauctors,                                   ;alt;a;-
                                                                                            7
                       Laborers---------                                                          l.o      25
                       O t h e r s -- - - - - - - - - -                                           2.0      3l
                                                                                                 t9.0     289

                                                                                        8                  6
                                                                                                 13.3
                                                                                                  1.9
                                                                                       lo         1.0     l6
                                                                                       38                 37
              Public servico-                                                          30         1.8     30
              Professionalpursuits-----------.                                         30         1.8
              nmestic an6 persrinalGnieu - - - - - : - : : : : : - : : : - : - -      105         6.4
              Clerical oecupationc                                                     41         2-5     30
              Agriculturo and mineral extraction                                       18         1. 1    18                             c
         No occupation and no chiet breadwinner- - ----- ---- - -                       I
                                                                                                                                         r
         I n d u s t r y n o l ,r e p o r t e d - - - - - - - - -                                                                        c
                                                                                                                                             :
                                                                                                                                         i
                                 ACCOUNTSOF WORK OF INDIYIDUAL CIIILDREN
                                                                                                                                         i
           The followinE accounts of the work of individual children v'ere                                                               u
         selected at random from those of all the Paterson school children
                                                                                                                                         t
         reporting work:                                                                                                                 I
           A l3-year-oldboy of Dutch parentage
                                             had a working rveekof 59 hoursin the
         summervacationand 18 hoursu'hileschoolrvasin session. During the summer
         months he had been employed at three different jobs.      On vreek days during the                                              T
         daf iight hours he delivered meat for a butcher shop, and in the evenings he                                                    )
         stripped tobacco for his father, who \\ias a cigar maker.   On Sunda5' he cnddied
         at a country elub.   During the school months he spent his evenings s'orliing for
         his father and gaddied aver the veek-end when the weather permitted.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
            CEII,DREN IN OCCUPATIONS OTIIER, THAN STREET WORK                        73
       .- A boy of 14, of Polish parentage, reported that he worked 4b hours a $'eek in
      the summer vacation and 24 hours i, week when school was i" .us.lo". In
      Bumlner he had been employedby a-florist asdelivery boy, and during ihe school
      year he worked as a pin setter in a bowling alley.
      . A l3-year-oJd boy, of Italian parentage, said that for three months before the
      tntervrew he had been deliverin_g^Inilk. He worked from midnight to 5 a. m.
      daily, making a working week of-35 hours.
          A
             ,l0-year-old girl, the child of a native white warper in a siik mill, made
      wreaths for a florist. she had worked throughout the summer vacation dnd the
      school year, -up to the time of inte-rview, Bg        in
                                                     _w6eks all. she worked irregularly,
      but,on the.days when she worked in vacation she spent from threeto five houis
      a-t it' and during the school term two or three hours. The florist had a shop in
      the_apartment house in which she lived, and made the wreaths in the basement
      of the house. She was paid in flowers and an occasionaldime.
      -_A-bo-yof 1l delivered.orders t-risfor    father, a Polish Jew, who.kept a bakery.
      He had worked every day except Sunday for g weeks duiins u".uiioo and 50
      rveeks9uring the school term,.having a _9_-hour except onichool days, when
                                                          day
     he worked from 4 to 6 in the afternoon. His father-paid him $B a week in'summer
     and $2 during the school term.
         A l3-year-old boy, of native white parentage, whose father was a winder in a
     silk mill, bad helped_deliverfor an-expres_s     company for Bg weeks. During the
     suTmer vqcqtjqn, wlen he.wa.s-only 12, he woiked five hours every weeFday
     and earned.$1._50;      after school began he worked only on Saturdays, also fiv"e
     hours, earning 25 cents.
     ^^A 13-year-old son of a native white painter and qaperhanger had been working
     30 weeks during th^eschool tern delivering ordersJor a groder from B.B0to 5 oi
     y'ee_kd31fs exc-ept_Saturrii.ys,when his hours were from g.3O to L2, and from 4
     to 5. He made $1 a week.
         The ll-year-old son of a Polish baker had caddied g weeks durins the Bummer
    vacation.daily {r9m 8 to 12 and from 1 to 4, earning $4 a week, and had caddied
    6 weeks in the fall and Sweeks in the spring on Saturdays and Sundays, working
    the same hours and earning $2 a week. He had worked 18 weeks in ali.
         The 15-year-old son of a Polish-Jewish silk manufacturer, in the second vear
    of high.school, had -worked 35 weeks during the school year as messenger-bo.v
    for a wholesalejewelry supplies firm, earning S5 a week.- His hours rveie frorir
    2 to 6 on week days and from 9 to 12 and 1.30 to 6 on Saturdays.
        The l3-year-old son of a Polish-.Iewish eilk weaver had s'orked 27 weeks measur-
    i1g goods in a-silk lnill since school had begun, working irregularly three or four
    times a week from 3.30 to 5 on week da5's.
        A 13-year-old boy, son of an Italian traveling salesman, had delivered orders
    for a butcher.shop 15 weeks during the schoofterm, working every week day
    exc_ept    Saturday fiom !to7 p, m. and on Saturdays'12)/2hoirs uniil 10 p. m.,
    making a working week of 27)( hottrs. He earned $6.50 a week and received
    $3 in tips.
        The 13-year-old child of a Polish-Jewish shoe:store owner had worked seven
    vreeks during the summer vacation, when he was only 12 years old, delivering
    orders for a grocery store. IIe made $3.50 a week, 91.50 of which was in tips-.
    His hours were from 9.30 to 12 and from 1 to 6 daily except Saturday, when-he
    worked until 9 p. m. with half an hour off for supper.
        A 9-year-old boy, whose motler, a saleswoman in a dry-goods store, supported
   the family, had worked throughout the summer vacatioi a;d during ihe-scho ol
                            vlew, perroo oI 4u weeks, helping carry bread
   term up to the interviek, a period of 40 weeks, helping carry bread to the shelves
                                       iod              nerptng                   shelves
                            rcation
   in a bakery. In vacation he worked every week day from 8 to 12, 12.30 to 5,
   and 5.30           an. -hour day,,and
                to 8, an Il-hour day, and in the winter from 4 to 7 p. m. on school days
                                     -He
                            rdays.
   and l0 hours on Saturdays.            earned 25 cents a week and bread for the familv.
                                                                                  family.
        An ll-year-old boy, child of a native white weaver, besides having a paper
   route in the summer vacation for two weeks. had helped in a butcher shoo for
   four weeks, working from 7 a. m. to 10.30 6. m. on Saturda5's, with only two
   l0-minute periods off for meals, and from 8 to 6 on other week days, with an hour
   for lunch. I{e had had no work during the school year.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
           74          EMpLoyMnNT             or    scgoor.       oETLDREN rN NEw                 JERsEy

                An ll-vear-old bov of native white parenta.ge, whose father was a janitor,
                                                          -o
            had. helped on a milk'route from t to ai *.-oaiiy'e*eeiiio" Su"auv io, g
                                                                                                                   weeks
            in the summer and for B0 weeks during che r"fiooiyear.' T["-;llk
                                                               -rtris                                   ir;;paid the
             child in candy or "anything_he *aofea]"                     crriia rraa also *o.tuJlou. *""r., -s"atu.oays,
            during the school terni es d;liveri boy ror u g.o".., artei scrroor;;a;
            earning $1.50 a week.
                                girl, the- child of an Italian house painter, had done housework
            .__l-1,0--{9rT;old
            rrregutarly throughout the sumller vacation, working Jrom 6 a. -.
            tor.5u cent' a week, and during the school teim up toihe intervie;i;; u"lii "oln,
                                                                                  --Ti;;;;i;;.'u[u""t
            ultil noon on Bomeweek days is well as o" sat".a'uys-.                                               7 a. *l.
                                                                                                                    r.o*
            school a great deal.. The aisistant pri"cipai oi trer school thought it
            that needed investieation,"
                                                      -morhir                     -*""i-tt%-             was a ,.caee
                                                                                                          'ii"giue
                                             _as  the            seemed to                         gi.l               i,er
            attention to the job-rathei than to school.
               A l3-Jear-old boy, son of a polish-Jewish silk weaver, had worked throughout
            ., surnmer
            the            vacation d-elivering     grocery orders.everyauy iro- i-to-o.rr "p. *.
           and from 9 a, m. to 9.30 p. m. Sn"saturhayr wittt an hour for dinner
                                                                     '-Aft".                             and another
                 *pp,"r,
           l?l work' a working wedk of auout sthoi iu.
           the
                                                                                 .;[;;i;;;;;;'hl'Jontinued
                         and when interviewed had worked 2b weeks *til5-":tto"a.-irii..ir."r,
           having the same hours a.sin the .r--".,'".*pt;[r;                  i;;; i;;'i"1;ilT,'u?t"roooo
           work had not begun until 8.80.
           . A.boy of 1.5,  whosefather, a-RussianJew, was manager of a sirk mill, had workcd
           in his father's mill 24 weeks'after uctrootr,rh n"gu;;i;;;                  -ri,.i"arirli;;;;y.
                                                                                    b.eo io d.Iti'""uiiv ,.i,oor
           day and f,rom8.80to 12 on $.t"ra"yrii" ;;a;i'6;;                                                           He
           expected to leave school when 16.
               The.l4-year-old son of.a porish-Jewishsilk weaver, in the sixth grade,
           worked during vacation, but during tne scnool ier* h'eLd-hud ,'lfn?6i'rz had not
          as pin boy in a bowling alley, wo.rki"ng                                                'g7u,*".t. *u"t,
                                                        daily from 7 to i i p. -. io,                                I{is
           teacher thought bi6 night riork hsd [aa a"naa                       on irim.
                                                                     "nect
            , An ll-year-old,child, whosefather was a German baker, had worked five weeks
          during the.school year delivering fo. a grocerv store for
                                                                                      $l a week. His hours
          on school davs weie froJn,B.lEt"o 6.A0 p".;.;od;;                     S;trrd;il';;;;
           l0 p. m. wittran hour ofl &r noon.                                                               S'a. _. to

             -e gi.l of 15, whose father, a Swede, was.a winder in silk mill, had been em_
          ployed in a ribbon factory seven weeks during i?catio", api"rirg
          stamping spo-ols. She wbrked eight hours ,,"dry ur."ptl                                .inloi l.ra. aoa
                                                                - --'                                        it"o ,t e
          worked only four. She earned $6"a ween.-                                    ";-S;;;J"y
               A l4-year-old neero boy, wtrg:9                supported the family by doing Iaundry
          work, had worked fhroughout tle T"_!!91 vb'cation- i'd"t;;.;
                                        -caT,ing summer   -receiviilTt                         i;lii.iii
          etering and repair shop                ct aiiu,                    ;;;k.'                              "pnor_
          tle work throughout t[e schoo-ryeg., ;;;kil;eieiy                                 hi"i,#          iJotinu.a
                                                 " H;                        arte."ooo uo"a'r'ii'd# surur_'*
          day, making 27f hours a week.                ;;    i" ;;lili.l       .i#;;-.;;i:"
              .A  l3-y_ear-old boy, w\ose father, a_native white man, w&s a fire
          mill, worked a sh66-shining_ ootrouil; *;;kThiddil;                                       hand in a silk
                     at            st-anri                                   il; ,^,ffiil..                    .,ru.u_
         tior. -He continued the woik io. ihr"e *eeG'uii".    school began, his
         being from_4 to 8 on schooldays ,"d i;o;-t;o*-8 ;;-S;;;;i;T^*#ii,,iior. hours then
         at. uool   Irl the summer his darnings nao le"" g-ol fii;                             on
                                                                     ;;';";ii     u"- t uuro"o
         after school began.                                                            "'
            A l3-year-old bov. whose father, an Itali-qn, wo.rkgd in_a textile
         beg,nemptove^d s-dm-Jer'ertins.'ut-typ"--in ir printins-Jn"pli,""*i"i"iirfactory, had
                          alt                                                               r,ou.,
         daily,except satu-rday when he had half a day, a64-hou-, *u6ri.
         obout a month after school b^egan-._                                   He siorrrreoror
                                              Then he'began working again from 8.15 to
         7.80 school
              on         devs rrom_
                              and
                                8-toiz * Srtii.aii?;j;;;    #";fiJa .iili]rv *n"o
         interviewed 26weeks. Ei; ;;.nins;;;;;if';fi;,
                   for                                   rrrO'tL" dzL"o-i'i."r.
            A lO-year-old bov, the child of a native white man who derivered
         helpedhij father for-Bg weeks,daily a.u.ing ttte-oine weekgof the          milk, had
                                                                    -Hi;i;ffi;."r"
                                                                            summer vacation
         and on saturdavs and sundays during t-he rl-noor t".r^                                                              0
         3.30to 7.80a. m. excepr su"a;t;o;;Jg-;'iu.i"g uu.utioo-*fruo r.o*
                                   on                                              iLIy *"r"
         from 3.15 to 8.30.
                                                                                                                             J
                                                                                                                             r

                                                                                                                             ;
                                                                                                                             I




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
             EMPTOYMENT OF CHILDBEN CONTRARY TO THE
                STANDARDS OF THE CHILD LABOR LAW
           Because the doubt as to the exactscope the mercantilelaw, and
                   of                               of
        g to th9 legality of age and working cerrificates childien blt*"un
                                                          for
         tu a.nd. years of age (seepp. 9-I 0) it is impossibleto determine
                16
        precrsely rvhat extent childrenwereemployedin Newark and pater-
                 to
        qon,contrary, to-the state child labor laws.- There appe&rs be no
                                                                       to
        doubt that childrenunder I4 at work in factories,  wo.k.hops,or other
        placeswhere manufacturing was carried on, or:i; .;;;;;ii;'tf,L      ordi_
        nary meaningo{ the word)Irere illegally employed;uoa t[it         itar"n
        between 14 and 16 were at,                                     "t
                                    -work illegally if employed in any such
        establishments  without,worl< permits"oi.ir              *i'"'"ty-i"
                                                       "*ptoy"J
        fgctories,worl<s-bops, storei but arso"i,' co"ieciilo withi rto.e,
                              and
        (ru such capacitiesas delivery boys, for example)more than g hours
        kdu{, 4E hou_rs w.eek, Sundays,or betrvebnZ p. m. and ? a. m.
                        &        o1
        rne l&w makesno drsfrnctronbetweenwork for parents or guardians
        and work for others.
                                      NEWARK
            Age and,sch'oolingcerfficates.-_as check-upon the extent to which
                                               a
          ,
                                    school hours
        *ll9:l*X31!11s_o_u!{4e of the lawwere          piorected the
                                                                   by_
        m,ent-certrficate provisions                                         ",rrpioy_
                                                   the names of ;ll ctitdren 6t
                          of ag9 who .saidthqy^  were employedat rhe tirne they
        :1_19l-5_ {,.ars rn the
        were rnrervrerved         spring-of.lg25 were checkedwith the recordt
        of the local employment-certificateoffice. o;ty l?                        '"Iro
        were 14 or 15 vears of age w-ere-recorded haring employment cer-
                                                     a_s          "ilrr"'"s6i
        tificates, or, ai thev ar6 cailed-in-lrlew Jersey, age.and- schooring
       certificates. of the gs3 without                  2i5 w;rked ?o.-*r.nt,
                                            ""tuh"ut".,
       or guardians. According to the interpretiti;; ;i-th;'lii'which
       limited its scope to factlories,workshops, uod ,to...;";;;;
                                                                               of the
       cnrroren were rn occupatronsfor which they were not req-uired
                                                                                     to
       obtain working papers. But even ;;;"ti"h;"             l" ii.up"u"ti*, ro,
       qlriqh the law:cleailv_statedth*a;;;ifi;Lt".       *"". necessary       almost
       all had gone to w6rk
                                  _without
       tr'or example,of the 78 childre-n ";;i,ryiil-;;h'ii,"
                                          i+-""[r"s v'.";;f           ""i,-iiru-0"r.
                                                                                *r"r,
       in tervierved in factories,*orkthopr, ;"d ;th"; ;l;&;'*"h"".ut-uru-
                                                               "s;*;"i.irJ
       facturing was^caruied only a wgryu"ora"d-u.iiJii;s';;;i"o-"n,
                               on,
       certificates of the z0-withoui certificateso"]t 1 6;;;-[Ad Joi'
                    ;
       or guardians, and of the B with certificaie"s ;;;;;i"iia              i'u." nt,
       parents.                                          €                          i;
                       ,:-j}"^:h_ildrenemployedin.f
                                                  acrories,workshops,and
         {J"r::n:f
       otherestablisLments           i. ir"i"r,"til.d-";ij iffi"fiint;
       under.the operarionof"osogud ra*, i"clud;-d'i69 ;";klrinturr*
                             ti'eTactory law, inclu_ded"i worki"gA;;ilE
                                                        og
                                  ."h;;i
                          j=1c.,!hq                               #ffi^f4";#:
       :i"""j:"" lia
               i:l               il t;;;"*d;i;;
       :l:q::-l".g,rlT gifrhird ;;;f ;e;p ;;ffi Effi#"tJti
       guardiaas.                          -";;"i;"il,i;'4i1;ilHrJ;
                   The rumbersgivenuuo""'Jo
       under 14 vearsof age.in v-acation-;i t4 d#d'.tri';"r.iioi'p*riod
       who workedin the b-uildingtradesas helpers p&rnters,
                                                ro            carpenters,
            30812._29_B




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universitr
         76     EMpLoyllrENf   oF scnoor,   oETLDREN rN NEw     JERSEy

         bricklayers, masons,  etc- (in thc majority of cases their fathcrs),and
         who might not be considered employcdin ,,workshops. parents
                                         as                           "
         employed children under 14 in- shob rirpairing, tailoring, and bakery
         shops, in fa.ctoriesmaking soda watcr, noodlles,    clothing, furnitu16,
         scissors, radio.ear phonesland pochetbooks, foundri"ei, shops
                                                         in             in
         Igpairing furniture, automobiles-and    radiators, and in a'ferv oth'er
         kinds of establishments. children under 14 noi workinE for narents
         o.r guardianswere at work in l,ailoringestablishments, shoe-repair
                                                                  ii
         shops,in factoriesmanufacturing box6s,clothing, soft'drinks, button
         hooks, baggage,buttons, umbrellas, furs, toys,-tites, cutlery, furni-
         ture, mirrors.,bapl ca-rriages,  and many other articles, in slairghtcr-
         housesand butcher shops, in machine shops, bicycle-repair Jhops,
                                  -
         ice plants, and bakeries.
            Nlany children under 14 were emplor-edalso in mercanti]e estab-
         lishments. I{ot countinE.delivery or errand boys or girls worrring
         only "in connectionwith-" storesbr other mercantile eJtablishments
         606 boys and girls during vacation and 47T during the school term
         worked in mercantileestablishments-generallystoresin the ordinar.y
         meaningof the word_butin a few casei gasolii.estations,junk shops,
         or other similar establishments.
            Eiahfhour_d,ay.-.Lmong children working during vacation in fac-
         tories,workshops,  and other places  wheremanufacluringwas earried
         o-n,not including cbildren in-building trades, were 82 riorking more
         than eighl hours a day on weekdavJother than Saturday and- on     72
         S_a.turdays.  During the schoolyear g0 children on Satuidays and 6
         children (all out of school temporar'ilv) on other week dayi rvorked
                                          -Among
        more than eight horrrsa day.              thoseworking -oie than an
        8-hour day in or in connection u-ith mercantile est'iblishments.in-
        cludin_g children delivering on-milk a.ndice routes and for laundries,
         were 737.employed Sa_turdays BZ4employedon other weeli
                              on             and
        days during vacation,and g86 bhildrenemplo.i-ed Sat*rdavs and
                                                              on
        8 on other weekdays during the sehool    year. \{ost of the g ha"d  been
        out of,schooltemporarilyor had u'orkedduring short vacations,        but    I
        sevcralhad worked in storesbeforegoing to Jchooland after their             I
        return from school until a late hour at nieht.                              I
            Forty-eight-hourweek.-During vacation OS chilaren worked in             T
        factories and workshops and 433 worked in or in connection with
        mercantile establishmentsmore than 48 hours a week, and when
        schoolwas il session children emplo.yed factoriesand +t in or in
                               7                    in
        connection with mercantile estabiishmentsworked more than 4g                I

        hours a week. Among the latter were children working in grocery,            $
        candy, and drug stores,and in butcher and shoe-repair    sliops,"some 6f    I
        them 5,6, or 7 hours on schooldays, and more-thanl2 hours on
        S.aturdayg  a,rd someon.Sundays,-but   severalhad left schooltempora-
        rily and had been employed in factories.
            Night worh.-Not_many childrenin factoriesand workshopsworkecl
        at night (sometimebetween7 p. m. and 7 a. m.), in violation of the
        night-workprovisiono-fthe-law.- During vacationgn]y Z and during
        the schoolyear only 2 worked before 7-a. m.; and durinq vacatiofr
        only 34 on Saturdays  and 40 on otherweel<  davs,rnd during*the   school
              45
        te-rm on.Saturdays     and 50 on schooldays,workedas late as 8 p. m.
        Many working in or in connection with mercantile establishments
        worked between 7 p. m. and 7 a. m. These included 88 vacation
        workers and 75 working during the schoolyear, many of whom were




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                 CEILDR,EN IN OCCUPATIONS OTEDR, TEAN STRTET
                                                             WORK                77

                          Til\:Sutes, rvho began work before z a. m.;
        du'rng vacatron and 887 during the schoolyear who woiked 806
        *:1i::r--P*^:"
                                                                                until
        8 p. m. or later on nights othei than Saturda5rs;       ;;; 62d^;ft gs6;
        respectively,who -worked unril at least g o" S;#J;
          bundayu'ork.-DurTg; v-acation childrenand durinE ihe sehool
                                          438                        "i*-irtr]'
        year 559 rvorked on.Funda-ysin or in                      *ilh--eicu"tite
        establishments,including deiir-eryboyr oo l* o. ,iriL'r""t".]'-e
                                                 "orr.r""iior,                   r"*
        children in manufacturiig esrablishments  t;;;;f;il;;iilvacation
        workers and 51 working"during the schooryeur-rue'"u employed
        Sundays,  generallyin bakenes.                                            on

                                                PATERSON

        ^Age and,-s.chooli'ngcertif.cates.-Asin Nevark, armost none of the
        Paterson children workin'g out.ia" r"holf t o,r;; ;;';;;   u"a"
       certificates. when interrlierved, chirdren14 or 15 years rit oorirrg
                                          z0                           of agewere
                                                                       "b;Tt
       p,t *g^.k in places_where  manufacturils         carried              6-;,i
       the 70 were rceordedas haring certifiEates  ".". wrren irr*;, nuir.r ru.r.
                                                                 ";."
       ch-ecked  with the records in th-e to""i .*proy-"rt*"iiinJui"
       All except 20 of the                                                 om"u.
                            _64withoul                 were workinE for others
       than parents-orguardians. of aB3childr"; oi;h" ,u-"
                                          ""riin.ut*                u?#i" otrr""
       occupations f or whom the-recordsw"* r.
       ashaving certif cate,s,and only 73 of th-e+rs .,"o-rr.i"g;;-h;";          rl
                                                  "r"l.a "iril's"#?;"".corcre
                                                                           certifi_
       cates.rvere employed parenisor guardials.
                            by
          -[,ttn?murnaae.-Ch,ildrenu!der14 years of age employedin
       tories,*-orksh6ps,                                                    fac_
                          rna ottr"r pT;;.;i:;       m-anuractrrrng carried
                                                                      r'as
       on  la numbered SO
                                  1.'.:';i'""""ffiuii:i.*f,
                                                    f s'iiiH"rl;
       ""r'noii.r-.;"i"*fl'1"1i?if or guardians. chitdren
       eachof thcsesr.oups.
                         workedf;. ih.i. p;.ents
       under 14 *'orkinE for. their parents
       mirror factorv. a ierding .tro'p,un-iro" }lu"a.y,         l"' ,ilt"-ilrs, a
                                                "-".u "-pt?v"au""r.ui"aing srrop,
                                                            {
       tailoring shob. a soda-riater factory, slro;l;;irii.ir$
       a reed-harneis                                           Jffiltur,"rr.r,
                       factory,
                                ..ig.;..i;t#l,r,"u"a a furniture_lepair       shop,
       :*i^lh ": :l?:Ii $ I" idsilk mills, a woo-d_ruorking t"' ;;; Jii pui,iog
       shops, prlntrng shops,
                               the"rs an ih;il p;;;" ; il;;
                                     th
                                                          shop, u"pu"fj"r-Uoi
                a paper mill,,bakeries, a motor_repalr shop,
       lacto,ryr"                                            a rur-worLstop,
       a soda iactorv. a blacksmith shop, a millinery
                                                       shop, a-welding.hoi,
      a reed and h"#nessru"to.yl;'*";        i;;ht,,";H;i;;,rt1
      rug factorv.                                                         and a
      . .During  iacation 134 and during the schoolyear r5g
      14 years of ase worked in mercintile                        child.renuncrer
      delivery an.d errand bov* o"--qi"il;;;Hig"rt"uri.ir-"ritr,"io['Ji*tiog
                                                     onry in connection with
      stores_or other mercantile conCerns.
         Eight-hour dau.-chi1dr"" it:lriing in faetory
      paratirelv rarelv workcd.                              occupations eom-
                               nror" tL*.,-.-ig'h*thor..
      20 reported workine.o,' Satrrrdal'.i"-'".to'es i a"v.'l""vacation
                                                           or wor]rshops    rnore
      1l* :le!t lorys 3n"d.36on ;th;;"d;r.-.
      cluldren (out of schoor
                                                    ou.","* the schooi year 5
                            remporariry huring .ir;? ;;riio,iJlio.t"a
                                          or
      Ll,':.Sk duysother t han Satu
      elqht hours.
                                  idr"y.;d' i i;'"S^; ; ft ;;r" il lii rn
        thildren
                                                                         "o
                workinEin storesrv-ere   much moreJikely to have
                  cisht-hours. a-ong tho*r"'iuo.orrg or ln a working
      day exceedi'E
                                                       ln
      with mercanfile"estabri.h-;il;'fi"1;eil                  conneetion
                                                children on milk and ice
       r. A few boys wcrking is
                                builciingtpa4gs
                                              werooot iacluded.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        78     EMPI,OYMENT    OF SCHOOI, CSILDREN     IN   NEW   JERSEY


        routes and delivering for laundries, were 172 rvorking more than
        eight, hours a day on v'eek days other than Saturdays and 314 on
        Saturdays during vacat'ion; and 3 on school days and 411 on Satur-
        days rvorked longer than eight hours a day during the school year.
           Forty-eight-hour weeh.-During        vacation 32 children in fact'ory
        occuoations and 190 emploved in or in connection rvith mercantile
        esta6hshments had a wbrking week of more than 48 hours, and
        during the school year 3 in factories and workshops and 1,3in'or in
        connection v'ith stores or other mercantile concerns had exceeded
        the 4S-hour standard. The 3 children employed in factories and
        workshops more than 48 hours a lyeek after school began in the fall
        had left school temporarily or had worked during a short vacation;
        the 13 in mercantile pursuits were sales boys or girls in grocery,
        candy, stationery, and drug stores, a butcher shop, and an ice-cream
        parlor. Five of the thirteen rvere employed by parents.
           The factory and worlishop children employed during vacation
        longer than the hours specified in the child labor law included pri-
        marily those in silk mills and in shoe-repair shops, but tailor shops,
        balieries, a print shop, a brewery, an upholstery shop, a jute and
        flax mill, a, cra,yon factory, a mirror factory, and a box factory were
        among t'he establishments violating the S-hour day and the 4S-hour
        week nrovision.
            I'{igl,t work.-Viol ations of the night-rvork standard-a prohibition
        of work between 7 p. *. and 7 a. m.-were infrequent among factory
        or u'orkshop workers. During vacation 5 children so employed began
        u'orh before J a. m., and during vacation 8 to 12 (according to the
        day of the rveek), and during the school year 10 'w-orkeduntil 8 p. m.
        or later. The latter were most often shoemakers'helners. A number
        of children v-orking in mercantile establishments or as delivery bovs
        for such establishments, largely boys on milk routes, began their
        day's work before 7 in the morning, and many more v.orked after
        7 p. m. ; 42 in vacation and 28 durins the school term u'ere at r,vork
        before 7 a,. m., and 95 on week days other than Saturday, rvhether
        school was in session or not, and 268 Saturday workers in vacation
        and 375 during the school year did nob quit work until 8 p. m. or
        later.
           Sundny work.-Sunday         work during vacation rvas reported by
        94 children in stores orworking as delivery boys or girls and by 1
        child employed in a brewery, and during the school period by 102 in
        stores, I in a brewery, and 1 in a bakery.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               CHITDREN IN STRENT WORK 1
        In.Newark 2,26I boys and 36 girls and in Paterson 546 boys and
      16 girls__reported that their principal occupation had been strect
     work.lo Newark street-ryo-rking  boys-between^10   and 12 years of age
     constituted 8 pe_r  cent of the .publtc-school boys of the same ages,
     thosebetween12 and 14 constiluted12 per cenl, and thosebetween
      14 and 16 constituted6 per cent.2 The proporiion of public-school
     boys in Patersonwho had engaged street -tiading as their principal
                                         in
     rvorli was 6 per cent for those-betrveen and 12, 1d per cent?or thbse
                                            10
               12
     betrveen and 14, and 7 per cent for those between14 and 16.2o
     Many other kinds of work are usually open to schoolbovs     who have
     reached  the age of 14, so that they aie lesslikely than youngerboys
     to sell newspapers have paper ioutes or do other street w5rk.
                         or
       Tahle 35 shorvs number-ofboysengaged cachof the principal
                        the.                         in
     kinds of street work in Newark and the raeeand nalionalitv of thcir
     fathers,and rable 56 (p. 119)showsthe number in Paterson"whosold
     or rvhocarriedpapersand the race and nationality of their fathers.
        I ?his secJio! on tbe streot worLof children in Ne\rark and Paterson,
                                                                                                N. J., is reprinted. Irom Chiklren
     in stree[ worh (u. s. chirdren's Bureau pubricstion No. tes, wa;b-in;td,1itr8):--;a;-iii*or                             tnJ.".[
     of childron in cities other tban Newark and Paterson, to wbich'relerenc"i u.-o'tiir,i,iln iir"o"ieliiJir oe rouoo
     in that publicstion.
         1' Tho statistics prlEentod are thlse gatbered-in 1925. In Jsnuaty, 1927,
     -                                                                                          a ropresoDtative of the children's
     Burelu retuned to Newark and P.atorson and by.observations oi iuiiireeiin-c                          t-6io'ugi"i"i"eio'ie*s *itn
     circulation managers, newspapor dealors, and social workeri. aswett as wiin n"-i.U6i.'-oo"inir'it.."1,
     t€mptod to scortain whother or not c!nditions with rospect to'selhng ano carryrDg p6pers, trumerielly'thi ur,
     mostimportantsrreetworkiqjetxighthecbitdr.engnfasod,worot"heiimiidilif[6ipi.ire?'is25."
                                                                                        - -'
     c b a n g o w & s r e p o r t e d b y a u y o ft b e D € r s o n s m n s u l t o d .                                          N"
          C€l-culatedfrom ngures furnisbod for fbo scbool yoar 1925-26 tbs supsrintendeni of the Nowark public
                                                                                             by
     - ^2
     scnools.
        '"Annual Roport of ths Board of Education, Patsrsoq Public Schools, for
                                                                                                   ths yoar eading June ltg, 192j,
     p, 86.

