PRINCIPLES OF DANISH CATTLE BREEDING

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PRINCIPLES OF DANISH CATTLE BREEDING Powered By Docstoc
					 The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre




PRINCIPLES OF DANISH CATTLE BREEDING


     Recording of Production Data
      Recording of Breeding Data
          Calculation Methods
            Breeding Values




          Danish Cattle Federation
                January 2006
                 Eighth edition
Contents

1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 3
2. Identification ......................................................................................................................... 4
   2.1 Organization ............................................................................................................... 4
   2.2 Rules concerning identification and registration.................................................... 4
   2.3 Implementation and reliability.................................................................................. 5
3. Data collection and handling............................................................................................. 5
   3.1 Dairy cattle.................................................................................................................. 5
          3.1.1    Organization ................................................................................................. 6
          3.1.2    Rules concerning milk recording................................................................ 6
          3.1.3    Implementation and reliability ................................................................... 6
   3.2 Beef cattle................................................................................................................... 6
          3.2.1    Organization ................................................................................................. 7
          3.2.2    Rules concerning registration and herdbook keeping............................ 7
          3.2.3    Implementation and reliability ................................................................... 7
   3.3 Control of hereditary diseases .................................................................................. 7
4. Classification ......................................................................................................................... 8
   4.1 Dairy cattle.................................................................................................................. 8
   4.2 Beef cattle................................................................................................................. 12
          4.2.1    Organization ............................................................................................... 15
          4.2.2    Rules ............................................................................................................. 15
          4.2.3    Implementation and reliability ................................................................. 15
5. Herdbook ............................................................................................................................ 15
   5.1 Organization ............................................................................................................. 15
   5.2 Rules ........................................................................................................................... 16
   5.3 Implementation and reliability................................................................................ 16
6. Export certificates ............................................................................................................... 17
   6.1 Dairy and beef cattle .............................................................................................. 17
7. Calculation of breeding values ........................................................................................ 17
   7.1 Dairy cattle................................................................................................................ 17
          7.1.1    Milk yield ...................................................................................................... 17
          7.1.2    Beef production traits ................................................................................ 20
          7.1.3    Reproduction.............................................................................................. 22
          7.1.4    Calving index and birth index .................................................................. 27
          7.1.5    Udder health ............................................................................................... 31
          7.1.6    Index for other health traits ....................................................................... 33
          7.1.7    Index for longevity...................................................................................... 35
          7.1.8    Conformation, milking speed and temperament ................................. 37
          7.1.9    Indices for body, feet & legs and mammary system............................. 40
          7.1.10 S-index for bulls and cows......................................................................... 43
   7.2 Beef cattle................................................................................................................. 46
          7.2.1    Performance test........................................................................................ 46
          7.2.2    Estimation of breeding values ................................................................. 48
8. Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 55



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1. Introduction
Cattle breeding in Denmark are based on 100-year-old traditions.

One of the most important traditions is the highly intensive cooperation between cattle
farmers, A.I.-society, the agricultural advisory service and the research institutes. This
cooperation has resulted in a highly developed and widely recognized breeding
evaluation system.

More than 85% of the total Danish dairy cattle population is milk recorded.
Approximately 85% of the dairy cow population is inseminated by A.I.-bulls so even
ordinary commercial herds have an interesting breeding potential at their disposal.

The breeding evaluation system complies with the international rules for registration,
documentation, calculations, etc. However, in many fields the Danish system is ahead
using advanced technological and theoretical methods which in our opinion give a
higher reliability of the estimated breeding values for proven A.I.-bulls, donor cows for
embryo transfer and breeding stock.

The interest in Danish genetics is increasing. Many economically valuable traits in Danish
cattle have been improved over the past 10-15 years, partly due to intensive
internationalized cooperation and exchange of genetics and know-how.

Today, all Danish breeds have top-quality genetics by international standards at their
disposal. By this publication, we want to stress the reliability of the Danish breeding
values.




Henrik Nygaard
Advisory Manager
Danish Cattle Federation




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2. Identification

2.1 Organization
In 1993 The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (MFAF) adopted an
identification system developed by The National Committee on Danish Cattle
Husbandry (From 2002 Danish Cattle Federation) during the 1980s to be the official
national identification system for all farm animals.
The Danish Veterinary Services (Dept. of The Danish Ministry of Family and Consumer
Affairs MFCA)) are in charge of the identification system. Danish Cattle Federation
administers farm numbers, animal ID and eartags on the behalf of The Danish
Veterinary Services.

2.2 Rules concerning identification and registration
The rules of identification comply with EU-regulation (directive no. 1760/2000, with later
adjustments). All farms with herds of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, deer, ostrich, fox, mink,
finnraccoon and commercial poultry production must be in the herd register of the
MFAF (CHR-register). Farms are allocated individual farm numbers (CHR-numbers). Farm
numbers have no attached geographical relations.

The identification of an animal always contains the farm number of the specific farm in
Denmark where the animal was born or first imported to.

Until December 1998 all eartags were printed with a special logo, a 5-digit farm number
and a 4-digit individual animal number within the farm.

Since January 1999 the capacity of the ID-system has been expanded, so that the farm
numbers will be 6-digit and the individual animal numbers will be 5-digit. Every head of
cattle in Denmark is thus unambigously identifiable.

In December 2004 the logo was changed.




       Logo 1984 to 2004                                        Logo since 2004


If an eartag does not carry one of the shown logos, the Danish authorities do not
officially recognize it for cattle.

Animals born in Denmark are marked with yellow eartags, whereas imported animals
are marked with red eartags on arrival to Denmark.

Calves born must be reported to the Central Cattle Database within seven days from
birth.

Herds may use the barn registration sheets as a copy of the herd register.


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2.3 Implementation and reliability
The herd owner is responsible for the ear tagging. As soon as the ear tag has been
properly attached and the birth has been reported within the time limit stipulated, the
animal is registered in the Central Cattle Database, containing data on all cattle and
all herds in Denmark. This system ensures maximum security as regarding the
identification, pedigree, yield and herd affiliation of any animal.


3. Data collection and handling
3.1 Dairy cattle
Participation in the official milk recording system forms the basis of the advisory services
provided to dairy herds in Denmark.

All basic data for
• Herdbook keeping
• Calculation of breeding values
• Production management
• Export certificates

are reported continuously to the Central Cattle Database.

At the 11 or 6 milk recording per year (farmers choice of system), the milk-recording
technician collects the data which the farmer has recorded in his herd since the last
recording took place. Besides data on the milk production of the individual cows, this is
also data on:
• Drying-off dates
• Various data on production and management

Analyses for fat and protein contents as well as somatic cell counts are carried out at
central laboratories. The information is automatically transferred to the Central Cattle
Database.

A.I.-data is transferred from the A.I.-society Dansire to the records of the animals in the
Central Cattle Database (cf. 3.4). This also applies to information on pregnancy and
various treatments carried out by the A.I.-technician.

Data on treatments carried out by veterinarians is transferred from the veterinarians'
own computer to the Central Cattle Database, along the same lines as A.I.-data.

Pedigree control
In practice, a pedigree is checked by comparing the birth date of a calf with the
insemination date and A.I.-bull of the dam of the same calf, the latter data being
reported by the A.I.-technician when inseminating the dam. This procedure is an
established element of the computer program used and it is applied to all calving
data. A pedigree is accepted when the gestation period comes within the below limits.

The length of gestation varies from cow to cow with a certain variation from one breed
to another. On the basis of a comprehensive data set the following limits have been
fixed:
• Red Danish Dairy Breed 262-304 days
• Danish Holstein 257-299 days
• Danish Jersey 260-302 days



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In cases where “early calving” is reported the pedigree is accepted if the pregnancy
period is more than 240 days. In case the insemination data and date of birth do not
comply with these rules, the pedigree is accepted only on the basis of parental control.

3.1.1 Organization
Milk recording is organized in RYK (Danish abbreviation for Registration and Milk
Recording), which is an independent organisation within Danish Cattle Federation.

3.1.2 Rules concerning milk recording
On application, new members are informed about the rules of milk recording, which
are in accordance with the general guidelines adopted by the international milk
recording organization, The International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR).

The rules include:
• The sampling period comprises - and must only comprise - 24 hours
• Record methods are either B-4 or B-8 (ICAR method)
• All dairy cows must be included in the milk recording account. All cows in milk on the
  date of recording must be sampled. Cows having just calved are not sampled until
  the fourth day after calving
• Danish Cattle Federation must approve the equipment used for taking out samples.
  Equipment bought after 1991 must be approved by ICAR. The equipment is to be
  checked at least once a year, and if necessary, adjusted
• The amount of milk is stated in kg to 1 decimal. A representative milk sample is taken
  from the milk of each individual cow
• The containers with the milk samples have to be corked up or the lid shut and kept in
  a safe way between the milking. The affiliation of a certain cow and her milk sample
  must be clear and safe
• The fat and protein contents as well as the somatic cell counts of the milk are
  determined by means of methods approved by Danish Cattle Federation
• The analysis devices are checked according to systems approved by Danish Cattle
  Federation for these devices
• Total repeated tests are carried out in 3% of the milk-recorded herds each year. 20%
  of these herds are chosen at random whereas the remaining 80% are chosen by the
  local milk recording societies or at random among specific herd groups.

3.1.3 Implementation and reliability
The technicians who are trained to take care of the jobs involved in milk recording carry
out the day-to-day operations.
RYK is under an obligation to supervise the work performed and to ensure that the
national rules are kept. The superior responsibility for the work and the computer
programs is with Danish Cattle Federation.
When the Central Cattle Database is updated, all data are verified to avoid any logical
errors from getting into the database. The farmers and personnel responsible for milk
recording are informed when errors occur and calculations are not started before the
errors have been corrected.
After milk recording the farmer and the technician receive the newly updated
information, allowing the farmer's notes to be checked.
If a member does not observe the rules and regulations, he is sanctioned for instance
through exclusion from exporting breeding stock for a certain period of time.

3.2 Beef cattle
Registration is a natural prerequisite for attending official breeding activities, i.e.
classification, cattle shows, performance testing, etc. Basic registrations of identity, birth
date and ownership is required for all Danish cattle


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The national Danish cattle database is used for these basic registrations. The advantage
is that this allows farmers to register other data:
• Birth records as calving ease and birth weight
• Sire
• Weightings
• Carcass records (data from approved slaughterhouses are automatically registered -
    carcass weight, EUROP conformation score.

From the AI-society the cattle database include recording of all AI-events. Besides
these general registrations the beef breed association has introduced a registration
program for members. This program includes:
• Weighting program
• Linear classification
• Intensive registration of natural mating.

The breeding value calculation for beef breeds include all data

3.2.1 Organization
Danish Cattle Federation carries out the registration and herdbook keeping of beef
breeds.

The national board of the breed (Dansire) handles the herdbook interests of the
individual beef breeds and works out rules concerning the registration and herdbook
keeping procedures. The rules are stored in the computer system to allow the
registration system to function as a herdbook. The herdbook keeping and the issuing of
certificates are thus carried out automatically for animals, which fulfil the requirements
for registration of the breed in question.

3.2.2 Rules concerning registration and herdbook keeping
It is a herd owner's duty to keep up-to-date as to the criteria for herdbook keeping if he
wants to register an animal. When applying for registration and herdbook keeping,
certain requirements must be met aiming at rendering work more effective:
• New herds apply to Danish Cattle Federation
• The registration forms can be completed by the owner or a technician who certifies
     the correctness of the information by signing the documents
• When purchasing a registered animal, a pedigree certificate can be ordered.
     Pedigree certificates can only be issued by the herdbook office
• All calves are to be registered by the herdbook office. Registration must be effected
     before any change of ownership.

3.2.3 Implementation and reliability
The herdbook office updates the registrations sent in. The whole system is based on the
CKR-register, which is an unambiguous number system (see paragraph 2), securing
extremely high reliability.

3.3 Control of hereditary diseases
Systematic registration of hereditary diseases has been instituted in Denmark to prevent
the spread of these diseases.

Registration is based on reports from breeders, advisers, A.I.-technicians and veterinary
officers. The reports are sent to Danish Cattle Federation for registration and then
passed on to the National Veterinary Laboratory for further evaluation. All cases
indicating some hereditary defect are examined and if the result indicates a known
hereditary defect, an exact diagnosis is made, often by means of autopsy. Paternity is
confirmed through blood sampling of both calf and parents.

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If a hereditary disease is diagnosed, known carriers are identified in the Central
Database using a special note. The record of a female will carry a note if she is a known
or potential carrier. Furthermore, it may be noted if a previously potential carrier has
proven to be free from a hereditary disease.

The pedigrees of registered bulls will carry a note similar to the one described for
females. The advisers and cattle breeders are thus able to ensure that genes carrying
hereditary diseases are not used in the cattle population.


