CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA EQUAL RIGHTS ADVOCATES' HIGHER

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					            CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA
   EQUAL RIGHTS ADVOCATES’ HIGHER EDUCATION LEGAL ADVOCACY
                  PROJECT ROUNDTABLE REPORT


INTRODUCTION                                                ERA convened the roundtable in order to better
                                                        understand the causes of this phenomenon and to
     On February 1, 2003, Equal Rights Advocates’       help identify strategies, legal and otherwise, to
Higher Education Legal Advocacy Project convened        address it.
a meeting of academics, lawyers and representatives
of public interest organizations from around the
country at Mills College in Oakland, California. The    ISSUE IDENTIFICATION:
purpose of the roundtable was to identify continuing    CONTINUING BARRIERS TO THE
barriers to the advancement of women, analyze past      ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN
efforts to address these barriers and develop
strategies for future work.                                 Three groups, consisting of fifteen participants
                                                        each, discussed ongoing efforts to promote gender
                                                        equity, and generated a list of issues for consideration
ROUNDTABLE BACKGROUND                                   by the larger group. The following issues were
                                                        presented:
     A generation after the enactment of civil rights
laws, and the entry of women into academic              •   Problem: Women are not being hired in
institutions in significant numbers, female faculty         proportion to their availability in the relevant
continue to lag behind their male counterparts.             labor pool. Steps need to be taken to increase
Thirty years later, the “pipeline problem,” as it was       the number of women hired into tenure-track,
then called, has not been solved. Indeed, the current       tenured and high level administrative
metaphor for the status of women in academic                positions.
institutions is a badly leaking pipeline.
                                                            There is a pressing need for institutions of higher
     Reviewing the history of women in academic         learning to increase their hiring, promotion and
employment, a puzzling phenomenon emerges.              retention of women and women of color. Female
While women have embraced academic opportunity,         Ph.D. recipients are not hired in proportion to their
and the numbers of women obtaining Ph.D.’s in all       availability in the relevant labor pool into tenure-
fields has increased dramatically, their distribution   track and tenured positions. Departmental search
within faculty and administrative ranks of colleges     committees established to hire for tenure-track
and universities is not proportional to their           positions tend to use “old boy” networks, and do not
availability in the labor pool. Women in academia       engage in sufficient outreach to create applicant pools
are clustered in the ranks of part-time, non-tenured    that mirror availability. As a result, women are
faculty and staff positions.             Women are      disproportionately tracked into second-tier positions
underrepresented among the ranks of tenure-track,       within the institution, as adjuncts, part-time faculty
tenured and senior administrative level faculty.        and limited term instructors.     Furthermore, those
who do gain admittance to the tenure-track typically       ability to perform on the more traditional measures of
are neither groomed for nor promoted to                    research and scholarship, making their retention and
administrative positions of power and influence            ultimate success within the traditional reward
within the institution.                                    structure less likely.      These additional and
                                                           unrewarded requirements perpetuate the
    To a great extent, this underutilization of the        underrepresentation of minority women and men in
diverse talent trained by the university is a function     the academy.
of two types of institutional failure.            First,
universities must insist that “search” committees          •   Problem: Sporadic efforts to create gender
engage in outreach sufficient to create applicant pools        equity do not work. Steps need to be taken to
that mirror the availability of Ph.D. recipients.              institutionalize and perpetuate practices that
Second, there must be meaningful oversight of the              promote gender equity in order to reduce the
hiring and promotion process, and departments that             likelihood of backlash and backsliding.
consistently “find” white males to fill vacant
positions should be held accountable for their failure         Over the years, many institutions have
to diversify their faculty commensurate with the           undertaken equity reviews of the compensation of
available workforce.                                       male and female faculty, and have attempted to
                                                           redress disparities with varying degrees of success.
•    Problem: Women faculty are dispropor-                 Unfortunately, these tend to be one-time events that
     tionately burdened with mentoring and                 consume enormous resources, create a certain amount
     advising responsibilities. Steps need to be           of institutional havoc while they are taking place, and
     taken either to reduce excessive burdens              then generate resentments that result in backlash and
     placed upon women and women of color, or to           a gradual return to practices that recreate the
     change the reward structure to acknowledge            problem. To insure that efforts at gender equity are
     the importance of these contribution to the           sustainable, oversight structures need to be
     institution.                                          institutionalized, and regularly scheduled reviews
                                                           with meaningful consequences for department-level
    Both as a result of their relative scarcity among      and college-level decision-makers are necessary to
the faculty, and because of stereotypical notions          maintain accountability.
about women as nurturers, female faculty face
expectations that may interfere with their                 •   Problem: Lack of clarity about the criteria
professional advancement. Students and colleagues              for advancement and lack of transparency in
often expect women to perform nurturing/mentoring              the decision-making process lead to
activities not expected of their male colleagues.              inequitable application of standards. Steps
Department chairs and deans demand their presence              need to be taken to ensure that standards are
on committees and task forces that consider diversity          equitably applied and that there is sufficient
questions or require diversity for credibility. Yet            protection within the evaluation process to
they typically do not receive credit for this                  prevent taint by unconscious bias or
institutional “women’s work” – neither teaching                intentional discrimination.
demands nor tenure requirements are adjusted to
acknowledge and mitigate the negative impact of                Women who are hired into tenure-track positions
these demands on their scholarly productivity.             are frequently disadvantaged by the lack of
                                                           transparency in institutional decision-making. They
     Women of color, who face the double burden of         may lack information as to how the standards will be
obligation to address the unmet institutional needs of     applied, powerful mentors to shepherd them through
both women and members of their racial/ethnic              the process, and ‘friends in high places’ to go to bat
group, are particularly affected by the failure to         for them when they are subjected to gender
address this problem. Responding to excessive              stereotyping, bias and/or procedural irregularity. It is
institutional demands adversely affects women’s            extremely important that institutional leadership