                                                                                                                      79




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                  NEWARK
                           LDGAL REGULATIONOF STREET WORK

           Street work in Newark at the time of this studv was resulated
        pf a-local ordinance. The section of the New Jersey law 3 prbviding
        for the issuance of age and rvorliing certificates to lhildren between
        10 and 16 years.qf age to permit them to engage in certain light
        employment outside school hours, including running errands, selling
        newspapers, and bootblacking, and penalizing any person, the
        members of any firm, or the officers or agents of any corporation
        employing, permitling, or allou-ing a childto wolk c6ntraiy to its
        pro-visiogs, was not applied to street workers, apparently becau.e
        such children are not customarily employed but w6rk on iheir own
        account.
           The Newark ordinance relating to newsboys, passed in 1g04, some
        years before the State child laboilaw, prohibittid Uoys under 1d years
        of age and girls I'nder 16 from selliig newspaperi on the stieets.
        It required boys- between 10 and 14 to obtain permits and badges
        from the board of education, specifying that appliiation must be mile
        by the parent and "satisfac[bry probf" of aee must be presented.
       The permit had to be reneryed annually an-d worn conipicuously
       while the newsboy was at work. Children were prohibited irom scli-
       ing a_fter10 p. m. or between 9 a. m. and 3 p. m., but were allowed
        to sell et qlry trour before 9 in the morning. The ordinance provided                 :
                                                                                              I
       that a child selling paperc otherrvise than in accordance u'ith ihe regu-
                                                                                              I
       Iations should be arresLed and put on probation or confined in*an
                                                                                              t
       institution, the cost of maintenance in- case of commitment to an
       institution being bor?e.by the child's parent or gualdian.a No other
       p e n a l t r e sw e r e p r o v l c l e d .
           At the time of the Children's Bureau survey no age and working
       ccrtificates w-ereissued in Nervark to newsbovs or otheistreet workersl
       l{ewsboy permits and badge,*rvure issued rind"r the locai ordinance
       hy-tl",q city sc)ro.ol-attendance            departrlent on application of the child
       and his parcnt in pcrson. These had to be renewed on June 30 of
       each year. No er-idence of age u-as required other than the school
       lecoxl-if the child appeared fo be l0 ;'ears of age. An effort was
       nrari,o by thc departmtnt to enforce tlie larv by "occasional surrrcys
       ol the streets in search of neu'sboys under l0,-years old and boys
       leiling pa,pers after 10 p. m. At zuch times th6 entire stafi of tLe
       department (26 attendance officers at the time of the studv) was
       assigneclto^patrol t_lle streets and bring into the office for #arning
       any. child fo*nC seliing papers contraiy to the provisions of tG
       ordinance. The parent aiso was visited and warne-d.
        I New Jers-ey,            ch. 223,sec. 13. (Seep. 132.)
                     f,aws of 1914,
                                                     '' Ieo'l. Laws ordinances
                                                             seo and       Rosu'
       "JJr:I"*,"rt'1#ttilrl"iirlltJJtbatili"""#?Ks:?.o,lo',
             80




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                     CHILDREN                IN STREEf WORK                                                              81
              the 33.6boys under
          ,Of                      lt ye_ars 3rSewho were selling papers
                                            o_f
        when interwieu'ed   betwecnMarch and June, 1925,onry so s"aih ttrat
        they had permits, and 7 of thesewere ut?der_10,'the"-irri,nr- ug"
        lor.newspap_er sellingaccording the local ordinance. AEentsof tEe
                                       to
        uhrldren's lJureau examinedthe recordsof newsboypermits, kcpt in
        the office of the school-attendancedepartment,idr irte v"u. of thu
        study and found that only two boys in the stridy were "recorded  as
        having permits.
                                                           NEWSPAPER SELLERS

          Four hundred and six-ty-seven    N-erlgrkschoolboyshad sold pepers
        during the sr:hoolyear 1924-25,                   "ro
                                         includingBg7u-ho ererellinEbeiorc
        or after schoolat the time of the interview.b Four hundred      nrty
        h.adsold papersduring the summer vacation ol rg24. o"tv zr .it
                                                                   "ira
        the Seyspoys,had   worked 9"ly during vacation. The great, majority
        are rnclud.ed,
                     thercfore,in both groups of worhers.
                                                RACE AND             NATIONALITY               OF I-ATHERS

               nervsboyswere.largely from the homes of immigrants, chieflv
       ,.T.h"      'l'he
        Ita[ans.         proportiol_of Negro newsboys,_
                                                      also,was lirge compareil
       )vlth:t!e  proportron o{ Negroes in the population of Newark, which
       m 1.920         only,4 pe{ c_ent,.6
                                         _ As has been said, thc groups selling
                 .was
       du.ng t-he school period and during the summer vlcation rvcre
       largely the same boys. (Table 35.)

                                                ECONOMIC              CONDITION             OF FAMILIES

             attempt, was made to obtnin information on wagesor incomes
        "No
       of erther the fathers or the families of the nervsboys,but the father's
       (or_otherchief breadwinner's)occupation, bheexient of widowhood,
      and the gainful employmentof mothers,items regarding*ltich inquiri;
      yu,i rade.,, grve.al idea of thc economicstatui of the families-and
      lndrc&te' tho_ughrn .a. very general way, rvhether or not economic
      neeessity  had compelledthe 6oys to u-ndertake
         /\mong rne Doys,selllng                         !ewspaper seliing.
                                   pa,perF dunng-vacation,Z4 (16 per cent)
      and.^among   thosesellingdulng the schoolterm, zl (i5 per cent) had
      no .father.,-.noteven a-stepfat-her_ & f-os-ter'father,
                                           nor
      their families. These.boys                                ir"otiai"'g io.
                                    qray be regarded,  from the ioitlof""i"*
      of the economicconditioh .of the {amily, as'coming rro-m-?atherless
                Among the vac?^tion    workers,",iO p",
      l1ome1,                                        .10
      the other newsboys,38 (8 per cent) were in families supported b!
                                                            "1"ij-u"a'u*o"g
      mothers.,.Apparently a very-smal]number of the boys cbuld have
      beenworkrng to support a widowed family.
         !
      ._ onegirlreported^selling  papers vacation, cbildotz, ofJew parentage, hadsold
                                         in                a                   -^Durilg^th^e    ish                    wbo                        4
                                                                                                                                            napers weeks
      in the summer 1924,
                       of     eyeryweekday fJgT.g g p. m.                                                 sctooTi,'eir-rg2i_il,"a'ot'ilii!i.r.,
      l1' 12'and 13'8ll offoreisn                         !9
                                 Darent^ge, sotd.papeis sz,ano io weets,"resi,i"iiii,lv,                                                              ngna
                                            had                         15,
                                     T n - e b t o e s t g i r t i u i s t i t - , i l . d ' I ; ; ; ' b r o t h e r s e v e r a l l i m e s a wwEreh & l f r n h o u r
                                                                                                                                                    setung
      attheti'lsof tbeioterui6w.                                                                                                     ",ijirll e c k ,
      op weck-dav.arterroons from z to ro-a. m. on snnoavi,ieriine in";;;r;d;;*ti';j;"Giijbi.#oo.
                                and                                                                 'Tm-"iri*                                          qre
      ll-ve.ar{ld sirl sold.ina businesssecrionfrom 4 to s p. n. hdiiv.                                                                               ou*,
      standfrom r0 ro u saturdav morniugs. None ot tne-gittdG iniiuaeo iri-trrir6ui.,-J                                it.iliiili?Ti?i'iJ;..'.
         . Fourcoeur,h                                                    .z;                                       -
                       Census thir uniteoBtatrii, rs20,;;r.
                              oI                                                id;udiion, p. 5d. wiiiriirgton, re2z




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'nUniversitl
       82              EMPI,OYMENT OF SCEOOL CEILDREN IN NE\M JERSEY

       Tasr,n 35.-Race and nationalitE o! lather and period in which work occurreil;
                             in
                  boys engaged certain types of streettrades, Newark, N. J.

                                                                                  Boys under 16 years of age




           Race and nationality ol father

                                                                         Per
                                                                         cent
                                                                        distri-
                                                                        bution


                        SCEOOL TERM

              Total

       White                                                                      653    96.2 ,     2..r3   75.7     226     93.0

           Natile ----------                                       80             259    38.1        l9 I    4.9 I    58     23.5
           F o r e i g nb o r n - - - - -                         310             384    56.6 i     273     70.5     161     67.5
                                                                                                        l__      ]
                 I t t l i r n - - .- - - - - - - -               169     36.2    109
                 R u s s i a nJ e s i s h - -                      19      4.r     69
                 O t h e rJ e w i s h - - - - - - - - - - - -       6      1.3     25
                 P o l i s h - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
                              -                                    4t      8.8     26
                                                                             o     55



                                                                            .6
                                                                          15.8


                                                                         100.0          100.0       340 100.0                o
                                                                                                                     343I 1oo.


                                                                  66


                                                                  156                    18.4
                                                                           4.7           10.3

                                                                  45      10.0      I
                                                                   5       r.l            8. 1


                                                                  82      tc I     63    IJ.   C



                                                                   4         o                 .7
                                                                          12.7            2.9



          About one-third (32 per cent of both groups of the newsboys)were
       in families in which the mother helped iupplement the'incoure,
       excludingthose who were the chief support of their families.
          The c[ief breadwinnersin the families of about one-fourth of the
       boys in each group were laborersin the building trades, in factories,
       or in transportation or wereengaged domestic
                           I                 in         and personal  service;
       or were peddlers. Such workers were presumably in receipt of a
       compa,ratiyely  small or uncertain income. The proportion in domes-
       tic and personalservice w&s more than twice that for all employed
       malesof 20 ;rearsof age and over in Nervark, whereasthe proportion
       in professional and inllerical pursuits was only one-third trf ttrat for
       the male workers in the city.7 The great majority, however.,were
       in families in which the chiefbreadwinier's occrjpatibnindicated that
       they probablv enjoyed as much prosperity a-s the averege wage
         t Fourteenth Census of tho Unitod Ststes, 1920,vol. tl, PopulstionrOccupations,                    pp. U7S.U81.   Wasb.
       ington, 1923.



                                                                                                                                    J.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                     CITILDRDN             IN     STREET WORK                                  83
      e&rner's family. One-fourth had chie{ breadwinners who were
      factory operatives, and almost one-third came from families where
      the headsof the household  rveremachinistsand mechanics,      contractors
      and foremenor skilled workers in the buildinq trades,shilled workors
      in f,qctories,c_o_mmercialtravelers, clerks and professionalworkers,
      workers in public service,orvnersof businesses,    and, in a few cases,
      factory or shop owners'
                                 AcEoF N'wsBoys
        The Nev-ark newsboys were vounEer than those in other cities
      surveyed by the Childr'en'sBureau-about one-fifth were under l0
      5'earsof age and about half were under 12. Very younE clfldren
      were sellinf papers on the streets. The vacation ni#sboyi includtrd
      two 6-year_-oldb_oyqand-15who rvereT years of agc; evenamong the
      grorrp working during the schoolperiod 15 were under 8 vears old.
      Tabh SOshowsthe clrildren's    agej when they were intervi6wetl. As
      the groupswere composeri   largelj' of the samechildrcn little difference
      in agewould be e-xpected.
                                       DURATION            OF STREET      WONK

        The great majority (86 per cent) of the vacation workers had sold
      p&persbetween9 and l0-weeks, approximatelythe entire summ
                                                          entire summer
      vacation. The boys who had sold while schooiwas
      vacation. The boys who had sold while schooi was iin session td
                                                                   cou
      have worked a maximum period of about six months to about, nine
      Tonths; that is, from early Tr_Septemb-er,
      gon$s; that is, _from early in September, when school began, to a
                                                when school began,
      date betweenthe latter pqr[ of tr{aich, when the first boys wereinter-
      viewed, to the closeof schoolin June. Seventy per cent of the boys
      _vluweu, lru true orLrse or sufiOot III dull€. Deventy per cen[ oI tne Doys
      had rvorl<ed least 24 weekswhile also attending school,and many
                     at
      had sold durine the summer vacation.
         No inquirf ivas made as to the length of time the boys had been
      scllingne\\-spapers doing other street work prior to tlie beginning
                             or
      of tlre surnmerr.acationin 1924.
      Tenr,s 36.-,4ge         at date of__i,nteruiewancl period in which work occurred; neuspaper
                                      sellers and. carrieis, Newark, N. J.


                                                                                     Boys under 16 years of ago


                               Newspaper   i *.-.nro".                               Newspaper     Newspaper
          Age at date of         sellers        canier-s            Age at date of     sellers      carriers
           interview                       I                         interview
                                           l--T-_
                                           ttrer                                                            Per
                                           lNum- cent                                                       cent
                                           i ber I distri                                                  distri.
                                                         0,,'0"                                            bution
                                           i         I
          SCNOOI- TERM
                                           l-r-
            Total---------
                                           II67et____-__-_           YACATION

                                                                      Total- ----
                                           |
      Total reportcd------                     6z I 1oo.
                                                       o                                           405 I
                                 2                          q
                                                                                                     I
                                13              18         2.7                                      10
                                                13         1.9                                       5         t2
                                5S              30         4.4                                      2I
                                                67         9.9                                      4l        10.1
                                88             95         14.0                                      50        12.3
                                63              27        18.8                                      65        16.0
                                               ot                                                   98        24.2
                                44             ,B         t8.2                                      85        21.0
                                28             47          6.9                                      m

      Not reported--------.                                                                          2




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        84     EMPITOYMENT     OF SCHOOL      CEILDREN   TN NEW   JERSEY

                                 CONDITIONS    OF WO


           Most of the Newark newsboys sold one of t'hree daily papers.
         Two of these papers had four or five editions, beginning at about
         11 a. m. and issued errery hour or so. The ot'her was a morning
         paper with a Sunday edition. One other Sunday paper coming from
         the pressnot later than 3.30 a. m. and many New York papers,both
         daily and Sunday, were sold on the streets. The New York papers
         and one of the local Sunday p&pels were distributed through trvo
        wholesalenews dealels, but the other local papers were distributed
         by the newspapers    themselvesfrom their down-town offices,though
        some newsboyswere supplied at convenient comerc. All paid cash
        for their papers, and no retums were allowed. The boys usually
        bought a few papers at a time and if they sold these came back for
        more. They were not assignedto their locations nor supervised
        in any way. The busy down-town cornerswere well supplied with
        news stands, and the boys occupiedthe lessimportant points or sold
        up and down the streets. The businessaru&nEements          between the
        niwsboys and the dealershandling out-of-towri and Sunday papers
        were similar. The boys called at the down-town offices for their
        pa,pers,paid cash for them, and took them out to sell whereyer
        they could.
           Of the 397 newsboysincluded in the study who were working at
        the time of the interview, 275 alwavs sold in businesssectionsof
        the city, chiefly along Market Streei and Broad Street and at the
        railroad terrninals, the Tubes, and the Parkway. At thesepoints,
        especiallybetween 5 and 6 in the afternoon, when the newsboys'
        t'radeis at its peak, the traffic is at its worst. and the boys darting
        in and out of the traffi.c,as many of them did, appearedto run an
        unusual rish of street accidents. Twenty-seven boys sold in both
        business   and residentialdistricts.
           Three hundred and fifty boys (88 per cent of the 397 u'ho were
        working at the time of the interview) sold entirely on their own
        account, but 32 boys were employed by news-standkeepersor other
        aclults,and 13 helped other boys; 1 other sold somepapers for him-
        self besides being hired by a news-stand.  keeper,and 1 sold for himself           .
        and helped another boy. It ryasnot unusualto seeyoung schoolboys
                                                                                           I
        busy at their down-town stands, arranging the papers and waiting
        on customersor even taking a few papers in hand and going out to
        solicit trade. This work was usually done in the late afternoon,but                li

                                                                                           I
        now and then a small boy would be seen during school hours and
                                                                                           I
        would explain that the "teacher was sick" and he was "helping a
                                                                                           f
        guy."
           No special study of conditions in and around the newspaper-
        distributing rooms was attempted. The superintendentof a down-
        town boys' club and an agent,of the children's aid society, both in
        close touch with boys of the street-working type, r,i'ereunaware of
        any special problems arising out of conditions in the distributing
        rooms of the local papers, nor did they know of any ca,ses boys of
        sleepingon the premisesof the newspaper      offrces. One of the dealers       I
        reported that a good deal of penny pitching and crap shooting went
        on in and around the allev uoon which one of the distribution rooms
                                                                                       i
                                                                                       I
        opened,the boys pausing"fora game or two rvheneverthey returned.               I
        for a fresh supply of papers. The explanation profiered by this
                                                                                       I
                                                                                       I
                                                                                   )


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                           CEILDREN   IN STREEf WOAK                      85
       dealerwas that the boys had more money in their pockets than they
       would have if ihey did not sell pB,perc, that it was easicrto indulge
                                              so
       thcir taste for gamesof chance;and also that someboys, especially
       ftalians, were expectedto bring home a fixed amount,,and if they
       had made less,they took a chanceon mahing it up by gambling.
                               REGULARITY   OF WORK

          Selling papers a felv days a week or now and then was not cus-
       tomary among the groups of newsboys included in t'he study. Only
       19 arnong both the vacation newsboys and the others sold irregularly,
       and only 93 others in the vacation group and 101 in the other group
       sold on fewer than six days a week. Eleven boys in the vacation
       group and 18 in the othei confined their selling io rveek-ends (that
       is, Saturdays or Sundays, or both). Thus three-fourths of the boys
       in each group of workels sold papers six or seven days a weeh.
                                  HOUBS   OF WORK

         Onl-v 8 schoolboyssold the morning paper when school was in
               of
       session. whom 5 were on the stleets sellinebefore7 a.rn. Six of the
       morning nev'sboysalso sold papersin the afternoonsof school days.
       On Sundaysp&perswcre sold by 87 boys, of whom 51 were out seliing
       before 8 a. m., including 7 boys who began before 6. During the
       summer vacation pape6 were sold on ryeek-daymornings by 109
       (24per cent) of the boys,most of whom sold the mid-morning editions.
       Eleven reported that they began to sell before 7 o'clock; of these 5
       were under 12 years of age and 2 rinder 10. Some of these bovs
       went out again in the late afternoon after selline an hour or so in
       the morning. Sunday sellers in vacation numb*ered69; 41 began
       their work before8 a. m., of whom 6 beganbefore 6 o'clock.
         Almost all the boys sold in the afternoons of week days. (Table
                                ld    the afternoons week days. (Table
       37.) Although both during the summer and in se&sons        when school
       was in session the great majority of these boys w-erethrough selling
       their papersbefore8 p. m., a fervboys sold until a later hour. Thirty-
       two (7 per cent) of the vacation lvorkers and 36 (8 per cent) of the
      others sold papers on the evenings of weck days until at least 8 p. m.,
      several later than 10 n. m., the hour after u,'hich children 'n'ere for-
                             p.
      olooen Dy crly orornance fo se! papers on the stleets. The vacation
      bidden by city ordinance to sell pa,person the stleets. The vacation
                                 _to pqpers r,ne sr,l'eels. lne v&c&tron
                                   serr
      newsboys included a Polish child of 7 'who sold until 10.30 every
      week night and another 7-year-old boy, a fruit peddler's son, wh{r
      sold papers up to midnight.    On the evenings of school days, while
      attending school, bhree boys were out until 10 p. m., and one until 11.
                                                                  rk papers
      The latter, a l2-year-old Jewish boy, had sold New Yolk papers
      The latter,     l2-year-old Jewish boy, had sold
      from 9 to 11 for a month when he was stopped by the police.- Two
                                                                   ice.
                  boys selling
      of the four bovs sellins until 10 or later sold for dealers.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'ntlniversity
        86               EMpLoyMENT oF scgoor, oETLDRnN rN NEw JERSEv

        Tanr-u S7.-Hour       oJ ending allernoon worlc on a tu pical week tla,t othcr lhan
          sol.urdaA_ uring school lern and during ,acation,-bA age pcrioJ; neuspalrcr
                      d
          se11ei's,
                  .ly'cu.o.f, N. .,r.


                                                                                     Newspaper sellers uDder 16 ].ears of age


                                                                                      UDderI0          |     ,Orn*rr.              1 2t ' e r r s ,   |   ,, ,nrr.,
        EIour of ending afternoon work                                                  )ears                uuder12               undcr14                u D d , , rt 0
         on a typica_lweek ddy other                                                                   I                                              |
         tDln sflturday
                                                                     Pc
                                                                     Pcr |
                                                                     cen6
                                                                    distri-
                                                                                     :1"" l--l-;|-T*i-l;
                                                                                  | Per |         | Per |        | Per I
                                                                     cent Num-l cent lNum-l ccnt Nnm-l cent lNum-i ccDt
                                                                    distri- I ber I disrri- I ber I dijlri-
                                                                                                                                         lper
                                                                                                            b e r d i s , t r i -| b e r r l i , L r i -

                                                                    -i-i-l-l-i-l-i-i-
                                                                    butiotr
                                                                    butionl       lbutionl        lbution        lburionl                lbutior


                      SCEOOL TER]d


                                                                    :
                                                                                 lllllrrl
                                                                          _ . _ _ l 9 7 r _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ r0 _ _ - , _ _ _ _5 s _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ l2 l _ - _ _ _ - -
                                                                                                      14 ,                 t                  7
        Afternoon work- -                                     433       - - - i 6 7 - - - _ - _ _ _1 3 3- _ - - _ _ _ -1 5 0_ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6l8 _ _ - _ _ - _
                                                                                                   l                                      -
             IIour reported----                               435       roo-ot s5i l00oi r$i t00.0-14ri 100.0f68i 100.0
                   B e f o r e6 p . m - _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - - 1as         3si       3;    43-5 lz      I sr,        *     lt, I zs        3r-8
                   6 p . m . , b e f o r e8 p . m - - _ 23r             5 3 . 1 1 4 0 1 4 7 l.J 1 6 7 1 5 0 . 4 1 8 3 1 5 5 . 7 1 4 1 1 6 0 . 3
                   8 p. n., before l0 p. m__                             7.41 6          -. r 14, lo.5
                                                                                                                   9l    6.0l Bl         4.4
                   10 p. m., betore12 p. m-                  4            .e|      2     2.4I ____r____ 1|      l          .?|     tl    1.5
                                                               3        . ----l,l-------.1"-----l--------r
                                                                                                   I ..------r------r-------
       Morning work only- -------___-                                            l l l l "-l-l-l- - - - - ' - - - - - - i - - - - -"-l -- -- ,- - - - - - r - - - l - - - - - - -
       No v-ork on a week day other                                              r
         t h a n S a t u r d a y -- - - - - - - - _ _ - _ - - l8    --.----l s i -------l 6 l--------l 3l------- |                                         + l-----.-
       Time of day not reportcd_____-_ 8                            - - - _ _ _ - i 5 - - _ - _ - - - l 1 l - _ - _ - _ _ _2 l - - - _ - _ --_ - - - l - - _ _ _ - -
                                                                                                                            i                -l
                        VACATION                                                 ttttlttl
                                                                                 llllrrrr
                Total- - - ---------------__                  450       --.,-l       87 --------l I32 --------r rcl l--------l 67 __---__
       Afternoon work--                                                      -       7Ii-------- 125:-------- ,;r--.-----' C' ---:
                                                                                                            r
                                                                             -
             Ilour reported---                                                       ? , t 0 0 ^ 0 t r 5 t 0 0 . 0 t 0 0 , 0 0o.                          65      to0i
                   B e f o r e6 p . m . _ _ _ - - - - _ _ _                      i   go 4r.tl 6sI br.o or, rL'r t                                         30       ,6.z
                   6 p . m . , b c f o r e8 p . m . _ -                          I   3 4 I 4 7 . 9 b 0 I 4 0 . 0I 8 1      5 0 . 6|                       32       4 ! r!.
                   8 p . m . , b e f o r e1 0 p . m _ -                               5i    ;.0      lOi b.0 l:.: ;.jl                                     3        4.6
                   10 p. m., before l2 p. m_                                     I    I     t.4 ______r_--____
                   12 p. m., and 3fter----                                       I    l L 1.4 ------l-------
                                                                                                                                  i
                                                                              llil _ rr
                                                                             _ , - _- r_ _ - , _ _ _ - _ _ - _ , _ _ _ _--_ - _
       MorDing work only- -------___-
       No work on a week day orher
                                                                                                       -- _ _ r
                                                                             _ l r _ _ _ - - _,| ,t- - --_ _-_ _;.-". _ - _ _ _ _ - -
                                                                                                                    z            l
          than Sdturday- - _                                                 _l       4 r _ _ - _ - _ _ _ l - - - - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ ' _ _ _ _ _2 _ _ _ _ _ - _ _
                                                                                                         5              __                     - l l
                                                                                                                            -...1
                                                                                                                1"" l'1.....1 ..--
       T i m e o f d 3 ] ' n o t r c p o r t e d __ _ _ _ _
                                                  -
                                                                              I'1"-'
          On Saturdays both in summer time and dulins the school vear the                                                                                                                   I

       n-ewsboys_worked later than on other nights. (Table 3gl) Half                                                                                                                        I
       the boys.in each group who sold_on S-atu;day aiternoons itopped                                                                                                                      l
       b-efore_6; but a large proportion both of the vacition ne$-sboys and of                                                                                                              t
       the others sold papers on Saturdays until between 6 and 8 p. m., and
       a few (i0 per cent of one group and 12 per cent of the other) worl<ed
                                  -included
       until 8 or later. These              soma lvho $'orked until'at least,
       10 p. m., among whom were several bovs who stat.erl out until nrid-
       nigtrt-or later. Some had sold all day,-like an ll'-r'ear-old bo.y u.ho                                                                                                          .l

       sold from 8 in the morning until l0"at night, sto"pping at a"iunch
                                    -his
                                                                                                                                                                                            I

       counter a few minutes for         meals, thoush bven- fheii he had his
       pepers_und.er his arm and a,n eye out foicustomers.         Others had                                                                                                       i
       bcgun late in the afternoon or inihe early eveninE, Iilie a 10-vear-old
       boy and his brother who look up their stahd with I6eir Sundai. pope..
                                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                        E
                                                                                                                                                                                            t

       near the Hudson Tubes at 7 p. m., selling until midnight, "summer                                                                                                            I   c
       and wi:rter.                                                                                                                                                                 I   I


                                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                                                                                )


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
                                         OHII,DR.EN               IN   STREET WOR,R                                                  87

       Tesr,n 38.-Ifour   of ending Q_'lernoon uork on a typical ,Saturday during school
            term and during uacati.ott, by age'period; neuspuper seLlers, Newark, N. J.


                                                                   Nelyspaper sellers under 16 years of age


                                                                                 ,o
                                                                               I under12 I            _12years,       I    14 y
                                                                                                                           14v
       Ilours of ending afternoon work                                             ".ur., I            uder 14                d
                                                                                                                           u nder 16
                                                                                                                           und
             on a iypical Saturday
                                                                               I                                      |

                                                                               i-l-;t
                                                                                Num-l cent
                                                                                                       lo*l
                                                                                                   INum-l cent         -l
                                                                                                                   Num- ".,
                                                                                                                  lNum-l se9!
                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                 |
                                                                               I ber I distri                       Der d
                                                                                                     ber I distri I ber lJ l s t n -
                                                                                              o"uo"
                                                                               I          I       I -t-i-l
                                                                                                         I bution I      lbution
                                                                                                                         I

                                                                               l-l-r-               l- l-  I
                                                                               l"'1.-l r s aItl- _ -1-,_,l2t.
                  SCEOOI, TERM

             'IOlal----------.
                                           4 6 7l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -                           l__         7 I
                                                                                                    t_-
       Afternoon work------.               ii45 --------                                                                    5
                                                                                                                              _l-=
                                                                                                      l 1 s1 _ - - - - l ' J l 3|
                                                                                                                       --_
           Ilour reported----.

                Beforc 6 p. m-
                                           3& I 1oo.
                                           1i2 I
                                                  o
                                                     50.0 l
                                                                               igi6 ! ''*- i 16108i |r5 0 ..ll8*'1asIIl| roo.o
                                                                               i 5     52.3
                                                                                                      o o o I5 3
                                                                                                                  z       4?J
                6 p. m., before            133       38.7                      I    40l        3 7 . 4 1 46 1 39.0   ;6|
                                                                                                                     20
                8 p. m., bcfore
                12 p, m. and a
                                            36
                                             t
                                                     10.5
                                                         'n
                                                                               |
                                                                               |
                                                                                    10
                                                                                     1
                                                                                                9.31 11
                                                                                                 .el     'l'l'l9.3,
                                                                                                                   ri 7l         | '?.3
                                                              '                                                        I         l''"
                                                                                ll
                                                                               l-----t-------1"
                                                                                                        ;;l.t;l 17I --.:
           Ilour not reported                -i--------l
                                             rl        I

       Morning work only- -.                30 __----_-
                                            '3l--------                              7 _--_____l
                                                                                    2 5 - - - - - - - - l '9
                                                                                                                l; -..
                                                                                                          ----- I
       No work on Stturday.
       Time of day roi repor                 "tt                                I
                                                                                l'"'l
                                                                                                                       117



                                                                                                                       t;
                                                                                                                   l------
                    V,ACATION
                                             tl                                 tl                       lil       I
                                                                                1,".1
             Total- - - -------.           aso
                                             l___-----l                                   -100t     :6:ffi= 67
                                                                                                     ",
                                                                                                        l- ------l 'lir^o:
                                                                                                                     l-------
        Afternoon work------               33e 100.0
                                              I    1                                tl8                                     54

           B e f o r e6 p . m - - - -      1 7 0I     50.1                      |   5 2 1 5 3 . 1 1 64                '8
                                                                                                         50-0 1 2 8 L 5 r . 9
           6 p. m., belore 8 p             1 3 6I     40.1 I                    |   33    3 3 . 7| 5 3 1 4 r . 4i i2 32 3 | 4 ? . q
           8 p. m., before 10 I             2e |       8.6 I                    |   111 11.21ttl          r.uj 3               o'o
                                                                                                                i 3 - Il - - - - - - -
           10 p. m., before 12
           12 p. m. and after.
                                             2 |
                                              'l
                                                        .6 |
                                                         '6
                                                                                |    11 1.01_

                                                                                l:l'ol
                                                                                                    _-_:-:]-_-:::_-l--::__
                                                                                                          t------
        Morning wolk only--                 t<
                                                              |
                                                                               .l   5 --------l
                                                                                                          t------
                                                                                                             l'; t - " - - '
                                                                                                   I --------l               1   1""
        No work on Saturday
        Time of day not repor
                                            8 1i - - - - - - - -
                                              'i-------l                        i * i------"1 ------l 12l - - - - - -
                                                                                                  ,,
                                                                                                ----l-------r---
                                                                               't--------------l |

          Late selling, especiallyon Saturday nights, was usually due to the
        Nerv York nevispa,pers, Sunday editions of which were sold on
                                 the
        the streets of Newark on Saturday eyenings. That more boys u'ere
        not selling late at night u'as explained by one news dealer a,sthe
        result of the establishmentof tha news st;nds, which, he said, couid
        talie care of the night trade. He expressed    the opinion that news-
        boys out late at night were only begging,saying that the parkv'ay
        leading to the Hudson Tubes was full of small boys at nigbt using
        the olii story of "my last paper" to solicit money. He also said
        that in order to drive a rival from the field by competition he was
        planning to hire 20 or 25 small boys to sell for him at night t\o,ugh
  I
        he had to "defy the law." He was well aware of the provisions



  I
  I
        of the street-trades ordinance but asserted that they were not,
        enforced,as the police u'ouid not cooperatein sending boys olT the
        streets.
           In vacation the boys could and did spend much more time on the
        streets selling paperc than during the school year-Sl per cent
        sold at least 3 hbuis a day and 27 per cent at least 5 hours, including
        45 boys who sold papers 8 hours a day or longer. The proportion
        of yodng children,bolh thore under 10"and thoie under 12, forking


 I
Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
       88           EMpLoynrENn scgoor, cHTLDREN NEw JERsEy
                               oF              rN

      5 or more hours a day, or even 8 or more hours, was as large as
      am.o-ng boys .n*horvorked only a few hours a dav. (Tablt 39.)
               the
         Although the bovs worliing before or after schooi did not work
      so many houls a dnv as ncrrsboys   sellingpapo.rs when schoolwas not
      in session,  nevertheless gre&t,
                               the      rnaioiitv sold at least 2 hours and
      many sold at least 3. (TabG 39.) R"elativelyalmost as many of the
      boys under 12 and of the boys under 10 years of age as of the older
      I'ors^wo^rked h-ours longei on schooldirys. A ]ittle group of boys,
                    2       or
      clriefly from Italian and Polish homes, sold from S to"Btl-hours on
                                              'after
      school_days, beginning immediately             school and' iontinuing
      until 8.30 or I or later, some of them with no supper until aftei
      their return home. Two brothers, one 11, the other 15 years of age,
      oryed their long hours to the fact that thev sold botli before a"nci
      after school,from 6 to 8.30 in the morninELnd from 4 to 7 in the
      evening. This th_eyhad done thloughoutnacation and during the
      schoolyear up to May, when they weie interviewed.
       Taprn 3-9.- { umber oJ hours o! street worh on a typical ueek day other than
         Saturday_during_,schoolterm anil duri.ng aacation,'by age period; new:;paper
         sellers,Newark, N. f .