4. Classification
4.1 Dairy cattle
The classification of dairy cattle in Denmark can be divided into 3 main groups:
• Classification of herds
• Classification of bull dams and other selected cows
• Daughter group classification of test bulls.

Classification of herds
Classification of cows in 1st to 3rd lactation can either be done by local classifiers or
classifiers from Danish Cattle Federation.

Classifications of 1st lactation cows done by classifiers from Danish Cattle Federation are
used to calculate breeding values for sires. All classifications in 1st-3rd lactation are used
to calculate breeding for cows.

Bull dams and selected cows
All cows having a bull calf registered in A.I.-Center Dansire are classified at national
level. Classifiers from Danish Cattle Federation carry out the classification at national
level as soon as the calf enters a performance testing station.

Regularly populations are screened for potential bull dams. Classifiers from Danish
Cattle Federation carry out the classification of these bull dams.

In some herds only selected cows are classified. The classified cows are selected by the
farmer.

Classifications of bull-dams and other selected cows are not used to calculate
breeding values for sires. Classifications are used to calculate breeding for cows.

Daughter group classification
A classification of daughters sired by bulls in A.I.-Center Dansire forms the basis of the
calculation of the bulls' breeding values for different type traits and is thus a very
important element in the breeding work.

When the first preliminary production proofs are calculated, lists of randomly selected
cows for daughter group classification are printed simultaneously. Lists are printed out
from the Central Cattle Database. Cows in 1st lactation by all A.I.-bulls are classified.
However, classification stop automatically provided the bull’s S-index does not exceed
107. For the remaining bulls, the classification of daughters continues to approximately
45 daughters. However if a bull has both S-index and Y-index above 119 or S-index
above 124 and Y-index above 107 all living daughters are classified. This is
approximately 100 daughters.



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Classifications are used to calculate breeding values for sires and cows.

The daughters of the different bulls are classified according to a linear scale by the
classifiers of the individual breeds. A total of 8 classifiers are employed.

The scores of the daughter group classification are entered into the Central Cattle
Database by means of a portable terminal and here the data is included in the
calculation of the sires' type indices.

Classification scale
The linear scoring system is the official classification system in Denmark

22 traits are scored using a linear scale from 1 – 9 – se table 1. Furthermore, it is possible
to apply codes for disorders in case a cow cannot be described by means of the linear
scale, e.g. "prominent tailhead". There are 50 different codes describing disorders. Body
condition score and locomotion is also classified.

The score/description is objective, linear and independent of lactation number and
time of lactation. 22 traits and the codes for disorders, if any, are then combined using
a hand held terminal into 3 composite traits; BODY, MUSCULARITY and FEET & LEGS,
which are combined into an overall type trait, called TYPE. These figures are corrected
for calving age, lactation number, interval from calving and the optimum fixed for
each individual trait of each individual breed. The resulting type figures are published
using a scale from 60 - 99 with an average of 80 and a standard deviation of 5. Table 1
shows the different traits and the principles of calculation.




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Table 1. Traits and principles of calculation
 Trait                                Composite trait   Total type score
 1       Stature
 2       Body depth
 3       Chest width
 4       Dairy form                       BODY
 5       Top line
 6       Rump width
 7       Rump angle
 7a Code for rump disorder
 8       Rear legs, side view
 9       Rear legs, rear view
 10 Hock quality                           FEET              TYPE
 11 Bone quality
 12 Foot angle
 12a Code for feet disorder
 13 Fore udder attachment
 14 Rear udder width
 15 Rear udder heigth

 16 Udder cleft
 17 Udder depth                         MAMMARY
 18 Udder balance
 19 Teat length
 20 Teat thickness
 21 Teat placement (front)
 22 Teat placement (back)
 22a Codes for teat disorder




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Table 2. Linear traits and defective characteristics
 2    FRONT END                              7     UDDER
 20   Knees close                            70    Small fore udder
 21   Loose shoulder joint                   71    Wide fore udder
 22   Winged shoulders                       72    Ball shaped fore udder
 23   Low front end                          73    Ball shaped rear udder
 3    TOP LINE                               74    Low rear udder attachment
 30   Low crest                              75    Loose rear udder attachment
 31   High crest                             76    Fleshy udder
 32   Uneven back                            77    Deep rear udder
 33   Low loin                               78    Cleft/split udder
 4    RUMP                                   8     TEAT SIZE AND SHAPE
 40   Short rump                             80    Conical teats
 41   Wide hips                              81    Pointed teats
 42   Flat rump                              82    Extra teats
 43   Roof shaped rump                       9     TEAT PLACEMENT
 44   Prominent sacrum                       90    Wide placement of rear teats
 45   Depressed tailhead                     91    Close placement of teats
 46   Wry tailhead                           92    Teats pointing forward
 47   Rounded/curved rump                    93    Short distance between front and
 48   Prominent tailhead                     94    Rear teats too far back
 5    REAR LEGS                              95    Teats pointing backwards
 50   Legs placed under body                 96    Bristling rear teats
 51   Legs turned backwards crus             10    MILKING SPEED
 52   Crooked                                10    Milk spill
 53   Long shank                             11    Lack of milk let-down
 54   Spastic paresis                        12    Blocked up teat canal
 55   Cramp                                  13    Uneven draining of mammary
 56   Bruising
 6    PASTERNS AND HOOFS
 60   Sloping pastern
 61   Down on the pastern
 62   Wide spread toes

All classification scores are reported to the Central Cattle Database and printed out in
different lists to the farmer.




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4.2 Beef cattle
Beef cattle in Denmark are classified at national level by Danish Cattle Federation. The
same guidelines are used for all 16 beef breeds, which are registered and entered in
the herdbook by Danish Cattle Federation at the moment. No classification is carried
out at local level.

Classification scale
In Denmark beef cattle is classified using the linear scoring system.

19 traits are scored using a linear scale from 1 - 9. Furthermore it is possible to apply
codes for disorders in case a special deviation cannot be described by means of the
linear scale. There are 49 different codes describing disorders (+11 especially for
Highland Cattle).

The score/description is objective, linear and independent of lactation number and
time in lactation. The 19 traits and the codes for disorders, if any, are then combined
using a hand held terminal into 3 composite traits; BODY, MUSCULARITY and FEET &
LEGS, which are combined into an overall type trait, called TYPE. These figures are
corrected for condition, interval from calving, calving age (first calving), calving
number and as regards bulls also for condition, age and the optimum fixed for each
individual trait of each individual breed. The resulting type figures are published using a
scale from 60 - 99 with an average of 80 and a standard deviation of 5. Table 4 shows
the different traits and the principles of calculation.




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Table 4. Traits and principles of calculation
       TRAIT                                    COMPOSITE TRAIT   TOTAL TYPE SCORE

 1     Width of fore end (front view)

 2     Depth of chest

 3     Top line                                     BODY

 4     Size

 5     General appearance

 6     Chine, width

 7     Loin, width

 8     Rump angle

 9     Length of rump

 10    Width of rump                             MUSCULARITY            TYPE

 11    Width of thighs

 12    Inside of thighs

 13    Depth of thighs

 14    Muscularity of thighs (side view)

 15    Rear legs (side view)                      FEET & LEGS

 16    Angle of pastern (side view)

 17    Rear legs (rear view)

 18    Forelegs (front view)

 19    Bone quality




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Table 5. Linear traits and defective characteristics
 1    HEAD                                     7       TEMPERAMENT
 10   Long, fine                               70      Nervous
 11   Wide, coarse                             71      Aggressive
 12   Deviating colour of muzzle               8       KNEES AND HOCKS

 13   Deviating markings                       80      Swollen hocks
 2    NECK                                     81      Bruised hocks
 20   Short                                    82      Hocks-out
 21   Long                                     83      Swollen knee
 22   Thick neck                               9       HOOFS

 23   Large dewlap                             90      Wide spread toes
 3    SHOULDER                                 91      Deviating colour of hoofs
 30   Winged                                   92      Hoof trimming needed
 31   Loose                                    93      Abnormal hoofs
 4    RUMP                                     94      Toe-in (forelegs)
 40   Prominent sacrum                         10      MOVEMENTS

 41   Prominent tail head                      100     Short
 42   Depressed tail head                      101     Swinging
 43   Wry tail head                            102     Narrow
 44   Narrow pin bones                         103     Limping
 45   Pointed rump                             11      TOP LINE

 46   Low thurls                               110     Weak chine
 47   High thurls                              111     Weak loin
 48   Fatty deposits                           112     Uneven back
 5    UDDER/TEATS                              12      NOT CLASSIFIED DUE TO

 50   Deep udder                               120     Deviating markings
 51   Large teats                              121     Temperament
 52   Small teats                              122     Owner/animal not present
 53   Extra teats
 54   Unsymmetrical udder
 55   Missing mammary gland(s)
 6    SEXUAL ORGANS

 60   Underdeveloped testicles
 61   Testicles missing
 62   Prolapse of prepuce




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Table 6. Special characteristics for Highland Cattle
 13    COLOUR                                   15    COAT

 130 Colour                                     150 Forelock missing

 131 Brindled                                   151 Deviating amount of ordinary hair

 132 Grey

 133 Yellow

 134 White
 14    HORNS

 140 Unsymmetrical

 141 Damaged

 142 Deviation position of horns

All classifications are reported to Danish Cattle Federation and printed in
certificates/lists to the cattle breeder.

4.2.1 Organization
Danish Cattle Federation is responsible for and organizes the classification of beef
cattle.

In practice, a breed classifier appointed by the herdbook committee/breeding
committee of the breed in question.

4.2.2 Rules
The classification rules vary a little from one breed to another but the main principle is
that all bulls to be used for A.I. are to be presented to a classification committee at the
age of minimum 1 year.

For all breeds the classification of cows/heifers is voluntary.

However, F3 crossbred females of breeds having an open herdbook are to be
presented to a classification committee and accepted before being registered in the
main herdbook (only valid for some breeds with open herdbook).

4.2.3 Implementation and reliability
At present the classification scores are included in the breeding indices for BODY,
MUSCULARITY and FEET & LEGS.



5. Herdbook
5.1 Organization
The first Danish cattle herdbook was published in 1881.

The national boards of the different breeds (Dansire) design and manage the herdbook
rules of the individual breeds. Dansire in this respect refers to the Danish Cattle
Federation, which is a sub-committee under the organization Danish Agriculture. This
organization has been appointed by the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and


                                                                                          15
Fisheries to be responsible for herdbook keeping in Denmark.

5.2 Rules
Generally speaking, the Danish herdbook rules have been designed to comply with the
EU directives on herdbook keeping.

Cattle have to be identified in accordance with the Danish order on identification of
cattle as well as the rules adopted by Danish Cattle Federation. Bulls are only registered
in the herdbook if their parentage has been confirmed. Progeny by non-registered bulls
have unknown paternal ancestry. Some breeds keep open herdbooks where all
purebred animals can be registered.

Furthermore the national board of the breed may decide that females of another
breed can be registered in a supplement to the herdbook. When progeny of such a
female is minimum 14/16 purebred, it can be registered in the herdbook.

Other breeds keep closed herdbooks where animals can be registered only if their
parents are registered in the same herdbook. However, animals registered in a similar
herdbook in another EU country are accepted.

Table 7. Breeds keeping open/closed herdbooks
 Open herdbooks                               Closed herdbooks

 Red Danish Dairy Breed                       Aberdeen Angus

 Danish Holsteins                             Hereford

 Danish Jerseys                               Galloway

 Danish Red and White Dairy Cattle            Dexter

 Shorthorn                                    Danish Salers

 Simmental

 Original Brown Swiss

 Gelbvieh

 Charolais

 Limousin

 Blonde d’Aquitaine

 Belgian Blue Cattle in Denmark

 Piemontese

 Highland Cattle

 Danish Grauvieh


5.3 Implementation and reliability
The day-to-day herdbook keeping is the responsibility of Danish Cattle Federation and
performed by staff from this organisation.



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The pedigree data and other information on Danish-born animals are checked using
data from the Central Database (parentage certificates (DNA/bloodgroups)). Blood
group certificates of bulls are checked as well. The data of imported animals are
checked by means of pedigrees submitted from the exporting country.

The data of all registered animals can be printed out anytime at the local cattle
department.



6.   Export certificates
6.1 Dairy and beef cattle
A total of 8.000-10.000 heifers and bulls are exported annually. These animals are always
accompanied by an official export certificate, which besides data on date and place
of birth of the animal in question contains information on the animal's pedigree in 2nd
and 3rd generations.

Danish Cattle Federation being the only organization authorized by the Ministry of
Agriculture to issue these certificates issues official export certificates.