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                                                                  CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA                  -2-
create mechanisms to insure that the criteria for        qualified women “voting with their feet” and
advancement are clear, fairly applied and not infected   choosing to leave academia for work environments
by gender stereotyping, bias or intentional              that encourage a more collaborative work style and
discrimination.                                          greater opportunity for work/family balance.

•    Problem: Characterizing women’s family                  University leadership must make department
     responsibilities as career distractions that        chairs, and other decision-makers accountable for
     signal lack of commitment hinders their             creating an environment conducive to achieving
     ability to succeed. Steps need to be taken to       gender equity and diversity by creating effective
     accommodate and integrate women’s family            mechanisms for women to voice their dissatisfaction
     responsibilities into cultural expectations         and by committing resources to make changes that
     about what a normative academic career              will create a more welcoming environment for
     trajectory looks like.                              women.

    Many academicians harbor stereotypes about the
ideal worker and hold cultural assumptions about the     INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR
normative career trajectory that do not accommodate      INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE
women’s family obligations. University leadership
must take steps to address cultural assumptions and          Several roundtable participants presented brief
stereotypes that disadvantage women, to revise           reports of activities that involved innovative
thinking about how an academic career trajectory can     strategies for pressuring institutions to improve
coexist with family obligations, and to create           gender equity in hiring and advancement. Following
structures that facilitate work and family balance.      each report, large group discussion of the ideas
These include: creation and wide dissemination of        presented placed them in historical context and
automatic leave, modified duty, stopping-the-tenure-     considered how they would fare in the current
clock policies (for both sexes), provision of            political climate. The reports are summarized briefly
centralized funding to cover departmental costs,         below:
monitoring the use of policies by junior faculty, and
taking aggressive steps to prevent retaliation against   •   Using a federal agency to investigate systemic
those who take advantage of the programs offered.            bias.
•    Problem: Insufficient attention has been paid           Attorneys Kay Lucas and Karen Sawislak
     to cultural and environmental factors that          reported on the activities of the Stanford Coalition on
     make some departments hostile environments          Gender Equity. The Coalition was formed by a
     for women. Steps need to be taken to address        group of women faculty and senior staff from
     cultural and environmental factors that             different disciplines, who began informally to gather
     discourage women from pursuing academic             data and eventually to create and publicly release a
     careers.                                            report of systemic gender bias at Stanford. After
                                                         considering the pros and cons of undertaking
    As relative newcomers to academia, women             individual cases (the prospect of individual relief,
suffer from a host of adverse cultural and               weighed against judicial hostility, fear of retaliation
environmental factors, including negative stereotypes    and concern that the expenditure of resources would
about capability, sexual harassment, overt and subtle    be disproportionate to results achieved), the women
discrimination, and micro-inequities that accumulate     decided to take collective rather than individual
over time to create huge disparities between men and     action.
women as they advance in their careers. These issues
are particularly prevalent for women in science,            A complaint was then filed with the Department
math, engineering and technology. A culture of           of Labor under the Executive Order Program
hostile aggression and individualism that pervades       (Executive Order 11246). The investigation has been
some departments creates the phenomenon of               ongoing for years, and has been kept alive through
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                                                                CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA                 -3-
the strategic filing of a new complaint with the DOL     campuses have been more responsive than others to
every few months. Although to date there has been        the need to increase the number of tenured and