                                                         Newspaper sellers under 16 !'ears of age


                                                         Under 10                            12 years,   14 -vears,
      Number of homsof streetwork                         years                              under 1.1   under 16
       on a typical week day other
       th8n Satuday
                                                                                                 Per
                                                                                           Num- cent
                                                                                            ber distr!
                                                                                                bution


                SCEOOL 1ERM

            Total----------   --- -------

      Street work on week days------

          Total reported---                                             133 100.
                                                                               0                                100.
                                                                                                                   0
                                                                               --;
                                             2E    6.4                       ,ri             15    9.9    4
                                            110   32.0          Jb. o    47 1     35.3            27.6   20      29.4
                                            r62   37.0          36.5     45 1     33.8            38.2   28      4 1 .I
                                                                                  ?tc
                                             13
                                                  21.7
                                                   3.0
                                                                18.8     29j
                                                                             ,l              2
                                                                                                  23.0
                                                                                                   r.3
                                                                                                         15.
                                                                                                          1
                                                                                                                 22.1
                                                                                                                  1.O

          Not reported-----                  II                              rl              I



      No street work on week days--          1S                              ul
                  YICATION
            Total-------------------                                    ta, I
                                                                              I

             Less than t hour------.         %                           3           2.4     I     5.6    6       9.2
             I hour, lessthan 2------        92                         27                  32    r9.8   I6      24.6
             2 hours, lessthan 3-----                                   30                  30
             3 hours, lessthan 5-----
             6 hours, less than 8-----
                                             99
                                            104                         29
                                                                                  %.6
                                                                                  22.8
                                                                                  18.I
                                                                                            43
                                                                                            24
                                                                                                  3??
                                                                                                  14.8
                                                                                                         17
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                 18.5
                                                                                                                 26.2
                                                                                                                 13.8
             8 hours, less than 10----      33                          II         8.7      12     7.4    5
             10 hours, lessthan 12--        10                           2         1.6       5
             12 bours and over- - ---                                    1          .8       1      .6         _::
                                                                                                                 -:::      i

                                                                                                                           I


      No street work on week days-
                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                           i
                                                                                                                           i
                                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                                          _)


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                       CITILDR.EN IN STREET WORK                                                               39
       - saturdays ofreredan opportunity even when schoolwas in session
      for.many newsboysto be bn the streets long hours. Half the boys
      selling on saturdays tlrrring the school veai worked at least thr"ee
      hours,-and_one-third  worked at least,fiye-hours. (Table 40.) Many
      worked eight hours-or longer, fron+_  among whgm the following ex-
      ampleswere selectedat,random: The lO-vear-oldson of aUkrainian
      tailbr's presser.sold
                          papers.fromll *. -. io 8.80 p, m. on Sal..a"y.,
      reporting that he "ate on the job" at noon and oi his return home-at
      night. A 9-year-oldboy offtalial.parentage heganat t0 on Saturday
      mornings and was out, until 7, taking half an hdur at noon for luncli.
      An_11^-year-old.hoy started at 6 and-solduntil noon, beginning again
      at 12.30and sellinguntil T. Another 1t-year-oldbov had an il-h'our
      {oy op Paturdays.during    the schoolyear, from S a. m. to g p. m.,
      tlough he stopped an hour at noon and again at 5- On Satdrdays
      during vacation errenmore boys worked all?ay. (Table 40.)
      Tesl,r 4O.-irzmper ol ho.urs of street work on a typical saturday ilurinq school
          term and during uacation,bg age period; newspa-persellers,
                                                                   Neiark, N: J.

                                                                                  Newspaper sellers under 16 years of age


                                                                                   Under 10             10 years,        12years,       14 years,
     Number ol hours of street work                                                 years               under 1.2        under 14       under 16
        on a typical Saturday
                                                                  Per
                                                        um-       cent Nur
                                                       ber       distri- ber
                                                                 bution


               ECIIOOLTER,M

           Total- ------.------------                   467-_----_-t e7l--_-----l 140
     Street work on Saturday--------                    3 8 4t - - - - - - - - l 8 2 l - - - - - - - - 1u b
         Total reported---                                         r o o r c ]z s l r o o l l 1 r 4 i r o o r l $ o                          100.0
                                                                      8-6 I , l              rri
                                                         86          8 , 0 1 15 I
                                                                     1 9 . 3|     1 9|
                                                                                           20.0I
                                                                                           2 5 . 3|
                                                                                                                   ?l
                                                                                                              22.s l
                                                                                                                        18
                                                                                                                        3t
                                                                                                                                               7.3
                                                                                                                                              4t
                                                                                                                        t7                    L8.2
                                                         60          ro.o
                                                                        I         14       1 8 . 7I           n.
                                                                                                                   fi1
                                                                                                                        16                    12.7
                                                         62         1 6 . 6I      12)      r 0 . oI           14.                             16.4
                                                         47         1 2 . 6|       7|       e . 3|            14.       19                     9. 1
                                                                                   2        2.71
                                                          I          2,4 |
                                                                                   'l '''l                     L. n l    2                     5.5

         Not roportcd- -
     No street
                     ---
             workon Saturday----_ 63
                                                          6           r . 6|
                                                                             I
                                                         10 - - - - - - - - l I    7
                                                                                     tl
                                                                                       t--------l
                                                                                  15 r__--- |
                                                                                                                   :l    2



                                                                                                                        26
                                                                                                                             ,
                                                                                                                                               1.8




                 YACATION
           Total- - --- -- --- ---------
     Street work on Saturdxy-------

         Total reported                                                                               103| 1oo.
                                                                                                              o
            L e s st b a n t h o u r - - - - - - - -                6.9            3                           4.9      lt        8.0    0    10.I
            I hour, lessthan 2-------                   62         17.0            8       1 1 .6      It     14.6               19.7   12    2r,8
            2 hours, lessthan 3-- --- _                 53         14.0           14       20.3        T7     16.5      l5       10.I    7    t2.7
            3 hours, lessl,han5- - - - --               7i,        20.6           17       4.6                                   18.2   t0    18.2
            5 hours, lessthan S--_-__
            E hours. lessthan 10-
                                                        79         21.7           17       24.6        m      19.4      32       23.4   l0    18.2
                                                        50         13.7            7       i0. 1       16               2l       15.3    6    10.9
            l0hours, lessthaD 12-_-                     l3          3.6            3        4.3         3     2.9                 2,9    3
            12hours and oyer-_                           7          1.9                i                      3.9        2        1.5          1.8
        Not reported-----                                5                         ;1 .
        strect work on Satuday_--                       8I
                                                                                  "l--------


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                                                                                                      :
        90      EMpLoyMENToF souoot, cErr,DREN NEw JERSEv
                                              rN

            Yrv,otthe bol's sold-papers su,ndays-69 during the vacation
                                                 on
               6/            rhe school year..
         *+d ot them
         ry.lany   $ylrng                         ?y"$"y hours also were very long.
                             beganearly and sold throughout the morning or until
         the early afternoon; a few sold all day. The great maioriti both of
         vacat'ronworkers and of other newsboysselling on Sundav sold at
                2
         fe^a'1t h.ours,and42 per cent-of the vaeation gioup uod iiper cent
         of thc othersrvorkedat least B hours,28 per cent"ofth""u."tiJ" group
         and 1.4per celt of the-other working al least b hours.- Fii;. o't ttie
         vacation new_sboys        sold papers at least g hours otr sutrduv.. The
         sunday newsboys         were of about the sarneagesas the boys"whosold
         during the week.
            As b.f far the larger number of the boys sold poperc every day or
                               Sunday,
         :].TI *r{ "rcept lon-g theselong daill' hoursresilt",t i" u"*o.fk"g
         week that was &s              in some casesas that, of full-time workers]
         lTable 4L). Among t[e vaeationnewsboys              29b (TOpercent)'wo.teA
         at least, hours a week_, (38 per cent) at least 2+ hou.., and 4g
                   12                     141
         (11. cent,). least 44 hours, g,lmopt oi the lu.t *o"ki"g*ig horr.,
             per          at                          all
        or longer. A working wqgk of b4 hours was not, uncommon. The
                  hours of papei
        lllg..,.1 l2-year-old, selling in vacation^(zz a "'..i.)*.t"            r"po.trd
        9;L,th.                    son of a proprietor of a shoe_shining       parlor, an
        rtatran; 11e O!y_sold        papersevery rveekday from g to 12 b. m.'and
                          8.30,p.,m.,
        l:"1L?ll9 .to
        ln a(rcnr.ron worked on.S_unday
                       .rle             1nd on Sundays    from 8 to 1 at a ncwsstand;
                                                 afternoonmore than 6 hours shining
        shoesat his father's establishm-ent. He said that tie '"u, uilo*.a to
        keephis.tips from both jobs but was requiredto hanJ                       rest of
        rus earmngsto hrs tather. several other boys reported z1 or 72 hours
                                                                       ";;;il;
        ot work a week. A           g-year-oldchild and a boy bf 18 sold parrers
                                                                                      for
                                  kep1.a news stand near-u iaii.oud ter;i;;i; lh.t
               _b,rg_!l"r,.who
        Ll^":,1 from 6
        worked              a. m. until       -. every.weelc         vacation,havin"g
        10 minutes off for l'nch. *p. youngqi bo_y $py_io iri, Iroii., gu".
                                          TLe      *Another saidihat
       him 25 cents a week for his work..
                                                              o"*itrny,-o.r.,ir,aoF ir,
       sold papers      from 8 a. m. to Q-p.*.er-cry day u*."ff su"Jui' *t"o
       sehoolwas not in sessio',taliihg no regular peri,rdJtor -.ui..                 He
       said he was obligedto sellpa_perJ thelamily rvasone of r f ana ni.
                                                 as
       lArner' a lanrtor, marre lrtile money; a brother, the only one of
       wortung age,never had_          steady work; and a sisber    who had eone to
       rvork had beconre and had ]iad to siop. This boy ttua u*i i" trrc
                               ill
       last half of the fourth grade (only slightly belowthe"nor^J's.ua" ro,
       his.age) for three semesters         and veniured bhe opi*on-i[ui ir"
       do better in schoolif he had more time to studj,.-Ev"" arri"g tfru          "o"ld
       schooi year he worked 28 hours a week seiling pup""r.- Tn"r" uru
       accountsof boys worhing the longest hours, uui irreir number could                           )
       pj.^-l-r,tll]l"d T-"1{. trmes oyer among those representing only slightly                    r
       Iessextreme cond.rtlons.
                                                                                                    t




                                                                                                I

                                                                                                I   i
                                                                                                I
                                                                                                i
                                                                                                    s
                                                                                                    ;
                                                                                                I
                                                                                                I
                                                                                                I
                                                                                                I
                                                                                                I
                                                                                                I
                                                                                            )


Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                                             CITILDR.EN IN STREET WORK
                                                                                                                               91
       r^n'n4t'-NuT:tr,f!":3?:r"Jr2:;:;1,x2*,f:;#0,,r,,!x:nl,::;!
                                                          ternt
       -
                                                  ;! ;choot
                                             l-
                                                                    Newspaper sellers nnder 16 years of ags

                                             _.-_==-]---und^er
                                                             t0
                                                     Total                                                      rz years,
       Number.of hours of street work                                 I      years | -l-o_lSot* | underlJ I re 1"n.r,
                                                                                                   undert2
          duflng a typical seek                                       I                      I             I              I unOer
                                                                                                                                r.n
                                                                                                                              -
                                                 l j:l
                                                       |
                                                       | - - | r - - |_ l - - r |- - - - - T |- | - 1 r    ,
                                                                                                           ,---=l-l--
                                                             l e!.t
                                                                e      l p.,
                                                                        l re.
                                             .,,*l P e r ,,.._.1r l 1,. I r e . r -
                                                  rrr                  I r . r l I i rru.
                                                    r'llr'; i\"# i\tr f^;:r
                                                                                      u,


                SCIIOOL TER}f
                                                    J i"*I*:tt! Isiffi is":H1."':el
                                                  -l-]--i---i-1-i--1-l-i-
             'Iotal-
                       -------__-__--__---        4 6 7- '
                                                      l             e 7' - - - - - "l                r$ | - _ _-l 72___-___
                                                                                      lno
       Total reporlecl_ -
                      _
                                             =E-m,=;"+r=-i+re
                                         rriiryii u.ilI ii:i1illl''i ii,i
                                                        + x
                                         i '3 itl f; s:ll;l t:si / '1rl:i 1i
                                                  i'           "rl
      Not reportcd                                *l-------.1',1.-.---..i'l.-..
                                                                1'l . 1 1
                                                                       ...
                  \"{CTTION


             l'otal- _--__-___--___-__-
                                               rirililil
                                              ,,,1.i,,ii,,,1i,^,li^"1
                                         _rlol--- ----l'i1-- -- -l'ql __-" _l             | 67r__---__
      Total reportcd___                   LZo, To.o:_                         "nI_-__-- c; 100.0
                                                luu.u | T--ffi; I Erffi-,i;;',--.,--nil
                                                         7e 1L)0.0 124 100.0 t,l:
                                          ",i
                                           r
                                              -l.sf                   I     i     I roo.o ]
                                                                    +      r,         ,,    -r        ^r- ,"
                                              tii1 1 ; . 5 1 ti' ;j:B i iiii dI ;:,s?il*;j
                                              6 6 fiVI 1 r o . r l 1
                                                                    i sjl'!:il ,iir
                                                                      'rl         I ,tl ,r;nn
                                                  13Tg1 igjl
                                                             s
                                                      s             frl
                                                  ;i ,;,il ,i,il ,;,ii ,iilii il
                                                        il ,il ,il
      Not reported____-
                                                  "i--l'1.--l,l..l'li1
        Those rvho spent 24 hours or-more a rveeli,selling      papers,and even
      those who worked 44 hours o"-torg.i, ;ere &lmosr
      who rvorkedfewer horirs.                                 as young as those
        Bo;'s who had to confinetheir seilingto suchtime
     and after school could-nor put in-so E;;;;;#^;ilut?tlltas they had before
     brrt.it may be assum,ed                                               *o.r.,
                               tt          nio.'r'.liu"aer a greaterstrain than
                                  "tii"y
     durrng rncation. Moreover, evcn moderatJy
     paper selling,combined                                ,"ilh;;^"'Ji    .,"*.-
                             with fhe zs tto"r. o, more of schoolworh made
                      long rveek. Two hundr.d. ;;d i;r6;;;;;'isz              p..
     ::^:,^:T:t{y
     ccnr'/or rhoseselrrng  pa,pers   {uring the schoory"ur'*oi.klJ at rea.t
     12 ho'rs, and 52 (12"ptr'cent) uf t"'uJ-i+ hoursj.err"rul
     to 42.)( hours of u'ork^ *""k. A ro-"*---irutlarger proportiionreporting +o
                             a                                            of the
     ncusbo.vs  r.r'oridns
                  ar]easr ho;;',;';;ir. ti,""*?i^tfrol5"*i.liii"g
                        12
     thantzhours
               weie'nder ih;Gh;il;;il;ilffiil;;i;i
                       10,                                   r"..
     'nder    12'                                          *."."
                                                             EARNTNG'
       The"profitil the local paperswl,s 1 cent for dailies
     centsfor sundav editi.ons.New yorl                      anrJ or 2
                                                                   l)/z
     Themedian                             llp"", netted a littre more.
                earriings rhe.ne*.["t;;;,[ 6;r*;;ffr;d'si'"u
                         of                                          .,r."r,.
     The newsbovs  u'oriring
                           duringvacarion *-d"";;i;Jliiii.
     thosewhosoldpapers"aurtng-the                             ,'"ointnnn
                                    .chiot'y"u.;n rri"               grorr)
         30812._2S_?                                      """"iir"




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universitl
        92                                             rN
                         DMpLoyMTNToF scuoor, cErr,DREN NDw JERSEY

        13 per cent, and in the other 14 pe-rcent, made lessthan $1;- in the
        one Eroup53 per cent and in the other 62 per cent,madelessthan $3;
        and'ig p-ercent and 13 per cent made $5 or more. (Table42.)
         TlsLn 42.-Earnings during a typical u'eeko! schoolterm and of aacation,by age
                                             sellers,Newarlt, N' J.
                           perzod;-ne4ttspaper

                                                                                  Newspaper sellers under 16 years of age


                                                                                  Under 10       10 years,         12 years,            14 years,
                                                                                   I.ears        und€r 12          mder 14              under 16
            Earnings during a typical
                     week
                                                                          Per                          Per                   P€r              Per
                                                                 Num cent                              cent Nur              cent             cent
                                                                  ber distri-                         distri- ber           distri-          distri-
                                                                         bution                       bution                bution           bution


                           TERM
                      SCEOOL

                Total---------------- -----

         Total reported---                                                              100.
                                                                                           0    1 3 8| 1 0 0 . 0                               100.
                                                                                                                                                  0
             Less than $0.25---                                                                   L        .7                         ----i ----i.
             $0.25,lessthan $0.50--------                          10               5     i.d                                                        I
                                                                   50              20    23.3    l6     11.6       t2          8.0       2       2.8
                                                                  130              30    34.9    54     39.1                             I      12.5
                                                                   81               8     9.3    24     17.4       30         2C.0      19      26.4
             $3, lessthatr $4---                                   70               I    10.5    lo     13.8       31         20.7      11
             $ 4 , l e s st h a n $ 5 - - - - - - - - - - - -      40               2                    to                   t4.7      72      16.7
             $5, less than $6- - -                                                  3     J.O    IO                10          $.7       4
             $6, less than $8- - -                                 14               2             3       2.2       2                    7       9.7
                                              -
             $ 8a n d o v e r - - - - - , - ' ' - ' : - - -                                               1.4       6          4.0       7
             No earDings and no cash
                e a r D i n g s - ---- - - - - - - - - - - - -      5                     4.7     1

         Not reported-----                                                                        2

                          VACATION

                T o t a l -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

         Total reported-- -                                                                0
                                                                                        100.
                                                                                          4.0     I        .8   --.-;
                                                                   11                                     2.ts
                                                                   4l                    21.3    rD      11.7       I
                                                                   95                    28.0    37      28.9      28                    I I    13.4
                                                                   77                    t2 a            18.8                            6 I    23.9
                                                                   71                            18      14.I      39                    I I    13.4
                                                                   38                     4.0    10       7.3      19                    q1
                                                                                                                                         6 I
                                                                                                                                                "93...49
                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                   39                     6.7    10       7,8      ti                    I      19
                                                                   22                     4.0                           I                        9.0
                                                                                          1.3     5       3.9           6      3.8              14.I

                                                                    7                                      .8           ,
         Not reported-----                                          23



           In vierv of the much longer hours of the newsboysrvorking during
         vacation the similarity betrveentheir earningsand those of the boys
         u'orking onlv before and after school and on Saturdaysduring the
                 "year"is surprising. The demand for the mid-rnornilg a+d
         school
         mid-afternoon editlons of the newspa,pers,    which were sold by the
         boys during yacation, possibly was not so great as the dpmnnd for
         th6 late-aft"ernoon and'earlv-"evening  editions that schoolboysgen-
         erally sold, so that the schoolboy'sbusinesswas brisker during his
         relatively few hours than that of the boy who w&s on the streets
         sellinga large part of the long vacat'iondays.
           NeverthelisJ,within each group the longer the hours per week the
         larger the earnings. Thus, alrnorryvacation newsboystlie proportion




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                                EEILDREN IN STREET irORK
                                                                                  93
      p+ing,less than $r-was rg per cent for thosewho worked under 12
      hours, I2 Der ccnt for those^who   worked u"t*** ii"-""J2+ r,"r.r,
      and 5 per cenr,for those *ortui"g           24 hours; the proportion
      makinElesstlra'$B was 64 perz""i,-L+
                                         "i'i.".t
      respectively; and the qr.onortion;tktCmT -p." "".,t, Jrd'ldp", ""rt,
                                                   or _dr"'l,iur'"ority o pu.
      cent 1or the sroup woil<ing the smalleJ"""^b.roi
      30 per cent Tor ihe other"g.oupr.--'a-^ongthe -u"y."r"ilirg 21 ancl
                                                          r,";;b;
      durins the                                                       papers
               schoor
                    period, p"i.*i^lr tn'or.-*;;riiili;;;'than 12
                          zi
      hours, onlv6 nelcentofiho." *o;kiilD
           but
      lessthan $1 a weel<;:O               .#fi, ;" fire, made
                                  iO p.""""o"t,,r".p""tively, made less than
                             ""a
      $3; eld,b,u"{ 20 per cent, respbcti;;llr,'made g5
                                                          or mole.
        rne older Dovs were apparently much more
      papers                  -bi-tr"                    suecessfulin selling
             than the vounger.           ,ir,iiii.o rna*. r0 years,Br per cent
      madelessthan $1, bui onry zrp;;;";;"de
     per ce't made as much as-$5 ind of ttrose $3 or inore'an<l
                                     j
                                                                              only tz
                                                       netwe;;-il;f         i2 years
     of age, 15-perc-ent  made lessthan si,-6"t only 87 pcr cent madc as
     much as $3 and only 15.p"-..*.ri * irr.1,
     and lB year old boys onlli_s p;;";;;dLj.r-r"in""'il;;                         rz
                                                       "."gs;'rirr"r""J."u,r,ong
                                                                        ut,l 56 per
     cent made at teast$B and 19.fer           uil"u.;-$;,";il J#oii'roo, ot
     14 or t5 onlv 3 oer cent mad'elestinan gr b";40;;"-""ir1"-ua"
                                        "u"i
     least^93 and"B7  per cent, i.*iT5.".*-"                                       ut
        A 'ew newsbovswere"t    not paid for their work. scverar of these
     worhed for oldei brothers, aiparentr.y u.           tu-ity""".rffiril.;
     boys of 6 and Z worked nutt u'o'tou"?auy rn return                          t*o
                                                     "           for a paper, one
     of ttrem for "the funny papers.,t
       The amount of the
     narilvreceivcd         iui1,i"g, lgUortedinchded tips if the boy ordi_
     not obtained.
                     them,but rpl.ini l"ll.-              ;" ru;;,i',"o"tip, *u,
                                                   "ti""
                            ,     NEWSBOXS   IN SCIIOOL

        Schoolrecordswere.not obtained for the Newark
                                            -tn"
     only information obtained bearing o"                    newsboys. The
                                                                       'r,,"..r.
                                                  r"".;   ;;'ili.:i"f
     of theseboys in schooli._on their-igur i"l"iuii"" i"
                                            ^o*t.tnoru*":;rilil
                                                            tr..i.?..a"r.
       tr'erv
            weie hieh-schoor
                          .tra.ni.1i                                    ?ui'g
            term and 6 of thoie-;;;ilr;a"u.i.rg
     ggfro-ol                                                         -About    trr.
                                                          vacation.           two-
              (65 per cgpt)
     lfttdr
     t'hesame               9i_thet ov. *ori;iE:a,i.i"g""""#oo^J,ij unor,i
                 proportion per cent).of
                             (67              thdse worli"t;;.i"siiiJrcnool
     peliod.had   reached ^,i.rf o"fy-ih; fiirh s"";;
                           ut
        Their progress schoot, iidicat;i;y';;." i;r grade,
                        in         a.s
                                  'Ap;il;"h;63ys                     had been
     slower   than-rhe averagc.                                                 no
                                                       between and 16 years
                                                                 8
     of agewho had sordp"apers      du;i"-giJ"u'iio", 82 per cent of thoseof
                                                 -;il!"";f';;ffi
     nativ-1  white parentage, p"r
                                 eo
    pLg 69 per cent_ th. negroboys wereoverage retarded. (Sec
                                         "Ent-of                      i'uii.,r"g",
                        9f "
    Iootnote4. n. 1.) Among.boyi worki"g du"%gih;";;h;;i      or
                                                 *i.r-;h;?;;;i#T""*rnoy, y"",
    theseperceniaces'    *ere.?oi s!,"uoa lii.
    and thosewho"harl
    sa,me                   :old ,iuii;s ;h"".4";i p;ri"d;;;'i#;iy
           group, comnarison thelrretardation                                  the
                   a             of                   iuG nu, no.ig"?i"u""*.
    As on-ly had worked;"iy i" ;";;;;;;ir.
               zf                              -of numberwastoo smallro
    permit a comparison      betw6en iate retardationof ;ir; Toy, or
                                       the
    rljfferentrace*and    nationality;;;;ih;-         and rhat of boyswhose
    ii1''", go.rgy, ald attentionwerediieriJ'i.;;;ffii;;il-to
    srdernterests. However,                                                   our_
                                 eventhe newsboys *o"r."i"during trre
                                                       *ho
    school   periodwereaDparentry -o."-.utura"d -tir*'
                                       no                        tti J.*i-'. u
    school   childrenof theii'ug"r.-"df ;h;;rblic-school enrollmenrr,. rk  in the




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgeton'nUniversitr
         94        Er[pLoyMENT oF scHoor, oHTLDRENrN NEw JERSEY
               ,
         fall of 1926, 8 to 15 years of age, inclusive, 35 per cents tl'ere below
         normal grades compared rvith 41 per cent oJ the newspaper sellers,
         the di{Ierence in favor of the school enrollment, being more than
         accounted for, probably, by the larger llroportion among.the nervs-
         paper scllers of'negro boyiwhose re"tardation rvas very high'
         '
             Whetr an excessfuonumber of hours a week were spent in selling
         poDers thc bo-ys' school progress was less satisfactory than u'hen
         ie*er hours had been givi'n [o such work; 40 per ceni of the boys
         selling less than 12 hours, 38 per cent of those selling between 12
           attd,{4 hours, and 62 per cent of those selling 24 hours or longer v.ere
         retarded in school. Fourteen per cent, of the nervsboys working less
         than 12 hours, 20 per cent of those working between 12 and 24
                                                                         'were two
         hours, and 36 per cent of those selling at least 24 hours
         years or more ietarded. The group working at least 24- hours con-
                                                          -6oys
         iained a somewhat larger pr6poriion of                 with foreign-born
         fathers (rvho were more retardedlhan boys with native white fathers)
         than the groups working fewer hours, but it, contained a suraller
         proportion of negro boys (who were eYen more retarded than those
                                   "
         bf fbreign pareniage). Negroes and boys with foreign-born fathers
                                'a
         toeethei comprisel          slisLtlv smaller-proportion of the nttntber
         wfr'o had worlcd at leasi 24- hours than oi the number u'ho had
         worked between 12 and 24 hours, and the percentage of retardation
         was least for the latter group. These facts seem to point to the
         conclusion that the conipicuously larger amount of- retardation
          amons the nervsboys who ipent most time on the streets can not be
          u."orit"d   for by the greatei amount of retardation among ehildren
                           -and
          of foreisn-born        nlecro fathers. Neither can it be accounted
          for by t"he age of the bolys, for the group working 24 hours or longer
                                                "as
          contained p"roportionately almost          inany younggr boys as ihe
          groups woikins shorter hours. The number of hours spent in
          Jtreei work duriing the year in u'hich the study was ma<ie could not
          have affected the newiboys' progress in school, of coutse, unless
          ihcy represented a similai' siiuaiion in the past. How long the
          Newark nervsbovs had x'orked and what their houm of rvork had
          been in previoui years are not known. In all the other cities in
          u'hich thA Children's Bureaulmade studies of nervsbo)'s thc majority
          had sold papers long enough to have influenced at least one of their
          school proniotions,"and io leason esists fo-r suppo-sing. that the
          hours of u-ork that u'ere typical for an individual at the time of the
          inquiry were not typical of his newspaper-selling c&reer in general.
                                                                                                                            I


                                            NEWSPAPER CARRIERS                                                              I
                                                                                                                                (
            Six hundred and seventeen boys had carried papers during the                                                    lr
         school year, of whom 517 had routes whel they were interviewed.e
         During-the.summer vacation of 1924,407 boys-had carried P-aPe1s.
         tr'orty-1hree of the carriers included in the study had worked only
         ln v&c&[ron.                                                                                                       e
                                                                                                                            Il
           s Compiled from figurc furnished by the superintendent ol thc Newark public schools. Figures by
         sex, or by race or nct ivity of fal hcr, were not availablc                                                        l
           c Ten iirls rcporled tbil rbe) hsd had ncwspaper roul 6 duiDg ttlo school t ear, of shom 8 llad ha'l routes      I
         tiuring v-acationalso, and I giit had had a route only durinli_yacation. Of these U girls, 1 was 7, 1 was.8,
         i *'eri t0, 2 E-ere 11, b wcre 12, I v'as 13, and I was ti yeaN of age. .4.ll ercept 2, who were of native white
         Dilcntase. had. foreisn-born fathers. All ercept 1 carried the Dewspapors cvery day, spetrding in all except
         iinstanie'lrssthan12hoursau'eekonthework. .\n8-]'eor-oldgirlhelpinghcrmotltcruholtaLlanows'                        '
         psper route r€ported l3y4 hou$ of work a week. The girls are not included i[ the tabulatioDs of carriers.
                                                                                                                            ,




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                                    CITII,DREN IN STREET WOR]C                                           95
                                 RACE AND       NATIONALITY        OF FATHERS

       rn race and nationality the carriers were fairlv representativeof
                             -The
    the generalpopulation.        great majoriiy in each group (that is,
                                           -during
    vacation carriers and carriers working         thc seh"ool tcrm) had
    foreign-born fathers, proportions veiv similar to that of ail the
    inhabitantsof Newark who had at leist one foreign-born      parent or
    were themselves foreign-birth.t0 The proportigqwho wer'en"groes
                    of
    was nearly the same as for the entire city. Although the greater
    number oT thc carriers-fr_o_m -almost
                                  immigrant famiJG;;-"      fi"iif", iit
    the newspaper sellel-s. Newark,
                          of                    as many were Jewish,     "
    chieflyRussian.r0 (Table35, p. 82.)
                                 ECONOMIC        CONDITION       OF FAMILIES

      - Newspaper carriers' families were on a higher social and economic
    plane t\rn those of the newsboys,judging 6y the information avail-
     able. (See 81.)
                   p.
        tr'orty"-three (11 per cent) of the vacatio! rvorkers and 64 (g per
    cent) of the other carriers were in fatherless or u'idorved homes.
    Nineteen (5 per cent) of.the vacatiol group and 30 (4 per cent) of
                                                -b-y
    the other were in families suppgrted             mothers, relatively only
    about half as meny as.th.e l""ltoy._ whose families we.e d"epend'-
    ent on the mother for their livelihobd. Not counting those whore
    mothers were the chief breadq-inners in their famiies, however,
    ahnost as large a proportion of the carriers as of sellers (one-fourth
    in each.group of carriers) had mothers rvho added to ihe family
    incgme by gainful employment.
       The chief 51ssfl\vigners'    occupationsalso indicate that the carriers
   came from homes which were more stable financially than those of
    the newsboys. The proportion whose fathers or ot6er chief bread-
   w-inners    weie laborersin'the-building trades, i" tr"rrpo.iu-tit, o. io
   factories; or who were peddlers or seryants or others in domestic
   and personalseryicewas only 10.qer cent for one group and t2 per
   cent for the other, compared with about one-four:'th the street
                                                                 bf
   sellers. Those in domesticand personalservice,despitethe inclu-
   sion of motherswho earnedthe fami]y living by domesticwork, was
   about the s&me &s for all male rvorliers of"20-ye&rs or over in the
   city,. and about half that for the newspaper         scilers. Although the
   nunrber whose chicf breadwinnersrvere in the professionso"r had
   clericaloccupations      rvasonly about half that fol all male rvorkers 20
   and over 1rit rvas relatively much larser than the number of srreer
                                    -The
   sellers from such homes.              propoition u'ith chief breadwinners
   who were factory operatives was smaller than that &mons news-
   paper seliers, whereas the proportion who were machiniits and
   mechanics,,    contractors, foremen or sl<illedworkers in the building
   trades, skilled_   worliers in factories,ownersof businesses,   commerciai
   travelers,clerlis, or professional    men w&s more than tu,o-fifths com-
   pared with nearl5rthree-tenthsof the newspapersellers. Cornpar.e4
   with the city as alvhole.the preporderance trade was noticeable,
                                                     in
   m.any. the carriers.
            of              c.o.mir1S the familiesof men, Jai.gelv
                                     fiom                             Jewish,
   who kept snrall neighbortioodsiores or operated rirodeit"business
   concernsof one kind or another.
    l0 Fourteenth Census of the United Stat€s, 1920,vol.2, population, p,56.
    rl tr'ourt€entb Census of tho United Statos, t92O; vol. 4; poputation;occupations,   pp. t1?S-U81.




