History of Semiconductor Technology and Its Future! by fzs18703

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									 Korean Scientific Cooperation Network with the European Research Area




History of Semiconductor Technology
            and Its Future!

               Prof. Soo-Won Kim
 College of Engineering, Korea University, Korea




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                               Contents
1. History of Semiconductor Technology
2. Semiconductor Companies
3. Market Share
4. Top Company in Each Fields
5. World Market of Semiconductor
6. Challenges
   6-1. New Application
   6-2. Eco-friendly Product

7. Green Technologies
   7-1. Passive method (Low Power, Standby Power)
   7-2. Active method (Solar Photovoltaics System, Green FAB.)




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 1. History of Semiconductor Technology
                   1950~70’s              1980’s                      1990’s                     2000’s
                 Transistor Era           IC Era                     VLSI Era                 ULSI/SoC Era
Gate Length        6.0 ~3.0um            2.0 ~1.0um                0.8 ~0.25um        0.18 ~0.13um          90 ~ 45nm
Memory Size          1K~16K               64K~16M                     64M~1G                         4G
      MPU           4bit~16bit           16bit~32bit               Pentium I~III       Pentium IV           Dual Core
     Power                                 12V~5V                     5V~2.5V                  1.8V~1.2V
  Wafer Size                               150mm                      200mm                         300mm



 Application

                                                                  Internet


    Memory                   SRAM            DRAM                            SDRAM                    DDR/XDR
                             ROM             PROM                            EEPROM                   NAND/NOR FLASH


                                            Memory                           Memory
Non-Memory
               Transistor                                                    Analog
                                            Analog
                [Discrete]          [Integrated]                      [Merged]                  [SoC, Fusion]

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2. Semiconductor Companies
                     1    Fabless Semi. Company(FSC)                          •   Qualcomm
                                                                              •   Nvidia
                         § Specialized Design Company                         •   Broadcom
                         § ASIC, ASSP, Design House                           •   SanDisk
                                                                              •   Marvell
                         § IP, Creative Technical Staff are needed
 Fabless




                         § Standard CAD Tool use
                                                                              •   TSMC
                     2    Foundry Company                                     •   UMC
                                                                              •   Chartered
                         § Wafer Manufacturing                                •   SMIC
                         § A greater initial capital investment               •   Vanguard
                         § Optimization of production process technology
                                                                              •   Amkor
                                                                              •   StatsChipPac
                     3    Assembly Company                                    •   ASE
 FAB




                         § Wafer assembling, Package                          •   Signetics
                                                                              •   ATK
                         § Accumulated experience is needed
 Assembly




                                                                              •   Intel
                     4    Integrated Device Manufacture (IDM)                 •   SSE
                                                                              •   TI
                         § Design, processing, assembling, marketing          •   Hynix
                         § Require large-scale R & D and capital investment   •   Toshiba



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3. Market Share


              Europe
                                                                                              Korea
                                                 Europe                          Europe
              12.2%                   US                                                      2.5%
                                                 10.0%                           12.8%
                       Korea         20.8%
 US                    11.2%
        Total Semi               Others       Memory                 US     System IC     Japan
46.4%   Production                9.6%       Production                     Production    24.8%
                     Japan                                  Korea   53.4%
                     21.5%           Japan                  43.1%                Others
           Others                    16.5%                                        6.5%
            8.7%



  Proportion of total               Proportion of total                 Proportion of total
 semi. product: 11.2%             memory product : 43.1%             system IC product : 2.5%
   30.7 USD Billion                  25.4 USD Billion                     5.3 Billion USD


 ※ Source : KSIA, Gartner 2008


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4. Top Company in Each Fields
                                  ’07 World Market
              Field                                                      ’07 M/S Top Company
                                    (USD Million)
        Analog                        17,622                          Texas Instrument (USA, 14.6%)
                                      12,902                               Xilinx (USA, 14.0%)
         Logic
                          DDI          7,050                            Samsung (Korea, 18.4%)
                                      59,046                            Samsung (Korea, 27.6%)
                       DRAM           31,848                            Samsung (Korea, 27.3%)
  IC
                       SRAM            1,412                            Samsung (Korea, 32.4%)
        Memory
                    NAND Flash        15,448                            Samsung (Korea, 38.3%)
                      NOR Flash        6,817                             Spansion (USA, 26.9%)
                       EPROM            335                                Oki (Japan, 77.9%)
                  Micro               48,984                               Intel (USA, 54.4%)
            Discrete                  17,421                              Toshiba (Japan, 8.2%)
              Opto                    22,726                              Sharp (Japan, 10.2%)
             Sensor                    2,724                          Robert Bosch (Germany,17.1%)

※ Source : Gartner 2008
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5. World Market of Semiconductor
(USD Billion)           4 years!
     350                                              4 years!                                                            50.0%
           41.2%                                                                                                    308
                                            36.8%                                                                         40.0%
     300                                                                                4 years!             283
                                                                                                      268
                                                                          28.0%                                           30.0%
                                                                                         248   256
     250
                                18.9%                             18.3%           228                                     20.0%
                                                                           213
                                             204
     200                                                                          6.8% 8.9%
                                                                                                      4.7%               10.0%
                        4.0%                           1.3%                                    2.3%                   6.6%
                                                                   166
                                      149                                                                    5.2%
     150 144                                                141                                                           0.0%
                        137                         139
                 132           126
                -8.4%                                                                                                     -10.0%
     100                      -8.4%

                                                                                                                          -20.0%
      50
                                                                                                                          -30.0%
                                                   -32.0%
       0                                                                                                                  -40.0%
           1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
           ※ Source : WSTS, KSIA (2008)
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6. Challenges
                                                                   New
                                                                 Application
                                                                   (6-1)
        Density
        Net Die
      Performance

    Power Consumption
      Time to Market
          Cost

                                                                 Eco-friendly
                                                                  Product
                                                                    (6-2)
                Current                                 Future
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6-1. Current Technology (1)




   ENIAC (1st Computer)




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6-1. Current Technology (2)




                                                      Covering material converts
  Cellular phone in Beam Project
                                                        sunlight to electricity.