no “final resolution” of the matter, the Stanford        tenure-track women. While increased scrutiny
women believe that the external pressure created by      resulted in some increase in the hiring of women, the
the investigation has been responsible for an increase   numbers still have not returned to pre-Proposition
in the number of women hired, and has had a positive     209 levels. Furthermore, the disparity is greater
effect on some challenged tenure decisions.              because there are more women available in the labor
                                                         pool.
•    Using a legislative audit and hearings to
     publicize institutional backsliding.                    Senator Speier has announced her intention to
                                                         continue placing a public spotlight on this issue.
    After California voters enacted Proposition 209      While the women responsible for putting these
(outlawing so called “preferences” based on race and     hearings together have done an impressive organizing
gender except as required by federal law), there was a   job without staff and without the official sanction of
dramatic downturn in the hiring of women within the      the University (no small feat in a statewide multi-
University of California system. As a result of the      campus system), there is a critical need for financial
fact that federal affirmative action requirements were   and staff support to enable them to continue the
being overridden and that the gains of previous years    effort.
were being erased, California State Senator Jackie
Speier, Chair of the Senate Select Committee on          •   Using individual cases to create increased
Government Oversight, called for an audit of the             opportunities for minority academics.
entire University of California system.
                                                             Professor Juana Mora discussed her own case
    The audit demonstrated that the University of        against California State University Northridge and
California had utterly failed to hire women into         that of Professor Rudy Acuña against the University
tenured and tenure-track positions in proportion to      of California Santa Barbara. Professor Acuña’s race
their availability in the relevant labor pools. Worse,   and age discrimination suit became a vehicle to
at a time of increased hiring due to retirements and     organize and educate the general public about
campus expansion, the university was not hiring          discrimination that Latinos and Latinas face in
women at a rate necessary to achieve gender parity at    academia. As a result, he received widespread
any time in the foreseeable future. Following the        community support. After winning a jury trial on the
audit, Senator Speier held an unprecedented three        basis of age discrimination, he established the For
hearings over three years on UC hiring practices, at     Chicana/Chicano Studies Foundation, which has
which she took testimony from faculty and members        provided financial support to other Latinas and
of the administration analyzing the causes of the        Latinos challenging employment discrimination in
hiring disparity and the efforts needed to fix the       higher education, including Professor Mora.
problem. These efforts were supported by an
informal statewide group of faculty (California              Professor Mora applied for the position of
Academics for Equity) spearheaded by UC Davis            Associate Dean of the College of Humanities.
professors Gyongy Laky and Martha West.                  Despite her superior qualifications (including a stint
                                                         as acting dean), she was not interviewed for the
    The result of this legislative attention has been    position. She sued the University, and while she did
mixed. As a result of the audit and the hearings, the    not receive the position (which went to a Latino
University President has been forced to publicly         male), she received significant financial
concede to the reality of the problem. He also           compensation, including research funding. She also
convened a women’s summit and instituted system-         sought to create a Chicano Studies Institute.
wide policies that could have a positive effect on       Although she did not succeed in that endeavor, she
gender equity (e.g., centralized funding for family      believes that the pressure her case placed on the
leave).    However, because the University of            institution resulted in the creation of a significant
California governance is fairly decentralized, some

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                                                                CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA                -4-
number of new faculty positions available to minority      Matter?”, demonstrate that women with “early
faculty.                                                   babies,” defined as within 5 years of receipt of a