                                                             Universilv
Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'n
          96                                     rN
                 DMpr,oylrENT or scnoot, oETTLDREN NEw JERSEY

                                     AGE OF CARRIERS

            The city ordinance relating to newsboys did not afrect, carriers. I
          The proviiions of the State ch'ild labor la# relating to vacation rvork II


          and work outside school hours were not applie*d,though strictly t
          speaking,applicableto newspapercarriersif they were employed by
          others., by far the greaternumber of Newark carrierswere. Thus,
                 as
          no mrmmum-age pr6vision was in force. The carriers, however,
          were older than the newsboys. The largest,number were 12 or 13
          years of age, but one-fourth were 14 or 15. A small number were i
          under 10, some only 6 or 7. (Table 36, p. 83.)                          i
                                DURATION    OF STREET   WORK

            The great majority (77 per cent) of the vacation carriershad worked
          between 9 and 10 weeks; that is, approximately throughout the
          summer vacation. tr'ifty-four per cent of the others had worked at
          least 24 weeksduring the school term; all were interviewed at a time
          when they could have worked at least as long as that.
                               CONDITIONS    OF DMPLOYMENT

             In Newark the newspaper routes of all the principal paperc were
          managed by news dealers,so that boy carriers had no direct corlnec-
          tion with the newspaper  offices. The dealers made their own business
          &rrengementswith the carriers, generally hiring them at a regular
          wage. The carriers did not make collections,nor were they respon-
          sible for building up routes, though at least one newspaperoffered
          prizes and premiums for new customers. The carrier obtained the
          paperc from the dealer for whom he worked, or, especiallyin outlying
          routes, the paperswere deliveredto him.
             Of the 517 carriers with routes at the time of the interview with
          the Children's Bureau agent,  467 (90 per cent) were hired by dealers,
          46 (9 per cent) helped other boys, and 1 was not only hired by a
          dealerbut also'help^ed  another 6oy. Only 3 had so-cailedindepen-
          d,entroutes; that ii, they had acquired their own customers,bought
          their papers at the'dowi-town ofrces, like the newsboys,and mide
          their own collections.
             As in most cities, the great majority (92 per cent,)of the carriers
          had residential rouies, b'ut a few (6 bei cent) delivered papers at
          offices and stores in businesssections of the city, and a fe* in both
          residential and businessdistricts.
                                  REGULARITY OF \trOBK

            Almost all the carriers,- wh.ether -they worked during vacation
          or during the school year, delivered their pepers six or seven days a
          week. Thirteen of the 407 vacation carriers and 30 of the 649 others
          worked fewer than six days or irregularly, substituting for other
          boys or acting as holpers.
                                     EOURS    OF WORK

            Many carriers, while school was in session as well as during the
          summer, had morning work; 79 of the 407 vacation carriers and 115
          of the 679 others diliveredl a daily morning paper. These were
          older boys than the carriers of afternoon paperc, though 25 per cent
          of the vacation group and 19 por cent of the group carrying pa,pefii
          before school wore under 12 years of age, 9 per cent and 3 per cent,




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                         CTTILDREN IN STR,EET WORK
                                                                                                                                                           97
      respectiyely, being under 10. During vacation 4g of the 79 with
      Ioorn_lnq:pqper  routes beganwork before Z o,clock (generallvaround
      6 or 6.30)'!ut^a{ew bcgghat 5 or 5.30or, in the
      9oy'.at'4.JU-; these48_boys
                    or                                     "u.iiofu]5"-vlar-old
                                        8.wereunder r2 and 3 under 10." of the
     .115boys -who delivered morning papers before going i" ."n""r, ?i
                                             ' ^
     begantheir work beforeZ a. m. "
         A surp.risingly.large  number of boys-67 (16 per cent) of those
                                  99, (lb per cent).of those with rouies during
                             9,ry
     :i:ry^r:$^l1 year-delrvered papers
     rne scnool "_1":1to.o
     't hesernuyally                           both morning and afternoon.
                         large propgrtions are easily undelstood when it ls
     rememberedthat most-of the Newark carriers were hired. bv ,r"*"
     dea.lers.handling several papers,. that the ;pp;il;;il*if
                                           so                          "iot
                                                                            the
     oDrlgat'lon, carry both a mornin_g
                 to                           qnd an afternoonroute was more
     common than where a boy worked directly for one newspa,per.
        Two hundredand eighty-eight the vacatron
                                           of             group and 460 of the
     other carried paperson Sunda"y       mornings. The g'reaiffi;ri;y b;g;;
                                                 o--
     work before  8'a. m., somebefore      6.
     Te^er-u43.-N umber of hours o! streelu,ork on a typical ueek d,au other
                                                                             than
       Salttrdoy rluring schoolterm and durina aacation, by age peri,od; newspaper
       carriers, Newark, N. J.


                                                                                    Newspaper carriers under 16 years of ago

                                                                               t__
                                                                    lotal      I u nder I0       10years,          12years,            14years,
    Number of hours of street work I                                                     ears    under 12          under 14            undor 18
     on o^tt'nical seek day other l-
     [nan Saturday
                                                                               I                                                                        A96
                                   I                                 I                                                                                   not
                                                                     I Per                  Per        Per                    Por                        re-
                                                             i u r - | cent
                                                                   '-ldistr:               cenl       cent                   cent                       port-
                                                             ber                          distr Num. listri. Num-            tistri                     odr
                                                                     | .qu-
                                                                                   ber
                                                                                            bu- ber bu- ber                   bu-
                                                                       tron               llon        tion                   tioD
                                                                     I
                                                                     t_
                     SCSOOL
                          TDNM                                       I
             T o t a l - - - - - - - - - - - .-              67!     I                           r62              n8                   r70                 2
    S t r e e tw o r k o n w e e k d r y s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 66i                      66           r58                                   169                 2
          Tolal reporied-.__                                 6tr     100.0          65 r00.0     r57        0                   0     169 00.0             2
                L e s sI h a n t h o l l r _ - _ _ - _ _ _ _ _
                                                             202 I 3 0 . 3         18            46     m.3        90
                I h o u r , l e " s l h a n 2 _ - _ _ - _ _ 3.1r1 52.0                                                       33.0      47
                                                                                   34     52.3   81     5 1 .6    134        49. 1     96      56.E
                2 h o u r s , I e s st h a n 3 _ _ - - _       93 14.0              8     12.3   tt
                3 h o u r s ,l e s st h n n 5 _ - _ _ _                                                            42        15.4      19      17.2
                                                                                           6.2
                5 hours,ess hao8._----_
                              l       t                                             I      L J    :     _l.t        7         2.6       6
                                                                                                                                        I
                                                                                                                                                3.6
                                                                                                                                                 .6
         Not report,'d                                                              I
   No street \York on week days_-_-                                                 1             4                                        I
                       vAcarroN                          ]
            rotar-_-___--__-_
                        -- -- -                                          .-.                     01                                   u4
                                                         l_g                                                      toJ                                      2
   S t r e e tw o r k o n w e e k d a y s - _ - - _ _ _ - l l O t
                                                                                                 E8                                   774
        Total roported----                              ..1-190 . 0
                                                             r0                    36            88    00.0       r63 00.0            Il4      00.0
              L e s st h a n I h o u r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ l_ l i 30.0
                                                              2                                        ar.a $l




                                                                                                 1/
                                                                                    I                     I                           30         .3
              I h o u r . I e s s h x D 2 _- _ _ _ - _ - J t t l
                                 t                                47.I
              2 h o u r s ,l c s st i r a n 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ j C 7 i0. 6
                                                                                   16                  43.2 |     ',1 t 2 . 9
                                                                                                                    I t9.0            65       57.0

                                                                                                                  ii
                                                                                    5                  1 8 . 2I                       lo       73.2
              J n o u r s .t e s s h a n5 . _ _ _ _ _ _ l 2 0 5 . 0
                                   T                                                                    5.7 |                4.9                2.6
              5 hours, lessinan 8- _--_--l                     5   It               2
                                                                                                       "j                     .6       I
                                                                                                                                                  "l
                                                                                                                                                  o
        Not reported-_--
                                   I
   No street work on week days_---_l
                                                  ---         I                     1                  .'l        .t                           -----l
                                                              a                                                         -l                     "-"i
    I Per cent distribution not shownwherebaseis loss
                                                     than 80.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgeton'nUniversi$
          98     E},TPLOYIIENT   OF SCEOOL     CEILDP"EN      IN   NEW   JERSEY


             Almost all the boys in each group carried afternoon paperc. The
          great majority (S0 pel cent of each group) were through- carrying
          [heit nuuer. b"efore n. m. Saturdav hours wcre no later than those
                               6
          of other dals. The'few boys who"worl<ed on their routes until 8
          worked. under special circunastances, &s, for example, not beginning
          t'o deliver the papers to bheir customers until after the ordinary
          dirrner hour in the evening.
             A route usually required only an hour or a little more each day.
          (Table 43.) About one-fourth 6i ti,e vacation carriers spent as much
          as trvo hours a day on their routes, and a somet'hat smaller number
          of those working during the school year reported two hours or more
          on rveek days. On Sundays the routes took much longe-r;42 per cent'
          of thc 288 vaca'r,ioncarrieis and 37 per cent of the 460 boys working
          during the school term who carried Sunday pape.rc-v'orked at least
          trvo hours, and i7 per cent and t3 per cent, respectively, worked three
                             -A
          hours or longer.       number of carriers had to spend five hours or
          iorrgcl on their Sunday routes, beginning usual]y about 6 a' m. n'or
          eacir sroup the median numbdr of hours of work a week was between
                     -However,27
          4 rrrrci-8.               per cent, of the vacation carriers and 21-per
          cent o{ the others rvorked at least 12 hours a week, and a few rvorked
          2-1 hor.ils or longer. They were chiefly carriers who had both
          morning and afternoon rout'es.
                                         EARNINGS


             As a rule the carriers earned much less than the newsboys. The
          dealers generally paid $1 or $1.25 for routes, 9f 40 or 50 papers.
          tr'our-fiftLs of the carriers in each group earned less than $3 a week,
          and the median earnings were betrveen $1 and $2. Nlany of the
          children under 10 and aiso those under 12 made less than $1 a week
          helping an older boy; and 31 of the vacation carriers and 52 of thc
          boys r,v-ithroutes during the school term- receir.ed no cash payment
          fof their wolk, but' helped brothers or friends for treats, an extra
          newspaper, or' "for fun." Excluding boys under 12, the median
          earninci for carriers s'ere betv een $3 and $4 a week. A few carriers
          made as nruch as $5 a week. (Table 44.)
                                    CABRIDRS   IN   SCrIOOL


             A number of the boys carr5'ing papers-33 of those working before
                                          -tirose
          or after school and 29 o{               '*'orking cluring vacation-rvere
          hfuh-school boys. The       great majority were in the grades, hott'ever,
          the median grade for ea':h group being the sixth.
             The amoulnt of retarclatibn fbr carriers was smail compared rvith
          that for the street sellers or even with the aYerage for all Newarli
          schoolboys. Among vacation carriers betweel 8 and 16. years of              l
          age (see-footnote 4, p. l) 22 per cent- o{-the boys of nat'ive white        :
                                                                                      !

          pircntage and 17 per-ccnt of {hose of foreign parentage, and among          :
          the obher carriers, 18 per cent and 20 per cent,, respectrvely, rvere       l
          o\rer{rgefor their gradei; that is, were retarded' So few negro boys        n
          carricil tr)apels that a reliable percentage of retardation can not be
          ic,uncl l'oli,egr:o carriets, but 5 of the 10 rvorking during v-acations
          rincl 16 o[ tlic 23 rvorking during the school t,erm were retarded.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                            CITIIJDREN IN STREET WORK                                                          99
      T,+ar,n 44.-Earnings d.uring a LEpicaIweeltof s-cltool
                                                           lerm and of uaaation,by
                         peri,od;newspapercarriers, Ne,wark,N. J.


                                                                                         Newspaper carriers under 16 years of ago


                                                                                        Under 10           10 years,   12 years,   14 years,
                                                                                         years             under 12    under 14    under 16
       Earnings during a typical week
                                                                                                 Per
                                                                                                 ceut
                                                                                                listri
                                                                                                 bu-
                                                                                                tion I

                     SCFOOL TERV

                                                                     67e-_---_l 67
     Total reported-                                                 672 100.0 |         64
         L e s s t h a n $ 0 . 2 5-- - - - - - - - - - - - - .         ?lL0l     2 3. 1                     3
         $ 0 . 2 5l,e s st h a n $ 0 . 5 0 - - - - - - - - - -            3.41 5 7.8                       10
         $ 0 . 5 0l,e s st h a n $ 1 , - - - - - - - - - - - .        74 11.0 I  7 10.I                    30
         $ 1 ,l e s st l r a n $ 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ - .   304 45.2 i 22 34.4                    71
         $ 2 ,l e s st h a n $ 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     151 22.5              7    10.I       26
         $3, less than $4 -                                           42 6.3i I              1.6            3
         $ 4 ,l e s st h B n$ 5 , - - - - - - - - - - - - - -         12 1.8i 2                             I
         $ 5 ,l e s st h a n $ 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       2  . 3 i - - - - - - -i.
         $ 6 , l e s st h a n $ 3 - - , - - - - , , - - - - -          5l .71 I                 6-         .:
         Nir earnings dna no caih eaiir--
            l n g s _ _ _ ____- - ___
                              -_                                      t r i , . r l t 7 26.6               l6
     Not reported----                                                   'il3                                l
                        VACATION

            Total------ ------                                       4 0 7l _ - - _ _ _ l 3 7

     Total reported

                                                                        3     .7
                                                                      t1     2.7
        $ 0 . 5 0l,e s st h a n $ 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -         46       .
                                                                            1 14
        $ 1 ,l e s st h a n $ 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .      ti4    4:1.2
        $ 2 ,l e s st h a n $ 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       94    23.3
        $ 3 ,l e s st h a n g 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       29     7.2
        $ 4 ,l e s st h a n $ 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       t0     2.5
        $ 5 ,l e s st h r n $ 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -         I      2l
                                                                               ' rl-
        $ 6 ,l e s st h a n $ 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .        3
        $8 and over                                                     I        -l--
        No earnings aDd no cash €arn-
           lngs-----__-_--__                                                  ,.,I
     Not reported----                                                  4      '---l
      I Per cent distribution not shown where base is less than 50.


                                                                            BOOTBLACKS
       Almost, as many itinerant bootblacks as newsboysworhed on the
    streets of Ne'w.ark. Included in the study were 340 bootblacks who
    had worked during ya,ca,tion and 387 who worked during the school
    year. n'our hundied boys were working es bootblacks"at the time
    of the inquiry, though 13 of them had had another more important
    street job at some time during the school yea,r,so that they were
    not classified bootblacksworking during the schoolperiod. Twenty
                  as
    of the bootblacksincluded in the study had worked only during the
    summer vacation.
                                                    RACE AND                NATIONALITY                  OF FATI{ERS

      X'ew of the bootblackswere of native white pg,rentage-l3 (4 per
    cent) of the vacation workers and 19 (5 per cent) of the others. The




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetox'n Llniversit-v
          100         DMpLoyMENToF scEooI, ojlTLDRnNrN NEw JEP"SEY

         great majority (almost three-fourths) were the children of immigrants,
         Ilmost a[ of whom were Italians, and many (about one-fourth) were
         Negro boys. (Tablo 35, p. 82.)
                                  ECONOIIIIC   CONDITION     OF tr'AMILIES

             So far as the information obtained (seep. -) would indicate the
          bootblackssenerallvcamefrom homesin which the fathersendeavored
          to support Their famities but were employedin low-paid occupations.
             Thibroportion that misht have beenblacking boots to help support
          widowdd firmilies was eve-n  smaller than among newsboys,for only 13
          per cent of eachErouDcamefrom homesin which there was no father,
          hot, even a steplather or & foster father acting as the chief bread-
          winner, and only 6 per cent of the vacation workers and 5 per cent of
          the others wore-in families in which the mother was the main support.
          The fact that many of the mothers, even in families-having-fathers,
          rvere employed, hdwever, probably' indicates that the chief bread-
                    ^wage"'were
          winnet's                too sirall foi family needs. One-third of the
          bootblacks ii each group, exclusive of thdse in families-gupported by
          mothers, had mothelrswho were gainfully employed. - Many-of these
          were i:r domestic and personalservice,but many worked at home on
          factory goods.
             One-t[ird of the bootblacks had fathers who were laborers in the
          building trades, in factories, or in transportation services,or lvho were
          servanti or othors in dome tic and perconal service or were peddlers.
          The proportion with fathers or oth6r chiof breadwinners in domestic
          and iers-onalservice w&s more than twice as larqe as that, of all male
          worlierr aged 20 or moro in the city.l2 About one-{ourth of the
          fathers weie factory operatives. Few of the bootblacks, unlike the
          newsboys,   had fathers ilth small businesses their own; the propor'
                                                          of
          tion wiih iathers in trade was only half that for the whole city-'l3 The
          proportion with chief breadwinners who were conttactors, foremen,
          irr dkitted workmon in the buildinE trades, machinistsor mechanics,
          factorv owners or skilled workers- in factories, dealers, commercial
          travel6rs, clerks, or professionalmen (including an ltalian lawyer and
          e negro r.iinister) was only about one-fifth comf-aredwith two-fifths of
          the carriers and one-third of the newspapersellers'
                                           AGE OT BOOTBLACKS

            Bootblacks were a little younger than newsboys' but the difrerenco
          was not, great. Almost,as many were under 10 years of age &s were
                                         -
          14 or 15] A f'ew were only 7. The maioritv were at least,12, but                       I
          42 per cent of the vacation workers and 43-per cent of the others                          j
          werb lessthan 12 years old. (Table 45.)                                                S
                                                                                                 I
                                      DURATION     OF STREET     WOBK
                                                                                                 J

             Almost all the bovs bootblacking during vacation had worked                         l:

          throughout the sumrier; 308 of tht340 reported working between                         {
          I and" 10 weeks. Seventv-six and one-tenth per cent of the boot-                       t
          blacks had worked at lei,st 24 weeks while also attending school,
          all of them having been i:rterviewed sufficiently late in the school                   tl

          year to have worked at least as long as that.                                          D


                                                                                    pp.
                                                      vol. 4, Population,Occupations, uzF-u8l.
           rr Fourteenth Census the United States,1920'
                              oi
           ll Idem.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                            l




                       CETILDREN     IN   S:TR,EET WOR.K            101
                            CONDITIONS     OF WORr

      Bootblacks as a rule were in business for themselves, but a few
    (Q7of the 400 at rvork at the time of the inquiry) were'hi""d, -oru
   often than not by fathers, brothers, or othei             but-in some
   c&ses'.eren   a{non-gchildrenunder 10 or 12, by""iutiver,
                                                   othersthan relatives;
   several-hglpe{ other boys. Almost all work6d in the businessdis-
   tncts oJ the city, but 3o-reportedthat they carried on their business
   rn residential sectionsof the city, in front of their homes, outside
   clubs, etc., and 6 that they sometimesdid so.
                           REGULARITY     OF WORT

    DurilS vacation the majority (61 per cent) of the boys worked
  e!:ery,day, or_every-day eicepi Srrnday, and'even when"attendins
  school many boys (40 per cent) worked six or seven davs. In th6
  s-nmmertime 26 per cent and during the school year 46 ber cent of
  the boys did bootblacking only on-saturdavs and sundavs, or in
                                              -
  most cases both Saturdays and sundays. one-holf of ih6 bovs
  wo-rkingas bootblackswhen they were interviewed,said thev ;oiftd
  on[y week-ends. Only a few boys (Bl of the vacation woikers and
  34 of the others) did bootblacking so irregularly that, they were
  unlble. to s'ayhow many days a week they lyorked.
    During.the schoolyear 5iper cent of tie bovs said that they went
  out to shine shoesferver than six days a weeli. Those who #orked
  every day- or every day except Suirday, during the school year,
  were & Ilttle younger than those working fewer days a week.
                             HOURS    OF WORK

     In the summer many of the bootblacks (146 of the 840 vacation
  workers) rrorked during the forenoon,and most of thesecontinued to
  work a large part of.bhaday. ^Whgn    they wereobligedto go to school,
  hower-er,thcir work was confined to t[e late afternoonl Ody twd
  boys, one 10 years old, the other lb, reported any morning-work
                                             -a.
  during the school year; both began at Z        m. T[ey also Slacked
  boots after school. Severalboys working in vacationbr on Sundays
  said that they were on the streetsphining shoesbefore Z a. m., blt
  eally-mornilg work.lyas not a problem.
    O.n.bo"th  Saturdays and other days half the vacation workers quit
  work..he{ore p.ry,,a+d qlarge pioportion stoppcdbetween6 and
                 9
  8. _ (Tables45 and 46.) _But.52-(18per cent)-dn Saturday nights
  and 3-1(14 per cent) on other nights welc bootblackinguntil between
  8 and 10. On summer evenings during the week seieral bovs and
  o^n Saturdays_a more stayed out see[ing patrons until l0 ai least.
                   few
  Ofte-nthe little boys were out late on Satur-db,y
                                                  nights.
    The 197 boys who blacked boots after schoolJrorked later than
              in
  bootblacl<s the summer, except those of the summer workers who
  wo^rked-Saturday   nights. (Table-a5.)-_Thirty-two per cent stopped
                     p-er
  before 6..p._ttr.,49 cent worked until between6 aind8, and l0 per
  cent until between8 and 10. A I4-year-old negro boy was out until
  10 every week day and 9 on Sundays.. Saturdiy horirs for stopping
  were n_early.th-esameas o-nSat,urdays vacation. Sixty-sevenboyE
                                         in
  worked until 8 p. m. or later on S-aturdaysduring the-school yea,r.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universit-v
          102         EMpLoyMENToF scEOoL cErrrDREN NEw JERSEy
                                                   rN
                   the
          lniilr.not .saturday night bootblacks during -vacation, these boys
          were       qrrmanly the younger onesbut were of about the same&ges
          as the entire group.
         T,yr.n a,\'-(our      of endjng afternoon work on a typical ueeh dau olh.cr iltan
                                school term and, durins uacationi'bs ase perio,{; bootbtuiis',
             nf:ILiI! #.".it.ng

                                                                                    Bootblacks under 16 years of ago




                       8ctrOOt TEnM



                                                                                                                       3
             I[our reported-_-                                                                                         ;
                 B e f o r o6 p . m - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ - 62i   31.8
                 6 p . m . , b e f o r e8 p . m _ _ , _ _ _ _ - _
                 8 p. m.,, belore i0 D. m_-__-___ - _
                    p . m . b e l o r ei 0 p . m _ - _ _ _ - _ _
                 l 0 p . m . , b e f o r e1 2p . m _ _ _ _ _ _ - _
                                                                   3il      49,2
                                                                            16. D



             Ilour not reported                                     ;l
          No work on a week day other than Sat-
         '_ pl lm e y - - - - - - - . - -
          r' da
                   of day Dot reForted_-___
                                                                 ttni I
                                                                   z
                            VACATION
              Total_-_________-

         Aftornoon work--
                                                                 *ol,
                                                                 2221.                      l6{
            Elour report€d---_                                   zzoI                  n         OJ
                B o f o r e6 p . m - _ - - _ - _ _ - _ - _ _ - - tl1        50.5
                                                                                       ::
                                                                                       ID
                                                                                            l-        5 8 . 7|
                6 p. m., before p. m---_____-__
                                       A

                                                                                            lii
                                                                            34.7       10
                8 p . m . , b e f o r el 0 p . m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _            14.L        3             u.5 l
                10p.m., beforo 2p.m-__-- ___
                                         1                         3                    I               t ur'
            Ilour not reported
                                                                                            I'         "'l

                                                                                            t,;       ------l
         Mornirigworkonly---------___-                       l
             jl i
         Ji,x3!:::Y1r.af ::j:.
                      :...*T.
         Time of day not reported-___                                                                  -'---l
                                    __-                                                               ------l
          t Por cont distribution not sbowtr whore
                                                   base is loss than 50.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                        CTTILDREN IN STREET WORK                                                                     103

      Tesr,n 46.-If our oJ ending afternoonwork on a typical Saturday dur'ing schooL
                                                                NewarJ;,N. J.
             term and during L'acati,on, age period; bootblaclts,
                                       by




           Llourreported---                            " 3t, ttoi i                           3t ] 10,i100.0I t00rl 148                 t 1-.-.-l          4
              B e r o r c 6 p . m - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1 6 , t l j
                                                              --                              1 3 i s o t 's q.t5, i t c i l . r
                                                                                                           13
                                                                                                                                        ui-----t           z
                 6 p . m . , 6 c l o r r ' 3 ) .m - - - - - - - . - - -
                                            l                               lr0 2;.6          12       24              4:l 2q l         l0 l------l        I
                 8 i . m . , b e f o r ot C p . n - - - - - - - - - -       5; l;.5            ti      lR'1;.6         20 lli.5         l?:------l         I
                r 0 p . m . , b e f o r e l ? p . m - - - -1 0 - , - l
                                                                  --                   nlrri       5 3.41 ti                             --
                                                                         "tl----l                                                 i
           Ilournotreported                                       2-----l ,--- I ---i-                 - - - - l - - - - - l - - - - - l-
      r { o r n i n s w o r k o n t y - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1- - - - - - - l 3
                                                                 -e            l       5I ----l o ---| tl------l-----
      No wurk on Satur,hy------                                  25 ------l        ;   6 l------   8 ------l         4 i------l------
      r i m e o f d f , y n o t r e p o r r e d - - - - - - - - t ,- - - - - - - i t l
                                                                 -                     u,-         tl                t,
                                                                                                 ]            I                   I
                         YAc.\rroNltl                                                                 lill
              rotar------------                                                               11__191i::
                                                                                                     --_13i1__]__l1i-_--l_l
                                                                          :9_l_
      A f t e r n o ow o r k - -
                     n                                          - ---      2 8 5- - - - - -   27i      63 ------      1 2 0i - - - - - - 5 1                a
                                                                                                                                                l:---_]
            Ilourreported---                                          -    z s a l o o . o|   :;       s 3 i 0 0 . 0i r i o ] r o o . o s t               ] 4
                                                                                                                                        - r 5 ltoo.o
                  DpfdreOp.m--------------- -14r .,r.r        -                      13I                     ;ti       ." .'':-                 l4ti i      ,
                  6p.m.,bcfore8p.m---------; - 16.4 8                 ;-                               lh :1.:; 38 3l.C l0 ll1'.6                         | I
                  8 p . r o . , b e f o r e l 0 p . 1 1 1 - - - - - - - -2 - 1 8 . 3 6
                                                                      5 -                              l ; 2 0 . ;i 1 4I l l . 8             1 4| 2 ; . t i I
                  r 0 n . m . , b e f o r e 1 2 p . n - - - - - - -6- - , , . 8 1 - - - - ]              2 2.41 4l 3.4                        'i 35i-----
            Elournotreporlcd                                                  1------l-----l -              -      I     1l---              | "---i-----
                                                                              1
      l l o r n i n g w o r k o n l - v - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -4 - - - - |     , L
      N o w o r ko n S a t u r d a t - - - - -                                2i ;------1 6 I           4 ------        s ------l        2|      -- -----
      Timeofdi-ynotroporlcd-----                                              2 0 1 - - - - - - ]5 i    El-----         tl   -           3l      -     --
                                                                                                                               i
         I Per cent disiribution not shown whcre bas€ is lessthan 50.


        Almost all the boys (91 per cent) shining shoes in vacahion $'orlicd
      at least ts'o hours a day during the wec.li,the rnajority (60 per cent)
      at least fi.ve hours. (Table 47.) On Saturdays almost all (95 per
      cent) v.orked at least three hours, and almost half (47 per ccnt)
      u'orked at least eight hours. (Table 48.) Of 115 boys w-ho u'ere
      out bootblacking on Saturdays more than eight hours, 10 per cent
      rvere under 10 years of age and 40 per cent under 12-only slightly
      fewer boys under 12 than in the entire group. Sunday hotus {or the
                                                   long Saturday hours,
      269 who reDortedSundavwork. thoueh not so lons as Satr,rrday
              reportedSundaywork, though
      were vely long; 89 per cent rvorked three hours or longer, 51 per
      cent five hours or longer, and 16 per cent at least eight hours.
        The boys who rn-orked after school could not spend so much time
      on the strects. Nevertheless,67 per cent worked trvo hours at ieast,
      and a ferv (5 per cenl) fir-e houri or longer. On Saturdays during
      the school year 95 per cent worked at least three hours, and 43 per
      cent at least eight hours-similar    proportions to those found for
      Saturday worhers during vacation. Boys bootblacking more than




\-_
I




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
           104              EMpLoyMENToF scrroor, crrrTrDREN,
                                                           rN NEw JERSEy
          eight hours on saturdays during the schoor
          same agesas all the,Salu.rday                yea,r were of about the
                                        nootUtu.r... [ ;;.;;';*y-ilJy,         aia
          shoeshiningon sundaysduriig the scl"ooi
          summer, and their hours werJ u1.; ro;;".- yuur'u. *uii'ur'a,i"li g tn"
                                                    "oJ^       "etis
          on sunday, 2g1 reported the numb"""o?ior", ri;u            ?lio*'#orkua
          pcr.cent worked atleast two hours               worked; of these,9b
                                            ;"d ;i per
          tncludrng bovs (15 pcr cent) who-wl"t ce-ntat l".ri.ihrr"-lro.rr.,
                    45
          sundavswanderinabourrherir""J.,,i,Itn "igf,t h;;;;;ior.
                           g                        ir-'-i.'il;i [il.[i
                                                                                oo
          '"'tr:ffi1frR'-tr';',:,!"J"7:;*"1.;r':L#il',1!",i"l,loti'.#'|J1,!:r,
          Teur,n 47.-Number of                    "s"bo,,
                                                       "r.
                                                             I
                                                   "ri*ffi,:!K
                                                             l

                                                                         Bootblacks uD4er 16 years of age


               Numbcr of hours of street work                                        l0 years,
                oo-a typical wcck day othcr thro                                     under 12
                DAIurday                                                 Un-                                              Age
                                                                          der                                             not
                                                               Per        t0             Per                              re-
                                                               cent           I
                                                                        J'ears Nun       cent
                                                                                                                  'i^ditlo,,.,t-
                                                                                                  rum-l cent
                                                              distri-          ber      distri-   ber j distri-         ledr
                                                              bution                    bution

                        SCEOOL  TERM
                 Total---_----___-
                                                                                                   168 |
        Street work on week days- __-

             Total reported--_

                                                          I       .o
                                                         63
                                                         58
                                                         63
                                                          I     4.6
                                                          t
            Not reported
                                                         t4                         6
        No street work on week dalr.,-_-_-___
                                                        178               72    5t
                              YACATION

                                                        340
        Street work on week days-_-_-_
                                                        250
           Total reportcd_-_-

                             I,lour---
                  lflls.,t-b?1                                  .9        I     I         t.4

                 iii$:,'frsHft?,,,,,,,,,, :tr                  8.2
                                                              10.8
                                                              20.3
                                                                          5     8
                                                                                         r0.I
                                                                                         Il.6


                 i'-fffr ....,
                                                                          6    10


                    *ii.'tt#
                                                                                         14.5


                             .:
                                                              30.2        I    22        31.I
                                                              17.2             l0        14.5     ::l
                                                                                                  tt I
                                                               8.6        I     8        It.6
                                                                          1               4.3      9l
                                                                                                   'l
           N o t r e F o r t e d - __ _ - - - - - _ _
                               _
       No street Fork on w€ek Cals
                                                                                8                  'l--'
                                                                                                   -l---
                                                                                                  ddl

        I Per cent distribution
                                not strown where base is less
                                                              thtn 50.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                       OEII,DREN IN STREET WON,K                                                       105
       Tenr,n 48.-Number of hours oJ street work on a typi,cal Saturdaa during school
              term and,during uacation,by age period; booiblacks,
                                                                Newarli, N. J.'

                                                                                           Bootblacksunder l0 ysarsof sg€


                                                                             Total
                                                                                                10 years,    12years,      14 years,
                                                                                                under 12     under 14      uDdor 16
         Number oI hourso[ strootwork on o                                                                                             Ago
                                     sE!uqay                                         Un-
                                                                                                                                       not
                                                                              Per der                  Per          Per         | "., p0rt-
                                                                                                                                        re-
                                                                              c€nt 1 0 Nurr
                                                                        Vum- distri yearsr            cont         cent          _qelt.
                                                                         ber bu-           ber        listri ber   listri. Num- ols[rt e d l
                                                                                                       bu-          bu- ber I DU-
                                                                              tion                    tioD          tion         tion 1



                                                                          387              46   119          168            50
      Strest work                                                         362              39   113          160            46
            Total reported---                                             345 t00.0             107 100.0 157 100.
                                                                                                                 0          43
                  L e s st h r n t h o u r __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ I                        I
                  I b o u r , l e s st b a n 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ 7   2.0          I
                                                                                                     .9
                                                                                                     .9
                                                                                                            "--i   2.5         1
                  2 h o u r s ,l e s st h a n 3 _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ - I                         2.8            1.9         1
                  3 h o u s , l e s sL h a D6 - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _       15.7              19 17.8       22 14.0          5
                  6 h o u r s ,l e s st b a n 8 , - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ 726 36.5         8    39 36.4       62 39.5
                  8 b o u s , l c s st h a n I 0 - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _   86 24.9              28            4 1 26.I
                  1 0h o u r s ,l e s st h a n 1 2 _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ 49                5    t6 15.0       17 10.8       TI
                  1 2h o u r s a n d o v e r - - _ _ - - - - - _ . _ _ _       3.8          ,    2  1.9        8             I
            Not reDorted                                                                         o

      No stre€t work on Saturday                                           25                    6             8
                              Y,{C-I.TION
               Total- - - --- - -- -- -                                   340              41   t02          137           56
      S t r e e t w o r k o n S a t u r d a y - - - -- - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 9
                                                                            3              35   98           128           54
            Total reported---                                             299 t00-0        30   90 100.
                                                                                                      0      t24   00.0    ;
                                                                                                                           ol      0
                  I hour, les than 2______-____--_- 5                               17                         I    .8         I2.0
                  2 hous, lesshtn 3___--__-_-__-_
                                       l                                    IO             3        4.4           1.6           2.0
                  3 h o u r s ,l e s sr h 3 n b _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - 43_      1.1.
                                                                                      4         14 15.6       18 14.5        6 11.
                                                                                                                                 8
                  5 h o u r s ,l e s st h a n 8 _ _ - _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _100
                                                                          -        33.4     8      31.1       43 34.7      t 7 33.
                                                                                                                                 3
                  8 h o u r s ,l e s st h a n l 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _78      28. L   10   2' 24.4       34 2 7 . 4       23.5
                  1 0 h o u r s , l e s sl h a n t 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -
                                                                           4S      16.4         16 17.8       19 15.3      1 1 21.6
                  1 2b o u r sa D d o v e r _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  74       4.7    I                   7  5.6           5.9
            Not reported-----                                              20              o     8             4
      No stret work on Satuday-----_____-__                                2l              6     4             o

        I Per cent distribution              not shown Fhere base is less than 50.


