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Asparagus _Asparagus officinalis

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					The Future of vegetable in Pakistan.

By
Farzana Panhwar
E-mail. Farzanapanhwar@yahoo.com
157.C.Unit.No.2.Latifabad.
Hyderabad.Sindh.Pakistan.



There are various methods of vegetable classifications .These are based on
 Botanical classification,
 Cultural requirement
 Vegetables of which the underground parts are used.
 Vegetables of which the fruits or seeds are used.
 Adaptation to heat and cold.
 Season of growth of vegetables.

Botanical classification
ALLIACEAE
Allium cepa var.aggregatum (Shallot)
Allium cepa var.cepa (onion)
Allium fistulosum (welsh onion) and Allium schoenoprasum (cives)
Allium fistulosum

AMARANTHACAE
Amaranthus caudatus (quinoa)
Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranth)
Amaranthus tricolor (chinese spinach)
Celosia argentea (cock‘s comb)

ARACEAE
Coloasia esulenta (cocoyam)
Cyrtosperma chamissonis (swamp Taro)
Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Tannila)

BASELLACEARE
Basella alba (Ceylon spinach)
Ulhucus tuberosus (Ulluci)

CHENOPODIACAE
Beta culgaris var.cicla (swiss chard)
Beta culgaris subs.vulgaris (Beetroot)

COMPOSITATE.
Cichorium endivia (Endive)
Helianthus tuberosun (Jerusalem Atrichoke)
Lactuca sativa (Lettuce)

CONVOLUVLACAE
Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong)
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)

CRUCIFERAE
Brassica chinensis (Chinese cabbage)
Brassica juncea (Leaf Mustard)
Brassica oleracea var.gongylodes (kohirabi)
Brassica oleracea var.italica (Sprouting Broccoli)
Nasturium officinale (Watercress)
Raphanus sativus (Radish), and Lycopersicon lycopersicum (tomato)
Raphanus sativus.var.longipinnatus (Chinese Radish)

CUCURBITACEAE
Benincasa hispida (wax gourd)
Coccinia cordifolia (Ivy gourd)
Cucumis anguria (west induan Gherkin)
Cucumis melo (Melon)
Cucrbita moschata (Pumpkin)
Lagenaria sicenaria (Bottle gourd)
Luffa acutangula (Angled Loofah)
Luffa cylindrica (Smooth Loofah)
Momordica charantia (Bitter gourd)
Sechium edule (Choyote)
Trichosanthes cucvumerina (Snake gourd)

DIOSCOREACEAE
Dioscorea atlata (water yam)
Dioscorea bilbifera (potato yam)

DIOSCOREACEAE
Dioscorea altata ( water yam)
Dioscorea bilbifera (potato yam)

WUPHORBIACAE
Manihot esculenta (cassava)

LABIATAE
Coleus parviflorus (sudan potato)
Plectranthus esculentus (Livingstone potato)

LEGUMINOSAE
Arachis hypogaea (Groundnut)
Canavalia ensiformis (Jeck bean)
Lablab niger (Hyacinth bean)
Pachyrrhizus erosus (Yam bean)
Phaseolus calcaratus (rice bean)
Phaeolus huntus (Lima bean)
Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (winged bean)
Vigma unguiculata subsp.sesquipedalis (Asparagus bean)
Vomdzeia subterranea (Bambara groundnut)
MALVAVAE
Habiscus esculenus (Okra)
Hibiscus manihot (Sunset Hibiscus)

POLYGONACAE
Rheuim rhaponticum (Rhubard)

PORTULACAE
Talimum triangulare (waterleaf)

SOLANCEAE
Capsicum annuum (capsicum)
Capsicum fruutescus (hot pepper)
Solanum marocarpon (Local garden egg)
Solamum melongena (Egg plant)
Solanum ruberosum (Irish potato)

TETRAGONIAEAE
Tetratgonia terragonioides (New Zealand spinach)

TITLIACAE
Corohorus olitorius (Long fruited jute)

UMBELLIFERAE
Apium graveolens (Celery)
Corindrum satrum (Coriander)
Foenicubm vulgure (Fennel)

CLASSIFICATIONS ON THE BASIS OF GENERAL NAME.

Cole crops
Cabbage, cauliflowr, knol-khol sprouting , broccolia, brussels sprouts, chinese cabbage.

Root vegetables
Carrot, parsnip, radish, turnip, beet root.

Leguminous vegetables
Peas, bean, french bean, lima bean, cluster bean, cowpea, hyacinth bean.
Fruit vegetables
Tomoto, chilli, egg palnt (Brinjal)

Cucurbits and vine crops.
Cucumber, pumpkin, squashes, winter squash, summer squash, Indian squash, gourds,
sponge gourd, ridge or ribbed gourd, bitter gourd, snake gourd, pointed goured, ash or
white gourd, bottle gourd, muskmelon, snapmelon, longmelon, watermelon.
Leafy vegetables.
Spinach, Indian spinch, beet, fenugreek,lettuce, purslane, edible amaranth, chinese
cabbage.

Tuber crops.
Potato, sweet potato, colocasia, tapioca, elephandt foot (Zaminkand ) , ratalu, Jerusalem
artichoke.

Bulbous vegetables.
Onion, garlic, leek.

Salad crops.
Celery, lettuce, parsley, endive, cress, water cress, fennel

Malvaceous crop
Okra (Bhindi)

Perennial vegetables.
Asparagus, rhubarb, globe artichoke, mint.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON CROP USE.

Vegetables of which the leaves, flower parts , or stems are used.

LILIACEAE .LILY FAMILY.
Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis var.altilis.
chive, chives. Allium schoenoprasum.

CHENOPODIACCEAE. GOOSEFOOT FAMILY
Beet, beet vulgris,
ghard, beta vulgaris var. cicla
orach. Atriplex hortensis,
spinach (prickly seeded) spinacia oleracea var.inermis.

UMBELLIFERAE.PARSLEY FAMILY.
Celery.apinum graveolens var.dulce
chervil, anthriscus cerefolium.
Fennel, foeniculum vulgare,
parasley, petroselinum crisptum.
VALERIANACEAE VALERIAN FAMILY.
Corn salad, fetticus, valerianella oliteria.

COMPOSITARE, COMPOSITE OR SUNFLOWER FAMILY.
Artichoke, cynara scolymus.
Cardoon, gynara cardunculus.
Chicory, witloof, cichoriumn intybus.
Dandelion. Taraxacum officinale.
Endive, Gichorium endivia.
Lettuce, Lactucal sativa.

POLYGONACEAE. BUCKWHEAT FAMILY.
Rhubarb,Rheum rhapontium.
Sorrel, Rumex acetosa
Sapinach dock, Rumex patientia.
AIZOACEAE, CARPETWEED FAMILY.
New Zealand spinch, Tetragonia expansa.

ARALIACCAE, GINSENG FAMILY
Udo, Aralia cordata.

CRUCIFERAE, MUSTARD FAMILY.
Brussels sprouts, Brassica oleracea var.gemmifera.
Cabbage, Brassical oleracea var, capitata.
Cauliflower, Brassical oleacea var botrytis.
Collard, Brassical oleracea var, ridis.

GRESS, LEPIDIUM SATIVUM.
Kale, Borecole, Brassical oleracea var.viridis
Kohlrabi, Brassica oleraceae var.gongylodes.
Mustard, leaf Brassica juncea.
Mustard, southern curled, Brassical juncea var.crispifolia.
Pak-choe.Chinese cabbage.Brassica chinensis.
Pe-tasi, Chinese cabbage, Brassica pekinensis.
Seakale, Grambe maritima.
Sprouting broccoli, Brassical oleracea var.italica.
Turnip. Seven Top.Brassica rapa var.septiceps.
Uplant cress. Barbarea verna (praecox)
Watercress. Rorippa nasturium aqualicum.

VEGETABLES OF WHICH THE UNDERGROUND PARTS ARE USED.

LILIACEAE.LILY FAMILY.
Garlic, Allium sativum
Leek, Allium porrum.
Onion, Allium cepa.
Shallot, Allium ascalonicum
Welsh onion, Allium fistulisum.

DIOSCOREACEAE. YAM FAMILY.
Yam(true),Dioscorea batatas

CHENOPODIACEAE.GOOSE FOOT FAMILY.
Beet, Beta vulguris.

CRUCIFERARE, MUSTARD FAMILY.
Horseradish, Armoracia rusticana
Radish, Raphanus sativus.
Rutabaga, Brassica campestris, var.napobrussica.
Turnip, Brassica rapa.

CONVOLV ULACEAE, MORNING-GLORY FAMILY.
Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas.

UMBELLIFERAE.PARASLEY FAMILY
Carrot, Daucus carota var.sativa
Celeriac, Apium graveolens var.rapaceum.
Hamburg parasley, Petroselinumn cris pum var, radicorum.

SOLANACEAE. NIGHTS HADE FAMILY.
Potato, Solanum tubersum.

COMPOSITAE COMPOSITE OR SUNFLOWER FAMILY.
Black salsify, Scorzonera hispanica.
Chicory, Cichorium intybus.
Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus,
Salsify, Tragopogon porrifotius.
Spanish salsify, Scolymus hispanicus.

VEGETABLES OF WHICH THE FRUITS OR SEEDS ARE USED.

GRAMINEAE, GRASS FAMILY.
Sweet corn, Zea mays var.Saccharata.

MALVACEAR, MALLOW FAMILY.
Okra (gumbo), Hibiscus esculentus.

LEGUMINOSAE. PULSE OR PEA FAMILY.
Asparagus or yardlong bean, vigna sesquipedialis.
Broad bean, vicia faba
Bush bean, Phaseolus vulgaris var.humilis.
Bush lima bean, Phaseolus limensis var.limensis var.limenanus.
Cow pea , Vigna sinesis
Edible podded pea, Pisum sativum var.macrocarpon.
Kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgris.
Lima bean, Phaseolus limensis.
Pea (English pea), Pisum satvum.
Peanut (underground fruits), Arachis hypogaea.
Scarlet runner bean, Phaseolus coccineus.
Sieva bean, Phaseolus lunatus.
Soyabean, Glycine max.
White dutch runner bean, Phaseolus coccineus var.albus.

UMBELLIFERAE, PARSLEY FAMILY.
Caraway, Carcum carvi.
Dill, anethum graveolens.

MARTYNIACEAE. MATTYNBIA FAMILY.
Martynia Proboscidea louisiana .

SOLANCEAE, NIGHTSHADE FAMILY.
Eggplant, Solanum melongena
Groundcherry (husk tomato) Physalis pubescens.
Pepper (bell or sweet), Gapsicum frutescent var.grossum.
Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum.

CUCURBITAVCAE, GOURD OR MELON FAMILY.
Bush pumpkin (Summer squash)
Gucurbita pepo var.melopepo
Chayote, Sechium edule.
Cucumber, Cucumis sativus.
Cushaw, Cucurbita maschata,
Gherkin, Gucumis anguria
Muskmelon (Cantaloupe), Cucumismelo.
Pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo.
Squash, Cucurbita maxima
Watermelon, Gitrullus lunatus.
Winter melon (cassaba ), Cucumis melo var. inodorus.

VARITIES ADAPTATION TO HEAT AND COLD.

General classification by Resistance to spring frosts.

Cool season crops.

Hardy                                        Half hardy.
Asparagus                                    Beef
Broccoli                              Carrot
Brussels sprouts                      Cauliflower
Cabbage                               Celery
Chives                                Chard
Collards                              Chinese cabbage
Dasheen                               Globe artichoke
Garlic                                Endive
Horseradish                           Lettuce
Kale                                  Parsnip
Kohirabi                              Potato
Leek                                  Salsify
Mustard
Onion
Parsley
Peas
Radish
Rhuybarb
Peas
Radish
Rhubarb
Rutabaga
Spinach
Turnip


Warm season crops.

Tender                                Very tender
Cowpea                                Cucumber
New Zealand                           Eggplant
Spinach                               Lima bean
Snap bean                             Muskmelon
Sweet corn                            Okra
Tomato                                Pepper
                                      Pumpklin
                                      Squash
                                      Sweet potato.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SEASON OF GROWTH OF VEGETABLES.

Cool season crops.
1. CROPS QUICKLY RACHING EDIBLE MATURITY (SPRING AND FALL)
Leaf lettuce, spinach, mustard, radishes, turnips, kohlrabi and peas.

2.CROPS USUALLY TRANSPLANTED.
a) Spring crops.
Head lettuce, cos lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and celery.
b) Fall crops.
Cabbage, cauliflowr, broccoli, brussels sprout and celery.

3.CROPS THAT ENDURE SUMMER HEAT
Swiff chard, kale, collards, New Zealand spinach, parsley, endive, onions, leeks, garlic,
shallos, chives, pottoes, beets, carrots, parsnips, salsify and horseradish (the last three
withstand winter freezing.

4.PERENNIAL CROPS.
Asparagus, rhubarb and globe artichoke.

WARM SEASON CROPS.

1.CROPS USUALLY NOT TRNSPLANTED.
Sanp beans, lima beans, southern peas, sweet cron, porcorn, okra, muskmelon,
watermelon, cucumber, squashes and pumplin.

2.CROPS USUALLY TRANSPLANTED
Tomatoes, eggplants, peppers and sweet pottoes.

Discription of indivual crop.


Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L) family Liliaceae.

Common names.
Asparagus (Eng);Asperge (Fr.);Esparrago (Sp); Spargel (Ger.);Asperge (Neth);Lung So
Ts‘Lo Sun(China);Asparago(W.I)

Varieties.

The Washington strains are popular‘Mary Washington produces large shoots and is the
standard varieties are rust resistance as well as F-hybrid cultivars and strains that are
resistant to Fusarium wilt. Two groups of asparagus varieties evolved based on spear
color. The more commercially important of these have a dark green color upon exposure
to sunlight and include 'Reading Giant', 'Palmetto', 'Argenteuil', and 'Martha Washington'.
The other group includes those producing light green spears such as 'Conover's Colossal'
and 'Mammoth White' and 'Martha Washington'

Botanical Description.