According to the rules laid down, an export certificate cannot be ordered until the
farmer selling the animal has given his permission in writing in a requisition form
presented by the exporter. The print-out of the pedigree is carefully checked to ensure
that data on the individual generations in the pedigree are available. The export
certificates may include data on the dam's yield, either expressed per year like in the
Danish milk recording system or 305 days lactation.

Danish Cattle Federation as well as a stamp of the international milk recording
organization, confirming that the internationally approved milk recording method has
been used, certifies the export certificates with a stamp.

The certificate is then sealed with transparent plastic on both sides to keep the
information safe and resistant to moisture etc.



7.   Calculation of breeding values
7.1 Dairy cattle
7.1.1 Milk yield
The breeding values for production of milk, fat and protein are based on 305 days milk
production records from the first three lactations. The lactations can either be complete
or incomplete lactations. All yield records registered since 1982 are included.

Precorrection
Incomplete lactations are extended if the cow is more than 45 days postpartum and
has had 2 test days otherwise they are not included in the evaluation. The extension of
lactations is based on results on the last test day.

Data are precorrected for heterogenious variance between lactations, years and
herds. Besides, extended lactations are precorrected for differences in variance due to
differences in length of lactation.




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Finally the data are precorrected for the effect of heterosis for rare breed
combinations. This pre-adjustment is based on the average effect of heterosis. For the
more common breed combinations the effect of heterosis is included in the statistical
model.

Calculation method
Breeding values for milk yield are estimated by means of a single-breed, single-trait
Animal Model. The dependent variables are yield of milk, protein or fat.

The fixed effects of the model are:
• Management group (herd × year × lactation number)
• Year × month of calving × lactation number
• Age of calving × lactation number × time period
• Previous calving interval × lactation number × time period
• Present calving interval × lactation number × time period
• Genetic groups defined as phantom parent groups
• Heterosis × lactation number.

The random effects are:
• Animal
• Permanent environment
• Residual.

Fixed effects
Feeding and management have changed over time, so time period is therefore
included in the model. Time periods comprise 5-year periods.

The management groups are defined by a clustering procedure within herd, year and
lactation number. Large herds are divided into many groups over the year, whereas
small herds should have at least 7 lactations per year before more management
groups are formed.

Age of calving is stated in months. Present calving interval and heterosis are defined as
linear regressions. The observed calving interval is used if it is known. If it is unknown, a
mean calving interval is used.

Heterosis is a regression on degree of heterozygosity. Heterosis is estimated for:
• SDM-DH: Original SDM × Holstein Frisian
• RDM:          Original RDM × American Brown Swiss
                Original RDM × Holstein Frisian
                Original RDM × Swedish Red and White Cattle
                American Brown Swiss × Holstein Frisian
• DJ:           Original Danish Jerseys × New Zealand Jerseys
                Original Danish Jerseys × US Jerseys
                US Jerseys × New Zealand Jerseys
• DRH:          Original DRH × Holstein Frisian

Random effects
All known relationships are used. Heritability is assumed to be 0.3 and repeatability 0.45
for milk, fat and protein.

Foreign information
Foreign information is included in the national genetic evaluation by means of the

                                                                                            18
method described in INTERBULL Bulletin no. 11, 1995 by Bonaiti and Boichard. For SDM-DH
and Jerseys, genetic groups are subdivided by sex and country of origin. For bulls, their
own daugther group in Denmark and the latest estimates of breeding values (EBV)
calculated by INTERBULL are used. Cows are divided by country of origin whether if they
have progeny in Denmark or not. The foreign national EBV’s are transformed to the
Danish scale by means of a and b values recommended by INTERBULL. There is so far
only one group for RDM.

Expression of genetic evaluation for yield
In Denmark we officially publish the EBVs for yield traits on two different scales: As
standardized relative breeding values (RBVs) expressed on a rolling base and as
estimated breeding values (EBVs) expressed on a fixed base (kgs). The RBVs and EBVs
are 100% correlated. The ranking of the animals is similar on the two scales.

Relative breeding values
The estimated breeding values are converted to relative indices by:

Relative index = ((EBV - EBVBase) x 10)/ SD

where
          EBV: EBV for sires (kgs)
          EBVBase: Average EBV (kgs) from base of cows born 3 and 4 years before
               publication date
           SD: Standard deviation of sires born in 1997 and 1998

The following relative indices for milk production are published:
• M-index: Breeding value for milk yield
• F-index: Breeding value for fat yield
• P-index: Breeding value for protein yield
• Y-index: Total breeding value, calculated on the basis of the breed's breeding goal
  for yield

The total breeding value for yield - the Y-index - is a combination of the M-, F- and
P-indices and the weight factors (VM, VF and VP):
Y-index      = VM × (M-index - 100)
             + VF × (F-index - 100)
             + VP × (P-index - 100) + 100

Table 8 shows the weight factors and thus the breeding goal for yield of the dairy cattle
breeds.

Table 8. Breeding goal for yield of the Danish dairy cattle breeds, expressed in weight
         factors for the calculation of the Y-index and in relative values of milk, fat and
         protein
                                              Weight factors
Breed                      VM                       VF                       VP
RDM                       -0.25                   0.25                      1.00
SDM-DH                   -0. 25                   0.25                      1.00
Jerseys                   -0.30                   0.40                      0.90
DRH                      -0. 25                   0.25                      1.00




                                                                                         19
Estimated breeding values expressed in kg
The estimated breeding values for milk, fat and protein are expressed in kg as:

EBV95 (kg) = EBV - EBVBase

where

        EBV: EBV for sire (kg)
        EBVBase: Average EBV (kg) from base of cows born in 1995

The base is changed every five years, according to the guidelines of INTERBULL. Latest
change was in 2000.

The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 9. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is only based
on the trait in question.

 Table 9. Correlation between Y-index and relative BV for milk, fat and protein
                    Yield index for Yield index for   Yield index for     Yield index for
                         RDM           SDM-DH             Jersey               DRH
Milk                     0.79            0.70              0.66                0.46
Fat                      0.80            0.72              0.90                0.76
Protein                  0.97            0.96              0.91                0.92

Use of Danish EBVs in kgs and RBVs
The RBVs are presented to Danish farmers, AI-center etc. It is a Nordic tradition to
present BVs as RBVs. They are also included in our total merit index, which is a relative
breeding value as well. The EBVs are presented on export certificates.

Publication
The breeding values are estimated 7 times a year. The index for yield (Y-indeks in
Danish) is published in “Avlsværdital for tyre”. The minimum reliability for publication is
60%. Beside this publication the indices for milk, fat and protein are available on the
homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (www.landscentret.dk) at
www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.2 Beef production traits
The breeding values for the beef production traits are based on data collected at
slaughterhouses. Proven bulls therefore have an index for beef production on the basis
of bull calves resulting from the test inseminations.

Breeding values are calculated for:
• Carcass weight
• Carcass classification

The estimates of breeding values are converted to standardized breeding values. The
total standardized breeding value for beef production is a combination of the
standardized breeding values for carcass weight and carcass classification.

Data
The results, which have been recorded at slaughterhouses on bull calves between 6 and
18 months of age, are used as data for the evaluation. Carcass weight and form of
carcass scored by the EUROP-scoring system are used to evaluate beef production traits.
The results from the EUROP-scoring system are converted to numbers between 1 and 15.

                                                                                              20
Calculation of breeding values
Breeding values are calculated by means of a Multi Trait Sire Model. The dependent
variables are slaughter weight and carcass classification.
The fixed effects in the model are:
• Herd × birth year
• Season of birth × year of birth
• Age of the dam
• Slaughter season × slaughter age × year of slaughter
• Carcass weight (only in model for classification)
• Multiple birth (two classes: yes or no)
• Breed and heterosis.

The random effects are:
• Animal
• Residual.

Fixed effects
The season of birth is divided into time periods of three months. It is known that
classification depends on weight. The breeding value for carcass classification is
therefore corrected for carcass weight.

The effects of breed and heterosis are defined as linear regressions on breed
proportions and on degree of heterozygosity, respectively. The breed groups included
are:

RDM
Breed effects:     Original RDM, American Brown Swiss, Red Holstein, Swedish Red and
                   White cattle, other breeds are pooled
Heterozygosity:    Original RDM × American Brown Swiss, other combinations are
                   pooled

SDM-DH
Breed effects:     Original SDM, Holstein Friesian, other breeds are pooled
Heterozygosity:    All combinations are pooled

Jerseys
Breed effects:     Original Jersey, American Jersey, New Zealand Jersey, other breeds
                   are poled
Heterozygosity:    All combinations are pooled

DRH
Breed effects:     Original DRH, Holstein Friesian, other breeds are pooled
Heterozygosity:    No effects included.

Random effects
The basic parameters are shown in table 10.

Table 10. Basic parameters
                                         Heritability (h2)               Correlations
Breed                        Carcass weight              Carcass        rg            re
                                                       classification
RDM, SDM-DH and DRH               0.16                       0.29       0.5          0.48
Jerseys                           0.13                       0.17       0.5          0.52


                                                                                            21
The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 11. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is only based
on the trait in question.

Table 11. Correlation between meat production index and relative BV for carcass
         weight and carcass classification (AI-sires born in the last 7 years)
                         Meat production   Meat production    Meat production     Meat production
                          index for RDM    index for SDM-DH   index for Jersey     index for DRH
Carcass weight                0.78              0.82               0.82                0.85
Carcass classification        0.90              0.90               0.95                0.91

Base
A rolling base is used. The base includes A.I.-bulls that are more than 7 years old and
less than 9 year old at the publication date. Bulls are only included in the base if they
have a reliability above 50%. Sires in the base have an average of 100.

Standard deviation
The sub indices and the total index for beef production are standardized to a standard
deviation of 10 for bulls born in 1997 and 1998.

Publication
The breeding values are calculated four times a year. The meat production index
(kødproduktion in Danish) is published in “Avlsværdital for tyre”. The minimum reliability
for publication is 50%. Beside these two publications the index is available on the
homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (www.landscentret.dk) at
www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.3 Reproduction
Three breeding values describing the reproduction of bulls are calculated:
• Female fertility
• Calving index
• Birth index.

The birth index and the calving index are calculated simultaneously and the indices are
therefore described in the same section.

Female fertility
EBV's for SDM-DH/DRH (belonging to Nordic Holstein group - HOL) and RDM (belonging
to Nordic Ayrshire group – AYS) are estimated jointly with breeds in Sweden and Finland,
while Jersey is run with only Danish data. Description of the estimation is therefore
different for Jersey versus the other breeds.

Fertility for SDM-DH, DRH and RDM
In the joint Nordic (NAV) genetic evaluation of fertility, data from Finland, Sweden and
Denmark are included. Insemination records from heifers and cows in first to third parity
are included.

The traits are:
• Number of inseminations for heifers (AISh)
• Number of inseminations for cows in 1.-3. lactation (AISc)
• Interval from calving to first insemination for cows in 1.-3. lactation (ICF)
• Interval for first to last insemination for heifers (IFLh)
• Interval for first to last insemination for cows in 1.-3. lactation (IFLc)

                                                                                              22
•   Non-return rate for heifers (NRRh)
•   Non-return rate for cows in 1.-3. lactation (NRRc)
•   Heat strength for heifers (HSTh)
•   Heat strength for cows in 1.-3. lactation (HSTc)
•   Fertility treatments for cows in 1.-3. lactation (FRT)

The traits are run in the 3 groups specified below:
Group 1: NRRh, IFLh, NRRc, ICF, and IFLc
Group 2: AISh, HSTh, AISc, HSTc, ICF
Group 3: FTR1, FTR2, and FTR3

The BV's are estimated by means of a multi-trait sire model. The fixed and random
effects in the models are:

Group 1 and 2
The fixed effects are:
• Month of first insemination x country (NRR, IFL, AIS, HST)
• Month of calving x country (ICF)
• Age at first insemination x parity x country
• Year (only Finland)
• Herd-year1 (Denmark and Sweden (1 year), Finland (5 year))

Fixed regressions are:
• Proportion of breed
• Proportion of heterozygosity

Random effects are:
• Herd-year1 (only Finland)
• Sire

1For   heifer traits we use birth year, for cow traits year the calving year at first calving is used

Group 3
The fixed effects used in the model for group 3 are:
• Month of calving x year of calving x country
• Age at calving x country
• Herd-5-year period of calving

Fixed regressions are:
• Proportion of breed
• Proportion of heterozygosity

Random effects are:
• Herd-year of calving
• Sire

The breed and heterosis effects are:

Holstein
Breed: Orig. SDM and Holstein
Heterosis: Orig. SDM x Holstein




                                                                                                        23
Ayrshire
Breed: RDM, orig. black and white, FAY, NRF, ABK, HF, SRB, CANAYS
Heterosis: all heterozygosity pooled

For all groups the pedigree of the sires is traced in five generations. Genetic groups for
animals with unknown parents are included for Holsteins. The genetic groups also made
as breed x country x birth year period clustered in periods of 10 years.