       In the summer the great majority (80 per cent) of the boys spent
     at least 1-2hours e week bootblacking,  mbre than half (b6 per c'enlj
     spent at least 24 hours, and a large ploportion (26 per centj worked
                                          'when
     a full weei<of 48 hours or longer".         school rias in session64
     per cent wo-rked l-east hours. only 22 per cent worked 24 hours
                      at       12
     or longer; but for theseboys their actrial w6rkinE week, if the hours
                                                      -The
     rn school are included, was at least 4g hours.         Broportion of
     children under 10 was about the same for those workins t'2 hon.. ot
     longer a,weekas.for thoseworking a shorter time, and tEe proportion
     under 12 was a little larger.
                                 "o*l**o"
       The bootblacksmadem-ore  money,thanthe newsboys. The median
     earningsfor vacation workers were between$3 and "s+a weet ; oniy
     40 per cent of tho boys made less than $8. (Table 49.) A feiv




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgeton'nt'niversifr
        106             Er\rpr,oyt\rnNr scnoor, oETLDREN NEw JERSEI
                                      oF,              rN
       earned small amounts (75 or 50 cents or less) workins severalhours
       a.rveek,.oftengnlf' on Sundays,though a boy of Z #ho u-orl<ed       for
       r[s brother36 horrrsa rveekin vacationreceived     only 85 cents. A
       Iargeproportionof the boys (84 per cen[-)carnedat l6as1-gs-a      week.
       The cildei the child the more he ear'ed ; 4z per cent of the hoy.s
       under 12 _yearsof_age,but only 36 per cent of ihose who-.tr.r" tz o.
       older made lcss than $3, whereas2^6-per cent of the younger group
       and 39 pcr cent of the older made$bbr more. Fo. dovs i+ ui.i r3
       years of age.the median.v-eel<ly^earnings bctrveei $5 and $6,
                                                 u'erc
       mstoadof between and $4 as for the youngerboys. The numbcr
                          s3
       of hou-rssperrt at rvork made a great differ:ence nurnlnn*- For
                                                           i".t
       example,65.per ce_nt -the bootb-iacks
                             of               spendingless than 54 hour.
       a week at the u'orlt mad.c,less
                                     than $3, iompar"ed     r.r.ithonly I9 per
       cent of thosespending24   hoursor longer;        t: pcr ccni"olthbse
                                                  "ir,l
       wo-rKrng than 24 hours,but 55 per cent of thoservorkingat least
                tess
       24 hours made $5 or rnore.
       Trnr'n 49.-Earnings during a typieal weekoJ schoor-rerrn o[ aacation, age
                                                             and           by
                            period; bootblacks,Neuarl;,N. J.

                                                                                          Bootblacks under 16 years of age


                                                                                              I   10 years,
                                                                                                  under 12
                                                                                                                 12 years,
                                                                                                                 under 14
                                                                                                                                    14 j.ears,
                                                                                                                                    under 16
                                                                                                                                                  I
            Earnings dudag a typicsl week                                                _l- i
                                                                                         Yn
                                                                                                                                                  lo*
                                                                               Per   oer I                 Per            Pcr                     I not
                                                                               cent  10 1                 cent           cent                     i re:
                                                                               dis- yetrsrlNum             dis- Nun      dis-                     I por[-
                                                                                                           f,rl- ber      tri-
                                                                                                                                                   "o'
                                                                                bu-
                                                                               tion
                                                                                                           bu-
                                                                                                          trlon
                                                                                                                          bu-
                                                                                                                         tron                     I
                    SCEOOl  TERY
             Total------------                                                                    1r9 i-___-_
      Total reported---                                                                           l1l   100.0
          L e s st h a n $ 0 . 2 5 _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ _
                                      -,
          $ 0 .2 5 ,l e s si t a " $ o . i o - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  3
                                                                                 I            -l..-
                                                                                    .8              r I     .9
                                    g
          $ 0 .5 0 ,l e s sl , h a n t - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _       8.4             1 0I    e.0
          $1 less han $2 --
          $1,,lessthan $2---_ - - - _ - _ _ - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ 2 2 . 6
                      t                                                                            30i    27.0
          $ 2 ,l e s st b a D$ 3 -- - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 21.0
                                                                               88                  2s |   22.5
          $ 3 ,l e s st b a D$ 4 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 59 16.I                1 9I   17.1
          $ 4 ,l e s st b a n $ 5 -- - - - - _ - _ _ - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _26    _                   4|     3.6
          $ 5 ,l e s st b a n $ 6 -- - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ 9 . 5                 17i    15.3
          $ 6 ,l e s st h a n $ 8 - . - - - - - - - - _ _ __ _ - -- _ _ _ _ m 7 . 9                 4I     3.6
          $8 and over- - -- - -                                                l0  2.7              1i      .e
          No earnings and no cmh earnings- _                                        .5           - "- l- - ' - - '
      Not reported                                                         x                       u l------
                             VACI.TION                                                               I
                                                                                                     I
            Total                                                        340                     toz l---___
                                                                                                  92 100.0             1 0 0 . 0!   53 r00.0
                                                                                 .9       2      -.-; '-8.        I              '---i- --i.0-
                                                                                5.0                      A        6                              ::::::
                                                                               16.6       6           22.8       t7                  8   r5.1 I          I
                                                                               17.6               T 7 18.5
                                                                               to. /      7           14.1       22                  e   15.1 -_----
                                                                                9.4       5        c   9.8                           4    7.5 ___---
         $ 5 , l e s st b a n S 0 -- - - _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ -   12.5       I       13 14 1
         $0, lessthan $8- --
                                                                                                                 la                  7   I3.2 )            3
                                                                               10.3                7   7.6       IO                  I   1 7 . 0l - - - - - -
         $6 ano over_ _ _-__                                                                              l.o
         No earnEgs and no cash earDings_                                                                                                20.8 -----_
                                                                   -.           .6        I                                          I    1 .I l - - - - - -
      Not r€ported-----                                                                   c
                                                                                                                  5

       I Per ceat distributiotr not show!
                                          wbere base is less thau 80.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                         CEILDNEN IN STREET WORB
                                                                        r07
       The bovswho braerred   boots- afterschoor Saturdavs
     thanthe vaeation                               and              maderess
                       *'orrrers.M"*ir""       ririi rsoil;:.rrj".;'rned less
     than g3a u'eek. median
                    t'rre       buiG b;;;;;.ntz ind'$-i."-Ho*iJu".,
              per                                                         onu_
    lltl.(20 year eent)-;i" $t;;"nio"#.''The medianearnings r4          t.or
    p^1d.,15 old bootblacks      *.." t
    Ior the orhers;otheru'ise differen""ln $B ancl$4, $t mire than
                              the         "iiuen           io; i'"n,."ir
    ent agesu'asnot great,itgrsh;;ilat           "or"i*; yearsbf difler_
                                                 least 1-2
               largerei'r"ings ih;;-i[.";.;"ger                       age had
    :?il_TI^* rn ea.nings                            boorblactis.
    orrerences             according the r;-d, ;i;""r.'.p#tT]re same
                                      to
    work u-eLe  found                                                   at the
                       :n:g, F !"rii9*i:r,q^aurinsthe scholol
    among those at work,during vac_aiion;                             year as
    12 hours made tessthan $I.                F; pu" cent working iess than
                                       ;;i; i.p-"r_"eot m#e^dB o. ,no,,o,
    rvhereas oy]y a_2per cent of ";d
                                  ttor"-*.i"[
    lcs:.than $B-andd9 per_cent                       hours or longer marle
                                 made at r.#*g31
     - The earnins..uport"d i".i"J"Jiip; ili;;; f""med a regurar
    the u'eeklyinlalie, but no .p".ifi"-iilotmarion                 parr o{
                                                      on trps .rvas
                                                                  obtained.
                            BOOTBLACKS    IN   SCrIOOL

               bootblacl< eachgroup lvasin high school.
                         in
   scnoor grade                                              TIre median
   "^p^ltt_:lg was the fourrh. Tte bootrta.ti.'*-*'il*'-J.i"""tu.a*a
   of the Newark street .r,r-o.rk"...-"A,iiJg'
   vacation46 per cent of tt," boyri'1;?,yearsa-l^"_-qroyp
                                                         wolking" during
   born fathersand 68 per cent ;i6""";;              of age uirh {orergn-
                                             Do-r's
   grades;amonEthe qroup attendirlg-sHJo, were oycragefor their
   and 7+, respec-tivelvi drty "it;;i.;'i;     ,nurupercentages  were42
   included *ih;H# sroup 17 ,r" il',r,'J.",
                         bnd ;,        TTRfJiilx-f,T.:i
   the lZ,were retarded.

   y#ll{"i,Ji'?i':iljf"'6"d#LHtt,
   a r.reek work, nt.luj
                                   jl#$_|:m;iJ,:':fi :;"$iffii
           at              li-ifiolu..rp"norng betrveen and
   hours, 52 per            "."ot,                     12               2l
      were cent, ril:d;
   cenr ietarded; iffi"rir,it    il3,?1"l"rltr";#::?,X?
   second, 32percent tn" trrira"i"*'r.tiia;a'fi"y;";io". lfj
        and          br                                             -or".
    r'wohundred
              and
  yearheldtheirjobsat the ,orTlDp:ffir, working
                     lt*- tir"";f'th" ini.r"i"*;-st during school
                                                           the
  cturrng
        vacation. Th^"_q.:?,t,                      r,uiliorfua o"ry
                             majority
  yearsold, and aboutone-fifthweref+ "i"in. U"j,.";r;;;' Xillu.t rz
                                      or f S. (Table50.)
                     RACE AND   NATIONALITY    OF FATHEBS

                                           amounring_t_s
                                jhe*peddlers,cent   20per
    f J**Xj*"-*lJ*3:::f $;;:;;";r,i,h"J#';1%hl of
  ll:^l,"lltil,"workers;";fi
  '"hoof were
  sehoolG"il;;;';iX[T:f_li;e';,",1":i,:t"":.ryjHF_f
        .term,
  were the children of "iii*'#rri
                    "i immigrant fuin.o,                        Hrq%,li;
                                                  and a few were nesroes.
                                                                 negroes.




      30812"-2H




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        108    EMprroyl\[ENT scgooTrcrrrr.DREN NEw JERSEy
                           oF                 rN
        Those of foreign stocl<were largely Italian, but they included many
        Jews (especiaily Russian) and"some rvhoie fathers were of othe"r
        nationalities. (Table 35, p. 82.)
                          ECONOMIC   CONDITION   OF FAMILIES


        _-As among other kinds of street workers in Newark, few of the ped-
       dlers werein fatherless  families-l2 per cent in eachgroup. Arnong
       theboys_u'orking.in  vacation2i (6 pei cent) and amongthoseworkin[
       d-uring  the schoolyear 17 (7 per cent) rverein familie! supportedbf
       the mbther. Lilie the other itreet workersa large propoition of the
       peddlers,even when some one other than the mother-provided the
       family living, had mothers who were gainfully employed:27 per cent
       of the vacaiion u.orliersand 32 per cint of ihe o^th.i'.. Mosl of the
       mothers rverein domestic-   and personaiservice,but many did factory
                                                                -
       work in their homes and a number worked in stores.
          The chief breadwinners a considerable
                                  to               extent were in occupafions
       tha-tcommonly     providea smallincome. About one-fifth the boys
                                                                  of
       had fathers oi other chief breadwinnerswho t'ere themseh'espe'd-
       dlers, and 16 per cent of thoservorking during the schoolyear and 18
       per cent of the others had chief breadu'inners  who were in domestic
       and personalserviceor were laborers in the buiiding trades, in fac-
       tories, or in transportation. About the sameproportion as neu,'sbovs
       (about.three-tenths)had chief breadwinnersin occupationsrequiring
       education, training, or businessenterprise,such as machinisis and
       meqhanies;   contractors,foremen,and artisansin the building trades;
       skilled workers in factories; owners of factories,ownersof st-ores
                                                                        and
       shops; commercial travelers; clerks and professionalworkers.
                             DURATION   OF STREET   WORK

         As a rulo the vacation peddlers had .w'orkedthe greater part of
       the summer vacation; 80 per cent reported betrveenI and 10 lveel<s
       of peddling. All the children rvho worked during the school session
       were interviewed at least 24 weeks after the opening of school; 7l
       per cent,had worked 24 r'eeks or longer rvhile attending school.
                                CONDITIONS   OF WORK

          All peddlerswere required by city ordinancerelating to liealth to
       obtain licenses, and children under 16 were not eligible for peddlers'
       licenses. ft was generally understood among the children inter-
       vierved that they were x'orking illegally and w-ereliable to be "run
       off the streets" by the police. Occasionallya child was forbidden
       by the police to continue his peddling activities, but in generalthey
       appear not to have been interfered with. lf the juvenile peddler
       was employed his work was subject to regulation irnder thb State
       child labor law (seep. 9), but the Iaw was not enforced in the case
       of these rvorkers.
          By far the larger number of the peddlers-l27 oI the 203 who
       were worliing when the inquiry was made-were employedby others.          t

       Aknost all oJ the 76 in busin"ess their own accouni sold pretzels
                                         on
       or candy or both, the remaining few selling many other artiiles, in-     I

       cluding post cards, paper shopping bags, soap, salve, seeds,toilet       i
       goods, calendars, wood, cocoa, and cheu'ing gum, Most of the
       hucksters (that is, fruit and vegetable peddlers), of whom there         0




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                        CITILDREN IN STR,EET WORK                                                  109
       were 77, were employed.b.y others. Thirty-eight boys u.ere employed
       pl their o'r-n parents,.chiefy by fathers,-rvho *ere hueltstcrs,-brit a
      l € w b y p a r e n t s r v h o s o l d o t h e r c o m m o d i t i e s ,s u e h a s r v o o d ,i c e , c a n d y ,
      d r v . g o o d s , j u n k , a n d i c e c r e a m . A f e w u - e r e e m p l o l . e d 'b y ' u n c l e " s ,
                         ,
       b r , o t h e r s o . a c o u s i n , g e n e r a l l y a s h u c l r s t e r s ,b u t i n s c v e r a i c a s e st o
      sell .pretzols ol chewing gum. Although most of the pretzel sellers
      worked on their orvn account, a few weire hired by deal'ersor bakers.
         .)Io'e than half (5g per eent) of the cbildren *'orrrinE rvhen inter-
      lrewed u-orked only in residenfial sections of the citv] Those rvho
      huckstered fruit, vegetables, and other produce as weil as some rvho
      had other commodities for sale, including a number of pretzel sellers,
      found their customers mainly' among frouscu-ives. NIuov peddreci
      such articles as pretzels and candy thlat found a readier sir"'u-ong
      pedestnans on the down-torvn streets and rvorl<ersin offices and
      factories. Seyeral boys sold paper shopping bags at one of the
      markets to marketers who neecied a container"for iheir purchases.
                                               REGULARITY         OF WORK

        fn vacation the boys' peddling more often than not was a daily
     j-o^b    pe^r.cent
          "6?          lepolted workiig six or seven days a rveek. Only
     53 of the 343 worked only on Sa[urdays or on Sundays or on both
     days, and only 2g worked ',now &nd t"hen.', The vounser children
     as well as the older ones u-orkedevery day. When scEoolwas in
     sessiononly,33^per cent rrorked_everi {ay, or every day except
     Sunday, and 48 per cent worked only Saturdays or Sundays or
     both; howeverrgnly 25 of the 243 worked so irregularly that they
     could not state definitely,the number of days a week they ordinarily
     worlied. The daily workers during                     ,n6re younger
                                          -the sihool yeur
     than the others,51 per cent beingunder 12 yearsbf age.
                                                -IIOURS      OF WORK

         \rery fey -o! the boys peddled before schoolin the mornings; only
      4 reported doing so, oI whom I began *-ork before6, l,heoihers at
      7 or later. [n vacation a. Iarger number began their rounds early
     i'tire mor'ing; 10 started before6 a. m. unl 16 betrveen and z.
                                                                   6
     All .except of these26-,a rrood seller and a p'etzel peddlcr, were
                  2
     huclisters' helpers, 13 of w-homrvorlied for fathers or,'in one
     a br'gther, the others being hired assistants. The usual hour. of "u.",
     starting out.on the hucksteri'rvagons   rvasabout 6, but a fery started
     at 5 or ear'liei. Two ]ittle boys worliins for their fathers said that
     they_startedtheir work at 2 or 3 a. m. u-ith a trip to the market to
     get the day's produce.
        Almost half (-18per cent) the vacation peddlersdoins afternoon
     work sto_pped   bcfore6 p. m., but 11number of boys rvorke"d until g or
     later, a f'ew.r_eporting hour of s.uopping 10 or l1 or even mid-
                             the                  as
     night. (Table 50.) A number of the ped-dlers     rvorkinsuntil at least
     8 p. nl. rve-re under 12, and sorne weie under 10 yea"rsof age. A
     somewhat larger proportion of the 285 Satulday-"eveninE       piddl"rt
     rvorkeduntil at least 8, several_up midnight or later fTable St;,
                                          to
     someof rvhomu-ere                                                       --
                           under 12 and severa-l
                                               unde-r vear.s age. xioJf
                                                     10      of
     of thesc rvere fruit or-vegetabie peddlers or ice-6reamseliers; sorne
     of them v'orked for theii parenti, but more were hired bv others.
     A little boy of 10 accompanied father, an rtalian ice-creard
                                     his                           peddler.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'nLniversitr
         110               EMpLoyMENToF scnoor, cETLDREN NEw JERsEy
                                                       rN
         until midnight every. nig\t. A l3-year-old boy of polish-Jewish
         parentagewas out with hi_sfather's pushcart selling fruit until 10
         p. m. every"evening only dru'ingvacationbut also throughoub
                                not                                       a
         la.rgepat't oI t,nescfroolyear.
         Trrr,n 50.-rlour-ot_ending af,terno.onwork on atypical week dag other than sat-
           urday durin,g school,
                               tbrm,and during uacat'ion,
                                                        b{'age periart,;"fed,dters,
                                                                                  Nei,wLii,
           N. J.


                                                                                                  Peddlers undcr 16 years of ago




                   il".6: la:l o i
         ""ii,"*Brnu'Eritril*?f,",+: iC=]:P
                      fl,',$
                        JJ"                                                           I       lun-l
                                                                                          Per I der 101
                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                           | Per                 Pe
                                                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                                                 Per r l
                                                                                                                                              i     lnot
                                                                                                                                                Perl re-
                                                                                                                                                          I--
                                     j"""'
                            N-qr-,rTi.ii- ^,qr-                               -           @nt ilearsl\.,,_ I cent                cent l\r,,,- l@nt port.
                                                                                                                                         'll-oiitri
                                                                                  [tr" di.tri-l ]'be; ldls'ri'r'b;;
                                                                                  o.i "[]il'-li           lo
                                                                                                            l"il''iu.'            dl{ri-,eru
                                                                                                   ]']i'i'-10'.,',. fiistri'l'ii,r'
                                                                                                                                        iJi


                              -'"""*"-l-l-r-ll-l-l-l-l-
                                                                                  -l-i-l-l-
                                                                                      , , 'i"o n l I l t ii o n l i r i ; " 1 l i i ; " |
                                                                                      ]r .1 |             lt on

                 Total_____-___-__                                                                                                         _
                                                                              2 4 3 - _ _ _ _ t sI z s ll _ --_ _ _ . _ l8 l _ _ _ _ _ _sl r _ _ - l
                                                                                              2
                                                                                              a       ?5 _ ____       8                                I
                                                                           :F $ _ 1-- - _ _ _ _ l |
                                                                            .2    t
        A f i erD n g ork - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
                 oc                                                               -1-             -i=             =         :-:     -n        =    -
                                                                                                        -'-'-                       -
              rrour roporkd-__-
              rlour renorfcd----                                         -l_,,,'too.oI ,, t--+ _____l
                                                                              --,-
                                                                         -, rrs
                                                                                 1,*
                                                                                        o     r.t
                                                                                              1
                                                                                                          ,
                                                                                                          i-----li:l ,1-1:
                                                                                                       l__gi
                                                                                                                      ,,  sz
                                                                                                                 i __,..1 i-"-_I        ,,           _----
                                                                     s l_
                    n c f o r o _ pD _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ - _l_ _ _ r .-zr |
                              0     .                                                             5;     z o l _ _ _ - - - l r n i _ _ _ _ - _ l ; l _ - _ _ _". - -._ _
                                                                                                                                                                 1
                    6 p . m . ,b e t o r8 p . m _ _ _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ _ 1 4 0 . e
                                        e                           47l          I                bI     r z l - _ _ _ _ - lm , _ - _ _ _ _ t o l _ _ _ - _ _ l _ - . _ - _
                                                                                                                                               l
                                                                1 - i- -
                    i & . - ; l , t f l f l i " ' ? & . - . _ - - -6- 1-3 e i4 ) 9 l _ : _ - - t ll- - - - - - ii l - - - - - - - : - : : -
                                                                                               -
                           ll l.ll ;l il. l ... l .
              Erourne,repo.ed..................l 11 1 .
                                               l...
                           'l -l rl 'l-      'l--
        I'ftiifxfii'#."Jil;;;;;h;;rri;;-s;i.-l
                         --:--                                                                                       I                 1 |               ]
                     --:       :-                                                                    -i
                                -----l
        rimeofdaynotreporred__-___ i l 6 l - - - - - - l s j| 3 3l - - - - - - t 4ii : - - - - - - , r u t _ - _ _ _ _ lI
        -uroar'---------'.-
                            --_--      ;                 a __-l__:___ii__:::_i                                     _ __-
                    vACAnoxilllllll ;    l-___--l                                                        l_-:-__i
                 Total------------                                                    '          _l
                                                                                  3 + a_ _ _ _ _ g +    g Zi _ _ _ _ _ _g _ _ _ _ _ _,
                                                                                                                      rr l          ; I                          1
                                                                                                                         1 0 9r 0 0 . 0I    56i100.0
                                                                                                                                                   I             1
                                                                                                        8 4l f i r
                                                                                                        3 1i 3 9 . i
                                                                                                         I 11.5
                                                                                                         3l 3.€
                                                                                                         1l r.3
                                                                                                         r Il_-___
                                                                                                        tu l-----
                                                                                                         "t-----
                                                                                                         2l



          ! Per cent distribution not shown wbere baso is less than b0.


           TVhenschoolw-as sessionr17 bovs peddledon the afternoonsof
                             in
        school-days._  Mcre than half (5S pei cent) u-orkeduntil 6 p. m. or
        later, including 16 boys (14 per cent) not stopping until beiweeng
        and 10,..and.4(3 per cent) working until t0 oTlat'er. The 20 boys
        out until at least_ p. m. on school-dayevenings
                          8                             included someunder
        12, and even under I0 yearsof age. On Satuidav nights 17 per cent
        of the 188 boys rvho worked did not quit until"betin'eeoS and 10.
        and 4 per^centnot until 10, of v'hom 1 ivas out until after midnighti
        thus, on Saturdays 39 boys, of whom 4 lvere under l0 and 11 rnere
        10 or 11 years old, rvere working until at least 8 p. m. The late
        workers in_cluded boys working under a variety of conditions. The                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                                              I
        l4-year-old son of a Polish pe-ddlerwlio helped bris fatier regularly                                                                                             I
                                                                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                                                                                          I




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                             CTTILDREN                   IN       STREIT       WORK                                                  111
         both during vacation and u-hen school was in session. q'orkecl until
         8 - 3 0 - e v c r vs e h o o l - d a ve ' e u i n q a r i d u n t i l 1 0 o n S a t r r l d a v n i g l r t s . . \
         chrtdof i0 wolked uiLh lris father., n Iualianice-creanr        a                                  l i e d t l l e r ,u n t i l
          10 on sclroql-dly-evenings,
                                                             ^ t h o u g hn o t e v e r y d a l - , a n d u n t i l g o r . l 0
         p . m . o n S . . r . t u l d r y sa n d S u n d a y s w h e n [ h e r i c a t h e r \ \ r r s \ \ $ r . n l .
         A n o l h e r ' 1 0 - r ' e a r - o l d o v , a l s o o f I t a l i a r r p a l e n t a g e , r r o r . r t c du n t i l l 0
                                                b
         orr Satirrtlay nights for'.a fruit and vegetibi" nr"-t it".;' jr"*t,ia t,n",,
         c m l ) r o ) - e d . t h l o u g l r o u tt h e ' s u m m e r v a c a t i o n a n d h a d b e e n r v o r ' l i i i l g
         36 weelis duriqe the school year u'hen intervierved. A Russian-Jex.isfi
                       15 sold
         lny ff                       -"^andyon his own account, worliing dailv, inclrrili.g
         Suldayp, until 10 p. m. A l4-year-old boy accompanieclhis fatLcrl,
           PglistlJeu.ish
                        pushcartpeddier,until i'O              il.l;Aii{
         3
         Dundavs.                                 "o".y "ight,
         Ten'n 5l.-rfour of ending afternoon u:ork on a typical saturd.aud,urinc .schoo,,
                term and du,ringuacation,by aoe periorl; peikllcrr, iri"iii i.-i.-"

                                                                                                    Peddlers under 16 years of ago

                                                                                                                                               i;;-T=_
                                                                                                         Ioyears,             1 21 ' e * s .
                                                                                                         u n d c r1 2         u o d e r1 4        u n r l e rl C
              Ilour of ending afternoon work ou
                     I typical Saturday                                                                                                                               lcd

                                                                                                               I         I          I                   I            rr,'t
                                                                                  Per                          I ler     I          i l.er              I eer        rp_
                                                                            Num- cont
                                                                                 tistri                       *lr-lulii,l-
                                                                                                         olli.i        Nlp,,liii!'",i1
                                                                                                      ' ; : " * d i s r r i -l : . " - f d i s r r i - ! , | -
                                                                                                                            '                        '                's6
                                                                                                                                                                          i
                                                                             ber
                                                                                  ou-                 "gp-
                                                                                                         ""' I bu- I wc' I br.
                                                                                                                                                               i srr
                                                                                                                                                        UEI , rbu-i -
                                                                                 tion
                                                                                                           - lI -i- jn-l r ;
                                                                                                                t o                ltion]               ltinn'
                              SCEOOL TEIiM
                 Total- - ----______                                                                           ltll
                                                                                                          ? 5 t _ _ _ _ _ _8 8 l _ _ . _ _ _ 5 1 _ . _ . .                    1
        A f t e r n o o nw o r k _ _ - - - - _ _ - -

              Eour reported_---                                                                                    .
                                                                                                     |_ _ t0 v 'r w_ lu -I-
                                                                                                           __ _l _
                                                                                                                              6 110 u |
                                                                                                                              0 4 i 1 w .0 . 0     4/ l___-__l                I
                    B e f o r e6 _ p .m _ - - - _ - _ , - _ _ - _ - - _ - - _ _ l s t : a l . a
                    q p. m., before p. m------__-___l O: ls.s
                                           s                                                         i ?! I *1.1 ?qI 4q.8 zr l-____-l I
                                                                                                               | 26 i 40.{i I
                    d p . m . , b e f o r el 0 l | . p - - _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ l 3 2 I ? - 1                                        I I 14.1
                    l 0 p . m . , b e f o r et 2 p . m _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ l 6
                    12 m.aoda f r e r - - _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - _i_,_ l s
                                                                                         J. 2
                                                                                         ".                                     i I 1.6
                         b.
              Ilournotreported-_-__-_--- " -f  - -             r
       {',,1,1_"llg 9n'y___- _____ _____-__- i 22|
       SflTgy-"11::.*'__----_--------l ?z__.
                 yol[      _
                if iJ.X"J,l;,r---------i 2rI---
       ti"T"Jr..""?         -::."
                                                                          I"i-'
                ,""'--".:::.'_::::.____....
                             .. I ,.,
                                    l
                      n
       A f t e r n o ow o r k - - - _ - _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ - - - _ _ _ - _ - _ _t- l oo
                                                                      z s sl o .                         85
             Before6_p.m_________-_-_______-___] ] +0.r
             6p.     u b e r r 8 D. m _ _
             9 f , . m, , De f o oer d p . m _ - - _ -_ - _ _ _ - _ _ - _ _ _ _ l I 3 I . o
                                     e
                                             rrz
                                                                        |    q ll , t r g
                                                                             9
                                                                                                        n   48.2
                                                                                                         28 32.I
             5 - n .m . , b r l o r el 0 p . m _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 6 l 1 6 .
                                                                         __        I                     10 1 1 . 8
                                                            _ _ _ _ _ _. _ 4 .
             +z tp .m ,.- qn l * g te rp . _ -_ _ -_ _ -_ __ _ _ _ 1 4 _ _ - e l
                                    z m            __                      l
             r g . ! . a . da n _ _ _                    _         __ -7       _
                                                                                                          5
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                             5.9
                                                                                                             1.2
                                                    _-_ - _
       | j o r n i n c w o r k o D l y - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - --_ " - l 2 l l _ _ _ _ _ -                      2
       +ilTTl'.""? ;.r-- _:__-_:| ?3-_ :
               :?i','.tfJi --._ __ _ :                                                                    6
                                                                                                          4

         I Per cent distribution               not showD whero base is less than 50.


         Thc hovs rvho peddled d.ring vacation generaily-     worked the greater
       pari oj the day; jS pg. cent"roported a't, reasr D nours
                                                                      or worli on
       weeK da.vs_otherthan Satrrrdays, 53 pcr cent, at Ienst g hours,
                                                                           and 2g
       per cent at least 10 hours. tTaut'e sz)     The 14g u,,hose ho".r'ol ,.-n.L
                                  -
       rvere 8 or more included children in all'the different     g;;1;., ito,,gh
                                                              "g;




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown tlniversitr
         ll2              EMprroyMENT scgoor, cErr,DBEN NEw JEBSEy
                                    oF                 rN

         somewhat fewer were under 10 or even under 12 than in the whole
         grorrp,ofvacationpeddlers. severalof theseworkedfor their parents,
         but almost all were hired. Ail except 2 wero fruit and vesetabl6
         hucksters;the 2 solclpretzels,a l2-year-old bov reporting tihat he
         sold for his brother from 8 to t2 and-from 1 to 5 aaiiy in iacations,
         and the other, 13yearsold,.that his hourswere from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m.
           Saturdayhours in vacationwcre even longer,for 84 per cenr were
         at work at least 5 hours, 61 pcr cent at leait 8, and 8-6per cent at
        Ieast 10 hours, including 43 boys who were out tZ houis or more.
         (Table 53.)- Altogethei 188 Salurday peddlersworked g hours or
        more, of-whom 9 (5 per cent) were under 10 an4 68 (96 per cent)
        were under 12. Almost all these          were producehucksters,bul
                                            _b_oys
        severalsold ice cream and one peddledpretzels. By far the Ereater
        number were hired by others than theii parents,aird of thole who
        rverehired th,emajority were under 14_and   somewere under 12 years
        of age,though a som_ewhat   larger number of the boys under 12 work-
        lng on s-aturdaysaslong as 12 hours were working with their fathers.
        Some of the Saturday peddlers rcported workiig 14 or 15 hours,
        generallyfor a huckster other than lheir own fathJr.
        Ttnrn          i2.-Number                 o! hours o! street work on a tupical ueek dau other than
                                                 school term and during tacation,'bs ase perioL; peddlers,
            "^f:lLifly ^f:f.ns

                                                                                          Peddlers under 16 ysars of ago




              Number of hours ol streetwork
               on a tlaical we€k day othor
               than Saturday                                                                           t_
                                                                                                        rel
                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                \"--'nl!l,l
                                                                                                 Der -i--:''
                                                                                            I          luu'



                            SCEOOL IERU
                                                                                         -i-l- Itionl
                                                                                           I
                Total------------                                                        zs |     7Et------
       Street work on week days----                                                      19/      42 -_--__
                Total roported---                                            119 100.0
              L e s st b a n I b o u r - - - - - - - - _ - - - - _ _ _   l3
              t h o u r , l e s st h a n 2 - - - _ - _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _
              2 h o u r s , l e s s[ b a D 3 _ _ - _ _ _ _ - _ . _ _ _ _39
              3 h o u r s , l e s st h a n 5 - - _ - _ _ _ _ - - _ - _ _ x
              5 h o u r s ,l e s s h a n 8 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ - _ _
                                   t                                      7
              8 b o u r s ,l e s st h a n 1 0 - _ _ - - - - _ - _ _ _      I
          Not, reported-----                                              6
       No street work on week days__-__-_                               116
                           Y.TCATION
               Total- - - ---------                                          343
       Strogt work on seek days____
                                                                                                                           \
            Total reported___
                                                                                                                           I
                Iass than t hour-----------_-_-_                              2
                t h o u r , l e s st h a n 2 - - - - - _ - - - - - - _ _ _   13
                2 b o u r s ,l s s t b a n 3 - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ - _ -     l1                    2
                3 h o u r s ,l e s st h a n 5 - - - - - - _ _ - _ - - _ _                         13
                5 hous, lessthan 8-__-_-___---__                             7L                   16                       !
                8 h o u r s ,l s s t h a n 1 0 _ - - - - _ _ - _ - _ _ -     67                   L7
                10 hours, lessthan 12-----_-__---                            54                   t8
                12 hours and oyer                                            27                    6                       ir
            Not rsported-----                                                I1
       No street work on week duys-_-___-__---                               53                   I5                       ;
         I Por cont distribution Dot shom where base ls loss than
                                                                  b0.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                        OEILDREN                    IN STREET WORK                                            113
        Tesru 63.-,rvuryb9r oJ hours oJ srreetwork on a tupical saturdau durino school
               term and,during uacation,by age period; peddlers,Neu.or,(.,-.\-. "
                                                                             J.