Asparagus is a perennial dioecious monocot, grown for its herbaceous, newly emerged
shoot (commonly referred to as a spear).
Perennial herb, with fleshy rootstock, up to 1.5 m in height.
Root. Tuberous
Leaves. Linear, narrow, scale like.
Flowers. Male and female flowers are produced on separate plants.
Fruit. a berry.
Seeds. 1-3 per fruit.
Methods of propagation include nursery grown crowns, nursery grown transplants
(approximately 12 weeks old), transplants grown from tissue cultural methods, and direct
field seeding. The use of tissue culture to propagate plants from vigorous stock plants of
the desired sex offers tremendous potential to the asparagus industry. Depending on the
row spacing, between 8,000 and 10,000 crowns are required to plant one acre

Environmental response.

Sandy or silt loams or alluvial soils are often preferred. The suitable pH 6 to 6.7, suitable
temperature are 16-24C

Cultural practices

Traditionally asparagus is a cool season crop with maximum spear production occurring
when the average daily temperature is between 65 and 80°F.Seeds are sown 24 hours
before use3-4 cm deep in nursery beds in rows 30 cms a part,4-6 cm between plants, the
best temperature for germination is 25-30C.The seedlings are transplanted after 240-360
days,row to rows 75-90 cm aprat,50-60 cm between plants in the row, mineral soils
receive up to 2,000 pounds/acre of a complete fertilizer, with an N-P-K ratio of 1-2-1 or
1-2-2 recommended. Asparagus seed has high genetic variability. Most plantings employ
a spacing of one foot in the row and five feet between the rows for the production of
green asparagus. Traditionally, asparagus crowns were planted into 8-10 inch deep. The
use of nursery grown seedlings as a means of establishing asparagus plantings is rapidly
being accepted as an alternative propagation method due to the high cost of producing,
harvesting, and replanting asparagus crowns in the field. Hybrid offspring produce higher
yields and show less variability in growth which makes them better adapted

Disease and insects.

The common disease are. Asparagus Rust, caused by Puccinia asparagi. The plant will be
spray with Zineb or maneb. Other leaf and stem disorders include Phoma asparagi
Saccardo which produces elongated gray stem lesions surrounded by a reddish brown
border and Colletotfichum sp. which produces pale colored cankers covered with black
pustules. Other root rots include Phytophthora megasperma, Zopfia rhizophila, and
Penicillium martensii. P. martensii is evident on crowns by extensive blue-green color of
fruiting bodies at the time they are dug and removed from storage. Another foliar disease
that contributes to losses in asparagus in warm, humid environments is Cercospora blight,
caused by Cercospora asparagi Sacc.

The common insect is Asparagus beetle (Crioceris aspargi)
Growth and harvesting.

The young shoots or ‗spears‘ are harvested when they reach a height of 10-15 cm, this
may be 400-600 days from the establishment of young seed .Harvesting period is 30-60
days. Yield 2.5-4.0 t/ha, these should be replanted every 3-5 years .Plant are mainly cross
pollinated. Up to 500kg/ha of seed may be produced.
After harvesting it needs cooling 1-3CWhite asparagus kept about 0-2Cin high
humidity will keep spears in good condition up to 21days.

Nutritional composition

Nutritional value of young shoots per 100g of edible portion has been as under.
Water 93ml;Calories 18;Protein 2.0g;Carbohydrates 3g;Fibre 2.4 g; Calcium
19mg;Phosphorus 47mg;Iron 0.2mg;b-carotene equivalent 540 micrograms ;Thiamine
0.18 mg; Riboflavin 0.2mg;Niacin 1.5mg;Ascrobic acid nil.(Source FAO .1968)
It acts as a strong diuretic and benefits people with heart problems. Many claim it is an
aphrodisiac

Future research

Genetically engineered food is created by taking the DNA from one organism and
inserting it into another. The process passes on certain characteristics to plants and
animals. The resulting organism is called "transgenic." This modification of gene
material is not possible with traditional selective breeding. Genetically engineered
asparagus plants have been regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.
The process based on microprojectile bombardment and direct DNA uptake into
protoplasts. The transgenic line show low vigour and poor yield. The nutritional values of
transgenic and parental genome was similar .The result show relationship of integration
of genetic engineering technology into breeding programmes and safety evaluation of
transgenic crops


In asparagus the genetic engineering is used to develop new varieties having more
nutriton and resistanct to diseases. A concerted effort between breeders and plant health
specialists must be maintained and supported to improve genetic resistance to AV-II,
purple spot, Phytophthora spear rot, and Cercospora blight. Given the perennial nature of
the crop, evaluations require long term-support from private and public sectors.

Beans (Snap and Lima). Snap or kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and
Lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L).

It is two main types of cultivars.
a) Dwarf or bush cultivars which are daylength neutral, early maturing, 20-60 cm in
     height, with lateral and terminal inflorescence and determinate growth.
b) Climbing or pole cultivars, with indeterminate growth up to 3m in height, normally
     supported, both daylength neutral and short daylength types.
Botanical description.

Beans are sensitive to all extremes of cold, hot and wet climatic conditons.
An erect or twining annual herb.About 50-75 kg of seeds will be required per hectare
Roots: rapidly growing tap root, reaching to depth of approximately 90cm, well
nodulated lateral roots mainly limited to a depth of 20 cm.
Stems: slender, twisted angled, almost square in cross section , often with purple streaks;
climbing clutivars may reach up to 3m in height, the dwarf cultivars to 60cm.
Leaves: alternate, trifoliate, sometimes hariy, petiole long; leaflets ovate, entire
acuminate, 8.15 cm X 5-10 cm
Flowers:In axilary reacemes, corolla white, pink, mauve or yellow, standard reflexed,
1cm across; anthers small, globose,
Fruits: pods thin, narow,7-20cm X 1-1.5 cm, with approximately 4-8 seeds, but pods of
some cultivars contains 12 seeds; mostly glabrous, straight or slightly curved, with
prominent beak, colour variable from yellow to dark gree,
Seeds: variable in colour , white, green, yellow pink, red, purple, brown or black,
sometimes mottled or striped, 7-16 mm in length, oblong, kidney-shaped or globular;
hilum usually white; average weight of 100 seeds = 25-45g;germination epigeal.

Varieties

The important varieties are:Tenderpod, Bountiful, Green pos,Tendeer green Giant
Stringless.Contender,Giant Stringless, and Pusa Parvati (IARI),Kentucky Wonder is a
commonly grown varieties

Cultivars of snap beans.

Astro Bush Blue Lake 274, Cascade contender ,early Galatin ,Harvester,Provider
,Resistant Asgrow Valentine , Slenderwhite,Spartan
Arrow,Sprite,Tendercrop,Tenderette,Tender green,Tender white,Brittle
Wax,Earliwax,Kinghon wax,Surecrop Wax,Resistant Cherokes Wax,McCaslan, Romano

Cultural practices.

It can grow in wide range of soil.Optimum pH of about 5.5-6.5. It utilising the nitrogen-
fixing resources of the Rhizobium bacteria.The optimum growth need the temperature
below 30C.The application of growth regulators such as beta-naphthoxacetic acid found
to increase pod set.
Seed are sown at the depth of 1-3 cm.It requires soil temperature of 18-20 C.Dwarf
cultivars are sown in row 45-60 cm apart with 15-20 cm between plants in the row .It
need row spacing 75cm between the double row.Seed requirement for dwarf cultivars is
60-110 kg/ha;for climbing cultivars 25-60 kg/ha.Plant require 25-40 cm of water during
the growing seasons,the average yield is about 3,000 to 4,000 kg of green pods or 1,500
kg to 2,000 kg of dry beans per hectare.The crop takes 50 to 80 days
Growth period and harvesting

The dwarf cultivars 40-60 days from sowing to harvest period while climbing cultivars
70-90 days from sowing.Dwarf cultivar yield 3-5 t/hac of fresh beans; climbing cultivars
yield 4-6 t/ha of fresh bean.Plant is slef-polinated, yielding up to 1000 kg/hac dried seed
under average condition .Immature pods are harvested about 14-21 days and store at 7-8
C.It also require high humidity during storage
.
Diseases.

Antheracnose caused by serval strains of Colletotrichum Lindenuthianum ,Bacterial
blight associated with Xanthomonas phaseoli,Rust caused by Uromyces phaseoli
typica,downy mildew caused by Phytophtora phaseoli and common bean mosaic .
Diaporthe phaseolorum;Macrophomina phaseolina,Phytophthora phaseoli ,pseudomonas
phaseolicola, thantephorus cucumeris ,uromyces phaseoli arthur, xanthomonas
phaseoli.Insects like Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis),Bean leaf beetle
(Cerotoma trifurata), and adult bean weevil (Acanthoselides obtectus)

Cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L). (Gur)

It is resistant to drought .It is grown as a forage and a green manure cop.It is a rich source
of Vitamin A, iron and Vitamin C.It need well drain sandy loam soil.About 12kg of seeds
will be sufficient to sow one hectare.Sowing is done in rows 60cm apart and
.
Varieties

The varieties Pusa Sadabahar;Pusa Navbahar and Pusa Mausmi.

Yield

The yield of green pods varies from 5,000 to 6,000 kg per hectare, yield of seed crop is
about 1,000 kg per hectare.

Cow pea (Vigna slinensis Savi)(Lobia)
 The common varieties are Yard Long .It requiere 30-50 kg of nitrogen,56 to 78 kg of
phosphate and 56-78kg of potash per hectare.Seed in a row 60-75 cm apart and seeds
within the row are 15-25cm apart.The high yielding varieties are Pusa Phalguni, Pus
Barsati and Pusa Dofasli (IARI).Pusa Phalguni is spring/summer varieties ,Pusa Barsati is
rain resistant and Pusa Dofasli is day neutral varieties.It yield is 8,000 to 10,000 kg of
green vegetable

Hyacinth beans (Dolichos lablab (Rox) & L) (sem)

It is highly drought resistant and Pusa early Prolific is an improved variety
Future

Released the first great northern beans with four genes for rust and two genes for BCMV
and BCMN virus resistance. This is a very significant accomplishment. These bean
germplasm lines known as BelMiNeb-RMR-8, -9, -10, -11, -12, and -13, are the first and
only great northern bean in the world with four genes (Ur-3, -4, -6, and -11) for resistance
to the hyper variable rust pathogen. In addition these bean lines have two genes (the
dominant I gene and the recessive bc-3) for resistance BCMV and BCMNV resistance,
which makes these lines resistant to all known strains of the rust and BCMV and
BCMNV.

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.var,capitata )
It is the most important member of the Cruciferae or mustard family
Cabbage goes by many names like Band gobhi, karam kalla,bandha gohbi and patta
gobhi .It contains vitamin A, B, and C, it helps in preventing constipation, increases
appetite, speed up digestion and useful for patients of diabetes.

Cultivars.

Chieftan, Earliest, Eclipse Drumhead,Glory of Enkhuizen,Golden Acre,Wakefield,Large
blood red,Mammoth Rock Red,Pusa Drumhead Savoy and September.

Climate.

It loses much of its delicate flavour when grown in hot and dry atmosphere .Head
formation is more likely to occour at temperature 24°C.A range of 5°C variation between
day and night temperature appears to be necessary for adequate head development. .Most
cultivars are daylength neutral and flower initiation depends mainly on the temperature
regime which they are grown. Temperature below 10°C induce early flowering.

Cultural practices

Earthing up done about 5 to 6 weeks from the time of transplanting , the crop will be
ready for harvest in 3 to 4 months time .Deficiency of trace elements such as boron and
molybdenum may cause physiological disease .The head may be harvested in 70-90 days
depending on cultivar and characteristic

Soil and its preparations.

It is grown in great variety of soils ranging from light sand to heavy loam or clay.

Sowing

The seed are sown in well prepared seed bed and seedlings when four to six week old and
become a few inches high are transplanted in the field in rows at 30-60 cm from each
other .About 600 to 700 grams of seed are enough for planting one hectare to give a
plant population of 30,000 plant /hac. The range of soil temperature for good seed
germination is 13-15°C Seeds are sown in rows five centimetre apart and about 1 cm
deep .Head size can be regulated by adjustment of the planting density

Varieties

There are five important groups of cabbage. The varieties of Drumhead group have large,
flat and fairly solid heads. Heads of the Danish Ballhead group are of medium size and
very solid .The Savoy group has finely crumpled leaves but is not of much commercial
use. The Red cabbage group is characterised by its deep purplish colour.

The outstanding varieties existing in the country are Pride ,Golden Acre, Golden Ball,
Drumhead, Pusa Drumhead, Late Drumhead, Glory of Enkuien and Copenhagen Market.

Manuring

Application of superphosphate at 200 to 300 kilogram and ammonium sulphate at 200 to
300 kilogram and 250 kilograms of potash per hectare is needed

Planting

When seedling are about 1½ month old and grown up to 10-15cm.Early varieties like
Pride and Golden Acre kept at space about 40cm from plant to plant and 60cm in rows
.The late varieties of Drumhead type may be spaced 45 cm apart from plant to plant and
75 cm apart in rows.

Irrigation.
The constant level of soil and water should be maintained during the growing to avoid a
check to growth and development. A shortage of water may lead to cracking of the head.
The effective root zone is approximately 60cm.

Yield

The yield of cabbage is about 30-45 tons per hectare.

Marketing

Ripe and firm cabbage can be stored at 0°C to 1.7°C with moderate humidity.

Insect and pest.

Aphis brassicae (Cabbage aphid),Crocidolomia binsotalis Zeller (Cabbage moth),Hellula
spp.(Yellow buterflies),Meloidogye spp. (Root-knot nematodes), Phyllotretd spp.(Flea
Beetles),(Curtis) diamond-back moth,Spodoptera littoralis ,(cutworm, click beetle),
Alternaria brassica (Alternaria blight),Cercopsopra brassicicola P.Henn.(Cercospora Leaf
spot), Leptosphaeria maculans (Blck leg),Peronospora parasities (downy
mildew),Plasmodiophora brassica (Clubb rot),Xanthomonas campestris (Black rot)

Nutritional value

It provide 22 calories per 100g edible portion , and is a good source of vitamin B and
calcium.

