Sequestering carbon in the built environment by ktp16244


									Sequestering carbon in
the built environment

September 2009

Dr Terry Holland
Calera Corporation
Completing the cycle: Calera provides permanent carbon
sequestration in the built environment

                               conversion                 (Ca, Mg)   CO3

Problem: CO2 emissions need to be reduced by 30 billion tons a year by 2050 in order to avoid
dramatic climate change. There are few economically feasible options available.

                        p     providers and other large CO2 emitters a cost effective, low risk
Solution: Calera offers power p                       g                               ,
solution to address increasingly stringent regulations. Further, Calera provides carbon negative
building materials to meet the demand of end users.
2   Calera Corporation
A climate change solution that fits the size of the problem

     The building materials market is sufficiently large to handle all the CO2
     from power plants, heavy industry and traditional cement production

Calera’s initial target markets:
C l ’ i iti l t       t    k t                              Addressable market, 2007-2050

                                                                  Aggregate product volume far
                                                                  exceeds cement with a 4:1
                                                                  volume ratio in concrete plus use
                                                                  in asphalt and road beds
                                      Rule of thumb:
                                      1 ton of Calera
                                      product =
                                      ½ ton of CO2

                                                            SIZE of SOLUTION: 16 B tons market
SIZE of PROBLEM: 11 B tons CO2                              32 billion tons of cement + aggregate = ~16
4900 power and 1175 cement plants =   Solution is growing   billion tons of CO2 if all captured by Calera
>40% of world CO2                     as fast or faster     products = 4000+ Calera plants
                                      than the problem

3   Calera Corporation
Novel technologies and integrated design allow for beneficial reuse at
global industrial scale

           Absorb                 Precipitate         De-water

    Breakthroughs:          Breakthroughs:                Breakthroughs:
    -Maximized              -Novel chemistry              -Ability to control
    absorption efficiency   -Novel material science
                             Novel                        particle size and
    with low energy use     producing undefined           material density
    -Mineral loading        polymorphs with               -Reuse of waste
    -Multi-pollutant        cementitious properties       heat
    capture                 -Industrial scale and

                      g                        p        p
      Benefits of integrated solution: Lower capex and opex
      Partnering with top equipment suppliers and EPC firms to design for low
      cost and large scale from beginning
      Modular plant design allows for rapid deployment worldwide and added
      Intellectual Property protection

4    Calera Corporation
Calera’s Process Steps

    Calera’s core technology: Formation of unique carbonate mineral polymorphs

            Absorb               Precipitate            De-water

            Basic Chemistry: Ca+2 + 2OH- + CO2                       CaCO3 + H2O
                             Mg+2 + 2OH- + CO2                       MgCO3 + H2O

            y          y                                                  g
      Ability to locally source Divalent Cations allows for flexible siting:
        – Coastal power plants can use seawater or brines
        – Inland power plants can use brines or dissolved minerals
        – Desalination/Demineralization retentate from desal or water demin treatment
      Ability to locally source Base adds additional environmental benefit:
        –   Various classes of Fly Ash (Class F, Class C, others)
        –   Other land filled base sources (Mg(OH)2 waste tailings, red mud, etc.)
        –   Minerals (S
            Mi                 ti  Brucite)
                   l (Serpentine, B it )
        –   Manufactured sources of caustic soda

5    Calera Corporation
Calera carbon impact: Power perspective

Capture – Emissions + Displacement
    When considering the CO2 captured by the process, the CO2 released
    by the energy consumed and the CO2 displaced by offsetting aggregate
    and cementitious materials the total CO2 removed from the
    environment is higher than the total emissions of the power plant by 5%


        ton CO2 / year



                                       CO2       CO2         CO2         CO2      Net CO2   CO2 Emitted
                                     C t d
                                     Captured   Emitted
                                                E itt d   Displaced
                                                          Di l    d   Di l
                                                                              d   C t
                                                                                  Capture    by Power
                                                                                             b P
                                                          Aggregate    Cement                  Plant

6   Calera Corporation
                  Calera carbon impact: Concrete perspective
                  1- An offset displacing ordinary concrete carbon footprint
                  2- An emission reduction by the conversion of CO2 into carbonates
                                                                     537 lb CO2/yd3 of concrete
                          400     Cement                             Ordinary
                                                                     Concrete              Cement
         missions (lb)

                          200                                                           displacement
                                          Water Fly Ash
                                                                                          - Offsets -
Net CO2 Em

                                                    SCM                                     +
                                                                                      Carbon conversion
                          -600                               Calera                   from power plant
                          -800                                gg
                         -1200                            Total: - 1,146 lb CO2/yd3
                                                                 of concrete
Source: Calera analysis
7                         Calera Corporation
Calera is developing a line of carbon negative building materials being
tested against existing industry standards for large markets

First 2 products:
     Carbonate Mineral SCM           Synthetic Aggregate
          (CM-SCM)                           (SA)

       Footprint = - 0.5t CO2/t
           p                        Footprint = - 0.5t CO2/t

        • Cement Displacement       • Replaces all sand and      •High performance, high
        • Up to 20% of cement       aggregate                    value concrete
        blend                       • Adjustable particle size   • Up to 50% of cement
        • Testing against ASTM      • Testing against ASTM
        C 1157 – Standard           C 33 – Standard              • Testing against ASTM
        Performance Specification   Specification for            C 1157 – Standard
        for Hydraulic Cement        Concrete Aggregate           Performance Specification
                                                                 for Hydraulic Cement