Genetic parameters are given in Tables 12 to 17.

Table 12. Heritability on diagonal, genetic correlations above diagonal and residual
           correlations below diagonal for traits in group 1. HOL without brackets, AYS
           within brackets
            NRRh              IFLh           NRRc               ICFc            IFLc
NRRh 0.008 (0.014)       -0.65 (-0.75)     0.40 (0.5)        0.10 (0.10)    -0.40 (-0.40)
IFLh    -0.39 (-0.39)     0.02 (0.015)     0.0 (-0.2)        0.35 (0.35)     0.40 (0.55)
NRRc                                     0.02 (0.015)        0.45 (0.20)    -0.51 (-0.51)
ICFc                                      0.08 (0.00)        0.04 (0.04)     0.41 (0.41)
IFLc                                     -0.31 (-0.31)      -0.08 (0.00)     0.02 (0.03)

Table 13. Herd-year variance as proportion of total variance in group 1 (on the
          diagonal). Herd-year correlations between traits above diagonal. HOL
          without brackets, AYS within brackets
            NRRh             IFLh            NRRc            ICFc             IFLc
NRRh 0.025 (0.02)         0.05 (0.00)
IFLh                     0.03 (0.025)
NRRc                                      0.025 (0.03)
ICFc                                                      0.15 (0.15)     -0.11 (0.00)
IFLc                                                                      0.03 (0.05)

Table 14. Heritability on diagonal, genetic correlations above diagonal and residual
          correlations below diagonal for traits in group 2. HOL without brackets, AYS
          within brackets
             AISh              HSTh           AISc              HSTc            ICFc
AISh     0.025 (0.025)      0.15 (0.15)    0.40 (0.65)
HSTh                        0.02 (0.03)                      0.65 (0.65)
AISc                                       0.03 (0.03)       0.15 (0.15)     0.20 (0.20)
HSTc                                       0.25 (0.25)      0.025 (0.025)    0.35 (0.35)
ICFc                                      -0.12 (-0.12)      0.23 (0.23)     0.04 (0.04)

Table 15. Herd-year variance as proportion of total variance in group 1 (on the
           diagonal). Herd-year correlations between traits above diagonal. HOL
           without brackets, AYS within brackets
             AISh            HSTh             AISc           HSTc            ICFc
 AISh     0.03 (0.03)
 HSTh                     0.10 (0.10)
 AISc                                      0.03 (0.03)                   -0.38 (-0.38)
 HSTc                                                     0.10 (0.10)
 ICFc                                                                     0.15 (0.15)



                                                                                            24
Table 16. Heritability on diagonal, genetic correlations above diagonal and residual
          correlations below diagonal for traits in group 3. Identical parameters are
          used for HOL and AYS
          FTR1         FTR2     FTR3
  FTR1    0.02         0.75     0.50
  FTR2                 0.02     0.90
  FTR3                          0.02

Table 17. Herd-year variance as proportion of total variance in group 3 (on the
          diagonal). Identical parameters are used for HOL and AYS
          FTR1       FTR2       FTR3
  FTR1    0.07
  FTR2               0.05
  FTR3                          0.045

Fertility for Jersey
The index is a standardized estimated breeding value which combines the 3 fertility
traits of females:
· Days from first to last insemination in heifers (IP-heifers)
· Days from first to last insemination in cows (IP-cows)
· Days from calving to first insemination in cows (ICF-cows).

For cows the traits in 1-3 parity are considered as different traits.
The total breeding value for female fertility is a combination of the standardized
breeding values.

Calculation method
The estimation of breeding values is based on fertility records registered since 1990.
Information from 3 lactations are included. The breeding values are estimated by
means of a BLUP Multi Trait Sire Model for heifer and cow traits separately.

The dependent variables of the model are:
• Days from first to last insemination in heifers
• Days from first to last insemination in cows
• Days from calving to first insemination in cows.

The fixed effects are:
• Herd × birth year
• Calving month
• Breed effects
• Heterosis effects.

The random effects are:
• Sire of female
• Residual.

Fixed effects
The fixed effects are all defined as classes.
Effect of breed and heterosis are defined as linear regressions on breed proportions
and degrees of heterozygosity, respectively. The breed groups included are:

   Breed effects:    Original DJ, US Jersey, New Zealand Jersey, other breeds are
                     pooled

                                                                                         25
      Heterozygosity: Original DJ x US Jersey, original DJ x New Zealand Jersey, other
                      combinations are pooled

Random effects
The relationship between sires is traced back as far as possible. The basic parameters
are shown in table 18.

Table 18. Heritability on the diagonal, genetic correlations over the diagonal and
          environmental correlations under the diagonal
                   IP,
      Period                ICF1     ICF2      ICF3        IP1        IP2        IP3
                 heifers
                  0.01      0.36      0.30      0.17       0.40      0.40        0.45
  IP, Heifers
                  0.02      0.08      0.15      0.22       0.60      0.55        0.45
                  0.00      0.05      0.90      0.85       0.30      0.40        0.38
  ICF1
                  0.00      0.02      0.85      0.85       0.58      0.33        0.27
                  0.00      0.11      0.04      0.92       0.40      0.38        0.40
  ICF2
                  0.00      0.07      0.03      0.95       0.53      0.40        0.40
                  0.02      0.07      0.11      0.04       0.40      0.40        0.45
  ICF3
                  0.00      0.08      0.08      0.01       0.60      0.55        0.45
                  0.03     -0.08      0.05      0.03       0.03      0.90        0.80
  IP1
                  0.04     -0.05      0.00      0.02       0.01      0.90        0.85
                  0.09      0.01     -0.08      0.08       0.03      0.02        0.91
  IP2
                  0.03      0.01     -0.05      0.02       0.04      0.01        0.90
                  0.09      0.00      0.02     -0.09       0.02      0.09        0.02
  IP3
                  0.01      0.02      0.01     0.02        0.01      0.08        0.01

The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 19. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is only based
on the trait in question.

Table 19. Correlation between index for fertility and relative BV for IFL (heifers and cows)
          ICF, AIS (heifers and cows) and FTR
                           Index for fertility for     Index for fertility for    Index for fertility for   Index for fertility for
                                  RDM                       SDM-DH                      Jersey                     DRH
IFL, heifers                       0.59                        0.71                       0.60                      0.79
IFL, cows                          0.96                        0.96                       0.96                      0.94
ICF                                0.62                        0.64                       0.70                      0.39
AIS, heifers                       0.46                        0.49                                                 0.57
AIS, cows                          0.82                        0.78                                                 0.87
Fertility treatments               0.45                        0.39                                                 0.57

Standardisation of indices for all breeds
All traits are published as indices with at mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 10.
Indices above 100 are favourable. The standardization factors were based on Nordic
(RDM, SDM-DH and DRH) or national (Jersey) sires that are born in 1997 and 1998 and
had a reliability above 35%. The standardisations factors are fixed for new evaluations.

The base is a rolling base consisting of Nordic (RDM, SDM-DH and DRH) or national
(Jersey) sires that are more than 7 years old and less than 9 year old at the publication
date. The reliability must be above 35% to be included in the base. SDM-DH, Jersey,
DRH and RDM, sires are published on separate bases.



                                                                                                                              26
Publication for all breeds
The breeding values are estimated four times a year. The index for female fertility
(Hunlig frugtbarhed in Danish) is published in “Avlsværdital for tyre”. The minimum
reliability for publication is 35%. Beside these two publications the index is available on
the homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (www.landscentret.dk) at
www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.4 Calving index and birth index
The calving index is a breeding value describing the ability of daughters of sires to give
birth to live born calves and to have easy calving (maternal traits). The birth index is a
breeding value describing the ability of sires to breed easy born and live born calves
(direct traits).

These indices combine the following six traits as direct and maternal traits:
· Vitality of calf, first calving
· Calving ease, first calving
· Size of calf, first calving
· Vitality of calf, later calving
· Calving ease, later calving
· Size of calf, later calving.

The six estimates of birth performance (direct traits), are combined into the birth index,
multiplying each sub index with an economic weight and summing up the results. Due
to the focus on heifer calving only vitality and calving ease have economic weight in
RDM, SDM-DH and DRH. The birth index is used for selection of bulls for heifer
insemination and is also included in the S-index.

The six estimates of calving performance (maternal traits) are combined into the
calving index by multiplying each sub index by an economic weight and summing up
the results.

Data
Vitality, calving ease and size is registered on the farm by the farmer. Vitality is defined
as an all or none trait with 0 for a calf dead within 24 hours after birth and 1 for all other
calves. Calving ease is scored 1 to 4, 1 being an easy calving and 4 a very difficult
calving that involves veterinarian assistance. Size is scored 1 to 4 where 1 is a small calf
and 4 a big calf.

Twin calving as well as calves born after embryo transfer are excluded. It is also required
that the sire and the maternal grandsire of the calf are known and of the same breed.

Calculation method
The estimation of breeding values is based on data collected since 1985. Information
from all lactations is included. The breeding values are estimated by means of a BLUP
Multi Trait Sire Model. The effects of sire of calf and sire of dam are estimated in a six-
trait model for each breed separately.

The dependent variables of the model are:
• Vitality of calf, first calving
• Calving ease, first calving
• Size of calf, first calving
• Vitality of calf, later calving
• Calving ease, later calving
• Size of calf, later calving.

                                                                                              27
The fixed effects are:
• Herd × year
• Age of cow × region
• Sex of calf × year.

The random effects are:
• Sire of calf
• Sire of cow (maternal grandsire of calf)
• Residual.

Fixed effects
The first three effects are all defined as classes. The regions (10 classes) are included
because the heifers are reared a little differently in the different geographical areas.
Region is only included in connection with data on first calving.

The effects of breed and heterosis are all defined as linear regressions on breed
proportions or degrees of heterozygosity. The breed groups included are:
RDM
Breed effects:      Original RDM, American Brown Swiss, Holstein Frisian, Swedish Red
                    and White, other breeds are pooled under original RDM
Heterozygosity:     All effects are pooled

SDM-DH
Breed effects:                Original SDM, Holstein Frisian, other breeds are pooled under
                              original SDM
Heterozygosity:               All effects are pooled

Jerseys
Breed effects:                Original Danish Jersey, New Zealand Jersey, other breeds are
                              pooled under original Danish Jersey
Heterozygosity:               All effects are pooled

DRH
Breed effects:                Original DRH, Holstein Friesian, other breeds are pooled under
                              original DRH
Heterozygosity:               All effects are pooled.

Random effects
The relationship between sires is traced as far back as possible. The basic genetic
parameters are shown in tables 20, 21 and 22. The environmental parameters are
shown in table 23. The same parameters are used for SDM-DH and DRH.

Table 20. Genetic parameters for calving traits for RDM, SDM-DH+DRH and Danish
          Jersey, heritabilities on the diagonal, genetic correlations above the diagonal
                                                               Calving traits (maternal)
                                               1st   calving                                Later calving
RDM/SDM+DRH/Jersey                  VI               CE           CS             VI              CE            CS
Vitality1 (VI)                   .03/.04/.02    .46/.47/.59 -.14/-.02/.10     .68/.71/.48     .19/.34/.17 -.05/.05/-.07
Calving ease1 (CE)                              .06/.07/.02 -.52/-.45/-.34    .76/.64/.24     .72/.65/.53 -.53/-.26/-.32
Size1 (CS)                                                      .04/.04/.03 -.50/-.43/-.02 -.43/-.43/-.33   .75/.70/.89
Vitality2   (VI)                                                              .01/.01/.01     .80/.56/.49 -.58/-.39/.04
Calving ease2 (CE)                                                                            .03/.03/.01 -.54/-.39/-.29
Size2   (CS)                                                                                                .03/.04/.03
1   First calving   2   Later calving

                                                                                                                      28
Table 21. Genetic parameters for birth traits for RDM, SDM-DH+DRH and Danish Jersey,
          heritabilities on the diagonal, genetic correlations above the diagonal
                                                                                            Birth traits (direct)

                                                                       1st calving                                          Later calving

RDM/SDM+DRH/Jersey                                        VI               CE                CS                VI                CE                CS

Vitality1 (VI)                                        .05/.04/.03      .52/.65/.44      -.36/-.55/.13     .54/.78/.79        .48/.55/.34      -.38/-.53/.14

Calving ease1 (CE)                                                     .15/.10/.01      -.77/-.75/-.67    .44/.60/.39        .81/.77/.81      -.75/-.70/-.68

Size1 (CS)                                                                               .23/.20/.11      -.40/-.53/.13 -.76/-.77/-.62         .80/.79/.91

Vitality2 (VI)                                                                                            .01/.01/.01        .46/.62/.45      -.39/-.53/.04

