MARKET SURVEY REPORT by qza17959

VIEWS: 83 PAGES: 11

									REPUBLIQUE DU RWANDA




MINISTERE DE L’AGRICULTURE                                        UNION EUROPEENNE
ET DES RESSOURCES ANIMALES                                          B.P. 515 KIGALI
 B.P. 621 KIGALI
Projet Market Information System (MIS)




                             MARKET SURVEY REPORT


Introduction

       The market survey was conducted in 41 major markets in Rwanda on the daily
prices of the key commodities 47 variables in Rwanda. About 47 consumer
goods/commodities including farm inputs/outputs, cost of labour, energy consumption
was collected on daily basis by enumerators. The exercise has been going on over the
years except 2004/2005 due to the constraints of resources in those two years. We
envisage the data would go a long way in assisting policy makers in country take
decision knowing the actual cost and availability/affordability of the consumer goods
to the population in various regions of the country.

       The data has been analyzed on monthly basis at the country level to see the
global picture. This later on was disaggregated to regional level to look at the regional
variations. Only 12 key commodities were considered, i.e. starchy staples (maize,
sorghum, irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and cooking bananas), legumes
(beans, garden peas and groundnuts) and vegetables (cabbages, tomato and onion).
These commodities were selected based on their regular use in Rwandan daily dietary
needs. Monthly averages have been plotted on line-graphs (2007) and bar-graph
(2006) to show trends at the country, then at regional (province) levels. Data
covering a period of 22 months was used (split into two years) to be able to compare
monthly prices of 2007 over last year’s prices.




                                           1
COUNTRY LEVEL

Prices of starchy staples were very high at the beginning of the year, but started
reducing gradually from the second quarter up to the third quarter when they were
at their lowest level (Fig 1).. For example sorghum’s price in January, 2007 was Frw
195.00 compared to Frw 121.00 the previous year; sweet potato Frw 107.00 compared
to Frw 58.00 in 2006; cassava Frw 181.00 compared to Frw 123.00 in 2006 (Fig.1)
Starchy staples complement each other; for example whenever there is a shortage of
Irish potatoes which necessitate prices increase, the consumers shift to cooking
banana or sweet potatoes or cassava depending on the area of the country. This
causes high demand for the substituted starchy staple and hence price increases
(Unpubl. data, banana market survey (IITA/ISAR), 2007). This partially explains the
reason for joint increases and/or reductions of prices in starch staples.
The reverse was observed in the legumes (beans and garden peas), where the prices
were not only higher in 2007 compared to 2006 but started in January, 2007 at
higher levels and continued to rise in the whole year round. The prices for groundnuts
were higher than last year but stable the whole year. The reason for high prices in
legumes was probably due to serious drought that was experienced in months of
September and October 2006 at the time of establishment and exceptionally heavy
rains in December 2006 and January, 2007 at the harvesting time (Fig 7). Overall
prices of vegetables in 2007 were comparable to those in 2006.

PROVINCIAL LEVEL ANALYSES

WESTERN PROVINCE

The price trends for western province were similar to the country level averages as
described above in most commodities except in garden peas where price were high
but stable for first two quarters of the year before they shot up (Fig 2). Prices of
onions and tomatoes were higher than last year in the first quarter of the year then
reduced to sell below last year’s price.



EASTERN PROVINCE

In the eastern province the average price of one kilogram of sorghum was highest
(Frw 176.00) among starchy staples and was consistently higher compared to the
previous year. We also had consistently higher prices than previous year for beans,
irish potatoes, groundnuts, onions, cassava and tomatoes. There was a sharp increase
in prices of tomatoes in April, 2007 at the onset of rain in the region probably due

                                          2
scarcity of the commodity in the markets (Fig 3). Prices of maize and sweet potatoes
were highest in the first quarter of the year but reduced considerably in the second
quarter to the levels below last year’s. Prices for cooking bananas dropped below last
year’s in the third quarter of the year. Again we find price of legumes rising unabated
in the whole year (Fig 3). Drought at establishment followed by heavy rains at
harvesting in season A of 2007 definitely caused the shortage and hence the increase
in prices due to high demand and limited supplies (Fig 7).