                                                                                                Peddlers under 16 ]'etrs of sgo


                                                                               Total                10 years,
                                                                                                    undcr 12


                                                                                     Per               Per
                                                                         Num- ent                Num. ftnt
                                                                                                       istri
                                                                          ber bu-                 ber  bu-
                                                                              lron                    uoD


                          SCEOOL TERM

                                                                                                                                       - - - - -|_ r
       Strcet work on Saturday-----                                                                                                     -___-l r
           Total reported-- -

                L e s s h a nt h o u r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l
                      t                                                                              I
                t h o u r ,l e s s h a n 2 - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - .
                2 hours,     less
                                 t
                                   than 3------------_-                       lil    6.3
                                                                                            1
                                                                                                                       8. 1
                                                                                                                       4,I
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                   2
                                                                                                                                       -::--l-:::--
                3 h o u r s ,l e s st h a n 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - _ -
                6 h o u r s ,l e s st h a n 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     isl
                                                                               9. 1
                                                                              26.4
                8 h o u r s ,l e s st h a n 1 0 - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ 45 12r. a
                                                                                            2
                                                                                            o
                                                                                            t
                                                                                                     6
                                                                                                    13
                                                                                                    m
                                                                                                                       8. I
                                                                                                                      28.1
                                                                                                                      18.I
                                                                                                                                   6
                                                                                                                                  IO

                                                                                                                                  10
                                                                                                                                       --::-l-::.-:
                                                                          42 20.2
                10 hours, lessthatr 12---------___
                1 2h o u r s a n d o v e r _ _ - _ _ _ - - - - _ - _ - -      10.6
                                                                                            4
                                                                                            ,       l4
                                                                                                     5
                                                                                                                      18.I
                                                                                                                      13.5
                                                                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                                       :::::1..-.-l
           Not reported-----
                                                                              "1.           6        2
       No street work on Satuday

                            YACATION
                                                                              "l'                    6


             Total- ----------                                               rnrI           34
       Strcet work on SBturday--- ------ _-                                  32r __-_--
           Total reported - --                                               307ir00.0              88
              I hour, lessth8n 2_------__-.                              8I
              2 h o u ; , l c a st n a r l - - - - - - _ _ _ - - _ _ _ 1 0 I
                                                                                     2.6
                                                                                     3.3
                                                                                                   1     4.5      2   1.6
                                                                                                                      2L
                                                                                                    2
              3 h o u r s ,l e s st h a B 5 - _ _ _ - - _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ 3 1 |       10.1             I   70.2         8.7      7 I 10.9
              6 h o u s , l e s st h a n 8 - - - - - - _ - _ _ _ _ - - 70 i         22.8            t4   15.I    30 2 3 . 8   16I 25.0
              8hous, less hsn l0__-____--____ i
                                  t                                    78           25.4                 33.0                 t7 | 26.6
              l 0 b o u r s ,l e s st h a n l 2 - - - - - - - . _ _ _ 6 7 I                                      3 1 24.6
                                                                                    2t.8                 23.5                 14| 21.9
              1 2h o u r s a n d o y e r _ - - -_ _ _ - - - - _ - _ _ 4 3           14.0             o   t0.2         lo. /    81u.5
                                                                            ]
          Not reported-----                                                  tn
                                                                                  l-'--'-
                                                                             " l-----
        r Per cent distribution not sbownwherebasels lessthan 50.

                    boys peddled on sundays during yacations,the majority
       .tr'orty-six
      of whom worked at least b hours.
        ,During the school term hours for the 127 boys who worked on
      school days were shorter than for vaca,tionwork'ers. Nevertheless,
      63 per cent worked 2 hours 9r m_ol_e,. per cent at least B hours, and
                                          B0
      7 per cert -worked5 hours in addition lo the hours spent in scirooL;
                      group worked betwe? 8.and 1Ohog19. An 1i-l,ear-
      91,"ji _th,""lpst
      old b9V,of Lithuanian paren
      old boy,    Lrthuanian parentage,                helped a fruit peddler every sihool
      day from 4 to 9 p. m., u r r u all day on Saturdbys, having"worked
      u o J r r u r r r I L U r p . l r . , and n l l o & y o n D a f , u r o a y s , havinE-worked
                                                                                      n&vrnE w.orked
      throughout, the summer vacation and most of t,he school                                      A
                                                                                            ]ear.
      lu-year-old chrld,
      l0-year-old child, employed by a huckster, worked practically the
                         ^employedpy -a                           )a,lly the
      same hours. On Saturdayshe began at Z a. m. and did not quitnof
      until 8 p-.h., eating applei from th"ehuckster's waEon tor his-tu.tctt.
      A boy of 14. the son a Polish neddler helnad hi'q fqtho' rao,'to'to
                           of        peddler,
                       son of a PoJis.h     helped tutte" regJu;it
                                                   ti"s
          "s.s
      I !"X 9114,^tl:
      tiom oio's.50                                     d"y"
                                             """"i-."u""i ;;t;ii d#;; ffi ffift .



Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'nLniversif.r
       ll4              EMpLoyMENToF scnoor, cETTLDREN NEw JERSEY
                                                    rN

         On Saturdays during the school year peddlers' hours were much
       the same as on Saturdays during vacations; 109 boys (52 per cent
      of the Saturday worliers) spent at least 8 hours peddling, including
      64 boys whoseworking day was 10 hours or longer.
         Among the boys working during the school yea,r were 51 rvho
      peddledon Sundays,of whom 28 worked at least five hours. tr'{any
      of those who woiked unusuallv lone hours on Sundavs werc th-o
      candy and pretzel sellers. An il-yea"r-old candy seller ivorked frorn
      12 to 8.30 on Sundays;a boy of 14 sold pretzelsfor his father, rvho
      ran a pretzel factory, not oniy eve.y week day but also from 7 a. m.
      until 6 p. m. on Sundays; another pretzel seller, a l3-year-old boy of
      Austrian-Jervish  parentage,sold pretzelsall day Sunday from 8 a. m.
      until 7 p.m.; a l3-year-oldboy of native rvhite parentagervas em-
      ployed by a pretzeimaker to iell all day Saturciaysanf, Sundays;
      a Jewishboy of 11 sold pretzels his own accountfrom 3.30to 6.30
                                        on
      ,rvery school day, from g a. m. to 7 p. rn. on Saturdays, and from
      9 to 5.30on Snndays;a little negrocandy sellerwas out on Saturdays
      and Sundaysfrom 9 in the morning until g at night, stopping an hour
      for lunch and for supper; a 12-vear-old  boy sold pretzelsfor the owner
      of a pretzelshop only on Saturdays and Sundays,but on those days
      he worked all day, pirt of the tim"eat the baseballgrounds. Generaliy
      bhese boys had worked many weekswhen they were intelviewed.
      Tanr,n 54.-Ntrmber of hours of streetwork during atypical ueelcof schoolterm anil
                     oJ uacation,by age period; peddLers,Neuark, N. f .
                                                                     I
                                                                                                Peddlersuoder 16years of age
                                                                     I
                                                                     l---------r---r-r I
                                                                     I n^r"r I   | 10years,                           12years, 1 r.t years, l
             h
      Numberof oursofstreetworkduringal                                                                 uDdcr12       undcr14 underi0
                                                                                   I    I                          I_ _ -      I _;;;         .{se
               typicalwrek          |                                          ,   lUo_l                      ,
                                    I                                          lPerderl0;                     lPerl       lPerl       lPerire-
                                                                     lxu.- -l',.'-l]esrsr;Num-dcmt lo!!i.lnl^y i,,::i,l1
                                                                            -eul'_!          'il,l'-r*l:
                                                                     I u*              1 uer          ueri"i,l,il'-l ,"'rlu_i8.l-
                                                                                                                   uer
                                                                     I         ltAl                 1         ltl""l              ldo'l                 tioi,
                          ,."".",*i-l-l-l-l-l-]-i--l-
               rotar---------------------------- l_lx i_:t---=_ ,.                                                                    ----__lL=
                                        l-j1, ,.,..                                                                                                                    j
      T o t a lr e p o r t e d - - -                        _ _ _ _ - l2 1 3, 1 0 0 . 0 2 L \ ; 0 , 1 0 0 . 0 7 4 1 0 u . 0 { 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ : 1
                                                                                                                             i                         I
                                                                                        I
           L e s s t h a n 4 h o u r s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l. o , z t
                                                                           rs z                              otS.6f                   ntsJt                 rr-----f-
                        e t
           4 b o u r sl , s sh a nl 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l1 1 3 5 3 . 1|         t I 3 3 | 4 7 I. | 4 5 6 u . 8 2 7 _ _ _ _ _ _ 1
                                                                           -J l
           1 2 l r o u r s , . l e s s t h o n 2 0 - - - - - - - - - - - -3 - - -1 6 . 0|       5 I 1 3I 1 8 . 6             |        9J 12.2               7 ------------
           2 0 h o u r s , l e s s t h a r- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l3 l i 1 4 . 6
                                        28                                              I       4 | 1 2 1 7 . 1 l 0 I t 3 . 5I
                                                                                                                             |                              5 ------r------
                                                                           1 --- .1
           2 8 b o u r s , l e s s t h a D 3 6 - - - - - - - - - -3 i 6 - - -l l 1 l                         3i4.31                   4is.4l                5______i___---
           S 6 b o u r s , l e s s t h a n 4 4 - - - - - - - - - - - -5 l - -2:l.E 1 2 l
                                                                             _ -- 3                          2 l 2 . 9 1 _ _ _ - _ _ l _ - - -r_ l-_ _ _         l
           rahoui,rqsairlil48-:-::--:-:-:::::l i I                                      l - - - - : - l - - - - - --l - - - - l : : : : : - l : : - - : : l i t - - - - - - - - - - - -
           4 8h o u sa n do v e r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l 1 I . b l - - - - - - l t I 1 . 4 l - - - - - - l - -
                          d ----
      N o t r € p o r t e - .- - - - - - - l r l - - - - - - lt l                                                                        - -
                                                                                                          r l - - - - - - j ' n l - - . -4..1- - - - - - - - - -
                   vacarroNllililllll
           Total------------                                       -_3a3=_::_,__1ll_j,',aa_-l_t3a                                  -:::_72'_:_-
                                                                                                                                                      :l
      Totalreported---                                       - - - - _ l 3 1 0 , 1 0 0 .I0 2 8           e2                 rzz        o; 1u0.0             I
                                                                                                   |       ]100.0  |      lroo.o   I                i
           L € s s t b a n 4 h o u r s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -]- -r-.l s i
                                                                     a                          rl       zi z.zl zl r.ol                r. r.oi------
                                                                     -9 - l
           , l h o u s , l e s s t h a n l 2 - - - - - - - - - - - -4 - -11-5 . 8 1             Sl      1 6 1 1 7 . 4 11 6 i 1 3 . 1 1 1 2 : l ; . C . . _ _ - -
                                                                      -l 5 l
           1 2 b o u r s , l e s s t h a n 2 0 - - - - - - - - - l- 0 - - - -.-2 1              1l       8l 8.71 4l 3.31 3 4.s ____--
                                                                    - - 9 l
           2 0 h o u r s , l e s s l b a n 2 d - - - - - - - - - 2-9 - - -.-4 1                 3l       9l 9.81 lll 9.01 6'9.01--____
                                                                    3 --- {
           2 8 b o u r s , l e s s t h a n B U - - - - - - - - - - - -3 i 1 - lJ . 6 1          4        9i 9.81 12l s.El 8 11.9i_-----
                                                                     -7 - g
           S 6 h o u s , l e s s t b e n 4 4 - - - - - - - - - -3 - -1 i-l,.1 i                 4i       9i 9.81 15112.31I 13.41___-_-
                                                                     -- -- .2
           4 4 h o u s , l e s s t h B n 4 E - - - - - - - - - -1 3-1 4 - l 1                   3l       1l ].ll        5l 4.tl         4l 6.01------
                                                                    -- l-
           4 8 b o u r s a n d o v € r - - - - - - - - - - - - -1 z - 4-t -. l0 l               7l      3 8 1 4 1 . 3 15 7 1 4 6 . 7 12 4 1 3 5 . 8 1 I
                                 $l------lol
      x"t*p".t.o-------..---.------.......--l sl------l
                                                      vl---...1sl------l-.----


                                                                                                                                                                                          ..''---.-


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                           CITILDREN         IN    STREET WONK                                        115
         . A largeproportionof rhe boyspeddlingas vacationjobs *'orked all
        clay srx davs e week;4I per ccnt worked at least.4ghorrrsa rveek
        (T;ble 5a), includine7 cliildren(6 per cent of this groupj^i,ndo.io
        y-elr_s agc_
               oI     and 45 (35 per cent) under 12. As oftcn as nor rhe
        children under 10 wo_rking48 hours or longer a *,eck rvere hirecl
        workers,.assisting-hucksteis. A large majority of the pecldlers(74
                                     _
        per_cent)  worked 24-hours-orlongera weeliduiing vacation.
           \Irhen schoolwas in session85boys (40 per cenl) peclclrecl ho.rs
                                                                   l2
        or longer,and 33 (J5 per cent) at [easi zE hours,severa]at lea-.t+0
        hours a week. Relatively trvice as many chiidren uncler 10 ivorlted
        12 hou_rs Jongcras rvoikedunder t2 hburs,and nrnnr-
                  or                                            nror.ctrndcr
        12 worked the longer rather than the shorter hours.
                                                           EARNINGS


         -,Qp-p of the peddlers received no money for their rvork. (Table
        55.) As a rule these wcre children employed by their own par.ents
        or brothers; several reccived shoes or cloth"es,                              or"fruit for their fami-
        lies, .inste^adof .monev. rn one case the boy's father collecicd his
        gajn-ngs {rom.his employer, and in another the emplol,er, a hirckster,              'For
        left.thecity without pa]-llg rhe boys he had hired.                                         b o r - sw o r . l i i n g
        du'ng vaeation the rnedian waqe or amount of the eaining* *-as
        betu'een $+ u+4-. 5, but 32 per cent earned $b or more. The ireciian
                               .
        e a r n i n g s , l o rc h i l d r e n u n d c r l 0 w e r e o ! l y b e t w e e n $ 1 a n d g 2 , b u t t h c v
       rncreascdn'rth each agc group, being betrveen$b and $6 lor 14 and l 5
       y c a r o l d b o y s . . T h e e a r n i n g sa . l s oo s e w i t h t h e n r r m b e r o f h o r r r s o f
                                                                    i
       work, the mcdian for b,ys rvorking less than 12 hours a rveeli being
       between $1 and $2 and firr those forking 48 hours or rongei b.tru..r,
       $5 and $6.
           The boys pedclling durine the school year earned less than the
       other p.eddters. A large proportion (28 per cenf) earncd less than
       gl,
              .and ihe majoriry earncd less than $8. Excluding those wiro
       rvorlieci wrthoul, ccsh_paypent the_median earnings lor each age
       group were betrveen $l__an-d                        $2. Only 25 bo;rs (11 fer cent)                  'working
       $5 or more. Almost                                                                                     "u.rr6"l
                                               ,all these,were candy oi-pretzei sellers
       o n l h e i r o w n & c c o u i l [ ,s e v e L a l f w h o m " m a d b g O , $ 7 , a n d , i n o n e
                                                              o
       c-ase,$12 a, week. ,l few hucksters and several'others said that
       they. earned as m'ch a1 $5.. one- b9r earned $10 a .'"ur. relring
                                                            .
       Iranltfurters on the slreets with his father.
           Earnings increased in accordance with the hours of work, the
       median for chiidren working fewer than 12 hours being between 6t
       and $2 and for those working at least 24 hours betweeni3 und $+.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetonn L'niversitr
       116              EMpLoyMENT                               ox' soEoor,               orrrJDRnN          rN NEw       JERsEy

       Tasrp 55.-Earnings during.a,tgpicq wee!,o! sc!,ogl.terrn
                                                              anil ol uacation, by aga
                            perxod;ped,d,Iers,
                                            tvewaTtt, J.
                                                      N.

                                                                                                   Poddlsrs under 16 years of ago


                                                                                                                                14 years,
                                                                                                                                under 16
            Earalngsduring a typlcal week                                                                                       ---T---
                                                                                                                                    I Per
                                                                                                                                n.* | cent
                                                                                                                                il#-ldl..tli
                                                                                                                                         LYU'

                                                                                                                                         t'--
                                 TERIf
                            SCEOOL                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                                                         I
              Total- -----------                                                                                                 or t_____.
                                                                                                                                _t_
      Total reported---                                                                                                             bohooi
          L e s st h a D $ 0 . 2 5--- - - - - - - - - - -                        I                    ...; -i.           -i:2
          $0.25,   lesstban $0.50--------                                             6.8                        o-                             0
          $ 0 . 5 0l,e s st h a D $ r - - - - - - - - - - -                     38   16.2                 22.7           15.7        4        8. 0
          $1, less than $2---                                                   76   32.3              26 34.7             .9       20       40. 0   1
                      ga-
          $ziierittran --:::::::::-- ::::::::                                         8.9      ,             o.J         72.0                10.0
          $ 3 ,l e s st b a n $ 4 -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    26   1 1 .I             10 13.
                                                                                                             3            6.0       8        16.0
          $ 4 ,l e s st b a n $ 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ - _ _    I    3.8                   1.3           4.8                 6. 0
          $ 5 . l e s st h a n $ 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -            l4    6.0                4 5.3            4.8       6        12.0
                                                                                 7    3.0                2                6.0       -l
          $8end over-------                                                           t.7                2                L.2                   0-
          ivo erninss ind nt ;;:h ;;;it-;;::                                          9.8                0 8.0                      I         2. 0
      Not reported-----                                                          8                                                  I
                               VACATION

             Total- -----------

      Total reported---
                                                                                 ,     .6      t
                                                                                lr
                                                                                      3.3      3         I
                                                                                      6.9      5        I     o7
          $1, lessthan $2---                                                    53   16.0              18    19.4
            i;ii     -:-:::: :::
          $r; iril 65_ :::_: :::::-                                             30    9.0      d       ll    11.8
          $ 3 ,l e s s h l n $ 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
                     t                                                          45   13.6      3       18    19.4
          $4, lessthan $5---                                                                   3        6     6.5
            ieii    --:::::.::::::-::-::-
          $si i[dn$o-                                                                o.J       I              3.2
          $ 6 ,l e s st b a n $ 8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   55   16.6              1l    11.8
          $ 8a n d o r e r - - - - - - -                                        N     8.7      I        6     6.5
          N0 earningsand no cash earniogs-- -                                   39   Lt.7              10    10.8
      Not reported---------------- -----: -- ----                               1l



        r Per cent distribution not shown where base is less tbm 50.

                                                                        PEDDLERS           IN SCIIOOL


        Severalpeddlers-4 of the 234 who had worked during the school
      year and 2 of the 334 others-were in high school. The fourth grade
      was the median for eachgroup.
        These boys had made slower progress in school than newsboys
      and $'ere almost as retarded as the bo-otblacks. (See pp. 93, 98, 10f .)
      In the group of ya,cationworkers between 8 and 16 years of ago
      (seefootnoti +, p. 1),46 per cent of the boys, both those \r'rih
      native white fathers and those of foreign parentage,were over age
      for their grades (that is, were retarded), and in the other group 56
      per cent of those with native white fathers and 42 per cent with
                oI tnose wltn natlye wnrte la,tners anct 4z             wrtn                                                                             I
      foreign-born fathers. The negro peddlers of these ages numbered                                                                                    I
      only-30 working during vacafon dnd 13 working during the school                                                                                    I
      sesaion,and of thesezt and 8, respectively,were"retaradain school.
                                                                                                                                                         I
                                                                                                                                                         I
                                                                                                                                                         I
                                                                                                                                                         I

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                        CITTLDREN IN STREET'WORK                                                        7r7
         Judging from the fact that the proportion 'w.ho   rvereretarded rvas
      not larger but slightly smaller among the boys rvho hacl rvorked the
      longer[ours, ii x'6uld seemthat scho5l    progr,ess not becnafiectecl
                                                        had
      unfavorablyby the amount, work the peddlersdid, assunrine
                                    of                                  thnt
      the hours reported as typical had been tire same tlrroughor,rftlieir
      rvorking lives. However, the Children's Bureau studies of pecldlers
      in other cities (seefootnote 1, p. 1), so far as can be concludcci
                                                                       frorn
      the small numbers involved in those studies, indicate that ciiildlen
      remain in this kind of work too short a time to influence to any
      great extent their progressin school.
                                MISCELLANEOUS
                                           STREETWORKERS
        The study includedg3 boys 15 workins in vacation and 10Gn'ork-
      ing during the school year in various Finds of street work, whose
      occupationswere &s follows:

                                               Working                                                    Working    \\'orking
           Type of street worker               in school         Type of street worker                       ln      in school
                                                 y€ar                                                     vacatlon      year


            Total- - ----------------                      Magazine seller- -
                                                           Newspaper worker, other tltan
      Bill distributor---                                    stller or carrier- - -
      Junk collector----                                   S t m d t e n d e r - -- - - - - - - - - - -
      Lamplighter- - ---                                   Watcher of automobiles--- --.
      Mag&zine canior-                                     Other------------

        '5 In.addition, 5 girls had had r-nlscellaleous
                                                      stroet work, 4 duing lbs school year and 3 iD vaearion,
      .
      lDcluorng slano lenoers ano a lunE coleclor.




i
I
L

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetox'nUniversi(l'
                                      PATERSON
                      LEGAL REGULATION OF STREET WORK

         Like Newark, Paterson had-a city ordinance to license and regurate
       newspaper selling. It fixed the minimum age at 10 years, ..{uir.d
                            _
       nen'sboys betrn'een and 16 to obtain permits and badges'frorn the
                            10
       Doarct oI educatlon and to renew them annually, and prohibited
       ne\\'spaper selling by children under 16 between O p'. m. urri 4 u. ,rr.,
       except on saturdays, when the eve_ning  hours for seliing rvere extendecl
       !g_ J0,_and on Sundays, when selling papers after 1 p. m. lv&s plo_
       hibited.l6
         At the time of this study nervsboy permits .ivereissued bv the school-
      attendance dep artment,' t-an4 every-Saturd aSr,the atte"d"a,""e d"t;;,-
      ment,report.$, u suryey of the,-down-tor.r,nstreets was maclL by
      attenctance officers in order to discover violations of the ordinance.
      The records in the office of the school-attcndance a"rrur.i-""t .horved
      that of the 79 newsboys selling at the time of thJ r*t.u.         rg nua
      permits, of whom l was achild of g;64 boyg had none; and"io-report
      was obtained as to 2,. only 18 per cent olihe neu sbofs ;t";;      narres
      'rverechecked with the reiords
                                         had received permitJ i" accoldance
      with the terms of the ordinance.

                                NEWSPAPERSELLERS

         In Paterson 118 boys were intervierved n.hohad sold papers cl,-rring
      vacation and 108 w.ho had been newsboys during th; ;ii;oi-t;;i
      1924-25.t8 The latter group included 7tl 'vho u-ire sellins at' tire
      time of the iqterview, wliich ivas held between N{arch o"a i"i., rszs.
      None of the bovs sold papc's in vacation only. \r.;;;iii,*in       r,oa
      contrnued to peilpapers after school had opened in the fall of 1g24
      and are included in both groups of x-orliers.
                          RACE AND   NATIONALITY   OF FATHERS

         tr'ew of the newsboyswere of native rvrrite parentage, and orrly
      two vacation workers and -onebo.v working during the"schooltcrm
      were neg.oes. _The typical newsboyon thd streets of paterson was
                                                                                               I
                  stock-m
      lf- _i_orog" sorne oitiy Jeu.ish,It alia.n,o., -lessfreq"*r ity, Fofl.nl
      Lierm&n_,  or
                                                                                               I
                        other I'oreignnationalit.y. No diflereucc rrcc or
                                                                - in
      nationality appearedbetrveen vacationworters and others. (fuilo so.)

      u,'""T$li#?,'Sgli;i$Slfil"                                 -d;;;
                                                                   bv rarer
                                                                      a
      "-{"i?,in#,11;",f,}':i,1[,i""f3.',"'#.*:3U?$'f:!Tt.h1l.,:igiT:3i,li,*Jgt"#31$:l'*1,*id
     ;r!#r",ixlil.*ii:Hiii$"r"41f
     anhquait6i
         a          oiui-il6;;
                                                                      ll
                                          ir;li.r,1lt4r4,1iffi,t"*li'_:*lx*"1'"",r',":x
                              b.3'il51$$,;.'.'!
     wers of foreign parentage,
                                          #.:kT*il!i-r"i,?,s::-,:;1,"i?'i%1i*i1?r""1,x",:ixi
            118




Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown Universify
                                                         OHIT,DREN IN STREET WORR                                                                      n9
      TesLE 56.-Bace                     and ndi,onality of father, by period in which, street uork                                             occtu't.d;
                                         newspaper sellers and, carriers, Paterson, N. J.


                                                                                    Roys under 16 years of age working duringF


                                                                                    School term                                    Vacation


                                                                            Newspaper       Newspaper            Newspq)er                    Newslnper
        Raco and nationality of father                                        sellers        carners               sellers                     carrrers


                                                                                                                              Per
                                                                                                                Num-          cent
                                                                                                                 ber         distri
                                                                                                                             bution




                                                                                                                       17                       31 I   23.4
                                                                                                                       98                      110 i   i5. ii

            Ilussirn Jes-ish,-----------                               |     17 i   15.7       13 I     t'.3                      22.0          1l      7. (i
            othcrre\yish-----
                        --- --:----l                                         il i ii.i         ii,      6:.i           31         26.3          11      7.6
            I t a l i s n -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - l     13|    12.0       53 I    29.8            16         1 3 .6        39     26.I
            Polislr                                                --         61     5.6        91      5.1             5                        8
            Gcrman                                                            51     4.6        9i      5 .1            4                        tt       4.1
            Other loreign t)orn and for-                                        |                  i
                eign born not otherwise                                         I
                specified                .---,-------,--i                    2l |   19.4I      34      1 9 .1          16         B.e           35     24.L

        Naiivity not reported------------                                     t |     .n 1-------- ----"---                           .3
      Negro------------                                                ]l     tl      .o          tl     .6                                      I        .7
                                                                       r


                                                     ECONOATIC CONDII'ION                      OF FANTII,IES

        The inquiry in relation to the social and economicst&tus of the
      street rvorkers' families was limited in Paterson as in Newark. (See
      p. 8.)
         Only a small proportion of the boys were found to come from
      fatherless homes; 13 per oent of the boys selling papers in vacation
      and 12 per cent of those selling during thc school 1'ear had chief
      breadwinners other than fathers, including stepfathers and foster
      fathers. In each group I per cent of the bo5's tu"t" in families de-
      pendent for their main support upon the mothers. I\{any of the
      ne\vsboys, horvevel, \vere from homes 'where the mother was gain-
      fully employed. Not counting those whose mothers rvcre the chief
      breadwirrners, 18 per cent of the vacation new-sboysand 17 per c€nt
      of the others had^mothers who were employed, probably an indica-
      tion that the fathers' incomes in manv cases .were rega.rded as too
                                                                reg
      small for the support of the families.
         The chief brcadwinners were preeminentlv factorv u'orkers. 42
      pcr ccnt' being factory operativcs and only a'ferv being in :rny ot.her
           kind      w-ork. Laborers           l^rrrildins              factories.
      one liind of u-ork. Laborers in the buildinq trades anc{ in factones,
                                                         trades and
                                                     and peddlers, eomposcd
      those in domestic antl personal service, an-d peddlei"s,composed 10
                           and
      per cent,. Those in- occupations_    requrnng sKrll, ectucrltron, or an
                                 lpatrons requiring.skill, education, o.r an^ap-
      preciable emount of capi   ital, such as machinists and mechanlcs, {ole-                                  arlg        rrrvvrralrrvl',


      men, contractors, and skilled workmen in the building trades, skilletl
      lvorliers in factories, factory owners, proprietors of stores arxi shops.
      commercial travelers, clerks, or professional workers were rnoro thari
      one-third of the total.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'nUniversilr
        120      EMpLoyMENa or scnoor. cETLDTTEN NEw
                                               rN    ,ERSDv
                                                     AGA OF NEWSBOYS

          The Patersonnewsboysv'ere armostas           as
                                               JoFr,.g boy-s   sellingpap€rc
       on the streetsof Newark; about onl-fifih"ot ,oo." sellrng yacation
                                                                  rn
                      years of age, and about,itr."_l""rlrr.l"?r"'u#a". r+
       ]:.t_9-u"*9r.,10
       J('uls. Lnlroren as young.as 5 or 6 were seengettinE their oun
       paperc at one of the disirib-uting offices. ritttu'ainer?"1""i"
       betweenyacation worliers ood otG., *;;io";d.*"     (i;H;;;     " og"
       rarrn 57'-'4 n'           oo",oJ,u;!';:;y,Jrl,f;'fi;l"x!';lt.            workoccurred;
                           "'                                                              neuspaper

                          I

                          I " o r r o o u . . r 6 y e a r s o]rla s e
                          l-ll
                                                                                    lo***.0r"*.
                                                                                    I         -..-
                          I                    I               I                    t-

                         l Nes'spaDer N::-:-p^lp*
        Ageat da1€ inter
                 of           sellers I  carriers ]l
                                                                            -
                                                                          I Nes.spaper I N"".ruopu.
                                                                                          -'carriers
                         I             I             Agc ar dotcof inter. |   serri.ii" ,
                                                            view

                           *j*lT,i*,slt*iil-l-tri]'*,-,.,",n
                         l-r-l__,'.-li                                    I.==--l.----




                                          _i'"'11_lo''""
                                                                                         ,,,J,,01,-,1;
          SCEOOL TER}I
                                                                     YACATION

                                                    1;8 l__-______



                                           ii:rii,
                                 ,i,l ;l ,.l .,,,,,,':,lll,fl+l;
                                       100.0        177

                                 li-Ti+l-3ll ..:::::::::i
                                   ,i.il llirkari.
                                         1.9
                                         1.9


                                                   iii}BBr
                                                      il;liil iiti
                                       1 1 .I
                                       i4. 8




                                 r4l
                                      gi
                                       r1.1


                                 illifii {j,illifu'*',,.:::::::r
                                       19.4
                                       13.
                                       13.I
                                       1s
                                           0
                                       r 3 ..0o l
                                                   rsr ?Er
                                                    2el ro.+ll
                                                              it.               |         |          I   I
                                  tt'lllllil
                                        DURATION          OF STREET     WORK

      - x'our-fifths of the boys who sold papersd.ring vacation had worked
      between g and 10 weeks; that isiilrougrio"Tth";;;;r#                period.
      Sixty-eight per cent of rhe orheri tJ;.";t*d't;         ;;il"iruloog""
      while attendlnr school,ail rir.eros h;"i"g h;.d ;;;;;;;iiy
      the-date of thJinterviirto tol'a"L-wotlua"ut least 24 weeks. t.tor.
        No information rvas obtained o" irr" toiut t."gt[
      had beenen-gaged streeL-wo.t,ur'tn.-i"qriry?" duruiioo"oi boys    the
                          in                                 "i'ii"ml'      *o"t
      was confined-tothe period n.gi"fu"g]*""q rSz+.
                                               CONDITIONS      OF WORK