Calving ease2 (CE)                                                                                                           .06/.05/.01      -.76/-.74/-.65

Size2 (CS)                                                                                                                                     .21/.18/.11
1 First calving
2 Later calving



Table 22. Genetic correlations between calving traits and birth traits for RDM, SDM-
          DH+DRH and Danish Jersey
                                                                                              Birth traits (direct)

                                                                        1st calving                                         Later calving

RDM/SDM+DRH/Jersey                                          VI              CE                CS                VI                CE               CS
     Calving traits (maternal)




                                 Vitality1 (VI)        -.20/.06/-.14    -.06/.08/-.04      0/-.04/-.08     .02/.14/-.06      -.09/.03/-.14     0/-.02/-.10

                                 Calving ease1 (CE)    -.13/.07/.01     -.20/.07/-.07      0/.03/.02       -.09/.08/.02      -.16/-.04/-.09     0/.02/-.03

                                 Size1 (CS)             0/.02/-.16       0/.04/-.08       -.11/-.05/.05     0/.04/-.08        0/.13/-.03      -.11/-.04/-.01

                                 Vitality2 (VI)        -.16/.21/.11     -.16/.09/.15       0/-.13/-.09     -.11/-.05/-.33    -.16/.08/-.12      0/-.10/.01

                                 Calving ease2 (CE)    -.11/.04/-.01    -.16/.05/-.11      0/.03/.20       -.16/-.05/-.19 -.16/-.05/-.16        0/.03/.24

                                 Size2 (CS)             0/-.04/-.15      0/-.03/.02       -.10/-.03/.02     0/.06/-.17         0/.03/.04       0/-.10/-.01




Table 23. Environmental correlations
                                                                       1st calving                                          Later calving

RDM/SDM+DRH/Jersey                                       VI1              CE1               CS1                VI2               CE2              CS2

Vitality1 (VI)                                                         .29/.29/.29      -.12/-.15/.04     .04/.04/.02        .04/.07/.01      -.04/-.04/.01

Calving ease1 (CE)                                                                      -.45/-.40/-.12    .03/.04/.01        .14/.16/.03      -.18/-.14/-.04

Size1 (CS)                                                                                                -.02/-.09/.01 -.11/-.11/-.02         .27/.25/.17

Vitality2 (VI)                                                                                                               .21/.18/.19      .02/-.02/.11

Calving ease2 (CE)                                                                                                                            -.27/-.28/-.05

Size2 (CS)
1   First calving
2   Later calving

Each sire has six solutions for maternal effects and six solutions for direct effects. The
variances and covariances of the sire effects (Vds = direct sire, Vms = maternal sire,

                                                                                                                                                             29
COVds,ms = covariance between direct and maternal sire effect) are calculated from
the genetic variances and covariances (Vd = direct, Vm = maternal, COVm,d =
covariance between direct and maternal) by:
Vds        = 0.25 × Vd
Vms        = 0.25 × Vm + 0.0625 × Vd + 0.25 × COVm,d
COVds,ms = 0.25 × COVd,m + 0.125 × Vd

Estimation of breeding values for each single trait
The estimated breeding values for birth performance traits are calculated from the
estimates for the sire of the calf by:
EBP = 2 × effect of sire of calf + direct breed effects

The estimated breeding values for calving performance traits (ECP) are calculated
from estimates of effect of sire of cow and effects of sire of calf by:
ECP = 2 × effect of sire of cow + maternal breed effects - 0.5 × EBP

The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 24 and 25. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is
only based on the trait in question.

Table 24. Correlation between calving index and relative maternal BV for vitality of
              calf (first and later calving), calving ease (first and later calving) and size of
              calf (first and later calving)
                            Calving index       Calving index      Calving index      Calving index
                                for RDM          for SDM-DH          for Jersey         for DRH
Vitality, 1st                      0.92               0.88               0.91              0.76
Calving ease, 1st                  0.96               0.92               0.89              0.95
Size, 1st                         -0.59              -0.22              -0.25             -0.48
Vitality, later                    0.93               0.90               0.85              0.84
Calving ease, later               0.90               0.75               0.78               0.92
Size, later                       -0.52              -0.11              -0.40             -0.37

Table 25. Correlation between birth index and relative direct BV for vitality of calf (first
              and later calving), calving ease (first and later calving) and size of calf (first
              and later calving)
                           Birth index for  Birth index for     Birth index for   Birth index for
                                RDM             SDM-DH               Jersey             DRH
Vitality, 1st                    0.89              0.92                0.89             0.87
Calving ease, 1   st             0.97              0.97                0.74             0.97
Size, 1st                       -0.86             -0.85               -0.40            -0.85
Vitality, later                  0.81              0.92                0.88             0.92
Calving ease, later              0.95             0.93                0.74              0.94
Size, later                     -0.86             -0.82               -0.36            -0.84

Base
A rolling base is used for both the birth and the calving index. The base includes A.I.-
bulls that are more than 7 years old and less than 9 year old at the publication date,
which have a realiabily above the minimum value for publication. The minimum value
is 50% for the birth index and for the calving index the minimum value is 35% (SDM-DH,
RDM and DRH) and 25% (Jerseys). Sires in the base have an average of 100.

Standard deviation
The sub indices and the total index for both the birth and calving index are
standardized to a standard deviation of 10 for bulls born in 1997 and 1998.

                                                                                              30
Publication
The birth and calving indices (Fødsel and kælvning in Danish) are published four times a
year in “Avlsværdital for tyre”. Beside these two publications the indices are available
on the homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (www.landscentret.dk) at
www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.5 Udder health
A standardized relative breeding value for a bull’s ability to produce daughters with
superior resistance to mastitis. Information about mastitis is treated as four different traits:
• 10 days before calving until 50 days after calving in first parity
• 10 days before calving until 305 days after calving in first parity
• 10 days before calving until 100 days after calving in second parity
• 10 days before calving until 100 days after calving in third parity.

Mastitis in each of these periods is recorded as a binary trait. Linear type classifications
for dairy form, for udder support and udder depth in first parity done by classifiers, and
somatic cell count in the period 10-180 days after calving in first parity are used as
information traits.

Calculation method
The index for udder health is calculated by means of a multi trait BLUP sire model.

The dependant variables are:
• Diagnoses of mastitis
• Geometric mean of somatic cell count
• Type traits.

The fixed effects are:
• Herd × year × season
• Year × month
• Calving age (only first parity).

The covariables are:
• Additive breed effects (not SDM-DH and DRH)
• Heterosis (only RDM).

The random effects are:
• Sire
• Residual.

Fixed effects
All fixed effects are defined as classes.

Random effects
The relationship between sires is traced as far back as possible. The genetic parameters
are shown in table 26.




                                                                                               31
Table 26. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for trait used in the index for udder
          health1)
 Trait            Breed                  1      2       3          4        5        6      7         8

 1. Mastitis      RDM, SDM, DRH         0.04   0.95    0.90     0.84       0.56     0.43   -0.36     -0.49
 ÷ 10-50 days
 in 1st parity    Jerseys               0.02   0.90    0.60     0.60       0.20     0.40   -0.41     -0.40

 2. Mastitis      RDM, SDM, DRH                0.05    0.95     0.88       0.49     0.40   -0.35     -0.54
 ÷ 10-305
 days in 1st      Jerseys                      0.02    0.70     0.63       0.22     0.40   -0.35     -0.45
 parity

 3. Mastitis      RDM, SDM, DRH                        0.05     0.98       0.50     0.40   -0.35     -0.55
 ÷ 10-100
 days in 2nd      Jerseys                              0.01     0.90       0.45     0.30   -0.30     -0.40
 parity

 4. Mastitis      RDM, SDM, DRH                                 0.05       0.48     0.40   -0.35     -0.55
 ÷ 10-100
 days in          Jerseys                                       0.03       0.49     0.30   -0.30     -0.40
 3RDM parity

 5. SCC           RDM, SDM, DRH                                            0.11     0.49   -0.19     -0.30
 10-180 days
 in 1st parity    Jerseys                                                  0.11     0.20   -0.20     -0.20

 6. Dairy form    RDM, SDM, DRH                                                     0.26   -0.50     -0.50
 1st parity
                  Jerseys                                                           0.21   -0.30     -0.25

 7. Fore          RDM, SDM, DRH                                                            0.24      0.65
 udder
 attach           Jerseys                                                                  0.26      0.65
 1st parity

 8. Udder         RDM, SDM, DRH                                                                      0.33
 depth
 1st parity       Jerseys                                                                            0.38
1) Heritabilities on diagonal, genetic correlations above diagonal

Index for udder health
The EBVs for mastitis are summarized in the index, which is called udder health. The four
indices for mastitis resistance are weighted in the overall index for udder health.

The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 27. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is only based
on the trait in question.

Table 27. Correlation between index for udder health and relative BV for the 4 mastitis
          traits
                            Index for udder     Index for udder        Index for udder     Index for udder
                            health for RDM     health for SDM-DH       health for Jersey    health for DRH
-10-56 days (1. lact.)           0.93                 0.95                  0.92                   0.99
-10-305 days (1. lact.)          0.98                 0.99                  0.97                   0.99
-10-100 days (2. lact.)          0.99                 0.99                  0.98                   0.99
-10-100 days (3. lact.)          0.97                 0.98                  0.98                   0.99

Base
A rolling base is used. The base includes A.I.-bulls that are more than 7 years old and
less than 9 year old at the publication date and have reliability above the minimum

                                                                                                             32
value for publication. The minimum value of the index for udder health is 40%. Sires in
the base have an average of 100.

Standard deviation
The index for udder health is standardized to a standard deviation of 10 for bulls born in
1997 and 1998.

Publication
The index for udder health (Yversundhed in Danish) is calculated four times a year and
is published in “Avlsværdital for tyre”. Beside these two publictions the index is available
on the homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (www.landscentret.dk) at
www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.6 Index for other health traits
A standardized relative breeding value for a bull’s ability to produce daughters with
superior resistance to other diseases than mastitis. The index includes reproductive
diseases, digestive diseases, feet and leg diseases in the period 10 days before calving
to 100 days after calving in first, second and third parity. The treatments are combined
in three main categories:
• Reproductive diseases include abortion, endometritis, uterine prolapse, uterine
    torsion, endometritis treatment, follicular cysts, retained placenta, caesarian section,
    vaginitis and other reproductive diseases
• Digestive diseases include diarrhoea, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, ludigestion,
    hypomagnesemia, ketosis, milk fever, abomasal displacement, abomasal indigestion,
    rumen acidosis, enteritis, bloat and other digestive and metabolic diseases
• Feet and leg diseases include heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, claw trimming by
    veterinarian, interdigital necrobacillosis, interdigital skin hyperplasia, laminitis, arthritis,
    sole ulcer, pressure injuries, tenosynovitis of hoofs and other leg diseases.

Mastitis in first parity is used as an information trait. In Jerseys only digestive diseases are
included in the index for other health traits.

Calculation method
The index for other health traits is calculated by means of a multi trait BLUP sire model.

The fixed effects are:
• Herd × year × season
• Year × month
• Calving age (only first parity).

The covariables are:
• Additive breed effects (not SDM-DH and DRH)
• Heterosis (only RDM).

The random effects are:
• Sire
• Residual.

Fixed effects
All fixed effects are defined as classes.

Random effects
The relationship between sires is traced as far back as possible. The genetic parameters
are shown in table 28.

                                                                                                 33
Table 28. Heritability and genetic correlations for traits used in the index for other health
           traits 1)
 Trait        Breed            1      2       3       4       5        6      7      8      9      10

 1st parity

 1.           RDM            0.03    0.00    0.18    0.00    0.88     0.21   0.00   0.85   0.00    0.00
 Repro.
              SDM-DH, DRH    0.02    0.22    0.33    0.20    0.68     0.17   0.11   0.59   0.11    0.11

 2.           RDM                    0.05    0.24    0.40    0.00     0.25   0.35   0.00   0.25    0.20
 Mastitis
              SDM-DH, DRH            0.05    0.41    0.40    0.20     0.30   0.30   0.15   0.25    0.26

 3.           RDM                            0.01    0.00    0.20     0.86   0.00   0.19   0.81    0.40
 Digestive
              SDM-DH, DRH                    0.01    0.40    0.10     0.88   0.46   0.10   0.79    0.36

              Jerseys                        0.01                     0.39                 -0.08

 4. Feet      RDM                                    0.01    0.00     0.08   0.83   0.00   0.20    0.77
 and legs
              SDM-DH, DRH                            0.01    0.10     0.30   0.89   0.08   0.30    0.85

 2nd parity

 5.           RDM                                            0.02     0.25   0.00   0.91   0 11    0.00
 Repro.
              SDM-DH, DRH                                    0.02     0.20   0.20   0.90   0.20    0.18

 6.           RDM                                                     0.02   0.00   0.23   0.86    0.40
 Digestive
              SDM-DH, DRH                                             0.01   0.56   0.11   0.85    0.40

              Jerseys                                                 0.01                 0.76

 7. Feet      RDM                                                            0.01   0.00   0.20    0.74
 and legs
              SDM-DH, DRH                                                    0.01   0.15   0.25    0.90

 3rd parity

 8.           RDM                                                                   0.04   0.09    0.00
 Repr.
              SDM-DH, DRH                                                           0.04   0.36    0.13

 9.           RDM                                                                          0.03    0.40
 Digestive
              SDM-DH, DRH                                                                  0.02    0.40

              Jerseys                                                                      0.05

 10. Feet     RDM                                                                                  0.02

                SDM-DH,                                                                            0.01
1) Heritabilities on diagonal, genetic correlations above diagonal.