Future
various strains of Bt are used to control spruce budworms and gypsy moths in forests,
cabbage.

Carrot (Daucus carota var.sativa )

Carrot belongs to the family umbellifereae and locally called Gajar. It have high carotene
content (precursor of vitamin A), it is an excellent source of vitamin B and vitamin C.

Climate.

It require a temperature of 15 °C to 20°C for its development Higher temperatures help in
the production of shorter and thicker root and lower temperatures produce longer ad
selender roots.

Soil

It can grow from sandy loam to clay loam, lighter soils are preferred .The optimum pH
will be between 6.0 to 7.0. The farmyard manure needed about 10-12 tonnes.

Sowing.

The ridges are 45 cm apart or on flat surface. Seeds are mixed with sand and are dropped
in the shallow furrows made on the crest of the ridges, covered lightly with earth and soil
formed around the seeds. The depth of sowing will be about 1 to 1.2cm.

Varieties.

Carrot varieties can be classified into two groups, ie desi or Asiatic types and European
types .The former are marked by their large size, dark colour, and sweet taste .However
the latter are preferred due to the smooth surface, thin core ,better shape and being less
fibrous in nature. The European varieties of carrot are calssified in to three groups.
―Chantaney‖ is short, stump rooted, square shouldered and smooth with change colour;
―Nantes‖ is narrower, cylindrical, rounded at top and base of root with small core, deep
orange colours and good quality, others are long rooted thin and tapering .There are
various colours of different varieties being white, yellowish orange, and shade of purple
.On late crops varieties like Nantes and Scarlet Horn are best Danvers Imperator belogs
to the group having log roots, fairly thin, tapering from rounded shoulder to tip.Variety
Pusa Kesar, is a selection between the Asiatic and European types , its seed can be
produced in plains.Gold pak,Hi-pak hybrid,Carousel,trophy,and spartan sweet.

Botanical description

An erect biennial, normally grown as an annual ,20-100cm in height.
Roots: the main or tap root becomes swollen and thickened and varies in shape and size,
normally orange or red in colour.
Stems: Solid, condensed at the proximal part of the root.
Leaves: Alternate 2-3 pinnate, segments divided, petiole normally long , often sheathed
at the base.
Inflorescence: Compound umbels, 3-7 cm in diameters, borne on a much branched stalk.
Flowers: Normally white or pink, small; sepal 5, petals 5, ovary hairy.
Fruit: Oblong-ovoid, 3-4 m in length.
Seed: contain essential oil.
Optimum pH is in the region of 6.0 to 6.5.The crop is fairly sensitive to temperature, high
soil temperatures tend to encourage the production of short roots and may also adversely
affect germination .Colour of the roots may also be affected, pale yellow roots being
produced as a result soil temperatures in excess of 25°C, root tissue may become reduced.
And b-carotene content may be decreased. The optimum air temperature range is 16-
24°C.Dry soil conditions are likely to cause cracking of the roots and tend to favour the
development of the long roots. Short daylengths may contribute to a reduction in the b-
carotene content of the roots.

Cultural practice

Seeds are sown at a depth of 1-2 cm in soils cultivated to a depth of 20-25cm.Seeds are
sown in drills 30-40 cm apart and seedlings initially thinned when 5-8cm high, to 5-8 cm
apart depending on the vigour of the cultivar, seed requirement is approximately 5-
6kg/ha.Potassium is often required in the form of an additional surface dressing.

Manuring.

25 tonnes of organic matter is essential for one hectare. It require 80Kg of N,60Kg P 2O 5
and 60Kg K2O per hectare .Half of the amount of N should be applied along with
phosphorus and potassium before sowing. Half the amount of N should be applied along
with phosphorus and potassium before sowing.

Diseases.

Meloidogyne spp(Root-knot nematode), Albugo candida (white rust),Alternaria dauci
(Leaf spot or blight), cercospora carotae (leaf spot),Erwinia carotovaora (Bacterial soft
rot.

Harvesting.
Roots may be harvested 70 to 80 days from sowing , depending on the size required and
cultivars. Harvest is taken up when the roots attain a diameter of 2.5 to 4cm.At room
temperature it can store only four days. For prolonged storage cold storage at temperature
of 0°C to 4.5°C relative humidity of 93% to 98%.Temperature near 0 ºC will reduce not
only sprouting but also the development of a bitter flavour, ethylene production and
pathogenic activity.

Yield

The yield is about 14,000 to 20,000 kg/hectare.

Nutrition value

Water 88ml,calories 40,protein 0.9g,fat 0.1g, carbohydrates 9g,fibre 1.4g, calcium 35mg
phosphorus 38mg, iron 0.7 mg, beta carotene 5480 ug, thiamine 0.04mg, riboflavin
0.04mg, niacin 0.6mg and ascorbic acid 8mg.

Future.

The existence of "antifreeze proteins" (AFPs) has been known since the late 60s (2), and
have since been identified in many organisms that have evolved resistance to freezing
temperatures, including bacteria, fungi, fish, insects, and plants (3). AFPs— technically
called thermal hysteresis proteins— prevent freezing damage to cellular structures by
slowing or stopping the formation of ice crystals inside a cell. Since the 1991 failure,
researchers have continued experimenting with various antifreeze genes in an attempt to
improve frost resistance in plants, but with very limited success (4). Recent experiments
using an AFP identified in carrots have shown some modest success (5).
References

(1) Hightower R, Baden C, Penzes E, Lund P, and Dunsmuir P. 1991. Expression of
antifreeze proteins in transgenic plants. Plant Molecular Biology 17: 1013-1021.

(2) DeVries AL & Wohlschlag DE. 1969. Freezing resistance in some Antarctic fishes.
Science 163: 1073-1075.

(3) Davies PL & Sykes BD. 1997. Antifreeze proteins. Current Opinion in Structural
Biololgy 7:828-834.

(4) Kenward KD, Brandle J, McPherson J, and Davies PD. 1999. Type II fish antifreeze
protein accumulation in transgenic tobacco does not confer frost resistance. Transgenic
Research 8:105-117.

(5) Fan Y, Liu B, Wang H, Wang S, and Wang J. 2002. Cloning of an antifreeze protein
gene from carrot and its influence on cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. Plant
Cell Reports 21:296-301.
Sweet corn (Zea mays L.var.saccharata Sturt. )
It is belong to family Gramineae.

Common names.

Sweet corn, Maize, Mealies ,Corn, Mais Sucre (Fr.) Maiz Dulce (Spain), Zukermais
(Ger).It contain Diploid chromosome nuimber :2n=20. It is grown both in tropical and
subtropical areas.It is annual usually with single stem, up to 4m in height.Proper roots are
formed from the nodes above the surface, thickened, often pigmented and often
photosynthetic, stem is 3 feet high, with diameter of 4cm contain many `nodes and inter
nodes, bud formed at an axils of the lower nodes may form tillers. Leaves are alternate ,
the lower sheath enclosing the internodes, surfaces glabrous or pubescent, linear-
laneolate, acuminate 30-150 cm X 5.15 cm across, stomata more numerous on lower
epidermis up to 5 mm in length, auricles mostly poorly develped. Flower are monoecious,
unisexual, male and femalte inflorescences borne on the same plants.Male flowers
terminal panicles termed tassels, up to 40 cm in length, paired spikelets bnorne in
severaql rows, 8-13 mm in length, each spikelet has 2 glumes lodicules, 3 stamens, 2
lobed anterns and rudinentary gynaecium. Female flowers: Normally 2 ears, which are
modified spikes , each brqch has very short internodes which bear modified leaves
forming husks or leaf sheaths , which overlap the ear, the central axis is the cob, bearning
paired paired spikelets enclosing 2 florets, the lower of which is sterile, the upper floret is
pistallate, many time with rudimentary stamesn, pistil with single basal overy , up to 45
cm in length , which is recepitve to pollen throught length.

Environmental responses.

It requires medium loams which is well drain , with high organic content, the suitable pH
is 5.5-6.8. The optimum seed germination temperature is 30-32 ºC.Its growth is
maximum at 20-24 ºC, above 35 ºC fertilization is affected due to pollen sterility and
desiccation of the husk tip.High temperature affect on the rate of conversion of sugars to
polysaccharides such as starch and effect on the quality of grain.Tillering is encourgaed
by diurnal tempeature variation.Flowers need 800-1200 mm per annum
precipitation.High temperature delay in maturity and are liable to produce more
tillers.Crop is sensitive to daylength variation.

Cultural practices.

Seeds are sownin rows 60-9- cm apart, 30-45 cm between the plants in the rows, this
gives 30,000-35,000 plants/hac.Seeds are mostly sown at the depth ofg 2-3cm.Seeds are
required 10-20kg/ha, depenidng upon the plant spacing and seed size.It have shallow root
system so regualr irrigation is required .Adequate irrigation is linked with length , weight
and diameter of the ears.It requires enough NPK supplies.Nitrogen application effects on
the plant population and spacing of plants, ear length, plant height and weight of
stover.From growing to sowing it takes nearly 65-95 days, it also depends on cultivars
and environmental factors.Its yields is normally 2 cobs per plant, producing 7-15 t/hac
depending on planting density and cultivars.An average seed yield of 1000kg/hac .At the
time of harvest the kernels should be cream-yellow and firm, kernels are sweeter than
cobs with fully developed apical kernels.At the time of harvest rapid cooling is needed to
prevent the sucrose being converted to starch by enzyme action .It should be store at 21ºC
with variation of 1-2 ºC, relative humidity of 90-95%, with tempertaure at 1-4 ºC it can
be store up to 8 days.

Nutritional values.

The protein content is 1.9% to 3.5%, the seeds are rich in phosphate, potassium, thiamine
and vitamin A and beta carotene .

Cucumbers.

The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) belong to the cucurbitaceae same genus as the melon.
The common names are Cucumber, Gherkin (Eng), Concombre, Cornichon (Fr.),
Cohombro, Pepino (Spain), Gurke (Ger.), Komkommer (Neth), Khira, Kakdi, Tihu
(India), Thakhwa (Burma), Pipingha, Pipingkai(Sri Lamka).In recent years the pickling
cumber consumptin rose.It requires average temperature 65-75 ºF or 24 º C to 30 ºC. It
require sandy or light warm loams.

Selected cultivars of cucumber.

Local varieties are Balam khira, khira Poona,gole khira and Gherkin.
Silicing type:
Open pollinated like Marketmore, Meridian and Poinsett.
F1 Hybrid: like Burpee‘s M&M Hybrid, High Mark II, Triumph, and Victory.
Gynoecious Hybrid: Cherokee 7, Germini 7, and Meridian T.
Pickling type: Open pollinated: Chipper, Pixie,
Gynoecious hybrid: Bounty, Explorer, Greenpak, Pioneer, Premier and Score.
 Commerical cultivers :Palmetto, Santee, Ashley, Stono, Palmer, Chipoper, Explorer and
Pixie.
Inida and Sri Lanka: Balam Khira, Japanese Long Green, Khira Poona, Pusa Sanyog,
Straight Eight.
South –east Asia: Giant climbing, Green slicer, Market king, New Market No.2, Kyoto
Three foot, Pixie, Southern Cross.
West Africa: Addai, Ashley, fabulus, Le Genereaux, Li-Chui, Log Green ridge.
Central Africa: Beth alpha, Marketeer, Porto Rico, Rollinson‘s Telegraph, white Bush.
East Africa: ashley, Colorado, cool and Crisip, Early Fortune, London Long Green,
Paloma, Telegraph.
Central and South Amercia: Armenian Yard Long, Armour, Ashley, Improved Long
Green, Japanese Climbing, Palmetto, Pixie, Poinsett, Polaris, Stono.
West Indies: Ashley, Cherokee, Gemini, Poinsett, Polaris.
West Indies: Ashley, Cherokee, gemini, Poinsett, Polaris.
Multiregional: Ashley, cool and crisp, Early Fortune, Early Marketeer, green Gem, King
of the Ridge, London Long Green, Palomar, Poinsett.
Gynoecious Hybrids.

Hybrid cultivars have been developed incorporating a genetic factor known as
Gynoecious flowering habit..Normally cucumber plants are monoecious, producing both
male and female flowers in the same plants, but gynoecious flowering habit produce only
female fowers. For genetic charactertic treat the plants with gibberellic acid to produce
few male flowers for slef pollination. And plants are suitable for mechanical hearvesting.

Botanical discription.

Climbing or trailing annual herb.
Root: Extensive, mainly superficial.
Stems: 4-angled, hairy, tendrils simple.
Leaves: trianglular, ovate, 7-20 cm in length, base deeply cordate, apex acuminate,
petiole 5-15 cm in length
Flowers: monoecious, yellow, 3-4 cm in diameter, male flowers prdominant in axillary
clusters, female flowers ususally solitary, axillary, borne or short thick pedicels.
Fruits: pendulous, variable in shape and size, flesh palse green may seeded.
Seeds: flat, white, 8-10 cm X 3-5 mm, approximately 50 seeds/g

Soil conditions.

Cucumer can be grown almost in all the soil.It prefer light loamy, well drain soil with
abundant of organic material. Its optimum pH is 5.5-6.8.

Fertilizing.
It requires about 30-45 pounds of nitrogen per acre, 70 pounds of phosphorus and about
116 pound of potassium per acre.or 35-45 tonnes of farmyard manure per hectare and at
the rate of 50kg ammonium sulphate, 100kg super phosphate and about 55kg potassium
sulpahte per hectare. Seeds require above 10 º C and upto 30ºC for good germination.

Environmental response.