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6-2. Why Eco-friendly Technology? (1)
1930
                                                             Just
                                                             78 years!

                         2008


※ The glacier Viedma,
            Argentina


                                                                      Future!
                                                                    Sustainable?

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6-2. Eco-friendly Company (2)                    Time Poll
                                                 Our now poll finds that Americans are embracing values of
                                                 personal responsibility and community service

                                                  68%               Think most American do not live up to
                                                                    their responsibilities as citizens
                                                  Agree that businesses...               Don’t know/
                                                                                         no answer
                                                                             9%
                                                                                  49%
                                                                          42%
                                                 Can’t be trusted to                    Will make socially
                                                 make socially                          responsible
                                                 responsible decisions-                 decisions without the
                                                 It’s up to government                  government telling
                                                 to make sure they do.                  them what to do.
                                                  Are you willing to pay more in federal taxes to provide
                                                  universal health-care coverage for all Americans?
                                                                50%
                                                                              46%

                                                                                           5%
                                                                                        Don’t know/
                                                              Yes             No        no answer

                                                   Would you rather buy a car that gets 25 m.p.g or a
                                                   smaller cat that gets 35 m.p.g but costs $2,000 more?
                                                               78%


                                                                             15%           7%
                                                            35 m.p.g.     25 m.p.g.    Don’t know/
                                                                                        no answer
                                                         but $2,000 more


                                                        46%
                                                                    Think the government should require
                                                                    stores to charge for plastic bags to
                                                                    encourage use of reusable bags
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6-2. Eco-friendly IT Company (3)                    2008.09




                                                    2009.03




                                                    2009.06




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7-1. Low Power Methodology




          Convergence


                                                           Low Power Methodologies
                                                       Intelligence energy management system
                                                            Power domains, Voltage isIands
                                                                 Mixed Vt, Clock gating
                                                           Low power processes, Vt options

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 7-1. Standby Power
                                                    Plasma TV
                                                                    1,452.4 KWh ($203.28)

                                                    Computer                      311.0 KWh ($43.54)

                                                     Game
                                                     Console                                         233.9 KWh ($32.75)

                                                    Laptop                                          144.5 KWh ($20.23)


                                                    Set Top Box                      93.7 KWh ($13.12)


                                                    VCR                              92.0 KWh ($12.88)


                                                    DVD                           78.8 KWh ($11.03)


                                                    CRT Monitor                  63.1 KWh ($8.83)


                                                    Modems                     38.5 KWh ($5.39)


                                                    Cordless                  28.9 KWh ($4.05)
                                                    Phone station

                                                    LCD Monitor               22.8 KWh ($3.19)
※ Source : 2005 Intrusive Residential
Standby Service Report.
                                                    Radio                  13.1KWh ($1.83)


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7-2. Primary Energy in the Future! (1)
                                                                              Surface Solar Energy :          1.25 × 1014KW
                      2,000
                                                                              Energy Consumption per 1 Year : 1.00 × 1010KW



                      1,600
Primary energy [EJ]




                      1,200                                                            Solar electricity
                                                                                       & Solar hydrogen

                       800                 Nuclear                 Others

                                                                 Gas
                       400
                                                                 Oil

                         0                                       Coal
                              2000           2020         2040                2060             2080              2100
                                                                  Year
                  ※ Source : WBGU 2003, Climate Protection Strategies for the 21st Century: Kyoto and beyond.
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7-2. Solar Photovoltaics (PV) System (2)




                        DC                                   AC


     Solar Cell
                                          Power
                                       Conditioning
                                       System (PCS)

                   Storage Battery

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7-2. Green FAB.

                  Average Electricity Usage
   Company
                          (KWh)
                                                           It’s time to be Greener
   Samsung              486,687,600
    Hynix               479,686,887




                                                                         Trabzon
                                                                       (220,000 people)



                                                   Turkey



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7-2. Example of Green FAB. (1)
                                 Research & Development (R&D)
                                     Challenge 1 : Green IT
                                     Challenge 2 : Green Process/Facility
                                     Challenge 3 : Green Utility
       R&D

                                 Green Fabrication Facility
  Green      Center                  Green Semiconductor Process
   FAB.                              Green Display Process


                                 Center
                                     Industry-Academic-Research collaboration
                                     Professional Training

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                                1st flow : Greenhouse gas
              challenge 1                                    challenge 2

                                                                                     1.3 Energy Savings IT



1.1 FAB Process Management IT     in bound                                                             customers
                                 2.3 Green Equipment Development

pre-process
                                                                                           products


    pre process
                                    processes      2.1 Green Semiconductor Process
                                                   2.2 Green Display Process
              materials
                                                  FAB
                                                                                     1.2 FAB Utility Manament IT

                                                                                     3.1. Hazardous materials handling
                                                                                     3.2. Reuse of hazardous substances
                2nd flow : Resources
                                                                         3rd flow : Hazardous Substances
                                         inputs        by-products
                          out bound          challenge 3
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                         Conclusion

From Good to Best
Good Price & Quality                   Best Quality and Eco friendliness


      Good                                           Eco-Friendly
    company                                           Company

                                            - Low Power Technology
                                            - Reducing the standby power
                                            - Solar Photovoltaics (PV) System
                                            - Green FAB.

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 Thank You!

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