Index for other health traits
The EBVs for the health traits are weighed in the index for other health traits

The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 29. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is only based
on the trait in question.




                                                                                                          34
Table 29. Correlation between index for other health traits and the 9 sub indices
                          Index for other     Index for other     Index for other     Index for other
                          health traits for   health traits for   health traits for   health traits for
                               RDM               SDM-DH               Jersey               DRH
Repro (1. lact.)               0.55                0.60                                    0.72
Digestive (1. lact)            0.72                0.80                -0.40               0.90
Feet and legs (1. lact)        0.58                0.58                                    0.88
Repro (2. lact.)               0.49                0.55                                    0.60
Digestive (2. lact)            0.90                0.90                 0.96               0.94
Feet and legs (2. lact)        0.60                0.72                                    0.87
Repro (3. lact.)               0.50                0.53                                    0.54
Digestive (3. lact)            0.75                0.84                 0.96               0.93
Feet and legs (3 .lact)        0.60                0.70                                    0.92

Base
A rolling base is used. The base includes A.I.-bulls that are more than 7 years old and
less than 9 year old at the publication date and have reliability above the minimum
value for publication. The minimum value for the index for other health traits is 35%. Sires
in the base have an average of 100

Standard deviation
The index for other health traits is standardized to a standard deviation of 10 for bulls
born in 1997 and 1998.

Publication
The index for other health traits (Sundhed i øvrigt in Danish) is calculated four times a
year and published in “Avlsværdital for tyre”. Beside this publication the index is
available on the homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service
(www.landscentret.dk) at www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.7 Index for longevity
The estimated breeding value for longevity is calculated for all bulls on the basis of how
long the daughters are staying in the herd from first calving to culling.

Data
Data are extracted from the national cattle database and consist of all registered dairy
cows with a first calving between January 1st, 1984 and the date of data collection.
Data include all cows, which have a censored or uncensored record (completed or a
non completed record) between January 1st. 1984 and the date of data collection.

Cows are considered to have a right-censored record if they are sold to another herd
or exported. Cows still alive at the end of the data collection period either because the
cows are dry or still lactating is also considered to have a right censored observation.
However, there shall be at least 200 days between the dates of first calving until the
date of data collection. All herd book bulls with a minimum of 5 daughters for RDM,
Jerseys and DRH are used. For SDM-DH a minimum of 15 daughters are required for
each bull.

Calculation method
Survival analysis is used for prediction of breeding values. The Survival Kit, which is a
program, designed for routine estimation of survival traits is used for the routine
evaluation.

A Weibull frailty model with time dependent covariates is used for the prediction of
breeding values of survival of Danish dairy bulls. The dependent variable of the model is
as stated above the interval from first calving to culling.


                                                                                                    35
The fixed effects are:
• Year × Season of first calving                   As a time independent effect
   Milk, fat and protein                           As a time independent effect
                                                   recalculated each evaluation
                                                   (milk, protein and fat) x Time period
•      Parity × Stage x Month                      As time dependent effect
       Change in herd size                         As time dependent effect with percent
                                                   change in herd size
       Age at first calving                        Time independent effect of age at first
                                                   calving in months.
The random effects are:
• Herd × Year × Season of first calving            As time independent effect
• Sire                                             As time independent effect

Fixed effects
There are four seasons each year. Milk, protein and fat are divided into 10 equal sized
groups with cows in the lowest groups having the lowest yield potential. The data used
for these classes are retained from the Animal Model for milk production traits and are
recalculated at each run. Animals culled before they themselves have an official yield
potential record are getting the averages of their parents yield potential. An interaction
between time period and all the three classes of milk, protein and fat are used. Time
period is modeled as a dynamic effect in periods of five years.

Parity × stage is an interaction between the parity, stage in parity and month of calving.
Four stages are used in the model with changes at 0, 60, 180 and 305 days after calving
in seven parities for Jersey and SDM-DH and 6 parities for RDM. Change in herd size is
modeled into 6 groups. Cows getting class 1 and class 2 are cows in herds reducing the
numbers of cows from one year to the next. Cows in class 3 are cows in herds without
any change in herd size and cows in class 4 and class 5 are cows in expanding herds.
Cows in-group 6 are cows in herds in the first year of the data collection period, such
herd cannot have any change. Age at first calving is measured in month.

Random effects
The relationships between sires are traced back as far as possible. The parameters used
for the estimation are shown in table 30.

Table 30. Parameters used for prediction of breeding values
                                        RDM          DM-DH and DRH            Jersey
    Rho (Weibull parameters)            1.2                1.07                 1.27
    Sire variation                      0.03               0.03                 0.03
    Log gamma parameters           6.12 (0.18) 1       6.12 (0.18) 1        6.12 (0.18) 1
1   Estimated variation of HYS effect

Base
We are using The Survival Kit for the routine evaluation. A rolling base is used. The base
includes A.I.-bulls that are more than 7 years old and less than 9 year old at the
publication date and have reliability above the minimum value for publication. The
minimum value for the index for longevity traits is 50%. Sires in the base have an
average of 100

Standard deviation
The index for longevity is standardized to a standard deviation of 10 for bulls born in
1997 and 1998.

                                                                                             36
Publication
The breeding value is calculated four times each year. The index for longevity
(Holdbarhed in Danish) is published in “Avlsværdital for tyre”. The method used for
estimation of reliability for longevity is based on the number of culled daughters and do
not take into account the information that is given by the daughters that are still alive
but are fare from the first calving. A rule was made that bulls with increasing index for
longevity should have decreasing reliability for publication. A bull with index on 90
should have at least 50 percent reliability for publication, whereas a bull with a
longevity index on 110 should have at least 42 percent. This means that for every unit
the index is over 90 the rule for publication is reduced with 0.4 percent. The index is also
available on the homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service
(www.landscentret.dk) at www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.8 Conformation, milking speed and temperament and leakage
A standardized breeding value for traits scored by linear classification plus milking
speed and temperament for A.I.-bulls is calculated on the basis of classifications of
cows in first lactation.

Breeding values for RDM, SDM-DH and DRH are calculated on the basis of data from
Denmark, Sweden and Finland, while breeding values for Jersey are calculated on the
basis of Danish data.

In the joint Nordic evaluation for conformation traits, milking speed, temperament and
leakage data from Finland, Sweden and Denmark are included. SDM-DH and DRH
belongs to the Nordic Holstein run. RDM belongs to the Nordic Ayrshire run.

The traits classified in the Nordic countries are shown in table 31.

Table 31. Traits classified in Sweden, Denmark and Finland (Holstein and Ayrshire)
Trait group                                           Traits
Body traits                  stature, body depth, chest width, dairy form,
                             top line, rump width, rump angle, codes for
                             rump
Feet & legs traits           rear legs (side view), rear legs (back rear view),
                             hock quality, bone quality, foot angle, hoof
                             angle, code for feet and legs
Udder traits                 fore udder attachment, rear udder height, rear
                             udder width, udder cleft/support, udder depth,
                             teat length, teat thickness, teat placement
                             (front), teat placement (back), udder balance,
                             codes for extra teats, codes for udder
Other traits                 milking speed, temperament, leakage, weak
                             tracks, straight tracks, floor to middle of udder

Not all traits are classified in all countries. Classification work is currently being
harmonized.

In the Jersey evaluation the same traits are evaluated as shown in table 31, except hoof
angle, codes for extra teats, leakage, weak tracks, straight tracks, floor to middle of
udder.

Editing and precorrection
Data are edited according to national editing rules. Both in the Nordic runs, and in the


                                                                                           37
Jersey run data are standardized to the same phenotypic standard deviation across
classifier x month (Denmark) and classifier x year (Finland and Sweden). Pedigree
information is traced 3 generations back and a common Nordic pedigree file is used.

Calculation of breeding values
In general SDM-DH + DRH (Holstein group), RDM (Ayrshire group) and Jersey are run
separately, but all Finnish animals are included in both Nordic runs. There are many
small herds with both Holstein and Ayrshire cows in Finland and therefore the herd
effect is more accurately estimated when both breeds are included.

Different fixed and random effects are used in different countries, and in Sweden and
Finland different fixed effects are used for different traits. The Nordic models are based
on the models used nationally. In country/countries where the fixed or random effect is
not used, all records are placed in the same group. Same models are used for the
Holstein group and the Ayrshire group.

The effects in the Nordic models:
• Calving month (DK)                                Fixed
• Calving year (F)                                  Fixed
• Age or age x lactation (S, DK, F)                 Fixed
• Month of classification (S, F)                    Fixed
• Lactation stage (S, DK, F)                        Fixed
• Classifier x time period (DK, F)                  Fixed
• Classifier x lactation (DK)                       Fixed
• Herd x time period/classifier x time period (S)   Fixed
• Herd x time period (DK, F)                        Fixed
• Herd x time period (F)                            Random
• Yield classes (F)                                 Fixed
• Time at visit (S, F)                              Fixed
• Stature classes (F)                               Fixed
• Animal                                            Random
• Residual

Genetic groups are formed for unknown parents according to birth year, country of
origin and breed.

The genetic parameters used are shown in table 32.




                                                                                         38
 Table 32. Heritabilities, repeatability coefficients and C2 used. Same parameters are
           used for Holstein group and Ayrshire group
                                           NAV runs                 Jersey run
Trait                          Heritability Repeatability    C2     Heritability
1. Stature                        0.61          0.80        0.100      0.42
2. Body depth                     0.27          0.50        0.100      0.25
3. Chest width                    0.18          0.36        0.080      0.17
4. Dairy form                     0.31          0.37        0.070      0.27
5. Top line                       0.21          0.36          -        0.19
6. Rump width                     0.33          0.55        0.110      0.32
7. Rump angle                     0.32          0.61        0.070      0.29
7A Codes for rump                 0.10          0.25          -        0.11
8. Rear legs, side view           0.23          0.59        0.060      0.14
9. Rear legs, back rear view      0.19          0.33        0.080      0.12
10. Hock quality                  0.18          0.46          -        0.12
11. Bone quality                  0.28          0.44          -        0.16
12. Foot angle                    0.18          0.51        0.080      0.09
13. Hoof angle                    0.09          0.40        0.090        -
13A. Code for feet and legs       0.10            -           -          -
14. Fore udder attachment         0.25          0.49        0.070      0.25
15. Rear udder height             0.26          0.53        0.070      0.34
16. Rear udder width              0.22          0.42        0.100      0.25
17.Udder cleft/support            0.22          0.53        0.050      0.17
18. Udder depth                   0.37          0.56        0.110      0.37
19 Teat length                    0.41          0.58        0.050      0.42
20 Teat thickness                 0.31          0.48          -        0.33
21 Teat placement (front)         0.20          0.37        0.040      0.41
22. Teat placement (back)         0.26          0.42        0.050      0.34
23. Udder balance                 0.17          0.41        0.040      0.17
26. Codes for extra teats         0.19            -           -          -
27. Codes for udder               0.12          0.28          -        0.18
28. Milking speed                 0.25            -         0.050      0.19
29. Temperament                   0.15            -         0.050      0.05
33. Leakage                       0.10            -         0.050        -
34. Weak tracks                   0.10            -           -          -
35. Straight tracks               0.15            -           -          -
37. Floor to middle of udder      0.46          0.62        0.100        -

 For Holstein and Ayrshire breeding values are estimated for all 33 traits. For Jersey
 breeding values are estimated for 26 traits.

                                                                                         39
7.1.9 Indices for body, feet & legs and mammary system
Linear traits are combined according to optimum and weights to composite indices for
body, feet & legs and mammary system. The contribution to the index is calculated as
the deviation of future daughters from the breed’s optimum for the linear trait in
question multiplied with the relative weight factor. As the bulls with the lowest average
deviation from the optimum for the breed are to obtain the highest contribution to the
index, the value is multiplied with -1 before the figure 100 is added. The index is
standardized to obtain a standard deviation of 10 for the sires in the base.

                     n
Index = 100 + s ×     ki × (PD_ LINi ÷ OPTIMUMi)
                    i=1

where
• PD_LINi                =    Predicted value of future daughters for the i’th trait included in
   the index
• OPTIMUM i              =    Optimum for the i’th trait
• s                           =                          Standardizing factor
• ki                          =                          Weight factor.

