"Principles and Strategies of Teaching (Class Discussions)"
Class Discussions (2009 – 2010) Answered By: Margaux Marie Panlilio Principles and Strategies of Teaching Teaching and Teachers In your own opinion, how would you describe the teaching process and what are the essential qualities of teachers? Why do you think these are "essential" qualities? In my opinion and based on what I’ve learned from my previous courses in CTP, the teaching process is a partnership between the teacher, the students, and the curriculum. The processes between these partnerships are very dynamic and it involves: learning principles, strategies, steps and applications. The teacher is the main focus on the teaching process for she’s the executioner of what needs to be learned. Side from the knowledge of as an executioner, she must possess the qualities to achieve the objectives of the curriculum, the goals of her students and the accomplishment on her part as a teacher. Speaking of the “essential” qualities, there’s a lot that I can think of thou I would like to share my top 3 qualities, and these are: Dedication, Determination and Patience. If a teacher possesses these 3 qualities, I think she will be one of the best there is. Dedication speaks a lot about the love and passion she has for her “vocation”; and her love and passion towards her job will reflect on to her students and to the curriculum she’s working on. Determination speaks for her taking the hardships as positive challenges, for being optimistic on all the things she do and for having faith on everything around her; lastly patience, we all know it is a virtue. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Definitions of Teaching Teaching has been viewed from various perspectives. Choose one definition that sums up what you believe about teaching. I like the "spiritual" definition of teaching, as stated on the Vatican publication which I read long time ago in our church library. I can't remember the exact wording but in my own words "teaching" is a vocation, a vocation that helps an individual to learn and apply the things he needs, the things he needs to survive and the things that'll prepare him for the future. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Demands of Teaching Based on the WANTED ad and the article, "The 21st Century Teacher Applicant" what can you surmise about the qualities both personal and professional, teachers should possess? Just how important is teaching? Can just anyone be a teacher? After reading the 21st Century Teacher Applicant & the Wanted Ad, I had a strong realization that my initial belief about the career in teaching is not just ”a career” but a “vocation” got really strong. I now feel that teaching is a noble profession, it is a calling. There can be no better and greater joy or happiness for a devoted and dedicated teacher than to see her students learning more and more and improving their living standard. A good teacher derives inner happiness and satisfaction from her sincere and selfless service. She considers her job a great source of service to mankind. Teachers are the most important person in any nation, as on her depends the molding of its people from the early age of 3 up to adulthood. After parenting, a child’s teacher is the most important person in his or her life, which makes teaching so important. When it is done with passion it will be effective, hence the children will become promising and productive citizens. Everyone I believe can enter an occupation being a teacher but NOT everyone can be effective, happy, dedicated, healthy, and passionate on it. Just like how it was said, “Everyone is called, but few are chosen”, there are not many born teachers, but there are those who love teaching, who really shine; and there are only those who enter it for occupation and end up quitting or working ineffectively. I think the first essential quality a teacher should posses based on what I’ve read, is a genuine capacity for sympathy, especially, since she needs to tune in to the minds and feelings of not just her students but of all people around her. Closely related to this is her capacity to be tolerant of others, not of what is wrong, but of the immaturity and shortcomings of human by nature which induce people regardless of background to commit mistakes. Second, I hold it very essential that a teacher should be both intellectually and morally honest, which doesn’t mean that she has to be a saint, it’s just that she has to be aware of her intellectual strengths and limitations; and will never cease to think and decide upon our moral principles by which her life will be guided. Third, she has to always be mentally alert and resilient, she must quickly adapt herself to any situation; connected to being alert is her capacity to improvise in less than a moment’s notice. Next, a teacher must be capable of infinite patience, we are not born like that, but with self discipline, self-training, and compassion this will come out easily; she must be able to endure and walk away maturely from numerous petty irritations any adult would encounter when dealing with children. Lastly, I think a teacher should have the heart and soul to always want to go on learning. Teaching is a vocation which one will never ever be perfect, since we are living in a dynamic environment, in a non-forgiving time, there is always something more to learn about and always something more to improve. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Teaching Read the materials on the teacher and teaching. What makes teaching a noble profession? Please explain this in no more than 5 sentences. Just what I mention in the earlier discussions, teaching for me is more than a noble profession; it is a vocation, a calling. Teaching is one of the most important jobs in life. Our noble profession gives us the privilege to touch the future, as on us depend the moulding of the nation. As good teachers, we derive immense satisfaction from our sincere and selfless service and we consider our job a great source of service to mankind. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Teaching as Science and Art Teaching is said to be both a science and an art. What makes it a science and what makes it an art? Do you agree with Nathaniel Gage's idea about teaching? Why? Please respond in no more than 7 sentences. Teaching is said to be a science since it involves systematic techniques and it follows the scientific principles that govern the discovery of knowledge between teachers and learners. In these times teaching skill seems synonymous with technical instrumentality (techniques), which, in turn, is widely regarded as same to applied science. On the other hand, teaching is said to be an art since, just like musicians who create beautiful music based purely on personality, good teachers rely so much in their personality, in their passion, to deliver their responsibilities. Teaching as a craft, raise significant arguments that teachers are born and not made. I agree with Nathaniel Gage’s conception of teaching that there’s a fine line or equal representation between the scientific behavioural methods for teaching and emphasis on the importance of creativity and imagination so to provide effective and efficient teaching experience. Principles and Strategies of Teaching A New Kind of Education After reading the article of Susunaga Weeraperuma, what questions came into your mind? These are the questions that came into my mind after reading the article: 1st, why did Susunaga Weeraperuma think that “Competitive sports are just means of self-display, a showcase of Ego” when we know these teach us valuable of things (like: team work, unity, camaraderie, and self discovery, and promotes good health)?; 2nd, why did she say that categorizing students (excellent, good, average, needs improvement, poor) doesn’t pose any help in the students’ pursuit of knowledge, when we know we use these not to “brand” them but to set action plans to help them become the best that they can be?; 3rd, why did Ms. Weeraperuma think that examinations are elements of misery to students, when these help them realize their performance and how much they've learned on the subject matter – it is up to the students how they’d treat their scores in relation to their goals?; 4th, am I seeing this article as somewhat a “cry” against conventional learning, is the author trying to impose that the current learning strategy, that is universally adapted, restricts the learner to gain the ultimate knowledge that one needs? Am I missing something here? She was able to write this article, right? Most definitely she can read, so shouldn’t she thank her teacher (who followed the conventional teaching strategy) for what she was able to write and say on this article? Principles and Strategies of Teaching Qualities and Competencies of Teachers Comment on the research-based qualities and competencies teachers should possess. After reading the materials on our Course Content section, I came to realize that when we speak of “competencies”, we focus more on the teacher’s strengths as a professional, these include: 1st, her skills in employing a wide repertoire of teaching methods, strategies and procedures on lessons; 2nd, her vast knowledge on the subject matter she teaches; 3rd, her decisions on how to execute the curriculum’s goals and of the syllabus; lastly, her confidence in delivering quality education by combining the three that were mentioned above. But then, part of her competencies includes the qualities that she innately or naturally possesses, which in fact embodies the professional teacher that she is. These qualities she exhibit makes her the best teacher that she can be and it includes: accountability towards her profession and as a mature individual (her sense of responsibility), the authority she earned (her enduring influence over her students), her understanding with the learning curve and the factors that affect it, her rule of conduct, her fair control and command (orderliness and classroom management skills), and her dedication and faithfulness towards her profession. These competencies and qualities don’t just promote learning to students, this also help make the students love the experience. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Dr. Koo on Teachers and Teaching Dr. Grace Koo describes to us what excellent teachers and teaching is like. In no more than 3 sentences, sum up how she describes them and make a two sentence reaction to her view of excellent teachers and teaching. Based on the article of Dr. Koo, a teacher should possess professionalism, where she needs to be equipped with a deep and updated knowledge of her subject expertise, should have the skill to employ different methodologies imbibed with values on her teachings, and have an excellent attitude; she has to be dignified and willing to uphold morality and respect amongst her students, her colleagues, and the community. Also, she should be committed to serve and be unmindful of her own ambitions or aspiration. After reading her (Dr. Koo’s) lecture, I thought that aside from being a professional, a teacher should also possess inborn gifts that are deeply ingrained to her own being (love for her students, creativity, kindness, industry, etc) She should also exhibit the traits of a highly revered teacher that will make learning not just successful, but also a memorable one (honestly, fairness, integrity, resilience, appreciation, joy, encouragement, compassion, commitment, etc). For me, an excellent teacher should have an exceptional course competence, strong pedagogical skills, and a natural capacity to touch lives and their future. Principles and Strategies of Teaching 21st Century Teacher Competencies/ Standards Why is it necessary to come up with a new set of teacher competencies/ standards for the 21st century? Explain in no more than two sentences why this had to be evolved. Then evaluate the list based on the kind of training pre-service teachers should have. What does this imply in relation to your own training? Reflect and respond in no more than three sentences. It is necessary that we come up with a new list of teacher competencies because as time changes so does our society, that is increasingly complex, information-rich and knowledge based society. Technology is aggressively advancing; we are already on the "wired" age, which means the 21st century teacher should be well versed with using a wide repertoire of multimedia instructional technologies to promote learning in this age without forgetting the traditional learning theories. Pre- service training programs should provide technology-rich experiences throughout all aspects of the teachers' training, so they'd be prepared to provide technology-supported learning opportunities for their students, hence making those students “technology empowered”. PNU-Certificate for Teaching Program is preparing us to use technology and help us understand how that technology can support student learning, and how that can become as one of the integral skills in every 21st century teacher's professional repertoire. Our CTP classroom, both real and virtual, is training us to be equipped with technology resources and skills so we can effectively teach the necessary subject matter content while incorporating the 21st century technology. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Teaching Style How is a teaching style defined? How does it develop? What does this imply? Answer these questions in no more than three sentences please. Teaching styles may be different instructional techniques or styles that different teachers use; for example, some teachers may use a teaching style that is largely student directed and others may not. Instructors develop a teaching style based on their beliefs about what constitutes good teaching, personal preferences, their abilities, and the norms of their particular discipline. Although individuals have a dominant, preferred teaching style, they will often mix in some elements of other styles, and if someone (teacher) wish to take a more open approach to their teaching, a blend of various styles may be very effective. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Education and Teaching How is education, teaching and the teacher viewed in the 21st century? Is it the same as traditionally conceived? Do you believe in the idea that education should be revolutionized and the teacher's roles be reinvented? Why or why not? Support your answer. No more than five sentences please. Even on changing times, we can still see the education system conforming to the traditional standards and goals - that is "adaptable to changes that are called by the changing society and the people living in it, therefore Education should be continuously revolutionizing". Since we are in the 21st century, teaching has already evolved into something more adaptable to these changes. Education system of the 21st century has been envisioned to be decentralized unlike before, yet has a well coordinated system with a seamless competency-based curriculum who’s aiming for whole- person development. This means its products should exhibit a high sense of moral integrity; multiple intelligence and higher thinking skills; sense of team work yet an independent thinker; good communicative skills; a sense of global competitiveness – computer literate, technically skilled, and entrepreneurial skilled necessary for productive living; environmental awareness; citizenship who has respect for diversity and ethnicity. Because of this, I think the teachers' role should be reinvented since the teacher should represent the goals of the envisioned 21st century society and of the revolutionized 21st century education system. She should produce students able to acquire competencies that would enable them to become independent and self-directed in the technology- enriched, open and flexible learning environments of the new era. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Principles of Teaching Review the movie you saw. Study the principles applied by the teacher there and cite how this was shown. I have mentioned before that Prof. Keating made sure that he employs learning in more than one domain of knowledge and more than one knowledge dimensions everytime he teaches. This is evident when his students create poems based on how they feel and based on how they see their surroundings. He encourages his students to show creativity by creating poems that can holistically describe the state of mind and individuality that they currently have. Like for example, when one of his students used his creativity to pursue a young lady from a different school; due to his acquired knowledge on the skills of creating a poem up to being able to express his affection through this and ending up with that beautiful lady. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Teaching and Planning Teaching is considered to be a planning process. What do teachers plan? Why should teachers plan? Explain briefly. Lessons should be planned & should be prepared for an effective presentation. Teachers plan at the onset of presenting lessons and as much as objectives should be clearly stated in behavioral terms to insure ease and accuracy in assessing the students achievement through all the activities that'll be undertaken. A lesson is planned by the teacher according to the sequence in the syllabus being followed, and based on the curriculum guidelines. The prepared instructional plan, however, is an antidote to AIMLESSNESS; we all aim at learning; and instructional plans will help us to step by step learn. Instructional plans prevent us from being like classroom driftwood that is merely tossed by the winds and the waves of our whims and caprices. (Corpus & Salandanan, 2003). [Corpuz, B. B. and Salandanan, G.G. (2003). Principles and Strategies of Teaching. Lorimar Publishing Company, Inc. pages 77-78.] Principles and Strategies of Teaching Types of Instructional Plans What are different types of instructional plans? In which of the plans do classroom teachers have a significant role. The types of Instructional plan are different levels of Instructional Designs for a specific “learning Timeline”. Teachers are responsible for carrying out the instructional plans based on the "timeline" set by lesson/s itself and set by the curriculum for a more effective learning experience, these are: yearly, term, unit, weekly, and lesson plan. (1) Yearly Plan – teachers need to adhere to this yearly plan eg. PELCs and PSLCs; (2) Term Plan – course syllabus during every term, semester, trimester, quartersem, summer; (3) Unit Plan – is a segment of a Term plan (tertiary level) or a Yearly plan (elementary/highschool); (4) Lesson Plan – is a segment of a Unit plan and it maybe done on a weekly or daily basis. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Principles and Elements of Instructional Plans What principles do teachers follow in preparing instructional plans? What are the elements of an instructional plan? Why should these be considered? In preparing instructional plans, for me, the teacher should always consider her learners’ varied learning styles and her learners’ multiple intelligences. The number of learning styles that a teacher can use in the classroom may be as many as the number of her students. A teacher cannot just be presumptuous by imposing the style she thinks best for all her students, this may jeopardize the learning. Aside from the principle being practiced upon designing, knowing the elements that comprises such is also important in avoiding aimlessness of the experience. Instructional Plan’s basic components includes: objective(s), the topic, materials, procedures, evaluation, and assignment. For effective teaching, we must use a repertoire of teaching and testing strategies and techniques to reach a full range of students with varied learning styles and multiple intelligences. Principles and Strategies of Teaching ICT in Education The world today is permeated by digital technologies. How has this affected teaching and learning? The buzz word anywhere today is ICT. What are ICTs? What are the benefits of integrating ICTs in teaching? Briefly, respond to these questions in no more than 5 sentences. ICTs are : Basic Tools. The technologies involved in this approach include the use of computers along with productivity software; drill and practice, tutorial, and web content; and the use of networks for management purposes. Complex Tools. To understand key concepts, students employ open-ended technology tools that are specific to their subject area—such as visualizations in science, data analysis tools in mathematics, role play simulations in social studies. Pervasive Technology. A variety of networked devices, digital resources, and electronic environments are used to create and support this community in its production of knowledge and anytime, anywhere collaborative learning. Retrieved from: (2008) ICT: Competency Standard for Teachers. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 PARIS 07 SP Principles and Strategies of Teaching Intel Teach Program In 1-3 sentences, describe what this program is about and what is its relevance to your preparation for teaching? Intel Teach Program focus on training teachers to effectively integrate technology in the classroom and prepare students with 21st century learning such as: technology and digital literacy, effective communication, critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration. Principles and Strategies of Teaching Lesson Planning You have just gone through the process of planning units. This time, you shall be concerned with planning lessons. Just how important is this? What are the essential parts of a lesson plan? What are the three general types of lesson plans? Lessons should be planned & should be prepared for an effective presentation. Teachers plan at the onset of presenting lessons and as much as objectives should be clearly stated in behavioral terms to insure ease and accuracy in assessing the students’ achievement through all the activities that'll be undertaken. A lesson is planned by the teacher according to the sequence in the syllabus being followed, and based on the curriculum guidelines. Without lesson planning, this creates an atmosphere of aimlessness and wandering; we all aim at learning; and instructional plans will help us to step by step learn. Instructional plans prevent us from being like classroom driftwood that is merely tossed by the winds and the waves of our whims and caprices (Corpus & Salandanan, 2003). There are 3 types of lesson plan: Yearly Plan (like with the PBEC, followed all year round), the Semester Plan (like for Tertiary Education) or Unit Plan (usually set for a Quarterly basis in Highschool), then the Daily Plan (the plan being followed by teachers in a daily basis). [Corpuz, B. B. and Salandanan, G.G. (2003). Principles and Strategies of Teaching. Lorimar Publishing Company, Inc. pages 77-78.] Principles and Strategies of Teaching Questioning The Art of Questioning is said to be an indispensable teaching technique. Why is this so? What are the benefits of questions? What are its varied types? A teacher who knows how to question her class has already mastered the art of teaching. A Teacher creates questions to give proper direction to the thoughts of the learner; and the primary objective of teaching is to get the learners to think rightly. With the right questions the students will be able to: intensify their interest to the subject presented, promote definiteness of thought, cultivate their study habits, and amplify their energy and enthusiasm towards knowledge itself. The teacher has been empowered by the art of questioning in securing good mental discipline, hence does produce good results. There are 2 types of questions: the close-ended (answerable by Yes or No) and open-ended questions (which requires information to be answered). Principles and Strategies of Teaching Classroom Management Teachers are no different from managers in business organizations. What is classroom management and what do teachers manage? Explain each in one sentence. what is the ultimate goal of classroom management? School and classroom management aims at encouraging and establishing student self-control through a process of promoting positive student achievement and behaviour. Classroom management simply is defined by managing the learning experience. An effective teacher has an ability to manage resources that facilitates learning, these resources includes the 3Ms – “moment”, “materials”, and “man”. The ultimate goal and concept of classroom management are academic achievement, teacher efficacy, and teacher and student behaviour. Principles and Strategies of Teaching INSIGHTS ABOUT THE TEACHING PROCESS After going through the microteaching and the debriefing, what one important thing have you realized about teaching? Summarize this in no more than 3 sentences. I never thought that teaching itself is made of a system which integrates science and the arts. I thought everyone can teach, and I realize I was wrong. It takes a special kind of breeding, a unique personality, an exemplary attitude, a universal knowledge and an unconditional passion to become a good teacher. Thanks Ma'am for teaching me so many beautiful things in this subject.