Effect of Manufacturing Processes on Chemical Contaminants by yfh14810

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									Effect of Manufacturing
     Processes on
Chemical Contaminants
       Linda A. Benjamin, PhD


            Presented To:
      Animal Feed Safety System
             Public Meeting
        Gaithersburg, Maryland
             May 22, 2007
Exposure to Contaminants in Feeds
and Feed Ingredients – Factors
   Levels in raw and processed feed ingredients
       – Karen Ekelman
   Level changes during processing of feed ingredients
       – Linda Benjamin
   Levels in finished feeds
       – Phares Okelo
   Level changes during storage, transportation and feeding
       – Phares Okelo
   Amount consumed by swine
       – Barry Hooberman
   Amount consumed by humans
       – Barry Hooberman
AFSS Big Picture




                                         Animal   Human
                                         Health   Health


      Animal Feed Safety System (AFSS) is a program
      aimed at protecting human and animal health by
             ensuring that animal feed is safe
AFSS Big Picture




  Ingredient     Animal                           Animal    Human
                  Feed                            Health    Health


               Animal Feed Safety System (AFSS) is a program
               aimed at protecting human and animal health by
                      ensuring that animal feed is safe
AFSS Big Picture




  Ingredient   Animal                   Animal   Human
                Feed                    Health   Health


        Chemical        Manufacturing     Safe Feed/
       Contaminant        Processes       Safe Food
Effect of Manufacturing Processes
    on Chemical Contaminants
                  Need to Know:
                  1. Contaminants
                  2. Manufacturing
                     Processes
Chemical Contaminants
   Mycotoxin
       Aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, vomitoxin

   Pesticides
       OP: Malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl
       OC: Methoxychlor

   Heavy Metals, Elements
       Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, nickel, antimony, selenium,
        copper, zinc, chromium, iron

   Halogenated Organic Compounds
       Dioxins, PCB’s
Effect of Manufacturing Processes
    on Chemical Contaminants
                  Need to Know:
                  1. Contaminants
                  2. Manufacturing
                     Processes
  Ingredient        Ingredient Origin                       Manufacturing Process
Corn, ground        Corn                    Ground or Chopped (entire corn kernel)

Soybean meal,       Soybean                 Grinding the flakes which remain after removal of most of
solvent extracted                           the oil from soybeans by solvent extraction
Fish Meal,          Fish                    Clean, dried, ground tissue of undecomposed whole fish
select menhaden                             or fish cuttings. May have part of oil extracted
Spray dried         Whole animal blood      Spray drying red and white blood cells
animal blood
cells
Dried whey          Milk                    Drying – water removal from whey
                                            (whey – fluid from separating the coagulum from milk,
                                            cream or skimmed milk. A portion of the milk fat may have
                                            been removed)
Choice white        Animal, Pork            Rendering of pork tissues
grease
Fat                 Animal, Beef            Rendering or extraction of beef tissue
DDGs                Barley, cereal, corn,   Biomass obtained after grain exposed to yeast
                    rye, sorghum, or        fermentation, distillation, drying and addition of solubles.
                    wheat                   (solubles – product obtained after grain is exposed to
                                            yeast fermentation, distillation, separation of thin stillage,
                                            condensing and drying of stillage)
Manufacturing Processes
   Physical
       Cleaning, grinding, chopping, solvent extraction,
        mechanical extraction, mixing

   Thermal
       Drying, grinding, rendering, fermentation, distillation,
        pelleting

   Chemical
       Fermentation (acids, ammonia, urea, etc.)
Effect of Manufacturing Processes
    on Chemical Contaminants
                  Need to Know:
                  1. Contaminants
                  2. Manufacturing
                     Processes
                  3. Scoring System
Scoring System
   Effect of a process on a contaminant
       Does a process increase (I), decrease (D) or
        have no-effect (NE) on contaminant?
       What is the magnitude of that effect?
       How certain are you in your estimation?

Resources
    Literature, databases, personal knowledge, etc
Scoring System
   Effect of a process on a contaminant
     Does a process increase (I), decrease (D) or
      have no-effect (NE) on contaminant?
     What is the magnitude of that effect?
     How certain are you in your estimation?