SOUTHERN PROVINCE

In the southern province, price of maize, sorghum and sweet potatoes were highest
up to April 2007 before they gradually reduced to lower levels than last year’s. With
exception of beans, maize, Irish potato, groundnuts and garden peas the prices of the
remaining commodities have much lower prices since start of the fourth quarter of
2007 compared to the last year’s price (Fig4). Prices of vegetables were stable.

NORTHERN PROVINCE

In the Northern Province prices of sorghum, sweet potatoes, cassava, irish potatoes,
groundnuts, cooking bananas, cabbages and garden peas were higher than last years
but stable in the whole year (Fig 5). The prices of onion and tomatoes were compared
to last years but remain relatively stable. As seen in other province prices of beans
and garden peas remained high the whole year. In this province unlike others we find
prices being relatively stable due favourable weather and its proximity to markets.

KIGALI CITY



Prices of starchy staples in Kigali city were again much higher in 2007 than last year’s
(Fig 6). Generally fresh cassava data was not captured in 2006 but this anomaly was
addressed this year. However most data captured is on processed cassava. The prices
of most crops in the city did not change sharply compared to those in provinces with
exception of legumes. Part of the reason could be attributed to consumers
knowledgeable who are able to bargain for a reasonable price. The other possibility is
that supply of the commodities consumed in Kigali comes from all provinces as well as
neighboring countries. These tend to stabilize the prices and hence ensure the cost
of living is maintained at reasonable level. The final possibility is that there are many
traders who compete for customers and as such they are forced to keep prices low.




                                           3
CONCLUSION

The prices of food commodities in the first quarter of 2007 were much higher than
in 2006. Possible reason was due drought that was experienced at the planting of
2007 season A and excessive wet weather at harvesting time. But in the last quarter
of 2007 prices of starchy staple were slightly lower than those of 2006 in the same
period. However, the prices of beans and garden peas are still higher than those of
2006 for the whole year round. We had relatively higher variability of prices
southern and eastern provinces compared to those experienced in western, northern
and Kigali city.




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    Fig. 1. Overall average price of 12 crops; key: Line graph 2007 data; Bar-chart 2006 data
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    Fig 2. Average price of 12 crops for Western province; Key: Line graph 2007 data; bar-chart 2006
                                                                                                                         Onion                             Groundnut                                   Irish potato                                   Maize                                  Bean                                 Sorghum




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    Fig 3. Average price of 12 crops for Eastern province; Key: Line graph 2007 data; bar-chart 2006
                                                                                                                          Onion                             Groundnut                                   Irish potato                                   Maize                                  Bean                                 Sorghum




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ja




                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                    100
                                                                                                                            200
                                                                                                                                   300
                                                                                                                                         400
                                                                                                                                                         0
                                                                                                                                                       100
                                                                                                                                                       200
                                                                                                                                                       300
                                                                                                                                                       400
                                                                                                                                                       500
                                                                                                                                                       600
                                                                                                                                                       700
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ja




                                                                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                    20
                                                                                                                                                                                                    40
                                                                                                                                                                                                    60
                                                                                                                                                                                                    80
                                                                                                                                                                                                   100
                                                                                                                                                                                                   120
                                                                                                                                                                                                   140
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         n                                     n
                                                                                                         jan                                    jan                                         jan                                      fe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       b                                   fe                                          jan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             b
                                                                                                        feb                                    feb                                         feb                                       m                                     m                                          feb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ar                                    ar
                                                                                                        mar                                    mar                                         mar                                        ap                                    ap                                        mar

                                                                                                         ap                                     ap                                                                                   m                                     m                                           ap
                                                                                                                                                                                            ap                                        ay                                    ay
                                                                                                        may                                    may                                         may                                        ju                                    ju                                        may
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         n                                     n
                                                                                                         jun                                    jun                                         jun                                        ju                                    ju                                        jun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          l                                     l
                                                                                                          jul                                    jul                                         jul                                     au                                    au                                           jul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        g                                     g
                                                                                                        aug                                    aug                                         aug                                       se                                    se                                         aug
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       pt                                    pt
                                                                                                        sept                                   sept                                        sept                                       oc                                    oc                                        sept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         t                                     t
                                                                                                         oct                                    oct                                         oct                                      no                                    no                                          oct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        v                                     v
                                                                                                        nov                                    nov                                         nov                                       de                                    de                                         nov
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        c                                     c
                                                                                                        dec                                    dec                                         dec                                                                                                                        dec