•    Using Congressional oversight to increase             Ph.D., suffer negative career effects, whereas men
     opportunities for women in science.                   with “early babies” show a career advantage. In her
                                                           role as Dean of the Graduate Division, Mason has
     Dr. Debra Rolison, a scientist with the Naval         worked to implement policies to mitigate the negative
Research Laboratory, reported on the disparity             effects of motherhood, and has challenged career
between the numbers of women getting Ph.D.s in             trajectory assumptions that disadvantage women with
math and science and their presence in academic            families. Her research lends credibility to her efforts
institutions. In science, there is not just a “leaky       to change the culture and structure of academic
pipeline” of women; there is an actual “brain drain.”      employment.
Her analysis led her to conclude that women were
“voting with their feet” in reaction to what they see in        Washington College of Law Professor Joan
graduate school, e.g., discrimination, a competitive       Williams, who directs the Program on Gender, Work
culture hostile to the idea of science as a                and Family at American University, gave a brief
collaborative enterprise, an “alpha shark” reward          summary of laws and legal theories that are available
system based on those who dominate a research area         to obtain redress for parents who have suffered
and whose projects bring in the most money, an             adverse career consequences as a result of caregiving
absence of true mentoring, and a failure to address        responsibilities. She then presented research on
work/family issues.                                        cultural stereotyping to demonstrate that the
                                                           “maternal wall” stops mothers before they can get to
    Rolison’s proposed solution to these problems is       the “glass ceiling.” When women become mothers,
to use Congressional pressure and the threat of            traditional female role stereotypes collide with
withholding of federal funds through a Title IX            professional role expectations, creating “role
enforcement proceeding to redress discrimination.          incongruity.” As a result, performance evaluations
Forming alliances with Congressional staff is a way        fall, and the woman’s career commitment is seen as
to bring national attention to these issues. Congress      suspect.      In academia, this phenomenon is
now views the lack of American scientists available        exacerbated by the persistent myth, based on the male
for careers in science and technology as a national        model, that academics are most creative in their
security issue. Therefore, Congress may be more            youth, during which time they should demonstrate
receptive to the idea of withholding federal funds         single-minded devotion to career. To succeed in
from institutions that do not incorporate on their         academia, women with families need to overcome
faculties the female talent trained in the STEM            these stereotypes and deeply held cultural
(science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)        assumptions.
disciplines. Congressional oversight may also be
achieved using the reauthorization bill for the
National Science Foundation that included a                A SOBERING REALITY: THE LACK
requirement for studies relating to gender equity on
                                                           OF INFRASTRUCTURE IMPERILS
science faculties and in U.S. funded research and
development projects.                                      GENDER EQUITY EFFORTS

•    Using research to illuminate and counter                  The final roundtable discussion developed a
                                                           theme that was implicit throughout the day, namely
     the negative effect of women’s family
                                                           that academic women must create the resources
     responsibilities on academic careers.
                                                           necessary to sustain and increase gender equity
                                                           efforts in institutions of higher learning. Women in
    U.C. Berkeley’s Mary Ann Mason reported the
                                                           academia currently lack an infrastructure for national
results of a longitudinal study of all Ph.D. recipients
                                                           communication and mutual support. They lack
in the United States between 1978 and 1985. Her
                                                           resources to collect, maintain and disseminate
findings, published in the monograph “Do Babies
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                                                                  CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA                 -5-
pertinent data, research findings and other                IDEAS FOR ACTION TO PROMOTE
information to support gender equity efforts. Women        GENDER EQUITY
lack effective avenues to promote public education
and awareness of the need for continued vigilance              The following ideas were generated as strategies
around gender equity issues. Women lack the                to promote gender equity:
financial and staff resources to organize collective
support for women’s issues within their home               •   Create an infrastructure to ensure that
institutions. Unless these needs are addressed, they           meaningful, timely data about the status of
will be unable to maintain, much less increase, the            women is readily available in a form that
power and influence of women in academia.                      permits appropriate comparisons with
                                                               similarly situated male academics.
     This dilemma seems paradoxical. On the one
hand, the profile of women’s issues has never been              Statistical data and scientific research are critical
higher.     Newspapers are full of articles on             tools in the struggle for gender equity. Currently,
work/family balance. Recent attempts to undermine          accurate, timely and appropriate data about the status
Title IX enforcement in athletics received wide play       of women in colleges and universities is often
in the national media, as did MIT’s high profile           unavailable or hard to come by. This data may exist,
efforts to address gender inequity concerns raised by      but is either not readily available to the public or if
its senior women faculty.           Many academic          publicly available (e.g., on a university website) is
institutions have taken steps to establish “status of      not in a form that permits useful comparisons
women” committees, conduct climate surveys and             between departments and institutions (e.g., not
seek advice from senior women on changes that are          distinguishing tenure-track hires from others). Data
needed.                                                    collected by government sources may suddenly
                                                           disappear in response to political pressure. Data
     On the other hand, success in translating media       collected by individual researchers may be known
attention into sustainable change is by no means           only to a select few in their field.
assured. Recent history demonstrates that political
backlash, in the form of measures such as                      Data is critical for the following purposes, to
California’s Proposition 209 or the more recent            influence those with power in the affected institution
Racial Privacy Initiative, can have an immediate and       to support change; to create a positive social climate
devastating effect on efforts to increase the diversity    for change in the wider community (make it
in the applicant pool for academic jobs. Furthermore,      accessible and interesting to the media/public); to
they threaten the ability to track the progress of these   bring about external review of institutions (federal
efforts.                                                   agency investigation, legislative oversight, court
                                                           action); to create benchmarks for progress; and to
    In addition, the pioneering generation of women        prove the existence of discrimination.
who first “integrated” the universities is now on the
verge of retirement. For example, at the University            Creation and maintenance of an infrastructure to
of California, hiring rates for women are below pre-       collect and disseminate research and data would
Proposition 209 rates at a time when retirement and        vastly enhance organizing and education efforts.
campus expansion have created a hiring surge. If           Ideally, to ensure objectivity, a centralized database
women are not hired in significant numbers during          would be located and maintained by an appropriate
this period, it will affect the composition of the         nonprofit organization, outside of the confines of any
university for generations to come.             This       particular university or government entity.
phenomenon is repeated at institutions around the
country. To preserve and create gender equity in the
future, organizing and education are of paramount
importance now.