   Resources
       Literature, databases, personal knowledge,
        etc.
Syracuse Environmental Fate Database
   DATALOG is a bibliographic file containing 18 types of
    environmental fate data.
   BIOLOG or the Microbial Degradation/Toxicity File, provides
    sources of microbial toxicity and biodegradation data.
   CHEMFATE is a data value file containing 25 categories of
    environmental fate and physical/chemical property information on
    commercially important chemical compounds.
   BIODEG contains experimental values relating to biodegradation
    subjects.
   BIODEG SUMMARY provides summary evaluation and reliability
    codes for different test methods, as well as summaries for
    biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
CHEMFATE Search Parameters
Effect of Manufacturing Processes
    on Chemical Contaminants
                  Now We Know:
                  1. Contaminants
                  2. Manufacturing
                     Processes
                  3. Scoring System
 Chemical Contaminants
Expert Opinion Worksheet
                Chemical Contaminant
               Expert Opinion Worksheet
                                                     Thermal Processes (T)

Contaminant      Cooking/
                                    Drying          Distillation       Pelleting
                 Rendering                                                              Comments
                PES   Certainty   PES   Certainty   PES   Certainty   PES   Certainty


Aflatoxins

Malathion

Cadmium

Dioxins


  Process Effect Score (PES): - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

  Certainty: 1-Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain
                  Chemical Contaminant
                 Expert Opinion Worksheet
                                                 Thermal Processes (T)

Contaminant        Cooking/
                                           Drying                Distillation             Pelleting
                   Rendering
                  PES     Certainty     PES      Certainty     PES        Certainty     PES      Certainty

Aflatoxins      40%         3        0-10%         3       10-20%            3     0-10%           3
Malathion       80%         4        0-10%         3       20-50%            3     10%             3
Cadmium           NE        4, 5        NE          4, 5       NE           4, 5        NE            4, 5
Dioxins           NE        3, 4        NE          4, 5       NE           4, 5        NE            4, 5

Process Effect Score (PES): - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

Certainty: 1–Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain
                  Chemical Contaminant
                 Expert Opinion Worksheet
                                                 Thermal Processes (T)

Contaminant        Cooking/
                                           Drying                Distillation             Pelleting
                   Rendering
                  PES     Certainty     PES      Certainty     PES        Certainty     PES      Certainty

Aflatoxins      40%         3        0-10%         3       10-20%            3     0-10%           3
Malathion       80%         4        0-10%         3       20-50%            3     10%             3
Cadmium           NE        4, 5        NE          4, 5       NE           4, 5        NE            4, 5
Dioxins           NE        3, 4        NE          4, 5       NE           4, 5        NE            4, 5

Process Effect Score (PES): - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

Certainty: 1–Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain
                  Chemical Contaminant
                 Expert Opinion Worksheet
                                                 Thermal Processes (T)

Contaminant        Cooking/
                                           Drying                Distillation             Pelleting
                   Rendering
                  PES     Certainty     PES      Certainty     PES        Certainty     PES      Certainty

Aflatoxins      40%         3        0-10%         3       10-20%            3     0-10%           3
Malathion       80%         4        0-10%         3       20-50%            3     10%             3
Cadmium           NE        4, 5        NE          4, 5       NE           4, 5        NE            4, 5
Dioxins           NE        3, 4        NE          4, 5       NE           4, 5        NE            4, 5

Process Effect Score (PES): - Increase; - Decrease; NE - No Effect

Certainty: 1–Very uncertain; 2-Uncertain; 3-Medium certainty; 4-Fairly certain; 5-Very certain
                                    Aflatoxins, ppb   Malathion, ppm    Cadmium, ppm      Dioxins, ppt TEQ
                                     FCP      EOW      FCP     EOW       FCP     EOW       FCP      EOW
  Swine Diet                        % pos,    (PES)   % pos,   (PES)    % pos,   (PES)    % pos,    (PES)
  Ingredients       Processes       mean              mean              mean              mean
                     Grind or                                    No                                   No
                                    19.44%            18.83%            100%               50%
 Corn, ground         chop
                                     47.15
                                              NE       0.516            0.039
                                                                                  NE      0.0091
                                                                PES                                  PES
Soybean Meal,
                     Solvent
                    extraction,
                                    4.09%            0.56%            100%             100%        No
solvent extracted      grind        8.219    30-70%   0.106    30-70%   0.039    30-70%   0.0167     PES
                    Clean, dry,
  Fish Meal,         ground,        1.85%            0.93%            50%               100%       No
select menhaden     mechanical       110              0.301             0.073               0.58
                    extraction
                                             10-50%            10-50%            10-20%              PES