8
                                                                                                                          Tomato                                Cabbage                                Garden peas                            Cooking Banana                                 Cassava                              Sweet potato
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                250




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              140
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   200




                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                    100
                                                                                                                            200
                                                                                                                                   300
                                                                                                                                         400
                                                                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                                                           20
                                                                                                                                                                40
                                                                                                                                                                     60
                                                                                                                                                                          80
                                                                                                                                                                               100
                                                                                                                                                                                     120
                                                                                                                                                                                                   0
                                                                                                                                                                                                       100
                                                                                                                                                                                                             200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ja
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                         jan                                    jan                                         jan                                       jan                                  fe                                          jan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             b
                                                                                                        feb                                    feb                                         feb                                       feb                                   m                                          feb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ar
                                                                                                        mar                                    mar                                         mar                                       mar                                    ap                                        mar

                                                                                                         ap                                     ap                                          ap                                         ap                                  m                                           ap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ay
                                                                                                        may                                    may                                         may                                       may                                    ju                                        may
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                         jun                                    jun                                         jun                                       jun                                                                              jun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ju
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                l
                                                                                                          jul                                    jul                                         jul                                       jul                                 au                                           jul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              g
                                                                                                        aug                                    aug                                         aug                                       aug                                   se                                         aug
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             pt
                                                                                                        sept                                   sept                                        sept                                      sept                                   oc                                        sept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               t
                                                                                                         oct                                    oct                                         oct                                       oct                                  no                                          oct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              v
                                                                                                        nov                                    nov                                         nov                                       nov                                   de                                         nov
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              c
                                                                                                        dec                                    dec                                         dec                                       dec                                                                              dec




    Fig 4. Average price of 12 crops for Southern province; Key: Line graph 2007 data; bar-chart 2006
                                                                                                                         Onion                                Groundnut                         Irish potato                                             Maize                                      Bean                                      Sorghum




    data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       250

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ja




                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                 50
                                                                                                                100
                                                                                                                150
                                                                                                                200
                                                                                                                250
                                                                                                                300
                                                                                                                350
                                                                                                                                                            0
                                                                                                                                                          100
                                                                                                                                                          200
                                                                                                                                                          300
                                                                                                                                                          400
                                                                                                                                                          500
                                                                                                                                                          600
                                                                                                                                                          700
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ja




                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                50
                                                                                                                                                                                                          100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      n                                              n
                                                                                                         jan                                      jan                              jan                                            fe                                             fe                                           jan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    b                                              b
                                                                                                        feb                                      feb                                                                              m                                              m                                           feb
                                                                                                                                                                                  feb                                              ar                                             ar
                                                                                                        mar                                      mar                              mar                                              ap                                             ap                                         mar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  m                                              m                                            ap
                                                                                                         ap                                       ap                               ap                                              ay                                             ay

                                                                                                        may                                      may                              may                                              ju                                             ju                                         may
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      n                                              n
                                                                                                         jun                                      jun                              jun                                              ju                                             ju                                         jun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       l                                              l
                                                                                                          jul                                      jul                              jul                                           au                                             au                                            jul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     g                                              g
                                                                                                        aug                                      aug                              aug                                             se                                             se                                          aug
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pt                                             pt
                                                                                                        sept                                     sept                             sept                                             oc                                             oc                                         sept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      t                                              t
                                                                                                         oct                                      oct                              oct                                            no                                             no                                           oct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     v                                              v
                                                                                                        nov                                      nov                              nov                                             de                                             de                                          nov
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     c                                              c
                                                                                                        dec                                      dec                              dec                                                                                                                                        dec




9
                                                                                                                         Tomato                                Cabbage                         Garden peas                                     Cooking Banana                                      Cassava                               Sweet potato




                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                              20
                                                                                                                                                                   40
                                                                                                                                                                        60
                                                                                                                                                                             80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       250