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                                                                  CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA                    -6-
•    Create a public education/media campaign to           EQUAL RIGHTS ADVOCATES’ ROLE:
     inform the younger generation of scholars, the        OPPORTUNITIES FOR LEGAL
     wider public and the judiciary about the
                                                           ADVOCACY
     history and persistence of gender inequity in
     academic institutions, and past and present
                                                               The roundtable provided ERA’s Higher
     efforts to overcome the effects of
                                                           Education Legal Advocacy Project with an
     discrimination and bias.
                                                           opportunity to consider how legal advocacy could
                                                           best support efforts to create sustainable gender
    Younger scholars and the public may believe that
                                                           equity in colleges and universities. Reflecting on the
the “problem” of women in universities is already
                                                           wealth of ideas presented at the roundtable, ERA has
solved. Making them aware of the history of
                                                           identified the following areas for potential case
women’s struggle for inclusion in the recent past, and
                                                           development:
ongoing efforts to overcome gender bias and promote
equity in the present, can create allies and promote
                                                           •   Leaky pipeline issues, especially in STEM
vigilance against backlash. Judges are reluctant to
                                                               disciplines.
second-guess employment decisions in the academic
context. Educating the judiciary to recognize subtle
                                                               Women are not hired into tenure-track positions,
mechanisms for perpetuating gender bias in academia
                                                           tenured, promoted or rewarded in proportion to their
is necessary to help victims of discrimination obtain
                                                           availability in the relevant labor pool, particularly
redress.
                                                           in the areas of science, technology, engineering
                                                           and math (the STEM disciplines). Institutional
     Creation of a working group to provide media
                                                           indifference to demonstrated, ongoing dispropor-
training and to develop a strategic plan for public and
                                                           tionate hiring of white males may be challenged
judicial education would enhance awareness of the
                                                           under state and federal law.
issues.
                                                           •   Sexual harassment
•    Create strategic alliances and seek leadership
     opportunities.
                                                               Too often, promising young women get
                                                           sidetracked at the outset of their academic careers by
    Forming strategic alliances with other women on
                                                           sexual harassment perpetrated by faculty members
campus, with other groups working for diversity,
                                                           who have power over their professional future.
with like-minded colleagues, with representatives of
                                                           Institutions that fail to provide adequate protection
the media, with Congressional staff, with state
                                                           against sexual harassment and/or fail to adequately
legislators, with alumni, and with regents/trustees
                                                           protect victims who bring complaints of sexual
will enhance the power of female academics to create
                                                           harassment may be challenged under state and federal
favorable climate change within the institution. In
                                                           antidiscrimination laws.
addition, these alliances may provide financial
resources (e.g., money, staff, administrative support)
                                                           •   Family/work balance
and political clout within the institution.
                                                               Women’s advancement is impeded when they are
     Seeking leadership opportunities will, in the short
                                                           denied tenure as a result of availing themselves of
run, develop the political sophistication necessary to
                                                           “stop-the-tenure-clock” policies in order to have
overcome resistance to change within one’s home
                                                           families. Institutions that fail to provide appropriate
institution, and, in the long run, increase the pool of
                                                           resources to accommodate family responsibilities
women available for appointment to leadership
                                                           and/or fail to protect women who take leaves from
positions as they arise. Women who are active
                                                           retaliation may be challenged under state and federal
participants in faculty governance can hold positions
                                                           law.
that permit them to change the reward structure,
rewrite tenure standards and create a climate that is
more hospitable to women and minorities.