Optimum and weighting factors for the breeds are shown in table 33 and 34.

Table 33 Optimum for Holstein, Ayrshire, Red Holstein and Jersey
                                      Holstein Ayrshire Jersey Red Holstein2
1. Stature                     146      142              129        146
2. Body depth                   6        6                6         6.5
3. Chest width                 5.5       5                5          6
4. Dairy form                  6.5      5.5               7         5.5
5. Top line                     7        7                7          7
6. Rump width                   61       61               6          6
7. Rump angle                   5        5                5         5.2
8. Rear legs, side view         5        5                5          5
9. Rear legs, back rear view    8        8                9          9
10. Hock quality                9        9                9           9
11. Bone quality                8       7.5               9           7
12. Foot angle                 6.5       7               6.5         6.5
14. Fore udder attachment       9        9                9           9
15. Rear udder height           9        9                9           9
16. Rear udder width            9        9                9           9
17.Udder cleft/support          8        9                9           9
18. Udder depth                 9        9                9           9
19 Teat length                 5.5      5.5              5.5         4.5
20 Teat thickness              5.5       6                6          5.5
21 Teat placement (front)       81       81              7.5          8
22. Teat placement (back)       41       41               5           5
23. Udder balance    2          52       52               -           -
7a. Codes for rump                                                    0
27. Codes for udder                                                   0
1Optimum is related to Danish use of scale
2Optimum is related to Danish use of scale




                                                                                                   40
Table 34. Weight factors for Holstein, Ayrshire, Red Holstein and Fincattle
                               Holstein Ayrshire Jersey Red Holstein
1. Stature                       10       20        6         10
2. Body depth                    15       15       14         20
3. Chest width                   15       15       13         16
4. Dairy form                    15       10       10         15
5. Top line                      10       10       25         10
6. Rump width                    15       15       11         11
7. Rump angle                    20       15       11          8
8. Rear legs, side view          10       15       20         10
9. Rear legs, back rear view     30       25       20         15
10. Hock quality                 18       25       20         25
11. Bone quality                 17       10       15         20
12. Foot angle                   25       25       25         30
14. Fore udder attachment        14       20       25         18
15. Rear udder height            10        5        5         10
16. Rear udder width                       5
17.Udder cleft/support           10       12                  10
18. Udder depth                  24       20       35         18
19 Teat length                    5        5        3          6
20 Teat thickness                 7        5       12          6
21 Teat placement (front)         7        7       15         14
22. Teat placement (back)        13       11                   6
23. Udder balance                10       10
7a. Codes for rump                                 10         10
27. Codes for udder                                 5         12

The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 35. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is only based
on the trait in question.




                                                                                          41
Table 35. Correlation between conformation traits and index for body, feet&legs and
          mammary system
                            RDM          SDM-DH          Jersey          DRH
                                             Index for body
Stature
                             0.93          0.76           0.78           0.72

Body depth
                              0.54            0.37           0.69           0.37

Chest width
                              0.16            0.41           0.43           0.27

Dairy form
                              0.57            0.38           0.58           0.40

Top line
                              0.19            0.18           0.35           -0.01

Rump width
                              0.63            0.56           0.74           0.34

Rump angle
                              0.05            0.28           -0.08          0.00
                                             Index for feet & legs

Rear legs, side view
                              -0.50          -0.13           -0.51          0.00

Rear legs, rear view
                              0.77            0.78           0.39           0.49

Hock quality
                              0.54            0.41           0.53           0.75

Bone quality
                              0.58            0.47           0.43           0.70

Foot angle
                              0.41            0.39           0.54           0.13
                                         Index for mammary system

Fore udder attachment
                              0.78            0.69           0.86           0.75

Rear udder width
                              0.57            0.26           0.58           0.53

Rear udder height
                              0.59            0.47           0.59           0.55

Udder cleft
                              0.42            0.21           0.44           0.59

Udder depth
                              0.88            0.89           0.90           0.50

Teat length
                              0.29            0.19           0.16           -0.46

Teat thickness
                              0.34            0.09           0.07           -0.30

Teat placement (front)
                              0.22            0.18           0.55           0.68

Teat placement (back)
                                -             0.03           0.54           0.69

Udder balance
                                -              -               -              -


Base
The base population for all the linear traits and the composite traits are classified cows
born 3-5 years before publication date, e.g. if the publication date is 15 April 2005 then
the base population is cows born between 15 April 2000 and 15 April 2002.

Only cows from the breed in question are in the base population, e.g. for Ayrshire only
Ayrshire cows are in the base population and only cows from Sweden, Denmark and
Finland.



                                                                                          42
Standardization
The base population for all the linear traits and the composite traits for Ayrshire, Jersey
and Holstein are sires born in 1997 and 1998 with more than 30 classified daughters. Only
sires from the breed in question are in the base population, e.g. for Ayrshire only Ayrshire
sires are in the base population and only cows from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

The same standardization factors are used in every routine run – they are not
recalculated.

Standardization factors for Holstein are used when calculating indices for Holstein and
Red Holstein.

Publication
The calculations are made 7 times a year. The index for body, feet and legs and
mammary (krop, lemmer and malkeorganer in Danish) are published in “Avlsværdital
for Tyre”. EBV's are published if more than 15 daughters are classified for the trait in
question. Beside these two publications the results are available on the homepage of
The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (www.landscentret.dk) at
www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

7.1.10 S-index for bulls and cows
In Denmark all traits of economic importance are combined into a total merit index (S-
index).

Calculation method
The S-index is calculated on the basis of the relative breeding values for the traits in
question. Based on extensive economic considerations, each trait is given an economic
weight. These weights are translated into an economic value for each unit in the
breeding values for each individual trait. The weights used on each standardized sub
trait are shown in table 36.

                     n
S − index = 100 +          (breeding valuei ÷ 100) × weight factori
                    i =1



where
• Breeding valuei      = The breeding value of the i’th trait included in the calculation
                          of the S-index
• Weight factor        = The weight factor for the i’th trait
• The traits included in the calculation of the S-index and their weight factors are as
  shown in table 36.




                                                                                            43
Table 36. Economic weights for each subindex in the total merit index, dependent on
          breed
 Trait                           RDM           SDM-DH             JER             DRH

 Y-index                         0.80            0.81            0.95             1.0

 Beef production                 0.14            0.11            0.00             0.15

 Female fertility                0.20            0.21            0.22             0.18

 Birth index                     0.14            0.14            0.04             0.23

 Calving index                   0.10            0.14            0.08             0.20

 Mastitis resistance             0.47            0.34            0.31             0.40

 Other health traits             0.09            0.05            0.07             0.10

 Longevity                       0.15            0.14            0.17             0.20

 Body                            0.00            0.05            0.00             0.10

 Feet and legs                   0.14            0.13            0.11             0.15

 Mammary system                  0.10            0.21            0.22             0.35

 Milking speed                   0.17            0.14            0.05             0.15

 Temperament                     0.10            0.04            0.02             0.03



The expected progress of each trait expressed as a percentage of maximum progress
for that trait is shown in table 37. Maximum progress is obtained if selection is only based
on the trait in question.

Table 37. Correlation between all traits and the total merit index
                            RDM            SDM-DH           Jersey
Y-index
                            0.73              0.67            0.78

Beef production
                               0.11           0.18            0.10

Daughter fertility
                               0.15           0.18            0.13

Birth index
                               0.28           0.25            0.12

Calving index
                              -0.05           0.37           -0.07

Mastitis resistance
                               0.44           0.35            0.30

Other health traits
                               0.32           0.37            0.40

Longevity
                               0.45           0.36            0.36

Body
                              -0.09           0.13            0.00

Feet and legs
                               0.05           0.14            0.14

Mammary system
                               0.22           0.29            0.23

Milking speed
                               0.27           0.27            0.18

Temperament
                               0.15           0.04            0.27



                                                                                          44
Standard deviation
The standard deviation of the bulls’ S-index is 10. Due to the lower reliability of the cows’
breeding values the standard deviation of the cows’ S-index is lower.

Publication
The S-index of bulls is published in the same publication as the breeding values for
conformation and production traits. The index is also published on the homepage of
The Danish Agricultural Advisory Service (www.landscentret.dk) on
www.lr.dk/applikationer/kvaeg/avl/valg.asp.

Published indices for bulls of the dairy breeds
The names of the indices are shown both in Danish and in English in figures 1 and 2.




Figure 1 Presentation of Danish breeding values (Danish)




                                                                                           45
Figure 2 Presentation of Danish breeding values (English)


7.2 Beef cattle
For beef cattle sires’ estimates of breeding values for daily gain, area of the L.D. and
feed conversion efficiency are published following performance testing. Estimates of
breeding values for all animals are calculated 4 times a year. The results include on-
farm registrations of calving and weights, performance test results, conformation scores
as well as results obtained at the slaughterhouses.

7.2.1 Performance test
Testing scheme
Bulls are tested in the age interval from 8 to 13 months. They are fed a complete ad-lib
diet, weighed every four weeks, and their feed consumption is recorded throughout the
period. At the age of 10, 11 and 12 months the area of the L.D. is measured by means
of ultrasound.

Daily gain in the test period is calculated as:


         Body weight gained in test period (kg)
1000 ×
                     Days in test



Feed conversion efficiency is calculated as:


                       V
         98 × (15 +
                ,         ) + 5 × Body weight gained in test period
100 ×                 200
                                   SFUconsumed



where
• V = Average weight in test period
• SFU = Scandinavian feed units.




                                                                                       46
Calculation method
The T-index, U-index and the index for feed conversion efficiency (FEF-index) are
calculated by means of a BLUP single trait Animal Model.

The dependent variables of the models are:
• Weight at 8 months of age
• Body gain in test period
• Feed conversion efficiency
• Measurements of M. longissimus dorsi.

The fixed effects regarding weight at 8 months of age, body gain in test period and
feed conversion efficiency are:
• Birth year × birth season
• Breed
• Day of measurement (only ultrasound measurements)
• Weight (only ultrasound measurements).

The random effects are:
• Animal
• Residual.

Fixed effects
The fixed effects are included as classes except for weight, which is a regression.

Random effects
The basic parameters are shown in table 38.

Table 38. Heritability of traits
 Trait                                                          Heritability

 Weight at 8 months of age                                         0.27

 Body gain in test period                                          0.40

 Feed conversion efficiency                                        0.37

 Measurements of M. longissimus dorsi                              0.43



Genetic base
The breed averages for growth capacity and muscle area are based on all bulls having
completed their performance test within the last 24 months.

Standard deviation
·   T-index:   Approx. 5
·   U-index: Approx. 4
·   FEF-index: Approx. 4

Publication
Official T-, U- and FEF-indices are calculated once a week and the results are sent to
the owners of the individual animals. 4 times a year the indices are recalculated at
published on the central database. Performance test results can be found on
www.landscentret.dk/kvaeg/diverse/individ.pdf.




                                                                                         47
7.2.2 Estimation of breeding values
In beef cattle 7 standardized breeding values and a total merit index are published for
all animals. A survey of the total system is shown in figure 3.




Figure 3. Traits included in the calculation of breeding values

Data
Data included in the estimation of breeding values:
• On-farm recording of basic information on pedigree, calving, non-A.I.-breeding,
  trade and culling, calf mortality, calving ease and weight of beef cattle
• Results on daily gain and area of L.D. from performance test stations for bulls
• On-farm recording of calf mortality, calving ease and size of calf of dairy crosses
• Slaughterhouse information on carcass weight and EUROP-score of form of beef
  cattle and on dairy crosses
• Conformation scores.

Calculation method
An Animal Model is used to estimate all breeding values of all traits recorded for
purebred beef cattle. A modified version of the Animal Model is used for the traits
recorded on dairy crosses. All dairy crosses are considered repeated observations of
the sire and the genetic parameters are modified accordingly. The estimates are
calculated separately for 6 different breed groups and for 5 different groups of traits.

The breed groups are:
• Limousine (LIM), Blonde d'Aquitaine (BDA), Piemontese (PIE) and Belgian Blue (BBK)
• Hereford (HER)



                                                                                           48
• Charolais (CHA)
• Simmental (SIM), Brown Swiss (BRU), Grauvieh (GRA), Gelbvieh (GUL), Galloway (GAL)
  and Salers (SAL)
• Aberdeen Angus (ANG) and Shorthorn (DKK)
• Highland Cattle (HLC) and Dexter (DEX).

Table 39 and 40 lists the groups of traits. All groups of traits that include more than one
trait are evaluated by means of a multi-trait model. Table 39 and 40 also shows the
fixed and random effects (except residuals) that are included in the models.