Seeds germinate well at 27 ºC .Yield may be increased by spraying seedlings at the 2-leaf
stage and again after 7 days wth plant growth regulators such as maleic hydrazide,
gibberellic acid or alpha-naphtalene acetic acid, flower sex modification and improved
fruit set can be obtained from these treatments.

Cultural practice.

Seeds are sown o ridges or mounds or prepared planting holes , 60-70 cm apart each
weay.A spaing of 30 cm between plants, with rows 100-150 cm aprat is also used.Plants
may be raised in containers and transplanated when 14-21 days old.The seed reauirments
is 2.5-4.5 kg/hectare for plants established at a density of 10,000 to 25,000 plants/hac.
Irrigation.

It is require at frequent intervals, high level of mositure should be maintain throughout
the growing period.

Nutrient requirement.

NPK should be applied before sowing or planting, followed by application of liquid
manure every 14-21 days until fruit form, Potassium should be available throughout the
growing period, the developing fruits and seeds in particular have high nitrogen
requirement.

Growth period and harvesting.

Fruits may be harvested 40-80 days from sowing or planting , when 15-20 cm in length.

Yield.
Approximately 5-7 t/hac

Diseases

Downy milder, bacterial wilt, anthracnose, root knot, angular leaf spot, mosaic and scab ,
Angular leaf spot (Pseudomonas lachrymans), Scab is caused by fungus (Cladosporium
cucumerinum).These diseases can be controlled by copper, ziram, maneb ,rotation and
use of diseases resistant cultivars.And attack of insects like aphids, tweleve-spotted
cucumber, striped cucumber beetles and spider mites.

Yield.

The average yield is about 12,000 to 14,000 kg per hectare.

Storage

It is stored at 10 ºC and relative humidity of 85% keeps the fruit well for 10-14 days.

Nutrient values.

100 grams of cucumber fruits contains: 95 ml water, 15 caloreies, protein 0.8 g, fat 0.1 g,
3g carbohydrates, 0.8 g fibre, 13 g calcium, 30mg phosphorus, 0.5 mg iron, 0.02 mg
thiamine, 0.01 mg riboflavin and 14mg ascorbic acid.

Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L)
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa belongs to the sunflower or compositare family.
Lettuce is a cool weather plant and under warm conditons it bolts to seed.Seed
germination is also affected at temperature above 27 ºC.A long, cool growing season is
required for satisfactory growth and heading.

Common names

Lettuce (Eng), Laitue (Fr.), Lechuga (Spain), Salat (Ger.), Sia (Neth), Letsugas (Philip)

Botanical description

An annual glabrous herb
Roots: main taproot, with fibrous lateral braches.
Stems: Cylindrical, containing latex vessels, up to 10cm in most cultivars but extended to
1m in L.Sativa var.asparagina.
Leaves: almost sessile, arranged spirally in rosettes, varibale in size and form 10-25 cm
in length.
Flowers: pentamerous, yellow, in dense clusters, ligulate and hermpphrodie, anthers
connate, stigma bifid.
Seeds: achenes, oval, 3-4 mm in length, ribbed, hairy at one end, white, yellow, grey or
brown, pappus of silky haris, approximately 100 seeds/g.
.

Soil

The crops can be grown in many soils but sandy loams, silt loams and loams well
supplied with organic manure are the best.The pH 5.5and pH 7.0 is satisfactory.

Cultivars

Lettuce cultivars may be calssified roughly into crisphead, butter head cos or romaine,
and ,looseleaf or bunching types.Crisphead type show vigorous growth, compact headand
good shipping and transport qualities like Fulton, Empire, Mesa 659, Minneto, Great
Lakes 659, Fairton, Climax, Ithaca are crisphead varities.The butterhead lettuce cultivars
are Dark Green Biston, Green Mignonette, Wayahead, Bibb and Summer Bibb. The cos
or romaine cultivars are Paris Island Cos, Dark Green Cos, and Valmaine. In Looseleaf or
bunching cultivars, its cultivars are Black seeded Simpson, grand Rapids(tip burn
resistant ). Prize head, Domineer, Oak leaf, Ruby, Salad Bowl, and Slo-Bolt.

Varieties.

Grand Rapids, Great Lakes (head type), Chinese yellow and Sloholt (open leaf type)
Var.aspargina (Bailey, syn.L.Angustana L.Var.angustana Irish and inedible, basal leaves
narrow, lanceolate, alternate, sometimes with pointed apex, non-heading, young,
thickened stems up to 1m and young leaves used as a cooked vegetable, mainly grown in
china from where it orginated.
Var.Capitata L(Cabbage, Butterhead or Head Lettuce) compact rosettes of leaves forming
a solid head, leaves broad, almost orbicular, midrib branching into small veins.
Var.crispa L (Leaf lettuce, curled lettuce), leaves in loose rosettes, smilar to cabbage
lettuce but non-heading, some cultivars with curled or crinkled leaves.
Var.longifolia Lam, syn.L.romana gars (Cos or Romaine lettuce) Rosettes of leaves
cylindrical, upright leaves obovate ot oblong, coarse in texture midrib prominent,
terminating near rounded leaf apex, leaves mainly self-folding, forming loose heads.
India and Sri Lanka: A1, black seeded Simpson, Chinese yellow, Golden Ball, Great
Lakes, Imperial 859, Improved Unrivalled, Little gem, slow Bolt.
Thailand: Black seeded Simpson, Cornell No.456, Great Lakes, Imperial.
West Africa: A1, All the year Round, Black seeded Simpson, Great Lakes, Webb‘s
Wounderful
Central Africa: Gloire de Nantes, Grosse Blonde, Paresseuse
East Africa: All the year Round, Golden city, Great Lakes, Iceberg, New York, Webb‘s
wonderful
Central and South America: Bibb, Butter Crunch, Caravan, Climax, Continuity,
Francisce, Fulton, Mignonette, Paris White Cos, Salad bowl, Vanguard.
Multire gional: Cabrillo, Climax, Great Lakes, Little Gem, Mignonette, New York,
Nonsuch, Pennlake, Webb‘s wonderful, White heart.

Environmental response.

It requires well drained sandy loams, with pH of 6.0 –6.8 are suitable, some varities can
tolerate temperature up to 30 º C, although the suitable temperature are 15-20ºC.High
temperature often result in premature flowering, stunted leaf growth and bitter tasting
leaves, high temperature area , some cultivars do not form solid heads, they tend to
flower precociously and seed without forming the normal number of rosette leaves, some
time due to high temperatures , not readily form flowering stem they tend to flower
precociously and seed without forming the noramla number of rosette leaves.
For seeds the optimum germination temperature is 25 ºC above this temperature,
germination percentage falls rapidly due to inhibiton of gaseous diffusion and consequent
shortage of oxygen. Gibberellic acid of gaseous diffuseion and consequent shortage of
oxygen.Gibberellic acid (GA3) has been found to overcome dormancy induced by high
temperature.High temperature with mositure the seeds viability is rapidly lost.Daylenth
variation not show any effect on the development.

Cultural practice

Propagation is from seed which germinates in 4-5 days from sowing, about 25-30 cm
apart, about 0.75 kg of seed are required per hectare to give planting density of 200,000
plants/ha.

Sowing

Seeds are sown in rows 15 to 25 cm apart, seed rate is 2½ kg per hectare.
Fertilizer.

Usually 10-15 tonnes of farmyard manure and fetilisers to supply 85kg of nitrogen and 60
kg each of potash and phosphorus per hectare are applied.

Irrigation.

It is require frequent intervals at transplanting and until the seedlings are established.Dry
conditions are likely to induce premature flowering
.
Harvesting

Most heading cultivars mature within 60-85 days from transplnating but the loose leaf
types may be ready for harvesting within 35-50 days from planting
As soon as plants attain acceptable size cutting is done in the morning and the harvest
immediately sent to the market.

Yield

The yield per hectare is 10,000 to 12,000 kg in case of head lettuce, open leaf types
generally give comparatively high yield. Premature flowering may be reduced by light
shading and regular irrigtion.Most cultivars are usually completely self-pollinated . A
seed yield of approximately 120 kg/hac be expected..At temperatures of 0-3 ºC , heads
may remain in good condition for up to 14 days at relative humidity of 90-95%, weight
loss may be up to 15%

Diseases.

Botrytis cinerea Pers.(Storage Rot), Cercospora lactucase Stevenson (Cercospora Leaf
spot), Erwinia spp. (Slimy Soft rot), Fusarium acuminatum Ell and Ev (Storage Rot),
Pythium spp.(Damping0off), Rhizopus nigricans , Ehrenberg (Soft Rot), Sclerotinia
sclerotiorum (Lib.).de By (Storage Rot), Sclerotinia rolfsii Sacc.(Root Rot), Septoria
Lactucae Pass (Leaf spot), Thanatephorus cucumeris Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (Bottom
Rot) and Lettuce Mosaic virus.
Lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia libertiana and S.minor fungi, Bottom rot caused by
(Rhizoctonia solani), Mosaic and Downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)and aster yellows.

Nutritional value per 100 g edible portion.

Hearted part of plant contain 96ml water, 14 caloreies, protein 1.0, fat 0.4g,
carbohydrates 2g, 0.4g fibre, calcium 18mg, phosphorus 18mg, iron 0.4 mg, beta
carotene 885 ug and ascorbic acid 4 mg.

Onion . Allium cepa L.var.cepa.
The Bulbous vegetables.
The onion belong to the family Amarylliadaceae. The onion (Allium cepa L.) (Piaz)The
bulb has sulphur-bearming compound in the volatile oil which imparts the characteristic
pungency.

Common names.

Bulb onion (Eng). Origon (Fr.), Cebolla (Sp.), Speise.Zwiebel (Ger), UI (Neth), Sibuyas
(Philipp), Yeung T‘sung Tau (Chin).

Cultivars

The most important cultivarws are : Early yellow Globe, Australian Brown, Empire,
Fiesta and Downing globe white onion Ebenezer and red onion Wethersfield and green
onion is White Portuagal, the white Fiesta is very heavy bearer
Hybrids derived from the Bermuda-Granex-group of cultivars are most adapted to
cultivation in tropical areas.cultivars selected for specific regions .
India: Dhulia, Early Grano, Niphad 53, Pusa Ratnar, Pusa Red, Red globe..
Thaliland: Granex, Red Creole, Yellow Bermuda
Philippines: Excel, Granex, Red Globe, Red Creole.
Fiji: Hybrid Tropic Ace, Pusa Red, Crystal Wax, Early grape yellow Flat, Evergreen
,Mulhouse Paris Early, Red Kano, Red Patna, Silver Skin, Queen, Texas Grano, Violet de
Soumarane, Yellow Bermuda.
East Africa: Bombay Red , De Wildt, Granex yellow, Pretoria Grano, Red Creole, Silver
King, Texas Grano, Tropical Hybrid, White Creole.
Central Africa: Barleta White,Red Creole, Texas Early Grano, Tropicana Hybrid, White
creole, White valencia.
Central and South America:Baia Periforme, Burgundy, Cojumatlan, Eclipese , Excel L
35, Excel Bermuda, Granex 33, Granax yellow, Italian Red, Laredo, Primero, Red
Bermuda, Red Creole, Red Grano, Ringer, Taxas Early Grano, Taxas Grano 502, White
Grano, Yellow Creole.
Multiregional: Bombay Red, Early Cape Yellow Flat, El Toro, Evergreen, Evergreen
White Bunching, Red Creole, Texas Early Grano No.502, Tropicana, Yellow Bermuda.

Botanical Description

Diploid chromosome number 2n=16. A biennial herb, normally grown for its bulb as an
annual and only carried forward into asecond year when seeds are required, fruit a
capsule, splitting longitudinally

Environmental response

It require alluyvial or sandy loams .Adequate nitrogen and potash is required but excess
nitrogen delay bulb formation.Phosphate is required to promote early leaf development.
The suitable pH is 5.8-6.8 , suitable temperature for the bulb formation is 18-25C.flowers
rarely form at high temperatures since a cool period is required after bulb formation for
the inititation of the inflorescence and flower stalk.
It is possible that the change from vegetative growth to bulb formation, which is
stimulated bytemperature variation independent of day length, a related to the production
of an auxin or hormones which inhibits leaf formation the food produced being diverted
to the development of bulb.It requires 14-16 hours daylight for bulb formation.In which
poungency of the odour and flavour develped due to formation of n-propyl disulphide
when tissues are cut or injured

Cultural practice

Seeds are normally sown in containers and transplanted to prepared beds after about 45-
60 days when seedlings are 8-12cm in height.They may be planted in a rows 30-38 cm a
parat with 8-12cm height.Onionseeds will germinate best at 45 and 85 º F, the plant will
grow best between 55 to 75ºF

Climate.

The plant requires relatively cool weather and abundance of moistuyre in its early stages
but stands considerable heat and ripens best in a dry weather.Long days are reqwuired for
efficient bulb formation.
Soil

A rich friable and well manured soil is prefered.Heavier soils do not promote good bulb
formation, it require neutral soil.the soil should be worked to a loose fine condition.It is
grown in alluvial, clay and sandy soils.

Varieties

Onion are very sensitive to their photoperiodic requirement, the varities are different on
the basis of short day and long day.The varities are Pusa Red, Pusa Ratnar, early Grano
(IARI), Patna Red (Sabour),Punjab selection N-53 is a Kharif onion variety.

Sowing.

About 8 kg seeds per hectare are sown, when the seedlings attain a height of 12cm, they
are planted in well prepared and highly manured land at a spacing of 15 to 20 X 10
cm.Planting is done shallow, about 2 to 3 cm deep and the land is then immediately
irrigated, the seed rate is about 20 to 25 kg per hectare is required.

Manuring.

Besides a basal dose of about 15 to 20 tonnes of farmyard manure per hectare, a side
dressing of 150kg of ammonium sulphate, 175 kg of superphosphate and 130 kg of
potassium sulphate before planting and top dressing of another 150 kg of ammonium
sulphate in early stage of growth is benefical.
Irrigation

Irrigation is necessary for the bulb development, hence irrigation should be restiricted to
a minimum in the later stage and stopped when leaves start to wither.

