Developing optimized cattle breeding schemes
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Developing optimized cattle breeding schemes Ulrike Janβen-Tapken and Emily Ouma Outline Background Study Objectives Research Sites Methods Preliminary Results Background The demand for milk and meat from livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase. ► Need to improve livestock productivity. The existing breeding structure is influenced by infrastructural and environmental constraints as well as by non-market and socio cultural functions of livestock. One of the most important disease constraints on livestock productivity is: Trypanosomosis. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Trypanosomosis tolerance have been identified in a N’Dama x Boran F2 population. Background In developing countries, livestock assumes multiple functions in the household livelihood system and are closely associated with the social fabric and welfare of rural households. ► Consequently, important functions of livestock are embedded in traits not traded in the market. Breed improvement programs should focus on traits that guarantee multifunctionality, flexibility and resilience in order to deal with variable environmental conditions. This study fills this gap by emphasising on development of demand driven breeding programs. Emphasis on evaluation of possibility to implement modern technology such as Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) or Introgression (MAI) Study Objectives Identify and estimate farmer preferences for cattle traits. Identify factors driving the preference structure. – Production systems (crop-livestock, pastoralist) – Farmer characteristics (education, age, sex, etc.) – Farm characteristics (size, infrastructure, etc.) – Access to production services (AI, veterinarian service, market) Evaluate the current breeding practices of cattle keepers. Design sustainable breeding programs on the basis of producer preferences in pastoral and crop-livestock systems of selected sites in Kenya and Ethiopia. Study Objectives Investigate pathways by which cattle keepers can access improved genotypes (CBM?). Investigate barriers to access improved genotypes. Emphasis on the trait: Trypanotolerance – Use of identified genes (QTL) from completed genome scan projects on N’Dama x Boran F2 populations for Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) and Introgression (MAI) Investigate barriers for the uptake of improved genetic techniques by farmers and Artificial Insemination (AI) organizations. Analyze the necessary requirements for the uptake of improved genetic techniques. Predict the impact of breeding programs on livelihoods, differentiated by dissemination sources. Research Sites Ethiopia Kenya Study Sites Study Sites Methods An ILRI-ETH Workshop has been conducted in Kenya to discuss the project’s aims with scientists in relevant fields (Nov 2003). The study sites have been chosen after reviews, GIS mappings and personal communication with local scientists based on the distribution of cattle and tsetse flies (vector for Trypanosomosis) taking into account the prevailing production systems. Focus group discussions have been carried out between February and March 2004 using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) techniques with the following objectives: – Determine farmers’ needs and preferences for keeping cattle and their breeding and development objectives across a range of production systems in Eastern Africa. – Identify existing cattle production systems to be used in targeting research areas for the choice experiment survey. Farmer focus group discussions in selected sites in Kenya and Ethiopia Methods Household level survey, involving questionnaire and choice experiment instruments will be carried out. – Choice experiment will be used to elicit economic values of cattle traits. – Econometric modelling to estimate economic values of cattle traits and determine preference structures. Simulation programs will be used to – Adapt developed breeding programs to environmental conditions. – Evaluate breeding programs for sustainability. – Assess potentiality of CBM approach to disseminate improved genotypes. Preliminary Results Identification and review of cattle production systems in the study sites: – Crop-livestock systems (Ghibe Valley, Narok highlands, Busia) – Pastoralist systems (Narok lowlands, Kajiado) – Agro-Pastoralist systems (Kajiado) Identification of cattle keeping objectives: – Milk (Kenya, Ethiopia) – Meat (Kenya) – Traction (Ethiopia) – Income or saving and insurance (Ethiopia, Kenya) – Blood (Kenya-Narok) Preliminary Results Important cattle traits in study sites – Adaptability to Trypanosomosis – Reproductive performance – Milk production – Good temperament – Fitness to traction – Fertility – Good body condition – Rapid weight gain Identification of farmer’s demands for genetic material: – Dual purpose cattle (milk and meat or milk and traction) – Trypanosomosis tolerance Preliminary Results Identification of cattle breeding practices in the study sites: – Bull-service from own or neighbouring herds (inbreeding not prevented) – Very limited AI-service which emphasises on upgrading for milk-production – Random mating (Ghibe Valley) – Limited bull-selection (Kenya) Identification of constraints to cattle production in the study areas (by farmers): – Animal diseases – Lack of effective drugs and animal health advice / veterinary service – Inaccessibility of breeding services (AI, Bull-service) – Lack of markets for cattle and their products – Water scarcity – Wildlife predation Preliminary Results Identification of constraints for the application of highly advanced breeding programs under the local environmental conditions: – Lack of record keeping / consistent marking of livestock (feed-back) – Large herd sizes in pastoral systems with frequent movement – Uncontrolled mating practises because of community grazing system – Lack of AI service / AI equipment – Infrastructure (roads, communication systems, veterinarian service, AI-service) Thank you for your attention!