        P^T*.u.,1"_'^j:::lg^*"lg.y_?c_"       .qh]ch      -p papers,
                                                                -oi'
      Paterson threelocal di'ny pa,pers, of *ni"h ;*;' ;;;." afternoon
      r&rerson had three local daily up'..J, which two
                                                                                         were numerous,
                                                                                              ^;fi;hli?
               nad                                     rvere
            :' pressabout 5 3b 3,fl*r ir,nd:n.y-ry"'"""i-?.i" "r"^
               ;,1 abou-t about rhu o"til""al Srrndoo*.* ig p.p,.",
      pepers,   on thestreets g"'
      5#ryfr "'-tfil?:Fa. m. .5 f.; in., ii*^one^wasa morning paper,
      ofi the press :                                1
                                  The oily local Sunda; p;E;Jr-firJ                                          ,
      :."*{" r:::ll'*      :"1::s; ;. f , l; lv;;;i;t5"i:i,i #"vl?t
                               3p9ut
      papers w_ere
      pape.s we'e sold in Paterson, but, not generallv
                  solo tn r&terson, but,
                                         lot           by bbvs. These
      and
      and  tlre local sundayDaDer#""" aTr#fi;J.l-;ir",isti"Jir,oturut"
           the tocatSunday paperwere disrr
      net's dealer who sold on['"tg dealers,so that-if U"y,
      net's dealer who sold'oriiv to aeat""*--" ifr"t if h^-o I^l,t +L^- +r^^--                              i
                                                              !"1Jtfrg;iilt
      rverehired bv d,ealers. 0f the zs seilers;;;t i";';;at i,i.l;-""'i+
                                                 worl<ing the time of th"e  f,r."
      rrLeryle\y,
      intervierv, b4
                  64 sold on thei own account, g helpe-d other boys,
                             therr          -' -                     ancl Z
      n-ere hired by adults at a fixed sum.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                             CIIII,DREN   IN STRDET W.ORK                      tzl
         Newsbovsgot the dailv local papersdirect from the severalnews-
      paper offi;ur"at their ciown-town distributing rooms. .Witlr one
      5-J*ti"".-ihev paid cash, took as few papercas they wished,sold
      *6"i*"t'ttiey       ciuld,' and'returned to the-office for more papers if
      iri"i-"".aua"th.-.          One o{ the afternoon papers' lrowever,-had
                    newsboyswho had good locations, some of them selliqs
      "tl""t1O as 300 pape.. a day"; the nervspaper
      as man.y                                                 managernent'    made
          n"i.t""i,..upplylng     these.boys. first, sending            to .replenish
                                                              ?_tI^",Et
      t-rrerrsupplres,ano permitting" them- to return unsold copies' The
      ".
                                 ,,ownedi by the newpb_oy.s
      street corners were                                         themselves,their
      orvnership     being acknorvledged a result of thetr success duv-Ing
                                           as                             rn
      on --p'"titottl        A rcpresentative one of lhe pap.ers
                                                 of                       said, that
      althoueh the ne$'spapers not assignboys to partrcular colners'
                                      did
      ln*i*%-Ua iecosnize'the        orvnership cornersby relusingto_supply
                                                  of
       the"rivalsof bovs who had established          rights. Outdoor standswere
      prohibitedby city ordinance.
      -^N,I;.t;i
                     tie boys sold down tou'n. Fifteen of the 79 sold in resi-
       a""iiut- al.tri"tr, i;o aia all their selling along businessstreets, and
       8 solclin both residentialand business
       "                                             sectionsof tle ctty' -
          rrT; ,p."iul study was made of conditions in and around the dis-
       triUuti"'s rooms. The director o{ boys' work for the Young Men's
       Cil.if"-" Association, which maintaihed a club for_n_ewsboys               and
       ;;iL6.k*       with a membership about 100,reportedthat gambling
                                           of
       una .o"r"rsation of a Iow oider had becn prevalent in on_g the          of
       disitibution rooms but that conditions !'ad improved' - He knew
       ;i";;cases of newsboys sleeping around newspaPeroffrces' The
       circulation manager of bne of ihe'newspapers 9.ai-d        tnal ^r-.trcn had
                                                                              he
       fi;Ji;f;;              of the work he founil fhat "about 20 bums of all
       Bges" u'erc sleelping the place. - Although he had put a.stop to
                      "d;t;      in
       ifiis pra.tice, th'e s"toryindiiates the ever-pre-"ent      source of danger
        ihat'the ,r"iu.pup.. distributingroom.mav be to.the young boy
       rrnless   the pelsbu responsible conditionshas good standardsand
                                          for
       force of character'
                                  REGULARTT' [,oRK
                                          oF

          trew of the boys sold papers less than sir days a-lveek, ev^enrvhen
       r"ttool v'as in session-24 bt the 118 vacation workcrs and22 of the
       ;ih;;;.   Four-fifths of each group worlced every dqY -or every day
       ;;;;pi  Sunday. Only 6 vacitioo'neu'sboys a1d .7 oJ the others sold
                     ott Sutu.doys or Sundays-or-on both-these days' The
       auiiv-tuoiit"rs were a trifle older thuh boys rvho sold only a few days
       "i.f-Gu.ty
       u-"yo"ti oi irregrrlarly, but 4i per ceni of the regular worl<ers in
       vacation and 38 per cent of the others w-ereunder 12 years'
                                     HOURS OF WONK


          Little nervspaperselling yes done by schoolboysin the ryo-rning'
       of th;8 fttut Soti papersbeforegoing,to sc!'ool'all beganrvork before
                            'These
       t;. ;.;3 before   6.         werJchieflyolderbol's,bub 2:wereunder
       12 yearsof age. Evcn during Yaeationonlv 20 boys sold papersrn
       th""-o.ting;"11 beganworkbefore 7 u'n',. incltrding "h.o began
                                                               Q
       b.io." O. Si* of th"e20 were under 12. The 5 beginningbeforc 6
       a. m. sold papersagain in the afte-rnoon.
       -
                                                    pa,pe's.' some of them
          Most otitti, boys] therefore,sold e.,'ening      and
       r"t" oo tho   stre6h until a late hour, even-on school days' (Table




                                                             Liniversitr'
Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetow'n
        122        EMprroyMENT oF scgool. oETLDREN rN NEw JERsEy

        5.8.) The gre.at,majo.rity of the boys in both groups worked later
        than 6 p. m.; in vacation
                                                      _time 26 pei cent and during the sbhool year                          I

        1 5 p e r c e n t w o r k e d _ u n t i l8 p . m . o i l a t e r , a f e w i n e a d h g r o u p , " - " u i n _
        inff.out, to sell until 10 or 11,.and in_vecation gp to midniglit. B;t.
                                                                                                                            I
        selling until at least 8 p. m. included some under t0, es w-ell as old"er                                           i
        lo.ul. On Saturday nights even later hours rvere kept,. (Table ;S.)
        I n t h e s u m m e r l i ' n r e4 8 p e r c e n t a n d d r r r i n g t h e s c h o o ly e a r 4 0 p e r
       cent worked until 8 p_.m. or later on Satuiday; a large proportion                                                   I

       remained out rrntil at least l0 p. m. both during'the sfinmer'and at
       other seas_ons,           including a fe*' boys rvho said thai thev sold napers at
       least rrntil rnidnight on sattrrdays. Nor r.r'ere                                 these-late worters in
       all casesthc okler boyl. In fact, if anything, they were even younger
                                                    ,
       than the group as a ivhote.
       , 9".week d-ays sther than Saturdays during vacation more than
       half the nensboys (57 per ccnt) sold papers three hours or more, and
       8 i 3p e r p c n t , a t l , e a s t r r - oh o u r . sa d . u y . ( T a b l e 0 0 . ) S o m c ( 7 p e r c e n t )
                                                                         -
       u-orl<eclerghb hours or longer in thc summer, includinE-children
       under 12 and even rrnder'
                                                       ,10 years of ,age. Ilany more oT the boys
       under 12 v-orked. at least 6hree hours thin u-orked fern'erhours * d;t
       on satrrrda_ys            during vacation the majority (0g per cent) workecl at
       l e a s t t h r e e h o u r s , 3 6 p e r c e n t a t l e a s t f i v e . h o u r s ,a n d t w i c e a s l n a n y
       (l+ .qer -cent) as on other week days workeci eight hours or longer.
       (Table 61.)

       Tasr.r 58.-/[our            ol end-ing alternoon worh on a typieal u.eek dau orher than
         '):,,,:,::,rfrf":,:;:,:,,           t*m and durinq tacationi'by ase ptrio,t": r,ewspaprr
                                   ^:r,,:r:r




                                                                                                      6
                                                                                                     12
                                                                                                      4
                                                                                                      3
                                                                                                      1




        I Per cent distribution not shorvtr where base is lffi
                                                               than b0.




                                                                                                                                -------:--


Provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
                                                                CITILDREN                    IN        STREET W.ORK                                                                    r23
       Tasr,u 59.-Ilour of end,ingalternoon uork on a tEpical Saturday during school
          term and during uacation,bEage period; neus,paper
                                                          sellers,Paterson,N. J.

                                                                          Norvspaper sellers undor 16 years of ags working during-


                                                                                   School term                                                  Vacation

       Ilour of ending afternoon
         work on a typical Satuf-
                                                                Total          ]           I
                                                                                           I
                                                                                                       Ii l L t li
                                                                                                       t
                                                                                                                            I'u,u'l                      I           I             I
         day
                                                                     I
                                                                                                i0           12
                                                                                   un- IJ ' e l r s ,. ] e r r s ,   14 --
                                                                                                                     '-                         I-l ,
                                                                                                                                                1 n -.       l0            12 I14
                                                                         Per        der                    )errs, \clrs,
                                                                                                                  )     .            p6r        i..      \ - p j l r s . \ e 1 rrs ,,] - ee A r S ,
                                                                                                                                                         l               Je1 s ]- al
                                                                                               llD-         rrr-    ul-
                                                                                                                 ,:^:',           [n-  un-        iX        rrn-

                                                                                               lfl l*'l ;'f! nfJ;'iL.J.,.1.1,^';fll'fl
                                                           Num-,-!91-r,
                                                            uer "i'il'- -':",                                                     l'il
                                                                     l r . "I                     lltionlli
               T o t a l -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    ;t-l                                 28 35  i 2e 1lE
                                                                                                                          i - - l 3e 28
                                                                                                                        23: %      l______l                                        I
                                                                                                  27          32      23     1 0 2 1 0 0 . 0i     19,          2t-          35              21
                                                                                                   4          'l              ll;lr+r  li                        o           rsi              s
                                                                                                   I           8      "3      20119.6151                         71           51              3
                                                                                                   4           5       1      17 16.71 41                        31           81              2
                                                                                                   8           7       6      25)24.51 5l                        I            61              5
                                                                                                   2           |       2       7]6.e1 tl                        tl            'l              3
                                                                                                   1 -_____ I                  3 l--____l 2 l-_,---l---___l I
                                                                                                       i '             ul                 ,
                                                                                                                              " l - _ - _ _il ' l o i 6
        I Por cent distribution not shownwherebaseis lessthan 50.

       Te.er,n 60.-Number     of hotts of street work on a tgpical week day other than
         Saturday d,uring _s-chool term and during uacation, by aoe period; neu)spaper
         sellers. Paterson. N. J.


                                                                           Newspaper sellers under 16 yoars of age working during-


                                                                               School term                                                      Vacation

       Number of hours of street I
        work on a typical Teck
        day other than Saturday i
                                                                                                                                                                                  l
                                                                                                                                                                                  lr+
                                                                                                                                                                       ull-            un-
                                                          l\                                                                                                           der             der
                                                               ber                                                                                                     14 I            161


              Total- - - - ---- -- -- --- -                    108                                                                                                                         2E
       Street work on week days--

                                                                                                                       I      l       .9
                                                                                                                       8
                                                                                                                      t5
                                                                                                                             18
                                                                                                                             29
                                                                                                                                    16.1
                                                                                                                                    25.9           tt
                                                                                                                                                 i
                                                                                                                       5     39     34.8
                                                                                                                             T7     15.2
                                                                                                                              6      5.4
                                                                                                                              2      1.8        "--l
       No str€ot work on $ cek
        uaJs - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - __ ___                                                                               6                   ,lI
        I Por cent distribution not shown where base is lss tba! b0.

                  30812"-29-9




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgeto*'n f-niversitr
       124       ElrpLoyMENT               oF scgoor,      oETLDEEN rN NEw               JERSEY

       Tesrn 61.-Number of hours of street uork on a typical-Saturday durin-g school
          term and d,urine uacation,bgage period; newspapersellers,Paterson,N. J.

                                             Newspaper sell€rs under 16 years ol age working during-


                                                Schooi term

       Number of hours of street
        work on a typical Satur-


                                                              un-
                                                              der
                                                              14i




                                                                 I
                                                                 7
                                                                 5
                                                                1l

                                                                 3
                                                                 I


                                                                 3

         I Per c€Dt distributioD not sho


          \{'hen school was in session it, rvas not, so easy for schoolboys to
       spend the equivalent of a full v'orking day selling pa,pers' but 78
       per cent of the newsboys customalily sold papers at least--twohours
       on school days, and 28 ier cent sold at ieast thlee hottrs. The lon-gest
       houis on a school day were those of a boy of 10' who sold papers from
       4 to 6 p. m. and from 7.30 to 11;he had rvorked 21 weeks after school
       had besun and then stopped because "the hours were too late." A
       few othir boys had sold papers at least foul hours-a day on-school days.
          On Saturdays during fhe school year 100 boys sold papers, of
       s'hom 61 worlied at least three hours,34 at least five hours, and 17
       at le-asteight hours-similar proportions to those for Saturday work-
       ers cturrnE vacatton.
          Few P-aterson bo5's sold papers on Sundays, -but, tho.qe l'ho did
                                     'Oi
       often vrorked severai hours.      ttie 15 selling bn Sundays in vacation
       4 rvorhed at least eight hours, and of the 19 selling on Sundays during
       the school year 3 worked at least eight hours.
          Table 62 shows the hours of worli a q-eek for vacation lvorkers and
       others. Some of the vacation nelr.sboys sold papers 40 hours a week
       or longer, several reporting 62 or 63 hours of lvork. School attend:,nce
       hmitel bire time of-selling, but 11 per cent worked at least' 24 hours
       while attending school, and a few 32 hours or more. Yoqng children
       worked about"as long as children of 12 or older, especially during
       vacation.




                                                                                                       -==---


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                   OTILDREN         $T     SI?,EET          WORK                             125
     Tenrn 62.-Number of hours of street work durino a tupical week ol schoolterm
            and of tacation, by age period; newspa.per
                                                     sellers,'Paterson, J.
                                                                      N.

                                          Nowspaper sellers under 16 years of ag6 working during-


                                             School term                                   Vacation

     Number of hours of street
      work during a typical
                                                           I
      week                                    Un-     10 I                                                     14
                                        Per   der
                                               l0
                                 Num. cent years
                                                     un-       un-
                                                               der
                                                                      un-
                                                                      der
                                                                                I t",
                                                                             o--,!91-1
                                                                                                      un-
                                                                                                             years,
                                                                                                              un-
                                      distri-        der                                              dor     der
                                  ber                121       14 I   16r                             14 I    16r
                                        bu-
                                       tion


                                                                       n     118 ___--_                         a
                                                                             1 1 4 100.
                                                                                      0
        Les than 4 hours--,---                                                 , i3. 5                           1
        4 hours, lessthan 12----                                              26       8                         5
        12 hours, lessthan 20___                                              26 22.   8                        t0
                                                                              30 I 26.

                                                                                   I'l:
                                                                                       3                         4
                                                                              13       4                         2
                                                                               7       I                         2
                                                                               I I     I                        .t
                                                                               7    6. 1
    Not reported-----                                                                                            2
                                                                                   l
      I Per cont distribution not shown where base is lss than b0.


                                                  EARNINGg

       The Paterson newsboys earned a little more than newsboys in
    N_ewark,though the profit on the dai15.  papers $-asthe same-l cent.
    The median amount earned u'as betu:ecn $3 and $4 a weck for cach
    group-. (See p. 91.) The earnings \r-ere approximately the same for
    vacation newsboys as for those riho worked during the school year,
                                                         -(Table
    in spite of the lorger hours of work in vaca,tion.                "
                                                                 68.) X'oi
    boys in the same gioup thc number of houru spent in selling appeared
    to aflcct the amount of the carninEs. tr'or-example, amonE both
    vacation newsboys and others the median ear.nings were betw"een$l
    and $2 when the boy worked less than 12 houri a week but were
    between $3 and g4 when he worked 12 to 24 hours or lonser. Earn-
    ings _valredalso_accordingto the age of the boy. The me"dian, which
    for children under 10 wal between $1 and g2, was between $4 and $b
    for boys of 14 or 15 in vacation time and between $5 and $6 for those
    of the same agesrvorking during the school year. The largest amount
    earned'was reported by-a boy of 15 who edrned $15 sellin"gpapers 14
    hoqrs a rveek; tu-o brothers together made $25 a week in-vacation
    selhlg-pepgrs in partnership; and -a l4-year-old Polish-Jewish boy
    made 914.25 a qeeh at, a corner that he had inherited from his brothei'.
    The earnings reforted inchrded tips.
                                         NEWSBOYS        IN SCIIOOL

      The same information on school proEress was obtained for the
    Paterson newsboys as for those in Newaik. (See p. gB.)




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, GeorgetownUniversitr
       126              EMpLoyMENT                               ol' scrool,            cHrr,DREN rN NEsr JEnsEy

       Tesr,o 63.-,&arnings during a typi,cal weelc schoolterm and oJ uacation,by age
                                                   of
                          period; neaspa'persellers,Paterson,N, J,

                                                                     Newspaper sellers und€r 16 years of age working during-                         t



       Earnings during a typical 1
                 wo€k
                                                            Tot.al
                                                                           School term




                                                                           Un-    r0
                                                                                         I   12
                                                                                                                Vacation



                                                                                                                      tll
                                                                                                                      10   12     14
                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                  ears, years                  Un- years,       yerrs,
                                                          J-um-
                                                                a i"ri -
                                                                -.---_-
                                                                           d€r
                                                                            1t)   un-
                                                                                  dcr
                                                                                         un-
                                                                                         der
                                                                                                               der I un- J'errs, l1n-
                                                                                                                l0
                                                                                                              yearsl der
                                                                                                                          un-
                                                                                                                          der    der
                                                                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                                        1 2 ' 1 4 'I 1 6 r
                                                          Der
                                                                                                                      I      I                   l
                                                                                                                      lli
                                                           108                                                   23   i;;i;                      i
                                                                                                                 2l        2;)     30    28
                                                                                                                                                 I
          Lesshan $0,25,---- --
                  l                                          I      .9                                            2   ----
          $0.25,    lessthan $0.50 --                        3     2.8                                            2        I     _-____t______
          $ 0 . 5 0l , s .r h r n $ l - - - - - -
                     e                                      l0     0.3                                            4   I     2       5 l------
          $ 1 ,l e s s h l D $ : - - - - - - - -
                      i                                     2i    23.4                                            I   I     5      1 01    1
          $ 2 ,l e s s l r a n$ 3 .- - - - - - - -
                      t                                     lr    10.3                                            2   i    4        21     5
          $ 3 ,l e s st l r r n i j { - - - - - - - - -     2,    19.6                                            I   I    10       0l     3
          $ 4 ,l e s s l r r t r$ : - - - - - - - - -
                      t                                     l0     9.3                                                I    4j       31     5
          $ 5 ,l e s st l r u nj l 0 .- - - - - - - -        ;     6.5                                                              14
          $ 6 .l e s s h r n $ J - - - - - - - - -
                      t                                     12    11.2                                            1        167
          $ 8a n d o v e r - - - - - - - - - - - -           7     6.5                                                              'l    3
      Not rcported-----                                      I
                                                                                                                      l-
                                                                                                                      l''L-----
        I Per cent distribution lot shoNn rrhere base is lesstltan 50.


           Ten of the 118 Paterson boys selling pa,persin vacation and 10 of
                                                                       'Hbwever,
      the 108 others were high-school pupilsl                                           the median grade
      that they had completed at the beginning of the school year in *hich
      they were intervieu,'ed $ras the fourth, the same as in Ne.w-arl<.
           The amount of retardation was small. Onlv 20 Der cent of thc
      boys betrveen 8 and 16 years of age selling papers during vac:ltion
      were.retarded (seefootnote 4, p. l), and only 22 per cent, of those
      worldng during the school Jicar, rvllereas the rate of retardation for
      all boys of the same ages in the elementary grades in the Paterson
      public schools in 1925 rvas 25 per cent.le Even if the high-school
      pupils among the newsboys are excluded, in order to make the com-
      pa,rison more, exact, onlS' 22 per cent, of tlie \-acatiol] gloup and 24.
      per cent of the ner\-sboys selling during the schcol ierm wbre over-
      age for their grades. Nervsboys of foreign parentage rvere even less
      retarded than othcrs, the rate for boys ryith foreign-born fathers
      l r e i n g o n l y 1 7 p e r c e n t l o r v a c a t i o n s e i l e r sa n d 1 9 p e r c c n t l o r t h e
      otherc, or, considering only those in elementary grades, 19 per cent
      and 21 per cent, respectir-ely.
           The possible relation betrveen long hours of street work and ret,&r-
      dation in school could not be determined for the Paierson nervsboys
      owing to the small number included in the study.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                       CHILDR.EN        IN   STREET       WORK                               r27
        in.vacation)r uld 178,that thev had deliveredp&persduring the
        gphgolyear.20 I-n the Jar,ter
                                    group were l4l who'wLre still holding
        therr.lobswhen rniervicwed.


        " Ar.
            excep-;:in"T,i,:::XTl,lffi;1^,."..u rhree-
       rourrns "*
               wercoi lorergnp$rcntrge,
                                            *r,it"
                                         mor€ being Italian than any other
       one nrtionaliry._A fai.ly large numb*. *"".e or J"rirfi1tock with
       rillners Dornrn l(ussraor' other foreigncountries, and a number of
       othel foreignpeoples $-ererepresentedL(Tille;6,;.]19.i-'
                                    DCONOMIC       CONDITION       OI' FAMILIES

        - 4bout the same proportion of carriers as of 'e',sbovs came from
       fatherlcss,      fcnrilies: pc. cent of thn ,:".oiion'g.;;;t;;;; id'rr.,
                                       it
       or the others\yeresuppo'te'd othersthrn iathe's. Eleobn ."nt
                                                           by
       (8 pe{ cent) in                                                                                          boys
                              .ihe racation.g.ir,p a'd 16 ts p";                                     lrr"the othe.
       r'r'cre homesin *'hich morhersbore the burien "";tl
                   in                                                                                          uno"i
       the sarnepe'centageas that of the                                                     "I'iupporl,
                                                                                                 ;"fJ;inothers
      ryc.e the ihief breid*inners. Th; p,;p;rail                     "."'.pup"ri;il";;
                                                                                     ;f;;;r';;i;t          Lothers
      at rvork,esclusive thoso*'hose'noth.* r,r'erc p.;ncipat'*:agi
                                       of                                                  tire
      earnersin their famiiies, *'as only-about one_fifch,                 -                 ;p;;;;;ftn         sim_
      ilar to that forindllmonqtlr,.neslsbovs.
            The occupations the chicfl..,rerririYinnet.s cerricrs paterson
                                     of                                          of the               in
        ,.
      dld not represent,_as some of the cities in which the childrenG
                                             in
      r i l ' ' c a u m a d e> i r r i i l a ' s t u d i e s , f l i . c r o s s c c t i o n f t h c c i t v .
                                                           r                    s           o
      proportion-inrrnskilled semisriiried                                                                      Thc
                                                or                        ivork r"r; ;;            i;.s*: N,Iore
      than one-third of the chief br.eaclu,innc;.;-; f;;Hry ;;;r.ulirr"",
                                 nr. laborers factorie,s- t;il;i'"s"i;d;;,
                                            in        i,, ihe                      ;;
       f transpolta_tion,
       rn 9-l-nl.::?l _l or'\\'^ere personal
                                     in        and domeslic        servicc, we'e
       pcridlcrs. About tu'o-fifrhs the bnr.. *lith"r""t.. i"                or
                                       of.                                       urra
      relatively somewhatferverof rire otirei                         "".iiion,
                                                      i".;;i;;; iJtn"#", others
      s.ppo'tinE- their farnilies who \re'c engag"d i;' ;kill"d "*u".iui
                                                ""t                             *orr.
      or u'orl<other than nennal.(m.achinistJ,   ;.*t
      me' and skilled *orkers in the buirditrgirades,"1.!gp,     _Jn;;;;l;;., ior;:
                                                          sLitdJf;;";*yii-oir..rr,
      derlers r nd p'on rierors, t.,.u. of ah; p;
                                      rrers            ;;;i;i;;;ig'"o"
      conrrrrercial  Lrai:ciers,                  .;;
                               clericaland profdssi;;;i ;;;;'k;r'.),'utpiJp"rti""
                                                                              ""rr,.,
      littie larger than that for the newriape, s.fferr.
                                              AGD OF CARRIERS

                 neusboy ordirrancc in paterson clid not apply to
      ,^,Th,.                                                                                       carriers.
      l l r c b o y s l r t h r o t r l c si n v a c a l i o n a n d t h o s e u i t h r b u d e s
                                                                                                  dslino fho
      schc,ol \\'crc
            year       aboutthe,.,aml  gg^c.;A lg*.r-*rou"a"";it'r;;i::
      The greatm-ajority  rr'ere lej,st_1i,i""i"di"g
                                at                                    who
      were 14 or 15 years of age. (Table SZ, p. t2O.')"u""i""":tii"rd
                                      DURA'fION      OF STRNET       WORK

        About, thrce-fourths.of the bovs with routes cluring the summer
                                                     -il.id'AJ"schoot
     vacation had worked_   berrveeng'and 10 w;i;
                          the_carriershad wor.tred rveeks-o'r -i-o uil
                                                  24           ioriger,
     {:ij-16,1:t*:9i!  9{
     havrng been interviewed s^uflflciently in the schooly.*.
                                           late                      Lor.
     had tiine to work at least 24 w-eeks.
            'i"p,{{lill
     *ljr1*                           iiiif"l"#
                   ir"* ili-l^li!ru9:l?": fie":ii:'Jii         r.
                                                   ii.q"'.',i..1?i',,;
     ftr?llf%"*J',i'"1lNigjil!3f$!H"Jilt{"llS,li"t       fi";ruli:,",*tii[',1=liiJ;r.i'.")ii,..




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetot'n f'nir ersin
       128    EMpLoyMENT oF scnoor, cETLDREN rN NEw JERsEy

                                CONDITIONS     OF WORK

          All the carrierswere emplovedbv dealers.  from whom thev obtained
       their papersand by whoni they w6re paid d,regular wage,dnlessthey
       had independentroutes of their own. lrlonerveredirectly responsiblg
       to the newspaperoffices. Of the 141 boys having routes at the time
       of interview 125werehired at a salarv. 7 worked on their own account.
       and t helped other boys. At least one of the newspaper.etr"ouraged
       the independentcarriersto build up their routes by paying them cash
       amountsfor new customersor, in a fel cases,    paying a small salary in
       addition to the boy's regular profits on his papers.
          Most of the carriers had house-to-house     routes, 122 of the 141
       working rvhen they were interviewed delivering only in residential
       sections of the city. A few had down-town routes, serving stores
       and offices.
                                RDGULARITY     OF WORK

         All except 2 of the boys carrying papers during vacation, and all
       except 7 of the others worked at least 6 days a week.
                                  SOURS      OF WORK

          More than half the carriers in Paterson had morning-paper routes.
       Of the 79 delivering morning papers during vacation, 73 started on
       their routes before 7 a. m. This number included 20 boys who began
       before 6 a. m.,most of them around 5 or 5.30, but some as early"as
       4 or 4.30. The morning carriers were largely the older boys (31 of
       the 79, or 39 per cent, were at least 14), but 12 (15 per cent) w-ere
       under 12 years of age and 1 was under 10. Of the 88 with morning
       routes during the school year, 78 began rvork before 7 a. m. and 25
       before 6. These also were older than the afternoon carriers; onlv
       14 per cent compared with 26 per cent of the total number were under
       12, and 36 per cent were boys of 14 or 15.
          All except 8 of the vacation carriers and all except g of the others
       had afternbon routes. All except 16 of the first grbup and 19 of the
       others were through their work before 6 p. m., and nbne worked as
       late as 8.
          About half the vacation carriers worked less than two hours a dav.
       though some (16 per cent) spent at least three hours a day on the.ir
       routes and a few boys worhed five hours or longer. (Table 64.)
       During the school year 58 per cent of the route carriers worked less
       than trvo hours a day, and 13 per cent spent three hours or more
       carrying papers. Saturday hours were about the same for both
       groups sts on other days. On Sundays the routes seemed to require
       a somev'hat shorter time; 110 of the vacation carriers and 133 of the
       others delivered papers on Sundays, and of these 43 per cent and 35
       per cent, respectively, worked two hours or longer.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                       '\A'ORK
                                   CEITJDREN        IN    STREET                                     729
    Ta-rqn 6j'-{wm,ber          of hours o! street work on a typicar week d,au other than
                              o].rr,* anrt durins aacation,- as perio neuspiq)
                                                          bE e      di       er
      itiliii!,, piT!]!!".u,,1.o

                                                         Newspaper carriers under l6 l.€ars of age




                                                                         '31
                                                                         3i




    I     ce,ntdistribution not showq where basc is iess tiran J0.
    I _Per_
      fncludes 1 boy for whon age was not reportcd.


      tr'ifty-fourper ecnt.of tlle-bo1's*'itrr r.or'{ in vacnlionu.orketl12
                                                    r.s
   ,
   nou-rs tongcr ft l''-eeli. 'lhe rnediunnunrberof hours of work u.as
            o.r
   between 12 and 16. Twelve boys (g per cent) wor"hedat, least z+
   hours. The marirnunr_lrorrrs 42, i.pn.tctl by: frov.,rrlhoho.l
                                    ri.eie                    "i,iio.n'
   both. morning and afterno,n .outes. Tl'c ..ai"ricr"                  *ort
   rcr1uired.l2_lioursnrorea wcek uere about the sanre^*". l. trri."
                        or
   who had shorter routes.                'the school y.'- .oiri"ri
                                 .During                                spent
   somewhatless time at rvork; onl5' 41 per cent worked 12 hours or
                5 per ctnt rvorkcdat lcast:4 hours. lir"ifof tn"J. Uo1,.
   l9lg,.r,"_ld
   carned_papers                                        .
                   both molning and afternoon. The median in seasons
   other than the sum*rer vacation rvas betweeng and tz hours. tt is
   not clear why less time should hai-c been requitedlcrr t"ri"= a*i"-q
   thc schoolvear than during vacation unless'it *:"r it ut i"-uiur.rrr.
   when it grew dark earlier and was cold the boys hurried-it ro"gn tn"ir.
   work more than in warm u'eather.
     The carriers who rvorked 12 hours or more while attcnding school
   were older than those who worked shorter hoursl o"ly is p'",
   were under 12 years.                                                  """t




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, GeorgetownUniversitl
        130             EMpLorrMENT                            oF scroor-           cHrlDREN        rN NEw        JERSEy

        Taer,n 65.-Earnings during a tEpical week of schoolterrn and o! uacation, by age
                                 newspapercarrters, Paterson,N. J,
                          peri,od;


                                                                                   Newspaper carriers under 16 years of age


                                                                                                          12 years,           14 years,
                                                                                                          under 14            under 16
           Earnings during a typical week

                                                                                                                Per
                                                                                                        Num     cent
                                                                                                         ber   distri-
                                                                                                               bution


                         SCEOOI, TERM

               Total-------------

        Total reported- - -

            L e s sl h a n $ u . 2 5 - - - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _
                                     -
            $ 0 . 2 5l,e s st h a n $ 0 . 5 0 - - - - - - - -
                reii
            $o.so, ih;ii si____-
                               :----:-::-
                        t
            $ 1 ,l e s s h a n $ 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -            12.0
                        t
            $ 2 ,I e s s h a r $ 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -          30.I
                        t
            $ 3 ,l e s s h a D M . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -              24.6
            $ 4 ,l e s st h l n $ 5 - . - - - - - - - - - -       __.             13.1
            $ 5 ,l e s sl h d n $ 6 .- - - - - - - - - - -                         2.9
                        t
            $ 6 ,l e s s h a n $ : . , . - - - - .- - - - -                        2.3
            N o e a r r i D g s D dn o c r s h e u r n i n g s
                                a
        Not reported-----

                             \TACATION

               Total----------

        Total reported- - -                                                                                                          100.0


                                                                                                                                       4.O
                                                                                                                                      26.0
                                                                                                                                      34.0
                                                                                                                                      18.0
                                                                                                                                       6.0
                        t
            $ 6 ,l e s s h a n $ q . - - - - - - - - .                                                                                 6.0
            No earningsand no cashearnings                                                                                             6.0
        Not reported-----


          r rncludes boyror.rro- ug"*l.tlb#1ffi;'"tt                                 tn"" uo
                   I
                                                                            EARNINGS

           Carriers earned somewhat less than the nervsboys. The median
        amount reportpd.was bet$een g2 and $3 a weeli, whether tlie boy
        was q carrier during yacation or during the school year. Age mad-e
        less difference in ealmings than ir-ith t[e boys selling paper; on the
        streets, the median amount being the same for carriers under 12 and
        for those of 12 and 13 years of age, though more-between gA and
        $4-for those between 14 and 16. A small nurnber of caniers made
        less than g1 a week, and feuer still made $5 or more. The largest,
        earnings were $7.50, the amount earned by a l4-year-old car-rier
        \4-orking 24 hours a, \Meek. A few bovs-S in the yacation group and
        9 in the other-received no mone\r for their u'ork. (Table"OO.)
                                                                                    IN scHool,
                                                                       "oootu*"
           A fairly large proportion of the newspaper carderc in Paterson
        compared with those in .Nervark were high-school students-l7        per
        cent of thos_e-wo-rking
                              during, vacation and 15 per cent of those working
        after school had begun. The median grade that the boys had com-




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                     CITILDREN        IN   STREET WORK                                   131
      pleted at the beginning of the school year in which thcy were inter-
      viewed was the sixth.
        Carriers were less retarded in school than the nervspaper  seilers.
      Of the 106 between8 and 16 years of age (seefootnote 4, p. 1)
      with foreign-bornfathers, delivering papem in vacation 11 per cent,
      and of the 123 'w.orkingduring the school year 12 per cent, were
      overagefor their grade. Among boys of the sameageshaving native
      white"fathers,6 5f the 33 in onE group and 8 of th6 46 in t[e other
      rvereretarded. The 1 negro carrier in each group was in a normal
      grade for his age.
                                                  PEDDLERS

        As in Ner.vark, more children peddled during the sumrner vacation
      and on Saturdays after schooi opencd than before or aft'er school.
      The Paterson study included 96 vacation peddlers, 22 of rvhom worked
      only in vacation, though some did other kinds of work after school
      began, and 60 boys u'ho peddled cluring the school year, of rvhom 52
      were at work v'hen intervieu,'ed.?r
                                  RACE AND      NATIONALITY        OF FATHERS

        All the peddlers v.ere white. Of those lrorking in vacation, 76 per
      cent and of the othcls 70 per cent had foreign-born faLhers. Forty
      of the 96 vacation peddlers were of It'alian parentage, 8 of Polish,
      and 25 of other foreign stocks; 19 of bhe 60 boys peddling during the
      school year had Italian fathers, and 23 had fathers of other foreign
      nationalities.
                                   ECONOMIC       CONDITION       OF tr'AMILIES

         Even less freouenilv than amons other streei rvorkers rvas the
      peddler in a fatherl".i ho-".     OnIl: + (.i per ceut) of tire vacation
      workers and 2 (3 per cent) of the others *-ere in families x'hose chief
      breadwinner $'as some one o;her than tbe child's father', stepfather,
      or foster fathcr. None liad nrotirers rvho rvere the chief snpport of
      the family, but mnny (25 per cent of the vacation pedcllers and 18
      per cent, of tire others) had mothers who were at u'ork,'chieily in
      factories.
         About one-third of the child peddlers had fathers or ot'her chief
      breadv'inners who rrere factory operatives. As among other groups
      of juvenile peddlers many of the fathers were peddlers (15 per cent of
      the vacation workers and 18 per cent of the others); and 8 per cent
      of one group and 7 per cent of the other had fathers or other chief
      w-a,ge earners rvho rvere laborers in the building;rades, in ia.rtories,
      and in transnortation. or l'ere in domestic and personal service.
      Somewhat ferver than one-tlild were in families suppbrted by workers
      in skilied occupations (machinists, mechanics, and sl<illed rvorlimen irr
      the building trades and in factories); occupations lcrluiring education
       (commercial travelors, clerlis, and a dentist); or in sttpervising or
      managerial positions (contlactols and foremen in the building traclcs
      and owners of shops, stores, and manuf,rcturing esbablishmerrts).
        2l Three girls reported peddling-2 candy sellers,aged 12and 13years, who worked only during rrcrrt i, 'r,
      andanll-year-oldgirlwhohelpedherfathei,aDltrliianfruitandvegetrblepeddler,throughoutthc;.,,r.
      Except for oDe of t,hecandy sellers,wiro rci)orted a woriiilg week 01.1i hours (hom 10 a. ttr. i,, : I . r.. :l
      week days with half an hour for lunch, and Irorl 1 p. m. lo 5 p. m. ard 7 to I on Sundeys), tLe girlr i\ urrcJ
      only a fow bours a wesk.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetou'nl--niversitr
         132         EMprroyMENT oF scrroor, oETLDRENrN NEw JERSEy

                                                     AGE OF PEDDLERS


                                           '#ii.;
                     j1:iH":"&il-'lnl.Ji,',?,";,1,1.'".ff
         t,,f,"1?l:ql'Jtil,:tt
         p e d d l e i l d u r i n g " o a " a r r o nw e r e u n d e r 1 2 .
         ii"'i:il *.i:"'   io_
                       "?d"" onry "u"u,irjfT"Hi,:?:,
                                22             f,A"fot;i.iffi
         working during the school term were 14 or 15.



