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A comprehensive guide to conditional sentences

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A comprehensive guide to conditional sentences Powered By Docstoc
					Conditional Sentences have two main forms
If condition, result. Result if condition.

Notice the COMMA in the first form.

A condition can be of two kinds




Possible (Realistic) If I work hard, … If you get up early in the morning, … If my father lends me the money, … Unreal (Impossible or Improbable) If I were a girl, … If I won the lottery, … If you weren’t taking an exam tomorrow, …

For a possible condition the result may be definite
Definite Result ( Type 0 ) If you heat ice, it melts. If you go 10 meters under water, the pressure increases to two atmospheres. Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air.


Structure: If Clause: Main Clause:

If + Subject + Simple Present Verb Subject + Simple Present Verb

For a possible condition the result may be probable
Probable Result ( Type 1 ) If you cook lunch, I will wash the dishes. If it doesn’t rain, we can go camping. She will really be sad if you leave so early.


Structure: If Clause: Main Clause:

If + Subject + Simple Present Verb Subject + will or can + Verb

For unreal conditions the formation of the clauses depends on time
There are 9 different forms Condition Result

Past Present Future

Past Present Future

If past condition, past result.
If I had been more serious about my education at college, I could have graduated with better grades. They would have won the match if they had practiced harder.

Structure: If Clause: Main Clause:

If + Subject + Past Perfect Verb Subject + Would or Could + Have + PP

If past condition, present result.
If I had graduated with better grades, I would be more self-confidant. I would have more job opportunities if I had taken French classes in high school. If I had taken better care of my bike, I wouldn’t be fixing it right now.

Structure: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Perfect Verb Main Clause: Subject + Would or Could + Verb Subject + Would or Could + Be + Gerund

If past condition, future result.
If I had graduated with better grades, I would apply for the sales manager position tomorrow. I wouldn’t be moving to Tehran next month if I had found a good job in Mashhad.

Structure: If Clause: Main Clause:

If + Subject + Past Perfect Verb Subject + Would or Could + Verb Subject + Would or Could + Be + gerund

If present condition, past result.
If I were rich, she would have accepted to marry me. They wouldn’t have rejected my job application if I spoke English more fluently.

Structure: If Clause: Main Clause:

If + Subject + Past Simple Verb Subject + Would or Could + Have + PP

If present condition, present result.
If I were happy with my current job, I wouldn’t be looking for a new one. Your students would study harder if were more strict.

Structure: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Simple Verb Main Clause: Subject + Would or Could + Verb Subject + Would or Could + Be + Gerund

If present condition, future result.
If I didn’t have so much work to do, I would be going camping with you tomorrow. If John were more experienced, the company would send him to the conference instead of me next month.

Structure: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Simple Verb Main Clause: Subject + Would or Could + Verb Subject + Would or Could + Be + Gerund

If future condition, past result.
If I weren't going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work. If my parents weren't coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of us to Kish Island.
Structure: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Continuous Verb Main Clause: Subject + Would or Could + Have + PP

If future condition, present result.
If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited. If Lisa were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be practicing hard now.

Structure: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Continuous Verb Main Clause: Subject + Would or Could + Verb Subject + Would or Could + Be + Gerund

If future condition, future result.
If I weren’t attending an important meeting next week, I would take a trip to Hawaii this weekend. She would be leaving in an hour if Jacob weren’t coming to the party.

Structure: If Clause: If + Subject + Past Continuous Verb Main Clause: Subject + Would or Could + Verb Subject + Would or Could + Be + Gerund

Unreal Conditionals Summery
Condition Time Tense Time Tense
Time Tense

Result Past W or C + Have + PP Present W or C + Verb / W or C + Be + Gerund
Future W or C + Verb / W or C + Be + Gerund

Past Past Perfect Present Past Simple
Future Past Continuous


				
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