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       120




                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                    50
                                                                                                                         100
                                                                                                                               150
                                                                                                                                     200
                                                                                                                                           250
                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                              100
                                                                                                                                                                                                    200
                                                                                                                                                                                                          300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            600
                                                                                                                                                  ja                                                                                                                              ja
                                                                                                                                                     n                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                         jan                                      fe                               jan                                             jan                                           fe                                           jan
                                                                                                                                                    b                                                                                                                              b
                                                                                                        feb                                      m                                feb                                             feb                                            m                                           feb
                                                                                                                                                  ar                                                                                                                              ar
                                                                                                        mar                                       ap                              mar                                             mar                                             ap                                         mar

                                                                                                         ap                                      m                                 ap                                               ap                                           m                                            ap
                                                                                                                                                  ay                                                                                                                              ay

                                                                                                        may                                       ju                              may                                             may                                             ju                                         may
                                                                                                                                                     n                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                         jun                                                                       jun                                             jun                                                                                        jun
                                                                                                                                                   ju                                                                                                                              ju
                                                                                                                                                      l                                                                                                                               l
                                                                                                          jul                                    au                                 jul                                             jul                                          au                                            jul
                                                                                                                                                    g                                                                                                                               g
                                                                                                        aug                                      se                               aug                                             aug                                            se                                          aug
                                                                                                                                                   pt                                                                                                                              pt
                                                                                                        sept                                      oc                              sept                                            sept                                            oc                                         sept
                                                                                                                                                     t                                                                                                                               t
                                                                                                         oct                                     no                                oct                                             oct                                           no                                           oct
                                                                                                                                                    v                                                                                                                               v
                                                                                                        nov                                      de                               nov                                             nov                                            de                                          nov
                                                                                                                                                    c                                                                                                                               c
                                                                                                        dec                                                                       dec                                             dec                                                                                        dec




    Fig 5. Average price of 12 crops for Northern province; Key: Line graph 2007 data; bar-chart 2006
                                                                                                                           Onion                                           Groundnut                                Irish potato                           Maize                                       Bean                                     Sorghum




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             250
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  250
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        300



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ja




                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                    100
                                                                                                                           200
                                                                                                                                       300
                                                                                                                                              400
                                                                                                                                                    500
                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                       200
                                                                                                                                                                                 400
                                                                                                                                                                                        600
                                                                                                                                                                                                  800
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ja




                                                                                                                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             n                                         n
                                                                                                         jan                                               jan                                           jan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         fe                                        fe                                           jan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           b                                         b
                                                                                                        feb                                               feb                                                                            m                                         m                                           feb
                                                                                                                                                                                                        feb                               ar                                        ar
                                                                                                        mar                                               mar                                           mar                               ap                                        ap                                         mar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         m                                         m                                            ap
                                                                                                         ap                                                ap                                            ap                               ay                                        ay

                                                                                                        may                                               may                                           may                               ju                                        ju                                         may
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             n                                         n
                                                                                                         jun                                               jun                                           jun                                                                                                                    jun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ju                                        ju
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              l                                         l
                                                                                                          jul                                               jul                                           jul                            au                                        au                                            jul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            g                                         g
                                                                                                        aug                                               aug                                           aug                              se                                        se                                          aug
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           pt                                        pt
                                                                                                        sept                                              sept                                          sept                              oc                                        oc                                         sept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             t                                         t
                                                                                                         oct                                               oct                                           oct                             no                                        no                                           oct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            v                                         v
                                                                                                        nov                                               nov                                           nov                              de                                        de                                          nov
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            c                                         c
                                                                                                        dec                                               dec                                           dec                                                                                                                    dec




10
                                                                                                                           Tomato                                          Cabbage                                  Garden peas                   Cooking Banana                                      Cassava                              Sweet potato
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            250
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            350




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   40
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  140
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        200




                                                                                                                0
                                                                                                                     100
                                                                                                                                 200
                                                                                                                                             300
                                                                                                                                                    400
                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                                                                                            40
                                                                                                                                                                                 60
                                                                                                                                                                                       80
                                                                                                                                                                                            100
                                                                                                                                                                                                  120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                300
                                                                                                                                                                                                                400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                700
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ja
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       n
                                                                                                         jan                                               jan                                           jan                              jan                                      fe                                           jan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     b
                                                                                                        feb                                               feb                                           feb                              feb                                       m                                           feb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ar
                                                                                                        mar                                               mar                                           mar                              mar                                        ap                                         mar