 Spray dried         Spray dry
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%
                                                                                  NE
                                                                                           100%
                                                                                                     NE
 blood cells                         110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073              0.338


 Dried whey
                    Coagulate,
                    separation,
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%               86%        
                       dry           110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073    0-10%     0.02     0-10%
Choice white
  grease
                      Render
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%       NE      100%       NE
     &                               110     40-50%   0.301    50-80%   0.073             0.3379
    Fat

     DDGs
                      Grind,
                     ferment,       19.44%           18.83%           100%              50%        
                     distill, dry    47.15   50-70%    0.516   30-50%   0.039    50-70%   0.0091   50-70%
                                    Aflatoxins, ppb   Malathion, ppm    Cadmium, ppm      Dioxins, ppt TEQ
                                     FCP      EOW      FCP     EOW       FCP     EOW       FCP      EOW
  Swine Diet                        % pos,    (PES)   % pos,   (PES)    % pos,   (PES)    % pos,    (PES)
  Ingredients       Processes       mean              mean              mean              mean
                     Grind or                                    No                                   No
                                    19.44%            18.83%            100%               50%
 Corn, ground         chop
                                     47.15
                                              NE       0.516            0.039
                                                                                  NE      0.0091
                                                                PES                                  PES
Soybean Meal,
                     Solvent
                    extraction,
                                    4.09%            0.56%            100%             100%        No
solvent extracted      grind        8.219    30-70%   0.106    30-70%   0.039    30-70%   0.0167     PES
                    Clean, dry,
  Fish Meal,         ground,        1.85%            0.93%            50%               100%       No
select menhaden     mechanical       110              0.301             0.073               0.58
                    extraction
                                             10-50%            10-50%            10-20%              PES

 Spray dried         Spray dry
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%
                                                                                  NE
                                                                                           100%
                                                                                                     NE
 blood cells                         110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073              0.338


 Dried whey
                    Coagulate,
                    separation,
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%               86%        
                       dry           110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073    0-10%     0.02     0-10%
Choice white
  grease
                      Render
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%       NE      100%       NE
     &                               110     40-50%   0.301    50-80%   0.073             0.3379
    Fat

     DDGs
                      Grind,
                     ferment,       19.44%           18.83%           100%              50%        
                     distill, dry    47.15   50-70%    0.516   30-50%   0.039    50-70%   0.0091   50-70%
                                    Aflatoxins, ppb   Malathion, ppm    Cadmium, ppm      Dioxins, ppt TEQ
                                     FCP      EOW      FCP     EOW       FCP     EOW       FCP      EOW
  Swine Diet                        % pos,    (PES)   % pos,   (PES)    % pos,   (PES)    % pos,    (PES)
  Ingredients       Processes       mean              mean              mean              mean
                     Grind or                                    No                                   No
                                    19.44%            18.83%            100%               50%
 Corn, ground         chop
                                     47.15
                                              NE       0.516            0.039
                                                                                  NE      0.0091
                                                                PES                                  PES
Soybean Meal,
                     Solvent
                    extraction,
                                    4.09%            0.56%            100%             100%        No
solvent extracted      grind        8.219    30-70%   0.106    30-70%   0.039    30-70%   0.0167     PES
                    Clean, dry,
  Fish Meal,         ground,        1.85%            0.93%            50%               100%       No
select menhaden     mechanical       110              0.301             0.073               0.58
                    extraction
                                             10-50%            10-50%            10-20%              PES