Fixed effects
• Breed within breed group. When breed is included in this way, the dominant breed
   of the breed group determines the estimates of the other fixed effects
• Herd × year is assumed to be a fixed effect for all traits recorded on purebred
   animals. The performance test station is considered as one herd
• Season of calving is month of calving. Months with few calvings are pooled
• Age of dam is 1st, 2nd and subsequent calvings. Additionally, 1st calving is divided
   into sub-groups according to age at 1st calving
• Sex. Male or female
• Age of calf × sex is included for weight and carcass records, because there are large
   differences between animals for these traits
• Twin. Single or twin calf
• Breed of dam. This effect is only used for results from dairy crosses and includes effect
   of heterosis
• Artificial or natural insemination in model for calving interval. If a cow has been
   inseminated at least once it is classified in a special group. In addition, all calving
   intervals of donor cows are excluded from the calculations.

Random effects
• Herd × year. Very often only one or two dairy crosses are born in a dairy herd per
  year. Therefore this effect is considered random for all results on dairy crosses
• Permanent environmental effect is included for all maternal traits
• Maternal animal effect is an estimate of the maternal breeding value
• Direct animal effect is an estimate of the direct breeding value.

Pedigree is traced back as far as possible and genetic groups are formed. Only very
few genetic parameters has been estimated on Danish beef cattle records. The
genetic parameters of the models used to estimate breeding values are partly based
on analyses of other beef cattle populations. The genetic parameters were assumed to
be identical for all breeds. The genetic parameters are listed in table 41-46.

Sub-indices and total merit index
The estimates of breeding values are summarized into 7 sub-indices, 2 indices where
related indices are grouped and a total merit index as shown in figure 3. The indices are
calculated using the economic weights listed in table 47.

Standard deviation
The sub-indices and the total merit index are standardized to an average of 100 and a
standard deviation of 10 for all animals belonging to the base.

Base
A rolling base is used. The base includes all animals born 3-7 years before the
publication year.



                                                                                              49
Publication
The breeding values are calculated 4 times a year (February, May, August and
November) and are published on the homepage of The Danish Agricultural Advisory
Service (www.landscentret.dk) at
www.lr.dk/Applikationer/Kvaeg/avl/soeg/kodtyrvalg.asp and
www.lr.dk/Applikationer/Kvaeg/avl/soeg/kodkovalg.asp.




                                                                                  50
Table 39. Fixed and random effects in the Animal Model for estimation of breeding
          values
                                             Fixed effects                                                Random effects

                 Herd   Breed       Season        Sex      Ag       Age          Twin   Bre-       Herd    Per-      Di-    Ma-
                   x                                        e      of calf               ed         x      ma-      rect    ter-
                 year                                      of         x                  of        year    nent             nal
 Trait                                                     co       sex                 dam                env.
                                                           w

                                                         Fertility (single trait evaluation)

 Calving          +          +         +                   +                                                +                  +
 interval

                                                    Reproduction (single trait evaluation)

 Survival,        +          +         +          +        +                      +                         +        +         +
 3 month

                                                      Reproduction (multi trait evaluation)

 Survival at      +          +         +          +        +                      +                         +        +         +
 birth
 Calving ease     +          +         +          +        +                      +                         +        +         +
 Birth weight     +          +         +          +        +                      +                         +        +         +
 Survival,                   +         +          +        +                      +      +          +                +
 dairy crosses
 Calving ease,               +         +          +        +                      +      +          +                +
 dairy crosses
 Size,                       +         +          +        +                      +      +          +                +
 dairy crosses

                                                        Production (multi trait evaluation)

 Birth weight     +          +         +          +        +                      +                         +        +         +
 Weaning          +          +         +                   +          +           +                         +        +         +
 weight
 Yearling         +          +         +                   +          +           +                         +        +         +
 weight
 Daily gain                  +         +                   +          +           +                                  +
 Daily gain,      +          +         +                                                                             +
 performance
 test
 Daily gain,                 +         +                   +          +           +      +          +                +
 dairy crosses

                                                    Carcass-quality (multi trait evaluation)

 EUROP-score                 +         +                              +                             +                +
 Area of L.D.,    +          +         +                                                                             +
 performance
 test
 EUROP-score,                +         +                              +                             +       +        +
 dairy crosses



Table 40. Fixed and random effects in the Animal Model for estimation of breeding
          values for conformation (single trait)
                                                               Fixed effects                                 Random effects
                                 Breed x     Sea-         Sex       Calving age x       Interval from       Herd         Perma-
                                   sex        son                        sex              calving to         x            nent
 Trait                                                                                  classification      year          env.
 Body, muscle and feet and         x          x            x                 x                 x                x          x
 legs




                                                                                                                                   51
Table 41. Genetic parameters of reproduction traits, heritabilities on the diagonal,
          genetic correlations above the diagonal
                            MSU    MCE    MBW     DSU     DCE     DBW     DCSU    DCCE    DCSI
 Maternal survival, birth
                            0.04   0.30   0.00    -0.20   0.00    0.00    -0.10   0.00    0.00
 (MSU)
 Maternal calving ease
                                   0.10   -0.20   0.00    -0.20   0.00    0.00    -0.10   0.00
 (MCE)
 Maternal birth weight
                                          0.07    0.00    0.00    -0.20   0.00    0.00    -0.10
 (MBW)
 Direct survival, birth
                                                  0.08    0.20    0.00    0.70    0.10    0.00
 (DSU)
 Direct calving ease
                                                          0.10    -0.30   0.10    0.70    -0.15
 (DCE)
 Direct birth weight
                                                                  0.30    0.00    -0.15   0.70
 (BBW)
 Survival, dairy crosses
                                                                          0.08    0.16    0.00
 (DCSU)
 Calving ease, dairy
                                                                                  0.10    -0.10
 crosses
 (DCCE)
 Size, dairy crosses
                                                                                          0.15
 (DCSI)

 Permanent effect           0.01   0.02   0.03      -       -       -       -       -       -

 Herd x year effect          -      -       -       -       -       -     0.08    0.10    0.15


Table 42. Genetic parameters of production traits, heritabilities on the diagonal, genetic
          correlations above the diagonal
                            MBW    MWW    MYW     DBW     DWW     DYW     NDG     PDG     DCDG
 Maternal birth weight
                            0.12   0.38    0.21   -0.07   -0.01   -0.02   -0.03   0.08    0.07
 (MBW)
 Maternal weaning
                                   0.12    0.87   -0,09   -0.16   -0.11   -0.06   0.03    -0.06
 weight (MWW)
 Maternal yearling eight
                                           0.07   -0.06   -0.06   -0.13   -0.08   0.08    0.01
 (MYW)
 Direct birth weight
                                                   0.36    0.48   0.46    0.40    0.20    0.50
 (DBW)
 Direct weaning weight
                                                           0.27   0.85    0.34    0.31    0.55
 (DWW)
 Direct yearling weight
                                                                  0.27    0.48    0.44    0.51
 (DYW)
 Net daily gain
                                                                          0.22    0.59    0.40
 (NDG)
 Daily gain, performance
                                                                                  0.40    0.64
 test (PDG)
 Net daily gain, dairy
                                                                                          0.40
 crosses (DCDG)




                                                                                                  52
Table 43. Parameters for permanent environment (production traits) permanent
          environmental variation related to total variation on the diagonal, correlations
          above the diagonal
                                        BW     WW       YW      NDG      PDG       DCDG

 Birth weight (BW)                      0.06   0.26     0.07    0.09     0.00           0.00

 Weaning weight (WW)                           0.09     0.89    0.91     0.00           0.00

 Yearling weight (YW)                                   0.07    0.72     0.00           0.00

 Net daily gain (NDG)                                           0.05     0.00           0.00

 Daily gain, performance test (PDG)                                      0.00           0.00

 Net daily gain, dairy crosses (DCDG)                                                   0.00



Table 44. Genetic parameters of carcass traits, heritabilities on the diagonal, genetic
          correlations above the diagonal and environmental correlations below the
          diagonal
                                                  ES            AREA             DCES

 EUROP-score (ES)                                0.30           0.40             0.70

 Area of L.D. (AREA)                             0.00           0.45             0.28

 EUROP-score, dairy crosses (DCES)               0.00           0.00             0.21

 Herd x year                                        -            -               0.21



Table 45. Environmental correlations between reproduction traits
                                        SU     CE        BW     DCSU     DCCE       DCSI

 Survival (SU)                                 0.25     0.00     0.00    0.00           0.00

 Calving ease (CE)                                      -0.30    0.00    0.00           0.00

 Birth weight (BW)                                              0.000    0.00           0.00

 Survival, dairy crosses (DCSU)                                          0.25           0.00

 Calving ease, dairy crosses (DCCE)                                                 -0.30

 Size, dairy crosses (DCSI)


Table 46. Parameters for environment (production traits). Environmental variations
          related to total variation on the diagonal, correlations above the diagonal
                                         BW     WW        YW     NDG      PDG       DCDG

 Birth weight (BW)                      0.44    0.03     0.09    -0.17    0.00          0.00

 Weaning weight (WW)                            0.51     0.37     0.32    0.00          0.00

 Yearling weight (YW)                                    0.59     0.55    0.00          0.00

 Net daily gain (NDG)                                             0.66    0.00          0.00

 Daily gain, performance test (PDG)                                       0.90          0.00

 Net daily gain, dairy crosses (DCDG)                                                   0.60




                                                                                               53
Table 47. Relative (economic) weights used to calculate of the total merit index (December 2002)
                                                                                   Breed


                                   Unit    LIM    BBK, PIE   HER    CHA    SIM    DSH, ANG        HLC    DEX    BDA     SAL    BRU, GRA,
                                                                                                                                 GUL

 Calving interval                  days    -9.6     -9.6     -5,4   -9.0   -7.8     -8.3          -4.4   -5.2   -10.7   -5.1     -8.3

 Maternal survival, 3 months       calf    6631    5305      3717   5305   3062     4010          3893   4635   3501    3062     3257

 Maternal survival, birth          calf    6031    4825      3377   4830   2782     3650          3535   4208   3186    2782     2960

 Maternal calving ease             score   -625    -500      -500   -500   -342     -500          -690   -822   -333    -342     -364

 Maternal yearling weight           kg     8.1      4.1      8.2    4.9    7.5      4.1           8.8    10.5   6.0     9.3       6.9

 Maternal net body gain (beef)      kg     2,6      1,1      3.0    1.5    2.4      1.1           2.9    3.5    2.1     2.9       1.9

 Direct survival, 3 months         calf    5902    6631      3366   6631   4063     4440          2783   2961   3912    4063     4322

 Direct survival, birth            calf    5368    6031      3058   6031   3691     4036          2577   2688   3558    3691     3927

 Direct calving ease               score   -556    -625      -453   -625   -454     -554          -494   -525   -369    -454     -483

 Direct yearling weight             kg     2,8      7.8      1.5    5.2    8.2      4.0           1.2    1.7    7.3     4.0       9.1

 Direct net body gain (beef)        kg     0,9      3.1      0.4    1.4    3.2      1.3           0.2    0.3    2.8     1.6       3.7

 Direct net body gain (dairy)       kg     0,9      3.1      0.4    1.4    3.2      1.3           0.2    0.3    2.8     1.6       3.7

 Net body gain – performace test    kg     0,3      1.1      0.1    0.5    1.2      0.5           0.1    0.1    1.0     0.6       1.3

 EUROP classification              score   249      300      286    300    288      161            92    109    333     370      200

 Body                              score    33       0        40     0      0        0             33     0      66      54       0

 Muscularity                       score    33       0        54     0      0        0             25     0      66     135       0

 Feet & legs                       score    17       0        40     0      0        0             25     0      33      81       0




                                                                                             54
8. Conclusion

This publication describes the principles of the Danish breeding evaluation system as
per January 2006.

Continuous development may already have caused changes in the rules and the
examples mentioned. We therefore invite you to contact Danish Cattle Federation
(www.landscentret.dk) at the address below for further information or look at our
Internet homepage www.landscentret.dk/kvaeg/diverse/principles.pdf where the latest
updated version of this publication is available.

Papers from Danish contributions to international meetings can be found on
www.landscentret.dk/kvaeg/diverse/internationale_moder_avl.htm.

This publication contains only a description of the system and does not state the
genetic level. Information on the dairy- and beef breeds is available on
www.dansire.com

At the address below Danish Cattle Federation is situated and you can get further
details on breeding and production status and the possibilities of purchasing Danish
genetics.



Danish Agricultural Advisory Service, National Centre
Danish Cattle Federation
Udkaersvej 15, Skejby
DK-8200 Aarhus N

Phone    +45 87 40 50 00
Fax      +45 87 40 50 10
e-mail   dk@landscentret.dk




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