Weeding

The land should be kept absoluted free of weeds.

Growth period and harvesting.

Bulb mature within 100-140 days from sowing, depending upon the cultivar.It can give
up to 10t/ha

Harvesting

Onion are tend to mature at the advent of summer.The top will fall over due to shrivelling
of the neck.For good storage, the seed stalks emerging should be cut as soon as tshey
come out. The bulbs are lifted after the leaves have completley withered and are hung in
a dry ventilated place.Immature soft and thick mecked bulbs should be sold out and
others used for storage if need be, cold storage is possible at the temperature of 0 to 1ºC
with relative humidity of 64 %.. The chemical maleic hydrazide has been found effective
in the inhibiton of sprouting.

Pest and disease.

Ditylenchus disaci (Kuhn),Hylemya antiqua (Meig), Alternaria porri, Cercospora duddiae
welles (Cercospora leaf spot), Colletotrichum dematium and fusarius oxysporjum, Pink
root caused by soil borne fungi, Pyrenochaeta terrestis and fusarium sp. Neck rot
(Botrytis sp), onion smut (Urocytis cepulae), and Downy mildew (Peronospora
destructor).Onion thrips and onion Maggots are effect on yield.

Yield.

The yield varies widely from 14,000 to 25,000 kg per hectare.

Nutritional values ,per 100g edible portion

Bulb contains 87ml water, 48 calories,1.5g protein,11g carbohydrates,0.5g fibre,30mg
calcium ,0.5 mg iron, 0.04mg thiamine, 0.02 mg riboflavin and 6mg ascorbic acid.

Peas (Pisum sativum L)

The peas are annual, tendril-climbing plants belonging to the Leguminosae family.
Two alternative species are sometimes recognized:pisum arvense L-the field pea, and
pisum sativum L.var.macrocarpon ser-the sugar pea and var.humile poir-the early dearf
pea. Peas are leguminous vegetables.It is a rich source of protein.The plant are capable of
utilising atmospheric nitrogen through the nitrogen fixing bacteria found in the nodules of
their roots.It is a good source of Vitamin A, B and C.

Varieties

Peas may be divided into two types , smooth-seeded and wrinkled-seeded.
India and Sri Lanka : Alderman, Arkel, Asauji, Bonneville, Early giant, Early tion,
Sylvia, Telephone, Thomas Laxton.
South-east Asia: Alderman, Black-eyed Marrowfat, Sothern Gem, Taichung .
West Africa: Lincoln.
Central Africa: Express Long Pod, Meteor, Roi des Corouby, Telephone a Rames.
East Africa: Alaska Express, Alderman, Black Eyed Susan, clipper, Greenfeast,
Harrison‘s Glory, Idaho White, Kelvedon wonder, Laxton‘s Progress, Meteor, Onward,
Perfection, rondo, Unica, Witham wonder
South America: (Brazil) :Early Perfection, Elegante, Moreninha, Petrolina.
Multi-regional : Aldeman, Black Eyed Susan, Little Marvel, Earlycrop, Early Onward,
green Feast, Onward, Pioneer.

Botanical description.

An annual herb, with variable habits.Flowers : axillary, 2-3 in raceme, Corolla normally
white 1.2-1.6 cm in length, staminal tube grooved, style flattened, stigma terminal.Fruits:
pods with short stalks, straight or curved 4-15 cm x 1.5-2.5 cm, 2-10 seeds/poos,
endocarp present in most cultivars, exvept those of Sugar Pea.
Seeds: round or angled, smooth or wrinkled, green, grey or brown, rarely mottled,
approximate weight of 100 seeds= 15-25 g, germination hypogeal.The peas require 60-75
days for maturity.

Environmental response.

Most cultivar require 13-18 ºC while the high temperature affect pollination. Seeds have
a minimum soil temperature requirement of about 10ºC, with pH of 6.0-7.0.Planting
distances are normally 30-60 cm between rows, with 6-10 cm between plants in row.
Seed requirement is 50-75 kg/ha.Irrigation is particularly important at the flowering
stage.

Soil

It can grow from light sandy loams to heavy clay. Yields are higher on heavier types such
as silt loams and calys.It is advisable that to inoculate the soil with the pea nodule
bacteria culture particularly on land not previously cropped with leguminours plants. The
culture material material which is obtainable from some important agricultural instituions
and research centres is emulsified in a small quantitiy of 10% sugar or gur solution and
splashed over the seeds heaped on a tarpaulin and mix throughly. The moistend seed is
then spread out to dry under shade and then sown.
Seeds and sowing

The seeds are sown in rows about half a meter aprat and on raised beds of convenient
sizes usually 1 to 1.5 meters wide and beds is about 2.5 cm deep.Seed rate is about 50 to
60 kg per hectare .pH of soil will be 5.5-6.5. Poor soil prepartion results in uneven
germination and the pea sdo not mature uniformly.This is particularly disadvangeous for
processing.

Varieties.

Peas are divided in to sections according to the seed surface, height, earliness and
edibility. .Early varieties, Marrow fat, american wonder, Thomas Laxton, Sutton‘s Early
Giant,P-8,T-19 is a mid-season, wrinkled, medium tall type Early Badger, Bonnevillea
.The high yielding varieties are : Early December, GC-195 (Gwalior), Boach selection
(Solan-HP), Midseason-Lincoin, Bonnevillea, Early Giant, N.P.29 (Plate 14), Pusa-
vipasha (IARI), Banarasi seeet, T-56, GC-66, GC-141,GC-468,GC-477, GC-245,GC-31.
The selected cultivars of peas are: Alderman, Dark seeded perfection,dark skin
perfection, freezer 69, Freezonian, Frosty, giant Stride, Greater Progress, Green Arrow,
Lincoln, Little Marvel, Perfected Freezer 60, Progress Strains, Sparkle.

Ferilizer

20-25 tonnes per acre of FYM is beneficialSuper phosphate at the rate of 350 to 400 kg
and potassium sulphate or muriate of potash about 100kg per hectare may be applied at
the time of final preparation of land before sowing.A dressing of ammonium sulphate at
200 to 300kg per hectare applied at the time of pod formation will be benefical.

Harvesting.

If harvesting is dealy the conversion of sugar into starch the quality deteriorates. The
pods and immature seeds may be harvested 60-80 days from sowing , the seeds require
up to 140 days to brcome fully mature.Yields of up to 7t/hac of fresh pods have been
recorded.The protein cotent of immature seeds varies form 3.1-7.2% , that of young pods
2.6-3.1% and mature seeds about 22%.

Yield.

Early varities yield about 10,000 kg of green pods while medium and tall varieties yield
up to 12,000 per hectare

Storage

A temperature of 0.0ºC and a relative humidity of 85-90 percent will keep peas for about
2 weeks
Insects and diseases.

The diseases are root rot, Fusarium wilt, Aschochyta blight, mosaic, bacterial blight,
downy mildew, and powdery mildew.The insects are pea aphid, thrips, spider mite, seed
corn maggot and pea weevil.These are control by malathion or nicotine sulphate.

Peppers (Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens)

It belong to the family Solanaceae or nightshade .The garden paper is unrelated to the
vine that produces black pepper (piper nigrum).Green pepper are comparatively
expensive to produce because of plants, fertilizers and cultural and labour
requirement..Peppers are drought resistant mean temperature at blossom-setting time
ranging from 65 to 80ºC

Cultivars

Of the several groups of peppers grown, there are two general calsses: 1) those which
produce mild or sweet freuits called sweet peppers and 2) those which bear pungent or
hot fruits better known as hot peppers.Generally the sweet cultivars are harvested at the
mature green stage, while the hot cultivars are harvested when at the mature red stage,
except for the wax types which are picked when yellow.

Important cultivars of peppers and their uses.
Cultivars                                 Use
Anaheim M                                 Home, canning, market, drying
Bellboy Hybrid                            Market
California Wonder 300                     Home, shipping, market,canning
Canape                                    Market
Cubanelle                                 Home, market
Emerald giant                             Market
Florida giant                             Market
Goldspike                                 Market, pickling
Hungarian yellow wax                      Home, market ,canning
Jalapeno M                                Market, canning
Keystone res.Giant                        Home, market
Midway Hybrid                             Home, market
Pennbell                                  Home, market
Pimiento                                  Canning
Tabasco                                   Canning and Drying
World Beater                              Home, market, shipping
Yolo Wondor B                             Market, shipping
Yolo Wondor L                             Market, shipping.

Soil
A sandy loam whichholds moisture fairly well and which has a libral supply of organic
matter is the ideal soil for the growing of bell peppers.For canning peppers , a soil with
some caly is preferable, color of the fruit seems to develop better than on lighter
soils..The optimum pH is 5.5 and 7.0

Fertilizer

It require compost or green manure at the rate of 10 to 15 tons per acre.On light sandy
soil it require 750 to 1,000 pond per acre of a 5-8-8 or 5-10-10.About 100 pounds of
ammonium nitrate or its equivalent should be used..On heavier soil 600 pounds per acre
of fertilizer containing 4-55 nitrogen, 6-8% phosphate, and 6-8% potassium.

At the time of planting the soil temperature should be 70 to 75F.seeds are swon at the rate
of 20 seeds pre foot in rows 6 inches apart..The plants should be set at 4 -8 inches tall, in a
row 3 to 3½ feet a prat with the plant spaced 2-4-3 feet a prat in a row.A mixture of 1½
pounds of monopotassium phosphate and 1½ pounds of diammonium phosphate in 50
gallons of water is needed..It is also found that 5% nitrogen, 8-10% phosphorus, and 55
potassium in 50 gallon of water is very effective.

Diseases and infections.

The common diseases are bacterial spot associated with Xanthomonas vesicatoria.,
Southern blight assocaited with Sclerotium rolfsii, Blossom end rot , Anthracnose caused
by Gloeosporium pioeratum, Ripe rot associated with Colletorium capsici, blue mold and
downy mildew, ecercospora leaf spot, phytophthor ablight, fusarium wilt , bacterial soft
rot and virus diseases are common. In case of diseases maneb, thiram an captan are need.
The insects like pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii) and Pepper maggot (Zonosemata
electa)
Harvesting and storage.

At 45 to 50 ºF with relative humidity 90 to 95 help to store pepper for 3 weeks.

Potato (Solanum tubersum L)

It belog to the family of Solanaceae
The tuber crops are an important source of subsidiary food an used as staple food.They
are rich in carbohydrates and usually stor well.Potaot contains 18% starch and other
carbohydrated, 2% protein, and 1% ash and minerals and 78% water It contains fair
amount of vitamin C.While frozen potatoes (especially French friies) still dom inate the
processing sector
.
Climate.

A temperature of 18-20C is best for growth.

Varities.
Many varities are available. Phulwa, Darjeeling Red Round, certain hybrid are
208,209,45,9 and 2236 , while high yielding varities are : Kufri chamatkar, Kufri
Sindhuri, Kufri Chandramukhi, Kufri Alankar, Kufri Kuber, Kufri Red, Kufri Safaid,
Kufri Deva ,Kufri Jyoti,Craigs defiance, Kufri jeevan, Kufri Neelmani, Kufri Navin,
Kufri Khasigro and other varities.
India : Craig‘s Definance, great Scot, Gola, Kufri Alankar, Kufri Chamatkar, Kufri
Neela, Kufri Red, Kufri Sindhuri, Phulwa, Satha.
Thailand: Bintje, Donata, monitor, Multa, Nascor, Patrones, spartan.
West Africa: Arran Banner, Ethoile de Leon, Regale Valdor.
Central Africa: Claudia, Bintje.
Other varities are : Irish cobbler, Katahdin, Kennebec, Norchief, Norchip,Norgold
Russet,Norland, Redland,Red Lasoda,Russet Sebago, Superior and White Rose.
Botanical description

Diploid chromosome number (Tetraploid) : 2n=48, Diploid and triploid are also
cultivated It is short-lived perennial herb, grown as an annual, producign swollen
underground stem tubers when mature , 0.3-1 in height.
Fruit: a small, globose, purple-green or yellow-green poisonour berry, 1.5-2cm in
diameter, containing many seeds often more than 300 per fruit.
Tubers which should

Soil

Well-drained, fertile soils with pH in the region of 5.2-6.0 are necessary for the
production of adequate crops a low soil pH is likely to reduce the incidence of
Scab(Streptomyces scabies).It require temperatre 16-20 ºC .It require 500-750 mm of rain
fall for the optimum growth.The flworing period has been found tobe a critical phase of
growh at which to apply irigation, the requirement for irrigation is reduced after this
period.A high light intensity and high temperature level for tuberization .

Cultural requiremet.

Cultivation to a depth of 25 cm is normally reqauyired with organic masterial and
fertilizers incorporated in the soil befor planting.Tubers whichshould be certified to be
free from diseases such as virus, are either planted whole or cut into setts, each set having
one or more dormant buds or eye.dormancy, which may last for up to 80-90 days after
harvesting may be overcome by dipping the tubers ina 1 part per million solution of
gibberellic acid for 5 minutes or by reating them with thiourea, ethyulen chlorhydrin, or
potassioun thiocyanate. The sprouted tubers are planted 10-15 cm deep in shallow
trenches spaced 75-100 cm apart 20-25 cm between plants, the planting distance should
br related to the cultivar virour and climatic conditions.tuber planting rte varies with the
size of the tuber or sett and may be 1000-1500 kg/hac.

Sowing
Potatoes seeds should be disinfected before planting.Captan,maneb,Polyram,zineb or
maneb plus zinc ion may be used .
Seed rate varies from 1,250 to 1,500 kg of tubers per hectare.Plant spacing is 30 cm a part
and the depth of sowing isabout 7cm .The distance between ridges is kept at 45 to 60cm

Fertilizer.