        ^ Br.{a, tr,._
                     ru,e""-,,l,Ii:::t* ,"^ Hihad peddled
        9_and 10 weeks during the summer vacl                    bet*,een
        tr,."
            J.",r"4    '.r-;r ;;;. ;;;- il #ilT:" r3ff"li; allrnrrhro ut
                                                                  u$ho
        whohad ":r*,'  done kindof ,,oil au.ins
                          rhis                iio...riooi1,;;.";;;
        least24 weeksu-hire.
                           attencrir;g
                                                               ;j;lf,T:l
                                    ;.r;;i,-the rnte.rvie*-
                                                         sith eachhar.ing
        beenheld ar IcastthaL lerrgrE;i]i;;;[icr  the openinsof school
        thefallsothal,            all ihe60ciulcl                      in
                                                hav;-;;i;                          H;ilil';?        i;riJ",..

           {lmost         all theffi[i.u i:]|.u.."-p_loyed herping
        gll|e1. or produce
                        "*"1.-,
                          hucksteri.--b;i; t'o1 the 52 rvorking    rruit
                           child                               r_hcnrhe
        :tffli1J:?i"ti*?".      who
                              soll butter
                                        ""a."ss.,';""a'u
                           jiJl"tll,ilif,
        ig"n.i.r"tr'".#"{'iiltl'i                     "u,,dy
        Paterson
               apparenrly.oflerc$
                              liiii;;pi;;;
                                                                                   :'i'.x'-T,T,if
                                                                                     t
                                                                                           ;ik"'"'i4a
            ii,l.""Li[o,.' ; inth grbup
                       uiti.r., c                lj*i"f *, *i# d:                        ;jfl
        "f
        interviewrherewas.                          and.thet.eu.
        anything other than l:1.:i.""irii"iff.r,
                            fruit                              otherswirh
                                 -or vegefables                                 ror_sale pectdledhousehold
        commodities-like ice, fooclstuft'.;
       r."il;;;; a"* o;ir-i";?"if"       ;;;;;;
                                          ;;.,iJi..T?                g:"",13;
                                                          i'.,:,Xr:.=*
       of the city, of whom6 soiretirnes"*"r:i."a ,:..ia""#;i;;;"r:l
                                                U                                                                   I
                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                    I
               or
       -^Mu,-'r theboys:19;;:l#il;f::"::tion                                          rvori<ed day-
                                                                                            e,,er;r                 I
       70 peddlod     six or ieven d;y";;;"r.:"-T*o
       onlv' The evervdut ttorl"..r.;;;;'y";;er                    b9,r. *.orlieclon saiu.days
       b e i n g n d e r1 2v e a r s f a g ea n d i s d " i " * i + tiian tn" ""t."lil
                u                  o                                                             up,22              I
                                                                    o ' t 5 . . D u r i n gt h e                    t
       y,ear'-relati'ely   about n"ii rr'Lr"u'p;li,i,n^ a.srn \-aearion s c h o o r
       36Tl""fii'               aiv'u"."&* r;lifrili#oY
             ;1i;lti:hn f,l:.'"""'                   ortn"
                                                                                               worked




       *I-l* work: I slarteduork e":t-rTJpedruers
       mornrnEi!!g"di"q ::*:f :l,lbefore a.       artemptecl do
                                                          ro
                                        6 m.,.the           other'iz'u[?u.nt"r.
       The bov u'ho u'orked
                             1i"- i';"'6'b-l;;'going to sehoor
       father peddle'r'uitanclvegetabrei                              herping  his
                                           ;;;,3 yearsold; he said ire went
       to bed at 6.30 n. m. and dia- ,roi"r"!i.r*py
       schoolwasnot in session                         d.uringthe dav. \vhen
                               sz.of lhe ,b';;#     ir-,.;i,'iri?r. ii?,no.ning.
       Six startedbefore u. p. All e;;epr ll-f.inf::r,*hose i,
                         6
       u'as5 a' m" rrorkedfor their tat.ers,-ari                  hour of siarting
       that his mornins *o"t .lurlld-..;"2'":;.     rtarlans; boy of 12 said
                                                                a
       vegetableson his tlr.[:.1;                      wrrh packing fruit ancr
                                   11..q"1r;-rn'  ir_y"or_old chiid began at
                           marl<cc *gdt"-u-r"".luni'ii""r?y"ur-
       3ri #; ffl &#l3o'o.the   toget
       .;;"ro;"d;;;-#'i"H:li"bii;:'.1-:ff*tgj.'*f
                                         3ii*.?*::;
                                                                                                -               I




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
                                        CEILDR.EN         IN    STREET        WOR,K                                 133
      6 and 7. These early-morning peddlers were the older boys, for of
      the 20 only 3 were under 12 years of age, and 5 were t+ oi.iS.
          Jn vacation 88 peddlers u'brked in the afternoons of week davs
      other than Saturdavs, of whom more than half (a9) stopped woik
      before 6 p.m.and i5'betrveen 6 and 8. Fourteen                                                     o'.,1until at,
      le-ast8 in the evening,4 w_orkinguntil between 10 and 12 and 1, a boy                   "-"tu
     oj 13,, until mid-night. One of these was employed by his fathei;
      the others were hired helpers. All except 1 w:ere"                                     unclei 14 years of
     age. On Sa-turdays- worked in the aftelnoon, of rvhom 40 per cent
                                          90
     were thtgugh rvork before 6, and 26 per cent worked until 8 i. m. or
     l a t e r . T h e s e i n e l u d e d 1 4 b o y s r v h o - p e d d l e d r p t o 1 0 o r l a l ' e r . , 4o [
                                                                                    r
      whom peddlcd until l2 o't.lorik. \lore oftcn than not the bov s-ork-
     ing until 10 or later was a hired helper. One of these, a bov of 13.
     quit at midnight after a u'orking day of IZ/2 hours. The other
     bovs working- up to midnight on'SatJrday nights rvorked for their
     fathers, inclu.ding a boy of 12 u'ho gave hii hour of sropping as rnid-
     night but said that on SaturdaJg in summer he worked piactically
     all night, adding, "sometimes I-don't Eet no sleep." On6 bov wh"o
     worked until 12 on Saturdays orved the lateness bf the hour io the
     fact that the unsold fruit and vesetables had to be nacked awav
     after the return from the peddlin[ round. tr{ost of the very lat"e
     Saturday night peddlers had begun work earlv in the morninE.
                                                                                                                jtopped
          Pu{i"f the sehool year 26 boys pcddled aiter school; 16
     w o r k b e f o r e . 6 ,a n d ,o n l y l r v o r k c d a s l a t e .a s 8 p . m . , a b o y o f l l ' u ' h o
     h l l p . u l a h u c k s t e r _ f r o n r -t4 9 p . m . e v e r r - s c h o o id a y . A l m o s t a l l ( 5 6 )
                                                   o
     o f ^ t h i s g l o u p p e d d i e d o n S a [ u r d a y a { t e r n o o n s ;o i t h e s e 2 3 s t o p p e d
     b e f o r e 6 p . m . , b u t 1 2 r v o r k e du n t i l - a t l e a s t 8 o ' c l o c k , i n c l u d i n E : b o v s
    w h o q u i t b e t r v e e n1 0 a n d 1 ? p . n . a n d 3 u ' h o u o r l i e d u n t i l m l d n i g h t .
    Most of these.boys were the same as those who worked the la-test
    hours rn vacation time also.
         A.lm-ost all (89) the vacation peddlers worked 2 hours or more on
    week days other than-S_aturdavs; 5g worked an 8-hour day or lorrger.
    T h i r t y - t h r e e b o y s p e d d l e d 1 0 h o u r s o r l o n g e r o n v B c a t i o nd a y s . " O n
    Saturdays ma.ny. more (76) _worlied at least 8 hours, including 4g
    boys-who worked 10 and 12 hours or longer'. A ferv boys worke-d 14
    or 15 hours on Saturd,avs, and_an occasional child, beginning early
    and working
                             hte with a lunch hastily consumed otr'th" i"ugorr,
                                                                         '15
    reported a working day of more than                                        hours. The peddlers on
    the streets at least 8 hours on saturdays rvere of about th^esarne ages
    as the others; onlv 1 was under 10,'irut one-fourth were under'12
    years of age and only one-fourth were 14 and 15.
    _ During the school year 28- peddlers worked on school davs, 17
    f*l
            lt least 2 .hours, 4qd ?, both hired heipers, 5 hours or io.rger.
                          p
    Ol.the 5-9_eddlers.with Saturday jobs, 44 (Tb per cent) worlied
    n.t least 8 hours, including some whoie #orking day was at least, l2
    hours,-a few having a working day of 14, ll,"or in the ease of one
    boy,77rf hours. Thc Satrrrday peddlers iluriirs the school vear who
    had an E-hour working day or long"r were perhips a little oider tha.
    the whole group; l of-the-44 rvas"under 10: 14 #ere under 12- and 7
    were 14 or 15 I'ears old.
                    1 of the peddlers worked on Sunday, a boy of 10 worhing
     , Qoly
    dunng the school vear who spent two hours in peddling fruit oi
    Sundav morninss. "
      The- peddlers"who worked after school, though their Sntrrrdav
    ,
    hours were long, had a short week compared with'i-acation peddiers.




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetou'nL niversifr
       134         EMPLOYMENT             OF SCITOOL CTTILDREN                 IN      NEW    JERSEY

       Of the latter 86 worhed at least 12 hours and 52 at ieast 48 hours a
       week, whereas 29 of the former had a 'working week of 12 or nrore
       hours,. and 6 worked 28 hours or longer. Man,i' of the boys u,orking
       a.s peddlers' assistants during r-acation worked 60 hours-or more &
       weeb, of 'll'hom only a few worked for their parents. In some cases
       the hor.irsran &s high as 84,87,90, 93; for 1 boy, the l2-year-old
       son of an Italian fnril and vegetable peddler, who wbiked frod 2 a. m.
       j,n 9 p:m. orrrveeli da;'-sother than Saturdays and up to midnight on
       Salurdays, with i5 minuies off for each meal, the number wai t0g.
       The longest_ working week during the school year was that of a
       13-year-old boy rvho rvorked for his brother, a huckster, from 1.30
       p. m. to 6 on school days and from 6 a. m. to midnight on Saturdays.
       a total of 40/2 hours. This he had done througLout, the surnmer
       vacation (his hours at that season being even lonEer than in colder
       weather) and the qchogl year, & total ol 40 weeks, and was at rvork
       when interviewed in Nfay; he received $5 a weeli.
                                                       EARNINGS

          The vacation peddiers hacl a median u.age of betrveen $4 and $b
       a week, the same amount as that earned bv the Newark peddlers
       during vacation. Unlike the earnings of th-e Neu-ark peddiers the
       rnedian rvas ttie same for each age group. A large irumber (31)
       made $5-or more, the largest amouni being $10.5ii, earned by a
       15-year-oid huckster's assistant.
          lYhen school wtrs in session the peddler earned considerably less
       than during the srmmer vacation. The medran earnings were only
       betr.veen$i and $2 and were the sarne for each age groupl A ferv (6)
       made less than gi a u-eek,and but 5 boys (8 per cent) earned as much
       as S5.
          Sorne of the boys n-ere not paici in cash for their *-ork-13 of the
       vacation ped<ilers and 10 of the others. N{ost of these boys rvcrl<eC
       for their fathers, but several .rvorked for others and were paid in fruit
       or vegetables'
                                            rN
                                 'EDDLERS scHool
          A ferv of the peddlers in each group u'ere high-school boys, but the
       median_gradecompleted at the beginning of the school year in u.hich
       tlie study rvas nra,dewas the fifth.
          The proportiorr of boy peddlers u'ho are reiarcicd in scirool (see
       footnote 4, p. 1) rvas larger than that of any of the other Paterson
       street rvorkers. Of 69 vacation pcddlers bett'cen 8 and 16 yeais oI
       age u'hose {athers rvere foreign born, 23 (33 per cent) were retarded.
       No other group \iras sufficiently large to affor<l a basis for determinins
       the p.ercentage rvho rvere overage for their grades. Among the
       vacation group aged E to 15, 7 of the 20 boys rvith native white f ather.s
       were retarcied. Among the others of the same ages, 12 of the 2g
       with foreign-born fathers and 2 of the 15 rvith naiive white fathers
       had failed to attain the grades considered nolmal for their years.

                               MISCELLANEOUSSTREET WORKERS
         The majority of the miscellaneous street worhers in Paterson, as
       the accompanying table shorvs,were bootblacks.22 The others had a
       variety of jobs. In addition to the hinds of u'ork specified in the
        2r 4 girls aged 9, 12, 14, aud 15 years, reported miscellanoous street work,   inciuding stand tonding and
      canvassing for magaziues. ?he girls ils not included iq the tablo.




                                                                                                                 -,--1,




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universif-v
                                     CHILDREN IN STNEETWORK                                                   135

     table, boys worked on melry-go-rounds at, amusement parks, led a
     blind man who distributed circulars, distributed telephone books,
     helped on bill boards, and sold molasses-covered apples in the front
     vards of their residences.


         Type of street workor




        The bootblacks were the only group sufficientl5' large to u-arrant
     analysis. Except that ferver children were invoh'ed, conditions were
     found to parallel t'hose found amonE the Newarli bootblaclis. X'elr'
     (2 of the iacation workers and 5 of ihe others) rvere 14 years of age,
     and the larger number (22 in each group) *-ere under 12, including 6
     vacation workers and 5 others who 'were under 10. With few excep-
     tions they were the children of immigrants, mostly Italians. One
     negro boy \\,&s a bootblack. \{ore of the chief breadwinners of the
     bootblacks v-ere factory operatives than 'ivere in any otlier one kind
     of rvork. Only two bootblacks in each group had fathers ivho ov'ned
     a business; none had chief breadu-inners w-ho u.ere clerks or in
     professional work. One boy in each group of workers rvas in a
     lamily supported by the mother; about one-tt'enticth were in homes
     in rvhich the father rvas dead or absent and had not bcen replaced by
     a stepfather or a foster father. About one-fourth of the boys in each
     group had rnothers gainfully employed, chiefly as factorv lr.orkers.
        Almost all the 43 bootblacks workins in vacation had worked
     throughout the summer. A boy of 11, w:ho said he had worked all
     summer, had stopped several weel<s after school began because he
     u-as afraid thc police, rvho had once taken au-al hit-bo.r, worrld get
     him again. Of the 48 rvho worked during the school ycar 34 had
     lvorked at least 24 n'eeks at the time of the interview, which was at
     least 24 weeks after the opening of school.
        A1l the bootblacks in Paterson ran their ov-n business and lvorketl
     mostly in business sections of the city. The majority of the boot-
     blacks, even during the school year, worked six or seven daStsa weeli,
     but, a few boys lvorlied onl-v on Saturda-v*s Sundavs,              or
        Only one bootblack rvorlied before 7 a. m. On sumrner afternoons,
     Saturdays as well as on other u'eek days, the largest number of boys
     stonned work before 6 o'clocli, but 12 of the vacation bootblacks
     woilied until 8 or I on eveniusi other than Saturdav and 13 u-olke'd
     o n S a t u r d a v sr r n t i l8 o r ' 9 p . m . " a n d2 o i h e r sr r n t i l l 0 o r 1 . l . T h e h o r r r
     of quitting the streets u.as about the same rvhen school was in session
     as durrnE Yacallon.
        Long hours were spent, on the streets; of 35 boys working in vaca-
     tion on week days other than Saturday 15 worked at least 8 hours
      and 27 at least 5 hour., and 20 of the 41 workers on Saturdays in
     vacation worked at, least, 8 hours and 30 at least 5 hours. So-e
     bovs spent, l0 or 12 hours a day bootblacking. Even when school
     was in'session 13 of the 36 boys bootblacking 5n school days worked
     3 hours or longer, and several worked 5 hours; on Saturdays 31 of




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        136     FMpLoyMENT     oF scnoor,   cETLDREN rN NEw      JERSEy

         the 45 who worked had done so for at least ,5 hours and 12 for at
         least, 8 hours. All the year round a number of the bootblacks-ri
         in vacation and 16 during the school vear-worked on Sundavs.
            In vacation 30 of the 38 workers reporting their hours a w6ek had
        spelt 1-2ho_ursor lo-nger in shoe shining an-d tb had had a working
         week of at least 48 hours. After the opening of school 2g of the 4E
         boys giving information on t,heir hours had" worked at least 12 a
         week, and 14 boys had spent at least 24 hours a weeli at their boot-
        blacking jobs.
           The median earnings Jor bovs shining shoes in vacation were
        between $3 and $4 a week as in-Ne*-ark,'-and 15 of the +a made $5
        or.mo_re. _A t4-year-old boy who reported his earnings as g2 a week
        sard that he could earn more.money if he did not, have to keep out,
        of.sight of.the.police.;he had.been caught bv the police five times, he
        sald, &nd hed had hrs box taken arvay becarrse u-as worl<inEwith_
                                                            he
        out, a license. Even when the bovs hid to attend school their inedian
        earnings w-erebetween $3 and $4, though only 11 of the 4g were able
        to make as much as 95.
           None of the bootblaqks was in high school. The median grade
        completed at the beginning of the school r-ear in rvhich the boys were
        rnterviewed u-as the third for vacation rvorkers, the fourth for"others.
        {mo-ng the vacation bootblacks betrveen 8 and t6 years of age, I of
        the 5 with native fathers and 16 of the 35 u'ith foreiEn-born"fathers
        were ret'arded. Among_the school-sessionbootblacks"of these ages I
        of the 4 sons of native rvhite fathers and 18 of the 40 with foreign-iorn
        fathers were retarded.




Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown Universitv
    APPENDIX-TEXT OF NEW JERSEYCHILD TABOR
                     tAWS
    COMPIILSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND EMPLOYMENT
                   CERTIFICATE LAW
                                     rl,aws of 1914,ch. 2231

       Srctrorv 1. (a) "Supervisor of school exemption certificates," as used in this
    act, shall mean anv superintendent of schools,supervising principal, principal or
    teacher of any school district l'ho shall be designated by the board of education
    in that district fo carry out the provisions of this act.
       (b) " Age and schooling certificate," as used in this act, shall mean a certificate
    granted by the supervisor of school exemption certificates, and such certificate,
    n'hen granted, pursuant to this act, shall authorize the holder thereof to cease
    attending school n-hen employed in some occupation lawful for children under
    sixteen years of age.
       (c) "Age and working certificate," as uscd in this act, shall mean a certificate
    granted h5' the supervisor of school exemption certificates, pursuant to section
    thirteen of this act, rvhich certificate, shen granted, shall not exempt the child
    from attendance at school, but shall allow such child to secure certain employ-
    ment in the open air, which empioyment shall be iawful for children under
    fourteen 5tearsof age. * * *
       Snc. 2. Every parent, gnardian, or other person having custody and control of
    a child between the ages of ser.en and sixteen years shall cause such child regularly
    to attend a day school in lvhich at least reading, writing, spelling, English gram-
    mar, arithmetic, and geography are taught in the English languageby a competent
    teacher, or to receive equivalent instruction elsewherethan at school, unless such
    child is above the age of fourteen vears, has been granted a,n age and schooling
                                 and larvfully employed in some useful occupation, or
    certificate, and is regu1arl51
    service; a,nd such regular attendance sha]l be during all the days and hours that
    the public schools are in sessionin said school district, unlessit shall be shown to
    the satisfaction of the board of education of said school district that the mental
    or bodily condition of the child is such as to prevent his or her attendance at
    schooll Prouided, That on and after JuIS' first, one thousand nine hundred and
    trventy, every parent, guardian, or other person having custody and control of a
    child between the agesof fourteen and sixteen years, to rvhom an age and schooling
    certificate has been granted and lr'ho is temporarily unemployed, shall causesuch
    child regularly to attend a continuation school for at least tlr.enty hours each
    week.
       On and after July first, one thousand nine hundred and twenty, every parent,
    guardian, or other person having custody and control of a child between tlie ages
    of fourteen and sixteen years, to rvhom an age and schooling certificate has been
    granted and who is regul:rrly and lal'fully employed, shall cause such chilrl to
    attend a continuation school for a period of at least six hours during each n-eekfor
    at least thirty-six weeks in each year. Such attendance shali be in the school
    district of the county in which said child is employed and shall be cluring the
    hours when said continuation school in such district or countv i,s in ses,sion:
                                                                             137




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universilr
        138      EMpLoyMENT         oF scgoor-     cETLDREN rN NEw          JEnsEy

         Prouid.ed,,That for re&sons satisfactory to the State board of education, the
         commissioner of education may permit or require such child to attend a con-
         tinuation school in the school district or the county in which he or she resides.
          (As amendedby Laws of 1919,ch. 35.)
            Spc.3. Age and schooling certificates and age and working certificates may
         be granted by the supervisor of school exemption certificates in the school dis-
         trict in which the child resides,on the application in person of the parent, guardian
         or custodian of the child for whom such certificate is desired.
            Snc. 4. Every child under the age of sixtecn years whb is not regularly and
         lawfully employed in any useful occupation or servicc, shall not be exempt from
         attendance at school.
            [Sections 5 to 12 inclusive specify educational and physical requirements for
         age and schooling certificate, and methods of issuing.]
            Snc. 13. Whenever a child between the age of ten and sixteen years desiresto
         work in ordcr to assist in supporting itself or the family, it shall be lawful for
         the parent, guardian or other person having the custody and control of said
         child betrveenthe ages of ten and sixteen years to fiIe a petition with the super-
         visor of school exemption certificates of the school district in which the child
        resides,which petition shall set forth the fact that said child desires to secure
         employment in order to help support itself or family, together with evidence
        lvhich shall comply with the provisions of this act as to the age of said child and
        the character of the work thc child is to perform, which work shali only include
         selling nen'spapers, blacking shoes, running errands, and other light employ-
        ments, not otherwise prohibited by 1av; for children under sixteen. If upon
        investigation it shall be found that the facts set forth in the petition are true and
        that the work will not interfere with the child's standing in school, or with the
        child's health, it shall be lav'ful for the supervisor of school exemption certificates
        to grant to said child an age and working certificate, to work at such times as the
        public schoolsin the district shall not be in session,but not before six o'clock in
        the morning nor after seven o'clock at night. Any person, the members of any
        firm or the officers or agents of any corporation employing, permitting, or aliow-
        ing a child to work, contrary to the provisions of this section, shall be deemed
        and adjudged to be a disorderly person or persons, and upon conviction thereof,
        shall be fined fifty dollars, or imprisoned not to exceed one year or both: Prouided,,
        That nothing contained in this section shall apply to any child empioyed in
        agricultural pursuits.
           [Sections 14 and 15 relate to penalties.]
           Src. 16. It shall be the duty of the parent, guardian or other person having
        custody and control of any child to rvhom an age and schooling certificate has
        been issued to see that the child is either continuously employed or regularly
        attends school, and to see that when such child is employed that he or she regu-
        lariy attends a continuation school, and it shall be the duty of the supervisor of
        school exemption certificates of the district in lrhich the child residesto take the
        proper proceedings,as provided in sections fourteen and fifteen (a), and amend-
        ments thereof, of this act, to enforce the attendance at school of any child who          g
        fails to secure employment, and also to secure and retain the age and schooling
        certificate for such child until such time as it shall securelan{ul employment, (AB
                                                                                                  .t
        amended by Laws of 1919, ch. 35.)
           [Sections 17 to 19 relate to enforcement and method of issuing certificates.]          I
                                                                                                  I

                                                                                                  {
                                                                                                  :1

                                                                                                  r




Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universitl'
                                           APPEN]]IX                                    139
          LAW RELATING TO EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN
                          FACTORIES
                                        ll,aws of 1904,ch. 64]

          sncrrou 1. No child under the age offourteen years shal be emproyed, a]lowed
      or permitted to s'ork in any newspaper plant, printery, factory, workshop, mill,
      commercial laundry or piace u'here printing or the manufacture of goods of anv
      kind is carried on, or in anr- mine or qual.r\.. :r * 'r, (As r,,r"nJ"d hv
                                                                                       Laws
      of 1923,ch. 80.)
         [Section 2 definesthe rvord custodian.]
         sec. 3' No corporation, firm or person owning or operating a prace or places
      coming under the provisions of this act shal employ, allor,vor permit any
                                                                                       child
      under the age of sixteen years to rvork therein unless that child shall produce
                                                                                          an
      age and schooling certificate, as provided by and required by law. Arry
      tion, or the oflcers or agents thereof, or the members or agents of any "o.pora-
                                                                                    firm, or
      &ny person violating the provisions of this section, shall be liable to a penaltv
                                                                                           of
      tn-ent3-fivedollars for each offense. (As amendcd by La*'s of 1g2li, cli. g0.)
         [sections 4 to 8, inclusive, relate to enforcement and to work in dangerous oc-
      cupations.]
         snc. 9. No minor under the age of sixteen years shall be employecl,permitted
      or allowed to work in praces coming under the provisions of this act more
                                                                                       firan
      eight hours in a day or fortv-eight hours in a week: prouiderl, That
                                                                               during the
      weeks of each -vearthat anv continuation school now established, or which
                                                                                        may
      hereafter be established in the school district or the county in which
                                                                                ilre rninor
     is emploSred  shail be in session,no minor under the age of sixteen
                                                                            1,earssiialr be
     emploved, pe'nitted or allorved to worl< in an-v placc or places .oroiog under
                                                                                         the
     provisions of this act for more tha' fort.r'-tl.o ]rours in
                                                                 each *-eek; nor shall any
     minor under the age of sixteen 5'earsbe empioyed, allowecl or permittecl
                                                                                   to rvork
     in aily place or places coming under the provisions of this act ,ft". ."u"o o,clock
     in the afternoon or before seven o'ciock in the morning of any da1,;nor
                                                                                 shalr any
     child under the age of sixteen years be emplol-ed, permitted or allowed to
                                                                                   work on
     the first dav of the week, commonry known as suncra5., any time during
                                                                  or                    said
     day; * * * (As amended by Laws of 1g19, ch. 86.)

        LAWS RELATING TO EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN
                MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS
                                      ll,aws of 1911,
                                                    ch. 1361

        sncrro* 1' No child under the age of fourteen years shal be
                                                                              employed,
     ailowed or permitted to work in any merca.tile estabrishment coming
                                                                                   *.iiliin
     the provisions of this actl any corporation or the officers or agcnts theieof,
                                                                                        the
     members of any firm or the agents thereof, or any person rvho
                                                                           shall employ,
     allow or permit to work in any mercantile establishrnent any chilcl
                                                                              under the
     age of fourteen years shail be riabre to a penarty of fifty dolrars for
                                                                                 each of-
     fense. * * * (As amended by Laws of 191g, ch. 204.)
        snc. 2. No child under the age of sixteen years shall be employed,
                                                                              ailorved or
     permitted to work in or in connection with any mercantiie
                                                                   establishment u'iess
     such child shall producc an age ancl schooringcertificate as provided
                                                                            and recluirerr
     by law, nor shail said child be employed more than eieht hours in
                                                                           an]. one rre.r,,
     or more than forty-eight hours in any one week, or before sevcn
                                                                          o,ckrcl<rrr t!.e
     morning or after seven o'clock in the e'ening; proricletr, That rluring rlie *.r.,.;:-
     of each vear that any continuation school no'lv c-qtalrlishccl, ri-hiclr
                                                                    or        nirr r.(re-
            30812o_29_10




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       140     El,rpLoyl\[ENT   oF scEoor-    cHTLDREN rN NEw          JERSEy

      after be established in the schooi district or the county in which said child is
      employed, shall be in session,no child under the age of sixteen 5'ears shall be
      employed,permitted or allowed to l.ork in any place or places coming under
      the provisiols of this act for more than forty-tno hours in any one week; nor
      shall any child under the age of sixteen years be ernploy-ed,
                                                                  permitted or allorved
      to work on the fir;t day of the week, commonly knorvn as Sunday, or any time
      during said day. :F * * (As amended by Larvs of 1918, ch. 204, and Laws of
      1919,ch. 37.)
        [Sections 3 to 14, inclusive, relate to enforcement and ernployment in dan-
      gerous occupations, and to safety and sanitation in mercantile establishments.]
         Soc. 15. "Mercantile establshment" as used in this act shall be consfrued
      to apply to any employment of any person for \'!'agesor other compensatiorr
      other than in a factory, rvorkshop, mill, place lr-here the manufacture of goods
      of an1' kind is carried on, mine, qriarry, or in agricultural pursuits. (As amended
      by Lar,vsof 1918, oh. 204.)
                                                 n
                                                 \J




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