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                                                                  CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA                 -7-
•    Women of color                                           The following individuals were participants in
                                                         the roundtable:
     Women of color face bias due to race and gender.
Their teaching evaluations may be adversely affected     Professor Alice Agogino
by negative stereotypes, and their scholarly research,   University of California, Berkeley
if it directly relates to communities of color, may be
undervalued. In addition, as a relatively scarce         Dr. Jessica Agramonte
resource within the institution, women of color are      Stanford University
called upon disproportionately to mentor and to tend
to the needs of minority students. Yet this              Professor Marina Angel
                                                         Temple University School of Law
institutional service work is not rewarded. To the
contrary, too often this extra work undermines their
                                                         Dr. Mary Burgan
academic careers. These disadvantages may be             American Association of University Professors
challenged as “sex plus” discrimination under state
and federal employment discrimination laws.              Professor Patricia A. Cain
                                                         University of Iowa, College of Law
•    Subtle discrimination
                                                         Nancy O’Mara Ezold
     Discrimination in academic employment is            Nancy O’Mara Ezold, PC
difficult to address through the legal system for a
number of interrelated reasons, including judicial       Nina Fendel
deference to academic institutions (reluctance to        California Faculty Association
inquire too deeply into academic judgments of
scholarly ability), the decentralized decision-making    Dr. Hilda Hernandez-Gravelle
structure of academic employment (multiple levels of     Conference Consultant/Facilitator
review obscure illegal behavior and make it harder to
demonstrate required elements of “intentional            Amy Houghton
discrimination”) and the use of summary proceedings      American Association of University Women
to decide cases before trial. Educating the judiciary
                                                         Dr. Alice Huang
to appreciate the significance of procedural
                                                         California Institute of Technology
irregularities and gender stereotyping behavior in
evaluating academic employment discrimination            Jean K. Hyams
cases may be accomplished by appellate advocacy          Boxer & Gerson
and the development of judicial education program
material.                                                Professor Herma Hill Kay
                                                         University of California (Boalt Hall)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                          Professor Linda Krieger
                                                         University of California (Boalt Hall)
    ERA gratefully acknowledges the Ford
Foundation for its financial support, and the            Professor Gyöngy Laky
participants in the Higher Education Roundtable for      University of California, Davis
their ongoing commitment to achieving gender equity
in academia and their valuable insights.                 Leslie Levy
                                                         Boxer & Gerson


                                                                                  (continued on next page)
                                                         Professor Jean Love
                                                         University of Iowa, College of Law

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                                                                CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA             -8-
                                                       Professor Barrie Thorne
Kathleen Lucas                                         University of California, Berkeley
The Lucas Law Firm
                                                       Dr. Cathy Trower
Professor Shauna Marshall                              Harvard Graduate School of Education
University of California (Hastings)
                                                       Professor Virginia Valian
Graduate Dean Mary Ann Mason                           Hunter College-CUNY
University of California, Berkeley
                                                       Professor Martha West
Professor Martha Mecartney                             University of California, Davis (King Hall)
University of California, Irvine
                                                       Professor Joan Williams
Professor Juana Mora                                   Washington College of Law
California State University, Northridge
                                                       ERA STAFF
Professor Radhika Rao
University of California (Hastings)                    Irma D. Herrera
                                                       Executive Director
Professor Judith Resnik
Yale Law School                                        Charlotte Fishman
                                                       Director, Higher Education Legal Advocacy Project
Professor Deborah L. Rhode
Stanford Law School                                    Debra A. Smith
                                                       Staff Attorney
Dr. Debra Rolison
Naval Research Laboratory

Dr. Bernice R. Sandler
Women’s Research and Education Institute

Karen Sawislak
Law Offices of James Eggleston

Professor Elaine W. Shoben
University of Illinois College of Law

Professor Marjorie M. Shultz
University of California (Boalt Hall)

Associate Vice Provost Angelica Stacy
University of California, Berkeley

Laura Stevens
Law Offices of Laura Stevens


Professor Myra H. Strober
Stanford University

Professor Eleanor Swift
University of California (Boalt Hall)

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                                                              CREATING GENDER EQUITY IN ACADEMIA           -9-