It needs about 15,000kg of bulky manure per hectare a month before planting
.Ammonium sulphate and superphosphate at 320kg and 550 kg per hectare

Irrigation

It is given at a frequency of 10 days

Yield.
The average yield is around 25,000 kg per hectare, but yields up to 60,000 kg are
expected.

Pest and diseases.

Agrotis ipsilon (Cutworm),Aphis gossypii Glover,Epilachna philippinensis dieke (Leaf
Beetle),Epitrix parvula F (Flea Beetle), and Heliothis armigera (Bollworm, corn
Earworm),Pthorimaea operculella (Gnorimoschemas operculella) (leaf minor),Alternaria
solani (Early blight), Erwinia atroseptica (Black leg),Erwina carotovora Bergey (Soft
rot),leafroll virus, mold mosaci virus an rugose maosaic virus.Early blight caused by
Alternaria solani, Leaf blight ,Associated with Phytophthora infesttns,Mosaic Leaf Roll,
Scab,Ring Rot,Black leg, and Black Scurf caused by Pellicularia filmentosa .
Insects: Colorado potato beetle, potato leaf beetle,potato leaf hopper,potato aphid, potto
tuberworms, and potato tuberworms.

Harvesting.

It can store at 2.5ºC to 4.5ºC at relative humidity of 80-90%.Cold storage is he most
effective means of mainting tubers in good conditon, the optimum conditons are a
temperature range of 2.2to 3.3ºC and relative humidity of 75-80%.Temperature belwo
0ºC are liable to cause internal tissue breakdown due to chilling injhury.Sprouting in
store may be prvented by applying suppressants such as maleic hydrazide, and methyl-
alpha naphtalene acetic acid .The yield of tuber may be affected by storage temtment, low
storge temperature are likely to result low crop yeids .After low temperature storge,
tubers should be kept at a temperature of about 15ºC about 14 days befor planting to
encourage the breaking of the dormancy period.

Nutrient values of potatoes, per 100g of edible portion.
Potato tuber cintain 77ml water, provide 82 calories, 1.7 g protein, 0.1 fat, 18g
carbohydrates,0.6 fibre, 13 mg calcium, 51mg phosphorus,1.1mg iron,25ug beta
carotene,0.07 mg thiamine, 0.03mg riboflavin,1.3 mg Niacin and 21mg ascorbic acid.

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)
It is belong to the Chenopodiaceae family
Spanach ransk high in minerals and vitamins and is considered to be one to the bnest
leafy vegetble.

Climate

High humidity and cool temperature are conductive to the development of succulent,
tender, mild flavoured foliage and fhelp inrapid growth.

Soil

A rich heavy loam or silt is the best.

Varities.

Among the desi types, Banerjee‘s Giant and Banarasi or Katvi Palak are important, other
varities are : Longstanding, Bloomsdale, Virginia Savoy and Round-Leaved Dutch
Bloomsdale Dark green, Bloomsdale Log standing, Bounty, Cheasapeake Hybrid.Dixie
Market, Hybrid 424, Hybrid 7, Hybrid 612,Packer, Sevan R Hybrid, Viking, Virginia
Savoy and Viroflay.

Sowing.

The seeds 20-30kg per acre are suggested.sowing in rows spaced at 30 to 40 cm apart.It
require pH 6 to 7.

Fertilizer.

The frmyard manure of about 25 tonnes per acre give good results. A top dressing of 80
to 120kg of nitrate of soda or ammonium sulphate per hectare benefits the crop.14-16%
phosphorus,and 3-5% potassium.

Irrigation

Irrigtion immediately after sowing, watering once in 8 to 10 days is required.

Diseases.

Dumping off, Mosaic commonly known as blight, or yellow, is caused by the cucumber
mosaic virus.Downy Mildew caused by Peronospora effusa , Fusarium Wilt caused by
Fusarium solani, Curly-top, Heterosporium leaf spot, aphid (Myzus persieae), spinach
leaf miner (Pegomyia hyoseyami), other insects like seed corn maggots, grasshopers, and
flea beetles

Harvesting.

The crop is ready for cutting in 6 to 8 weeks after sowing, then the produce should be
kept cool at temperature 0-0ºC and relative humidity of 90 to 95 %.

Yield.

The yields varies from 8,000 to 14,000 kg per hectare.

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Poir ) (Sakarkand)

Soil.

Deep loams and sandy soils are considered best.In very richand caly soils and under
heavy irrigtion, the vines produce lantk vegetative growth and give reduced yield.

Varieties

There are many vrieties which are calssified according to colour of the rind of the tuber
and texture of the flesh.Pusa Safed, Pusa Lal and Pusa Sunehri are improved varieties.
Philippines: Batanes, BNAS 51,Centennial, Georgia Red, Goldrush, Heartgold,Julian,
Seedling 47.
Hawii: HPSA-3, Kona B,McBryde, Nancy Hall, Onolena, Puerto rico, Tantalus.
Multiregional: Apache, Don Juan, Mameya, Mississippi, Nemagold, Porto Rico, Red
velvet

Botanical description

Tuber structure: complex, fusiform to globular, smooth or ridged, 8-30cm in length: tuber
surface white, yellow, orange, red, purple or brown, flesh white, yellow, orange, red or
purple.
Fruit: capsule glabrous or hirsute, 5-8mm indiameter, containing 1-4 fertile seeds.

Planting.

The spacing for field planting is 60 X 30 cm. The central central part of the ―sett‖ (30cm
long vine) is pressed into moist soil leaving the ends exposed.The setts strike root in
seven to ten days.About 50,000to 65,000 setts are required per hectare. Most cultivars
mature in 80-200 days from planting, one plant may prouduce 40-50 tubers, weighing
from 100 g to 1kg.Yields of 8-12t/hac.
Seed production

Since the crop is vegetatively propagated.Seeds are normally set only in
daylengthsshorter than 13.5 hours.

Fertilizer

It need pH 5.6-6.6 is alow encourage growth. A planting density of 20,000 to 30,000
cuttings/hac used.
It require large quantiiees of nitrogen , potash and phosphorus.Besides 10 to 15 tonnes of
bulky manure, about 300 kg of mixed fertlisers are needed per hectare.

Irrigation

About 10-20 irrigations are needed for the crop in about 100 days.

Harvesting

The leaves turn pale and yellow and soil shows cracks when the crop is ready to be lifted,
the mature tuber are more brittle and juice dreis up quickly, vines are first cut and
removed and the tubers are lifted after week.

Tomato (Lycospersicon esculentum Mill) (Tamatar)

The ripe tomato contains 93 to 94% water, it is a good source of vitamin A and B and an
excellent source of vitamin C.

Botanical description.

A variable heb, up to 2m in height.
Roots: Vigorous tap root with extensive fibrous roots.
Stems: Solid, hariy, rooting at nodes.
Leaves: Spirally arranged, 15-30cm x 10-25 cm, petiole 3-6 cm long, often divided into
unevenly shaped pinnar, mainly oval, irregualrly toothed, often with small pinnae
between larger leaflets.
Flowers: In cymes (trussess) or 4-12, borne opposite or between leaves, about 2 cm in
diameter.calyx tube short, hairy, sepals persistent, petals usually 6, up to 1 cm in length,
yellow, reflexed when mature, stamens 6, anthers bright yellow.
Fruits: a fleshy berry with 2-9 loculi, orange, yellow or red whebn ripe, usually round,
smooth or furrowed,2-15 cm in diameter.
Seeds: numerous, kidney-or pear-shaped, hairy, light brown, 3-5 mm x 2-4 mm,
approximate weight of 1000 seeds =2.5g.

Environmental response.
Well drained, fertile soils with a good moisture-retaining capacity and high level of
organic material are preferable many cultivars are tolerant to a wide range of soil
condition.Slightly acid conditon, with pH of 5.8-6.8 are considered suitable.Low
temperatures retard the growth of seedlings and the absorption of minerals may also be
affected.High temperature above 27ºC are likely to induce pollen sterility and high night
tempeature adversley affect flower inititation.Optimum temperature is maintain by 21-
27ºC temperature , this is partly related to the maintenance of an adequate
carbohydrates/nitrogen balance in the plant and the funcitoning of the auxin regulatory
system in promiting both growth and fruit setting.16-20ºC are considered adequate for
most of the cultivars, below 13ºC pollination and fertilization are severly affected. High
temperatures, combined with low relative humidity furit quality, particularly the colour of
the fruits.Spray of gibberellic acid, at the rate of 50 parts per million, applied at the fruit
setting stage have been found to increase the ascorbic acid content of the fruits in some
areas. Excessive rainfall and high relative humidityh can be harmful to the
tomatoes.Modern tomato cultivars have been selected and fbred for daylenght neutrality
and are not generally affected byt being grown in short dyalenght conditons. High light
intensitie have been found to induce a high level of ascorbic acid production in the
ripening fruits.

Cultural requirements.

The seed requirement is approximately 0.5kg/ha for the density of 20,000-30,000
plants/he. Plants may be established in single row 70-90 cm apart, 30-38cm between
plants or in double rows 45-60cm apart, 45cm between plants in the row 75-90 cm
between the double rows.For single cultivation ridges should be 75-90cm apart with 45-
60cm between plants

Climate.

During warm and sunny weather, the fruit ripemsn best for yield, colour and quality.

Seed and sowing.

Seeds are treated with fungicide before it is sown.Two of the better treatments are captan
and thiram, thgorougly dusted on the seed at the rate of 1 level teaspoonful per pound of
seed.
As 400 to 425 gm of seed will produce sufficient plants for one hectare.Tomato can be
grown all the year around

Soil and its preparation.

Tomato is grown on a variety of soils, from sandy loam to heavy loam is the best.Before
plantation of seed , about 20 to 25 tonnes of farmyard manure is applied per hectare , and
112kg of phosphorus in the form of superphosphate is benefical.about 300 to 335 kg per
hectare of ammonium sulphate applied as a top dressing in three split, the first dose of
about 112kg to be applied when the plants have set after transplanting, the secod dose of
eqwual quantity in the second month and third dose after fruit set.

Varieties.

The important varieties are Pusa Ruby, Marglobe, Best of all, Bonny Best Pritichard,
Large red, Sioux, Golden Queen, Pusa Red Plum, Ponderosa, Kalianpur Type 1,
Prosperity and Early Chatam.The recommnended high yielding varieties are : Pusa Early
Dwarf, Sioux, S1-120,Pusa Ruby (IARI), H.S.101, H.s.102,H.S110, Sweet-72 (Gwalior),
63-VF-21 (Pantagar), Angurlata, Kalianpur Kuber ,Keckruth, Keckruth Agetil, Pubnjab
tropical (No.216), S-12 (Ludhiana ), Marglobe, Lalmani and Solan Surkh are popular
varities.Var.cerasiforme (Dun) Alef.- cherry tomato, now naturalized in many areas.
Var. grandifolium Bailey- potato-leaved tomato, with large leaflets.
Var.pyriforme Alef-pear tomato, indeterminate in growth.Var.varlidium Bailey-upright
determinate growth, vigforous, very compact habit.

Lycopersicon lycorpersicum.

India: Best of all, Co-1, Devlin‘s choice, Fire Ball, HS 101, italian Red Pear, Kalianpur
Angurlata, Kekruth Ageti, Marglobe supreme, Money market, Pusa red Plum, Pusa ruby,
Sioux.
Phillippines: Improved Pope, Red Creole.
Fiji: Burley Gem, Red Cloud.
Nigeria: Cerio 56, Harvester, Marzanini, Roma VF, Ronita.
Ghana: Improved Zuarungu, Pearson, Red Top, Roma VF.
Cameroum: Homestead 24, Indian river, Merveiles des Marches.
Upper volta: Mineymaker, Roma VF, Rossol
Central Africa: Kokomo, Merveilles des Marches, Super Marmande.
Kenya: Beauty, Marglobe, Mecheast 22, Moneymarker, Roma, Rossol, Rutgers.


Planting.

Tomoto is frist sown in seedbed and seedlings are later transplanted in the field when
they are about 12 to 15 cm in height, in rows 75 cm apart and at a distance of 60cm
between plants.The fertile soils, the distance is increased to 90cm x 75 cm

Irrigation and weed control

In hot weather, irigation should be givben every week or then days but during winter, the
crop should be eatered sparingly

Stalked or trellised tomtatoes.

Pruning and trimming helps in early ripening less injury from fungal disease and cleaner
fruits, Stalkes about 3 or 4 cm in diameter and 2 meters high are the most common
support.Mulching with staw or other liter helps reduce blossom end rot by retaining
mositure.

Harvesting.

Fruit can normally be harvested from indeterminate cultivars 70-100 days from
transplanting , determinate cultivars may begin fruiting after 60 days, depend upn the
environmental coditons.
The stage of harvesting depends upon the distance of market and time to be taken in
marketing the produce.Tomatoes for local market should be picked when fully ripe and
for distant markets when they are turning pink, for far off and distant markets, they may
be harvested even earlier.

Pest and diseases.

Scapteriscus vicinus R.and Heb (Mole cricket), Spodoptera littoralis (cutoworm), Sylepta
derogata (cotton leaf roller ), Tetraychaus truncatus ebara (redi spider mite), Alternaria
solani (Early blight), Cladosporium fulvum (Leaf mould), Colletotrichum nigrum
(Anthracnose), Corynespora cassicola (target leaf spot) ,fusarium oxysproum (Fusarium
wilt), Leveillula taurica (powdery mildew), Pseudomonals solancearum (Bactierail wilt),
Sclerotium rolfsii (Wilt and fruit rot), Septoria lycopersici (leaf spot),Xanthomonas
vesicatora (Bacterial leaf and fruit spot), and cuciber mosaic virus.Fusarium wilt caused
by the fungus fusarium oxysporium f.lycopersici, bactieral wilt caused byt Pseudomonas
solancearum , early blight produced by Alternaria solani, nailhead spot caused by
Alternaria tomato, septoria leaf spot caused by sepotorial lycopersici, root knot caused by
nematode, gray leaf spot caused by stemphylium solani, damping off caused by Pythium,
Phytophthora and Botrytis,bacterial cranker caused by Corynebacterisum michiganense,
blossom-end rot, sunscald, virus disease, growth cracks

Yield.