 Spray dried         Spray dry
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%
                                                                                  NE
                                                                                           100%
                                                                                                     NE
 blood cells                         110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073              0.338


 Dried whey
                    Coagulate,
                    separation,
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%               86%        
                       dry           110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073    0-10%     0.02     0-10%
Choice white
  grease
                      Render
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%       NE      100%       NE
     &                               110     40-50%   0.301    50-80%   0.073             0.3379
    Fat

     DDGs
                      Grind,
                     ferment,       19.44%           18.83%           100%              50%        
                     distill, dry    47.15   50-70%    0.516   30-50%   0.039    50-70%   0.0091   50-70%
                                    Aflatoxins, ppb   Malathion, ppm    Cadmium, ppm      Dioxins, ppt TEQ
                                     FCP      EOW      FCP     EOW       FCP     EOW       FCP      EOW
  Swine Diet                        % pos,    (PES)   % pos,   (PES)    % pos,   (PES)    % pos,    (PES)
  Ingredients       Processes       mean              mean              mean              mean
                     Grind or                                    No                                   No
                                    19.44%            18.83%            100%               50%
 Corn, ground         chop
                                     47.15
                                              NE       0.516            0.039
                                                                                  NE      0.0091
                                                                PES                                  PES
Soybean Meal,
                     Solvent
                    extraction,
                                    4.09%            0.56%            100%             100%        No
solvent extracted      grind        8.219    30-70%   0.106    30-70%   0.039    30-70%   0.0167     PES
                    Clean, dry,
  Fish Meal,         ground,        1.85%            0.93%            50%               100%       No
select menhaden     mechanical       110              0.301             0.073               0.58
                    extraction
                                             10-50%            10-50%            10-20%              PES

 Spray dried         Spray dry
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%
                                                                                  NE
                                                                                           100%
                                                                                                     NE
 blood cells                         110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073              0.338


 Dried whey
                    Coagulate,
                    separation,
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%               86%        
                       dry           110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073    0-10%     0.02     0-10%
Choice white
  grease
                      Render
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%       NE      100%       NE
     &                               110     40-50%   0.301    50-80%   0.073             0.3379
    Fat

     DDGs
                      Grind,
                     ferment,       19.44%           18.83%           100%              50%        
                     distill, dry    47.15   50-70%    0.516   30-50%   0.039    50-70%   0.0091   50-70%
                                    Aflatoxins, ppb   Malathion, ppm    Cadmium, ppm      Dioxins, ppt TEQ
                                     FCP      EOW      FCP     EOW       FCP     EOW       FCP      EOW
  Swine Diet                        % pos,    (PES)   % pos,   (PES)    % pos,   (PES)    % pos,    (PES)
  Ingredients       Processes       mean              mean              mean              mean
                     Grind or                                    No                                   No
                                    19.44%            18.83%            100%               50%
 Corn, ground         chop
                                     47.15
                                              NE       0.516            0.039
                                                                                  NE      0.0091
                                                                PES                                  PES
Soybean Meal,
                     Solvent
                    extraction,
                                    4.09%            0.56%            100%             100%        No
solvent extracted      grind        8.219    30-70%   0.106    30-70%   0.039    30-70%   0.0167     PES
                    Clean, dry,
  Fish Meal,         ground,        1.85%            0.93%            50%               100%       No
select menhaden     mechanical       110              0.301             0.073               0.58
                    extraction
                                             10-50%            10-50%            10-20%              PES

 Spray dried         Spray dry
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%
                                                                                  NE
                                                                                           100%
                                                                                                     NE
 blood cells                         110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073              0.338


 Dried whey
                    Coagulate,
                    separation,
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%               86%        
                       dry           110     0-10%    0.301    0-10%    0.073    0-10%     0.02     0-10%
Choice white
  grease
                      Render
                                    1.85%            0.93%            50%       NE      100%       NE
     &                               110     40-50%   0.301    50-80%   0.073             0.3379
    Fat

     DDGs
                      Grind,
                     ferment,       19.44%           18.83%           100%              50%        
                     distill, dry    47.15   50-70%    0.516   30-50%   0.039    50-70%   0.0091   50-70%
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