8   Calera Corporation
Calera Mineral Carbonate can address a variety of large markets

$/ton                                     US M k t
                                          U.S. Market                           Cement
                   Mineral               Global Market = ~10X                    4Mt
100                 Filler
                   100Mt                                          Cement

                                         SCM 24Mt
                           Weight Agg.
30              Stabilization
                Stab at o
                   100Mt                                             Concrete
                                                           Drywall    Blocks
                                               Bricks       20Mt       50Mt
10               Sand &Aggregate               20Mt

     0                    1 year      y
                                    2 years               y
                                                        3 years        y
                                                                     4 years       y
                                                                                 5 years

                                   Product Development Time

9    Calera Corporation
Calera technology moving to demo scale project

      Laboratory Small Batch and Large Batch Scale – 2007+
        Has established the ability to efficiently capture and convert to mineral carbonate
        with seawater and waste base sources
        1 kg/day Low Voltage Base production unit
        Generating 5 tons of product capturing 2.5 tons of CO2 per single batch
      Pilot – Started up April 2009
        Continuous process of 5 ton per day product (2.5 tons of CO2 from coal fired boilers)
        T i efficiency and i
        Testing ffi i                    i    f individual           h l i
                               d integration of i di id l process technologies
        Testing on pulverized coal flue gas and site specific conditions and materials
        1 ton/day Low Voltage Base production unit
      Multiple Demos – Currently in design (as of Aug 2009) site selection in progress
        Will treat flue gas from 10MW to 80MW of host plant
        Scales up in segments / modules

        Laboratory and               Pilot          Demonstrations    Commercial
       Batch Processes           (Moss Landing)       (20-80MW)         Scale

        2007              2008       2009         2010        2011     2012

10   Calera Corporation
Pilot Unit
Moss Landing, CA

Start-up: April 2009
Photos: July 2009
CA pilots validate process, product and environmental feasibility

      Pilot plants running large scale batch and continuous processes
      Flue gas simulator – Ability to test any type of coal and flue gas composition
      Producing material for product development and testing
      Demonstration of waste mineral utilization
      Monterey Bay Marine Sanctuary requires highest level of environmental
                                                                        Moss Landing
                              Calera Pilot and                          P     St ti
                                                                        Power Station
                              Global R&D                              >1000 MW base load
                              150,000 sqft covered                     >1500 MW peaking
                              200 acres total                            Fuel: Natural Gas
                              60m gpd discharge permit                   Operator: Dynegy

                                          5m tons of mineral waste

12   Calera Corporation
Moss Landing Pilot Plant Layout

                          Pilot Plant

13   Calera Corporation
     Moss Landing Pilot Plant – Coal Boiler Simulator

                                                        time temperature
                                         • Simulates time-temperature
                                         combustion history of full-scale
                                         utility boilers

                                         • Capable of burning pulverized coal
                                         from anywhere in the world
                                         •Capacity 1 MMBtu/hr

                                         • Generates flue gas composition
                                         and temperature identical to full

14    Calera Corporation
Calera Moss Landing coal fired pilot plant capable of producing
greater than 5 ton/day of prepared material product from raw flue gas

15   Calera Corporation
Multi-pollutant Control
Multipollutant Control Potential of Calera Process

       Sulfur Di id
       S lf Dioxide SO2
         – Seawater is alkaline by nature and SO2 is absorbed as sulfite
         – Traditional seawater FGD systems use air aeration to oxidize the sulfite to sulfate
           prior to water discharge to the sea
       Nitrogen Oxide NOx
         – NOx is NO (~95%) and NO2 (5%)
                                    y           q    (e.g.
         – NO can be converted by various techniques ( g use of oxidizers such as methanol
           and hydrogen peroxide) to form NO2 which is soluble with neutral or base liquids
         – Nitrate stabilized in Calera product
       Mercury Hg
         – Mercury emissions are Hg and HgCl2 depending on coal and combustion
         – Mercury can be oxidized by various techniques (e.g., using electro-chem byproduct
           Cl) to form water soluble HgCl2 that can be removed by water absorption
         – Trace mercury stabilized in product
       Non-Volatile trace metals (As, Se, Pb)
         – Captured as particulate matter in absorption system
         – Trace metals stabilized in product

17   Calera Corporation
About Calera
World class team with international expertise in Energy, Geology,
Water, and Building Materials

          Calera was founded in June 2007, by Brent R. Constantz, Ph.D.
          Calera has been funded by its unique investor Khosla Ventures

     Top talent with credentials              Collective experience
     •   70 people                            • Collectively built large scale projects in
     •   18 PhD                                 15 countries around the world
     •   16 MS                                • Upwards of 100 SPE’s
     •   6 MBA                                • 100+ patents
     •   3 JD, 3 patent agents, 1 paralegal

     Management Team                          Investors and Advisors
     • Successful entrepreneurs               •   Khosla Ventures
     • Public company execs                   •   Scientific Advisory Board
     • Power, geology, water and building     •   Carbon Advisory Board
       materials                              •    p       y                 y
                                                  Specialty Technical Advisory Board

19       Calera Corporation
14600 Winchester Blvd
Los Gatos, CA 95032

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