The yield per hectare varies gratly but on an average it ranges from 15 to 25 tonnes per
hectare. A single, well grown plant may produce 3 to 5 kg or more of fruit.

Seed production

Most cutivars are seolf-pollinated although in some tropical conditons up to 25% of
cross-pollination may occur.Crops for seed fproduction should be checked for plant habit,
earliness, fruit shape, colour and size.the ripe fruits are picked and seed extracted. The
gelationous layer around each seed is removed by fermenting the seeds in plastic
containers for up to 3 dyas.The seed is removed from the slurry by sieves, it is then
washed and air driedThe dry seed is rubbed to separate individual seeds. An average seed
yield is 100kg/ha.

Storage.
Tomatoes store well at a temperature range of 12 ºC to 15ºC.Mature green tomatoes can
be kept for about 25 to 30 days at 10ºC to 15 ºC for more than 10 days at a temperature as
low as 4.5ºC, with relative humidity at 85 to 90%.High temperature prevent the
production of lycopene, the red pigemtn responsible for fruit colour.Normal ripening
temperature are 18-24 ºC

Nutritenional values.

100g of edible portion contains 93ml water, provide 21 carories, 1.0g protein, 0.2g fat, 4g
carbohydrate, 0.6g fibre, 10mg calcium, 25mg phosphours, 0.6mg iron, 450ug contain
beta carotene,0.06mg thiamine,0.04mg riboflavin,0.6mg niacin and 26mg ascorbic acid.

Future work.

Make improvement in early cultivars, development of diseases-resistant strains and
improvement of plant type and fruit quality.

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.var.botrytis)
Its local name is Phul kibhi, It contains good amount of vitamin B and fari amount of
protein incomparsion to toer leafy vegetables.

Botanical description.

A biennial, normally grown as an annualThe edible portion, or curd, consisist of a mass
of abortive flowers on thick hypertrophied brances which are produced at the top of a
short thick stem.Leaves long and ellipitical, the outer ones are often broken and folded or
tied over the curd to prevent Sun scalad weight of 1000 sees =3g.

Envrionmental response

There are three main groups, calssed according to curd development: those which will
form curds and flower in hot weather conditon at fariley low elevations: the medium type
which require cool coditons and the late maturing tyopes which take a long time to
develop curds and aslso require relatively low temperatures, below 25ºC, for curd
development.At high temperature encourgaes the production of samll, hard curd,
optimum soil ph is in the region of 6.0 to 7.0, acid soils are sometimes treated with lime
or limestone if the pH value is too low.

Climate

It is sensitive to heat.If the temperature is high when the curds are maturing the curds will
become yellowish, ricy or leafy.The plant are less hardy than cabbage.

Soil
Rich, heavy loam soils with good drainage are ideal for caulliflowr growing.Light soils
need to be supplied with plenty of organic matter.

Fertilizer

Under some condition, boron must be included to prvent browning and obtain higher
yields.Top-dressing of nitrogen will be necessary to maintain steady growth.Since
cauliflower has a high demand of magnesium, boron and molybdenum, deficiencies may
occour and can be corrected by the application of dolomitic limestone, borax or
ammonium moyybdate at the recommended rates.Soil acidity is also lonked with the
availability of these elements, particularly magnesium and molybdenum.

Varities.

There are usuallyfour main group of cauliflowe-early, mid season, late and imported
kinds.In seed trade many more groups are given such as kuari, katki, aghani, poosi,
maghi all depneding upon the month of their avbailability.Early varities are sown from
end of May to middle of June, mid season from early July to end of July and late varities
from end of July to end of August.For late sowings, improted varieties such as, Snowball
etc prefered.The late snowball varieites can be sown up to the end of October.Thecrop
readyto harvest in 3-4 month. Some of the recommended varieties which yeidl heavily
are: Early –Pusa Katki, synthetic II, Synthetic III, Kunwari, Hissar I, Kalianpur Medium,
Late-Dania ,Snowball-16 (EC 12013), Sel.I,EC-12012,SC-I,SC-2 and Ki

Sowing

The cauliflower is first sown in seed beds and seedlings are transplanted afterward.The
seed requirement for the early crop varies from 600 to 750gm and for late crop 375 to
400gm per hectare.Curd of cauliflowers can be harvested 60-120 days from transplanting
depending on the cultivart growth, early, medium and late maturing cultivars are availbel
in many areas.

Planting.

The seedlings, when six weeks old are transpolanted at a distance of 60cm x 45cm or
60cm x 60cm in well prepard and fgertilized soils.The seedlings are transplanted on
ridges. Approximately 500g seed is required to establish a crop at a de3nsity of 18,000
plants/hac.

Cultural practices.

Clean tillage is required to prevent competition by weeds.Regykar urrugatuib at 10-15
days interval is necessary.Cauliflower curds mst not be allowed to ―Sun exposuyre ―
otherwise they become yellow and leaves of the plants should be drawn up and tied
together at the tips when the head formation starts or a caulifflower leaf may be placed
over the head to protect it from sun.Exvessive irrigation may lead to curd decay.Seeds are
not normally produced exvept during dry periods at altitude over 1500 m.flowers are
cross pollinated.220 kg/ha of seed have been produced locally.Plants selected on curd
characters and leaf protection should be retained for seed and grown in isolation.

Pest and diseases.

Agrotis spp(cutworms), Aphis spp(Aphids), Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller (cabbage
moth),Meloidogyne spp (root knot nematode), Phyllotreta spp (flea beetles), Pieris
canidia sparman (cabbage butterfly), Plutella xylostella (Diamond back moth),
spodopotera littoralis (cut worm), Alternaria brassicae (Alternaria blight), Erysiphe
polygoni (powdery mildew), Leptosphaeria maculans (blackleg),Pythium ultimm
(Damping-off), Thanatephorus cucumeris (stem rot)

Harvesting.

Solid and compact curds are necessary for quality caulifflower along with the white
colour.They should be harvested when the curd has acquired the proper size and is at the
right statge of maturity.All the curds do not develop uniformly at the same time.the curds
should not be allowed to over mature.the harvesting may be done either in the evening or
early morning.

Yield

The yield of cauliflower curds varies from 20 to 30 tonnes per hectare.The early crop
usually yields low as compared to mid-season or late crops.The heads can be stored for
about a month in cold storage at 0ºC with 85 to 90% relative humidity.

Preparation for market and storage.

The leaves should be green and turgid and are normaly trimmed to leave 2-3cm
projnecting to protect the heads dueing handling.Heads should be graded accoridng to
size, colour, quality and cultivar , shortly after harvesting. Field heat may be removed by
cooling with water, followed by wrapping in heads may be stored for periods up to 28
days.At 4ºC the storage life is about 7 days.For transport , heads may be packed in nets or
crates, firm packing will reduce loss due to brusing.

Nutritional values

100g of edible portion contains: 87ml water, 43 calories,4.0 g protein, 0.3g Fat, 6g
carbohydrate, 1.5g fiber, 100mg califcium, 2.0mg phosphours, 600mg iron,0.15mg
thaiamine,0.20mg riboflacvin, 1.0 mg niacin , and 80mg ascorbic acid.

Egg plant or Brinjal (Solanum melongena L)

It is grown throughtout the country almost all the year round.The unripe fruit is used as
vegetable.The vegetable contain Vitamin A, and B
Climate.

It is awarm season polant.It requires long growing season with high average day and
night temperatures.25ºC is favourable for germination.

Soil

A rich warm, light or sandy loam is preferred.Silt loams andf caly loams are also suitable.

Varieties.

Popular varieties are Balack Beauty, Long Black, Muktakeshi, Round purple, Pusa Purple
Long, Pusa Purple round, Pusa purple cluster, Long Purple, Banaras Giant, Log White,
and round White,S.T.1 and S.T.2 are high yielding varities .Pusa Kranti,S-4,S-5,S-8,S-
1,S-16-H-4,A-61,T-2,T-3, Arka Sheel, Arka Shirish, Arka Kusumakar.
India: Arka Kusumakar, Arka Navneet, Arka Sheet, Arka Shirish, Benares Giant White,
Black beauty, Gudyattam, Improved Muktakeshi, Manjri Goata, Nurki, Punjab Bhar,
Punjab Chamkila, Pusa ammol, Pusa Kranti, Pusa Purple, Cluster, Pusa pruple long, Pusa
purple Round, Surti goata, Wynad giant.
Phillipines: Aroman, Bulacan, collage long purple, Madinina, Pingtung long Red,
Sinampiro.
West Africa. Black Beauty, Florida high Bush, Florida Market, Peradeniay.
Kenya: Black beauty, Early Long Purple, Florida high Bush.
Hawaii: Waimanalo long.
Haiti: Black Beauty, Cambodgienne, florida Market, Philippinois.
West Indies: Benares Giant White, Pusa Krani, Pusa Long purple, New york Purple,
Peradeniay, Vedette.

Botanical description.

A short lived perennial herb, branching in habit, 0.5-1.5 m in height, grown as annual,
very viable in habit.
Roots: vigorous, deep growing tap root.
Stem: hariety, woody at base, sometimes with violet tinge.
Leaves: alternate, simple, singly or in pairs, petioles 2-10 cm long, lamina ovate
sometimes lobed , hairy, pointed at apex, margins undulate, 7-25 cm long ,5-15 cm wide,
Flowers: solitary, or 2-5 flowred cymes, pedicel 1-2 cm long, thickening and
lenghenning as fruit develps, calyx 2cm long, 5-6 lobed.
Fruit: large, ovoid,2-locular, variable in shape and size, from 5-15 cm long, 3-6 cm in
diameter, smooth and shiny, yellow, purple, balck or white in colour.
Fruits: large, ovoid, 2-locular, variable in shape and size, from 5-15 cm long 3-6 cm in
diameter, smooth and shiny, yellow, purple, black or shite in colour.
Seeds: samll, light brown, numerious, approximately 250 seeds/g.
Most furit mature in 85 to 90 days after transplantion.
Envrionemtal response:

It require well drained soils, sandy-loamy , but with good moisture-retaining properties
are generally considered suitable.A pH suitble from 5.5-6.8 is considered suitable. High
temperature of 25-30ºC is good for growth an ddevelopment The egg plant is well
adapted to both wet and dry season cultivation but exvessive rainfall will check both
vegetative growth and flower formation.Elevations of up to 1200m are satisfactory for
cultivtion and most cultivars appear to be daylength neutral.

Cultural requirements.

Seeds, often soaked in water for 24 hours to hasten germination are sown in containers or
seedbeds protected from exvessive sun, rain and wind .Seedling are transplanted when 8 -
10cm in height to ridges or raised beds.Rows are 75-90 cm apart with plants 60-70cm
apart in the row on between ridges 50-60cm x 50-60cm each weay.For ridge planting 75-
90 cm between ridges, 50-60cn between plants.The seed requiremtn is 800g/hac for
population of 10,000-30,000 plants/hac.In areas whrere Bacterial Wilt is common the
plant are grafted on the resistant rootstocks of Solanum species.

Seeds and sowing .

About 1kg of seed is required for planting one hectare.When seedlings have grown to
height of 10-12 cm they are planted out, rows 60 to 90cm apart and about 45cm from
plant to plant in the row.Tall types require larger spacing

Fertilizer.

It requires 50 tonnes per hectare of farmyard maure, 250 kg ammonium sulpahte, 300kg
super phospahte and 100kg of potassium sulphate , mix with the soil at the time of final
field preparation.Another 250kg of ammonium sulphate is given as a top dressing in two
split doses with irrigation, when plants have established in the field and secondly in
flowering and fruitng stage.

Irrigation.

It depend upon the locality and type of soil, in hot weather irrigation may be from 4-5
days anf once a fortnight in winter , irrigation should be more fequent to keep the soil
moist.

Harvest.

Fruit set may be increased by the appliction of plant growth regulations such as 2,4 -D to
both seeds and flowering plants.Fruit may be harvested from 80-120 days from
transplanting, depending on the characteristics of the cultivar and rate of growth, most
cultivars continure fruit production into a secod year.Harvesting of fruit sas they become
mature will extend the fruiting period of mature plants.
The fruit should be harvested when they are still tender, but after they have attained a
good size and hen the surface is britht and glossy,

Yield

The yield is about 20,000 to 24,000 kg per hectare and about 2kg per plant.

Storage.

The fruit keep well for 2 to 3 days in winter, In storge at 7ºC to 10ºC at a relative
humidity of 85-90% keeps the fruits for over a week.. Egg plantws are sold for distant
asw well as for local markets.Attraftive packaging and proper handling are necessary for
maximum returns, retail preference appears to be for small, uniform-size fruits.

Seeds.

The flowers are both self- and cross-pollinated and since up to 20% of cross pollination
may occur, 500m is a satisfactory isolation distance between cultivars.The seed may be
extracted from the dry ripended fruits or by a wet extraction mathods.the seeds are sun
dried.An average seed yeidl is 100-150 kg/ha.

Nutritional values.

100g of edible portion contains: 90ml water, provide 32 calories, 1.0g protein, 0.2g fat,
7g carbohydrates, 1.3g fibre, 14mg calcium, 26 mg phosphours, 1.3mg iron, 34 ug beta
carotene, 0.05 mg riboflavin, 0.5mg niacin and 9mg ascorbic acid.

Pest and diseases.

Emposaca flavscens (leaf hopper ), Epilachna hirta (Epilachna beetle),Epitrix cucumeris
(Flea beetle), Epritrix parvula (Flea beetle), Heliothis armigera (Bollworm, corn
earworm), Heliothis armigera (Bollworm), Meloidogyne (Root-knot nematodes),
Psilliodes babnyi (Flea beetle), Psilliodes splendida ( flea beetle), Spodoptera littoralis
(Cutworm), Tetranychus truncatus (red spider mite), zonocerus variegatus (Grass hoper),
Fusarium wilt , Gloeosporium melongenae (anthracnose), Leveillula taurica (powdery
mildew), Meloidogyne ( root not nematode), Phomopsis vexans (Phomopsis rot)
Pseudomonal solanacearum (Bacterial wilt).Leafcurl virus.