                                                                                                         ap                                                ap                                            ap                                ap                                      m                                            ap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ay

                                                                                                        may                                               may                                           may                              may                                        ju                                         may
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       n
                                                                                                         jun                                               jun                                           jun                              jun                                                                                   jun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ju
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        l
                                                                                                          jul                                               jul                                           jul                              jul                                     au                                            jul
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      g
                                                                                                        aug                                               aug                                           aug                              aug                                       se                                          aug
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     pt
                                                                                                        sept                                              sept                                          sept                             sept                                       oc                                         sept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       t
                                                                                                         oct                                               oct                                           oct                              oct                                      no                                           oct
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      v
                                                                                                        nov                                               nov                                           nov                              nov                                       de                                          nov
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      c
                                                                                                        dec                                               dec                                           dec                              dec                                                                                   dec




     Fig 6. Average price of 12 crops for Kigali City; Key: Line graph 2007 data; bar-chart 2006 data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Millimeters
                                                                                      Millimeters                                                                 Millimeters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         millimeter




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                250
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                se




                                                                                                                                                              0
                                                                                                                                                                  50
                                                                                                                                                                               100
                                                                                                                                                                                              150
                                                                                                                                                                                                        200




                                                                                        0
                                                                                       50
                                                                                      100
                                                                                      150
                                                                                      200
                                                                                      250
                                                                      se                                                                       se                                                                                 p t.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         -0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         250
                                                                        p t.
                                                                               -0
                                                                                                                                                  pt.
                                                                                                                                                       -0                                                                                   6                                                             se
                                                                                  6                                                                       6                                                                       oc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              pt.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     t-                                                                              6
                                                                        oc                                                                       oc                                                                                     06
                                                                           t- 0                                                                      t-0                                                                                                                                                     oc
                                                                                6                                                                         6                                                                      no                                                                              t-0
                                                                       no                                                                       no                                                                                   v-0                                                                             6
                                                                           v-0                                                                       v-0                                                                                  6                                                                 no
                                                                                6                                                                         6                                                                      dé                                                                             v- 0
                                                                       dé                                                                       dé                                                                                   c-0                                                                             6
                                                                           c-0                                                                       c-0                                                                                  6                                                                 dé
                                                                                6                                                                         6                                                                     jan                                                                             c- 0
                                                                      jan                                                                      ja n                                                                                  v-0                                                                             6
                                                                           v-0                                                                       v-0                                                                                  7                                                                jan
                                                                                7                                                                         7                                                                     Fe                                                                              v-0
                                                                      Fe                                                                       Fe                                                                                  br
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -0                                                                            7
                                                                         br
                                                                             -0
                                                                                                                                                  br
                                                                                                                                                       -0                                                                                7                                                                Fe
                                                                               7                                                                          7                                                                     ma                                                                            br
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  -0
                                                                      ma                                                                       ma                                                                                  rs-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        07                                                                           7
                                                                         rs-                                                                      rs-                                                                                                                                                     ma
                                                                              07                                                                        07                                                                                                                                                    r s-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  av                                                                                07
                                                                        av                                                                       av                                                                                  r-0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7




                                                                                                                                                                                                              Gisenyi station




                                                                                                                              Rubona station
                                                                           r-0                                                                       r-0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kigali airport station




                                                                                                                                                          7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kamembe station




                                                                                7                                                                                                                                                ma                                                                          av
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                r-0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     7




11
                                                                       ma                                                                       ma                                                                                    i-0
                                                                            i-0                                                                       i-0                                                                                 7
                                                                                7                                                                         7                                                                      jui                                                                        ma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    n-                                                                           i- 0
                                                                                                                                                ju i                                                                                                                                                                 7




     Fig 7. Rainfall data for selected sites in Season A and B 2007
                                                                       jui                                                                          n-                                                                                  07
                                                                          n-                                                                            07
                                                                              07                                                                                                                                                                                                                            jui
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                n-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Periode average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Periode average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Average(1964-91)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Average(1958-91)




                                                                                                                                                                   Periode average




                                                                                         Periode average
                                                                                                                                                                                     Average(1974-91)




                                                                                                           Average(1988-91)

								
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