Garlic (Allium sativum)

It have medicinal values. It has compound bulbs contaming 10 to 16 cloves enclosed by a
thin membraneous sheath.It have spacing 15 x 8 cm spacing.The seed stalks are removed
as they emege, harvest is done when the plants die down.the yield varies 7,500 to 15,000
kg per hectare.

Cultivars.
Many selections and cloes are in cultivation, mainly distinguished by the number of
cloves produced per bulb-this may vary from 16-50 and by the size of individual. Ther
are early (White or Mexican ) and late (Pink or Italian) cultivars.

Botanical discription.

An erect herb, biennial, normally grown as an annual, up to 60cm in height.
Roots: adventitious.
Bulb: with condensed flattened stem, enclsoed by apery scvale leaves; bulb seprarate in
to samll separate bulbs or cloves formed from axillary buds, each with outer protective
shealthing scales, single cloves consist ofa thinckened storage leaf sheath and central bud.
Leaveslades, linear, flattened, solid, up to 2.5 cm across.
Flower: in umbels, borne on smooth, round , solid scpate, variable in number on slender
prdicles, perianth approxciaktey 4 mm in length, pink.

Seed requirements.

True seeds is seldom used in the prfopagation of garlic.Cloves and tup sets are used, but
cloves are more common.Since the size of the cloves determines the number of planting
units per pound, a sample of the stock to be use dor seed should be taken and average
numbher of cloves per pound detemined.Usually 800 to 1000 pounds of cloves are
needed to plant an acre.

Soil and cultural requirements.

Garlic thrives best on a fraiable sandy loam well supplied with organic matter. Seed is
prepared by breaking ythe mother bulbs aprat, so that the cloves of which they are
composed become individual unit.these units are planted singly 3-6 inches apart,
according to cultivart, in rows 12 to 16 inches apart.The larger polants produce larger
bulbs.

Environmental conditions.

It require realtively high temperature up to 30ºCare required for optimum bulb
development but cooler conditons in the early stages favour vegtetative growth. Flower
initiation does not appear to be directly linked with low temperature some clones do not
flower.
Excvessive humidity and rainfall are needed for vegetative growth and bulb formation In
most areas, elevations from 500-2000 m provide suitable growting conditons particularly
during dry preioids.
Log days favour bulb developmentsthe toatl yield depends on the amount of vegetative
growth made before bulbing begains.

Cultural practivces.
The cloves are separated in to single segments , planting space in rows 30-40 cm apart,
with 10-15cm between plants inb the row.The cloves should preferabley palntedtowards
the end of wet season. About 500-700 kg of cloves are required to plant one hectare.

Pest and diseases.

Ditylenchus dipsaci (stem and bulb nematodes), Thrips tabaci.(onion thrips),Alternaria
porri (puple blotch), Peronospora destructor (Downy mildew), Puccinia alli (Rust)
Sclerotum cepivorum (white rot or bulbrot)

Harvesting.

The bulb should be mature 90-120 days from planting, when the leaves turn brown and
dry out. Leaves required for flavouring can be cut before they become mature.

Yield

It produce 5-10 t/ha, depending on thecultivar characteristic.

Seed production.

Plants do not normally produce fetile flowers.

Market and storage.

Bulbs may be stored at 0ºC for up to 150 days or at 25-30 ºC for up to 90 dyas.At both
temperatures, the relative humidity should be less than 70% .

Nutritional values.

Manily use das a condiment for fglavcouring meat and fish, or in salads.the characteristic
flavour of grlic id due to the production of allein and diallyl dislphide.
100 g of edible fruit contains:
66ml water, 122 caloreis, 7.0g protein, 0.3g fat, 25 g carbohydrates, 1.1 g fibre, 26mg
calcium, 109mg phosphours, 1.2mg iron, 0.23mg thiamine, 0.08 mg riboflavin, 0.4mg
niacin and 7mg ascorbic acid.

Soya bean (Glycine max(l.)Merrill

Common names are : Soya bean, soja (Fr), Soja (SP), Sojabohn (Ger), Sojoaboon (Neth),
Too-a-leu-ang (Thai), wonfg tau(China)

Cultivars.

Two main groups ofcultivrs occour:1) with terminal bud developing in to and
inflorescence. 2) Cultivars with indeterminate growth and no terminal inflorescnece
cultivars select for specific regions . Cultivars are vary from 75-170 days for maturity,
they also vary gratly in soil and climatic adaptation colour, quality, flavor and ease of
cooking.The cultivrs are: Hahto, Disoy, Zogun, Green Giant, kim and Kanrich

Botanical description

An annual herb, 20-180 cm in height.
Roots: tap roots may ectend t6o 2 m , laterals mainly develop to 60cm, root nodules
globose, sometimes lobed,
Stems: hairy, normally erect, bracnhing, sometimes twining or climbing
Leaves: alternate, trifoliate, pubescent, petioles long and narrow, leaflets ovate or
lanceolate 3-10cm x 2-6cm
Flowers: small, white or lilac in clusters of 3-15 borne on short axillary reacvemes, calyx
lobes acuminate often with purple tinge, ovary hairy, stamens free or joined at base,
stigma cpitate.
Fruits: pods hairy, borne in clusters on short stalks in groupo of 5-15 , yellow grey,
brown or balck, the black seeded cultivars are normally suited to tropicla cultivations,
pods 3-7 cm x 1cm, dehiscent, generally 2-3 seeded.
Seeds: globose or flattened, yellow, green, brown or balck, mature beans contains a
higher percentage of protein than any other pulse and most other food crops average
weitght of 100 seeds = 50-70g germination epigeal.

Environmental conditons.

Due to selection and hybridixation soya bean cultivars have been produced which are
adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic coditons.
Sandy or clay loam favours it, pH about 5.7-6.2 are suitable, but a specific strain of
Rhizobium japonicum, the nitrogen fixing bacteria which lives symbioticvally on the root
system, is necessary for optimum growth and inoculation may be in the root system, is
necessary for optimum growth and inoculation may be necessary where the crop has
prviously been grown. The suitable temperatures are below 38ºC and rainfall above
500mm per annum, is needed for its growth.
The soyabean is sensitive to photoperiod since it is ashort day plant and daylenght
approxikately 12 hours are necessary for most cultivarsMany establish cultivars need
dark period of from 10-14 hours and are unlikely to flower unless these reauirement are
met.

Cultural practice

Propragation and planting,
Seeds aresown 2-4 cm deep on the flat or on ridges 45-60 cm apart, seeds 8-12 cm apart
in the row, depending on the virour of the cultivar.Seed required is 40-50 kg/hac.
Irrigation.
Not normally required since the seeds are usualy sown during a wet period, the plant
becoming well established before the dry season begins. Irrigation may be necessary if
the soil water deficit increases to a point where growth is likely to be retarded.
Nutrient requirements.
Phosphours and potassium are generally applied before sowing, acid soils may require
dressings of lime if calcium is deficient.
Growth and havestet.
Pods are harvested 80-120 days from sowing, depending on the characteristics of the
cultivar and degree of maturity required.
Yield.
Very varibale, from 800-1500 kg/hacv of dried seed.
Seed prodcution.
Soya beans ar self-fertile and are normally self pollinated.Cross –pollination by insects
occurs to a limited extent. Average seed yields are 1000 kg/hac, but double this yield can
be achieved under good cultural conditons.

Pest and diseases.

Epicauta spp (Blister beetles), Etiella zinckenella (Pod boreer),Lasperyresia
glycinivorella (soya bean pod boreer), Ophiomyia phaseoli (Bean fly), Cerecospora
diaizu (frog eye leaf spot), Diaporthe phaseolorum Meloidogyne spp (root knot
nematode), Pseudomonas glycinea (Bacterial blight), Xanthomaonas phaseoli (bacterial
blight), yellow mosaic virus and yellow mottle.

Nutritonal values.

100g of edible seeds produces: 9ml water, provide 405 caloreis, contain 33.7g protein,
17.9g fat, 33g carbohydrtes, 4.7g fibre, 183 mg calcium, 545 mg phosphorus, 6.1.mg
iron, 55ug beta carotene, 0.71mg thiamine, 0.25mg riboflavin, 2.0 mg niacin.

Squash ,melon or round gourd.( Cucurbita maxima duch,ex Lam)

The fruit has cooling effect and contain vitamin a..Two major varities are coomon:
var.maxima-winter squahs and var. turbaniformis Alef-turban squash.

Botanical description.

Annual herb, rarelyupright, generally trailing, vines up to 3 m in length.
Stems: slightly hairy, soft, cylindrical incross-section, tendrils bracnced.
Leaves: dark green, mainly reniform, cordate, rarely lobed, 15-30 cm in diameter.
Flowers: monoecious, female flowers 15 cm in diameter, yellow-orange, male flowers
smaller, 8.5 cm in diameter with long upright, thin pedicles, calyx of 5 sepals, fused at
base , stamens 3, short, fused, stigmas small, yellow.
Fruit: large, variable in shape, round or oblong,covered with small raised spots weighing
4-5 kg , rind soft or hard, sometimes brightly coloured, flesh yellow.
Seeds: white or brown, ovoid 1.3cm x 0.9cm , flattened, narrow toward point of
attachment with salnting scar, c,taining 35-40% oil, 30% protein, germination epigeal,
approxcimately 12 seeds/g
They are divided in to following groups.
Summer sqwuashes

Commonly C.pepo, are eaten in the immature stages when the rind is verysoft.White bush
scallop, early prolific straightneck, senca buitterbar hybrid, seneca prolic , zucchini
hybrid, striata, caserta, cocozelle and zucchini are popular cultivars.All these are bush
type.

Winter squashes
.
Winter squahses, utilized when the fruits are mature, have hard rinds and store well.The
members of this group usually have flesh of mild flavor and fie tedture, and suitable for
baking .Cultivars of winter squash are included in all the species of cucurbita, these
includes

Envrionmental response.

Plants require a fairy high temperature above 25-27ºC, during the growing period with
farily low humidity, but some cultivars are also tolerant of realtively cool conditions.
Soils with a high organic content are preferable and some culitvars are tolerant to slightly
acid soils like pH 5.5-6.8, but pumpkins are tolerant toa wide range of soil conditons.
Most cultivars are relatively insensitve to daylength.

Climate.

It is a warm season crop. The seeds geminate best at a temperature of 27ºC

Cultural requirements.

Propagation and planting.
Seeds are sown 2-4 cm deep in prepareed holes or beds, they are 20 cm apart with 60-100
cm between plants, trailing types 1-3 m apart.Seeds are sown in containers and
transplanted when 8-10 cm in heiht. Seed required is 5-7kg/ha for density of 5000
plants/ha.
Irrigation. It require regular intervals.
Nutritonal requiements.
NPK is applied before sowing or planting dollowed by aplication of nitrogenous fetilizer
or liquid manure at intervals of 10-14 days until the fruit develop

Soil

The sutitable soil are sandy loam and silt loams .

Varieties.

There are two tyupes, one with light green colour and other with dark green in colour.
Sowing

Raised beds of 1 to 1.5 metre wide with irrigation furrows between them .3-4 seeds are
sown per pit about 1cm deep then give irrigation water. Seeds germinate in 6-14 days.A
second cropo raised with cotton, maize and such other crops.

Manuring

10-15 tons of farmyard manure is needed with tope dressing with 150 kg of ammonium
sulphate application are made when plants start to trail and at the start of fruiting.

Irrigation

crop should not be irrigated immediately after germination .The first irritation is givben
when the plants start growing well along with the top dressing of ammonium sulpahte
well before flowering.Later in dry weather, the crop is irigated once in 4-5 days.
Pest and diseases.

Aphis spp (Aphid), Aulacophora sp (Red pumpking beetle), Copa occidentalis (Leaf
beetle), Dactus ciliathus (Fruit fly), Halticus tribitalis (Flea hopper), Lagria villosa (Leaf
beetle), Choanephora cucurbitarium (wet rot), Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Downy
mildew)

Growth and harvesting.

Fruit is harvested 80-140 days from sowing or planting.The optimum harvesting stage is
before the seeds ripen and when the skin of the fruit begmins to harden.

Yields.

Are 3-6 fruits/plants, individual fruits may weitgh 2-5 kg.
Seed production
Cultvars are local type s of C.Maxima are all cross-compatiable with eafch other and with
C.Moschata, the isllation distance should therfore be 1000 m.the rop is largely cross-
pollinated, by insets.

Harvest

The plants start producing fruit when they start forming runnin shoots.These fruit ar
walnut size and it is desireable to remove them as othersise further production of fruit is
delayed.The second flush fruit are harvested at one-fourth the normal size hwen they wil
be tender.Hairy and soft seeded.The fruits should not be pulled off the vines so as to
prvent damage to the plant.The fruits are removed to the shade after harvest and are
packed in basket and marketed.
Yield.

The yield varies from 7,500 to 11,500 kg per hectare.

Market and storage.

The fruti is store at 10-16ºC at a relative humidityof about 60% decay occours at high
humidites.Many cultivrs have storage life of 60-80 days.Before sby exposing the fruits to
a tempeaaature of 16-21ºC for 7 days.

Storage.

The vegetable keeps well for 3-4 days wih frequent splashing of water and when kept
under shade.

Nutritional values

100 g protion of the leaves contains:
89ml water, 27 calories, 4.0g protein, 0.2g fat, 4 g carbohydrate, 2.4g fibre, 477mg
calcium, 136mg phosphorus, 0.8mg iron, 210ug betar carotein, 0.05 mg thiamine, 0.05
mg riboflavin and 15mg phosphours.

				
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