Study Guide by wanghonghx

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									Chapter 1
Thinking Critically With Psychological
Science

Learning Objectives
What Is Psychology? (pp. 1-10)

1.    Trace the views of prescientific thinkers regarding the origins of knowledge and how the mind
      and body relate.

2.    Discuss early psychologists' efforts to understand the structure and functions of the mind.

3.    Define psychology and describe the nature-nurture debate.

4.    Briefly describe the different perspectives from which psychologists examine behavior and
      mental processes, and explain their complementarity.

5.    Identify some of the basic and applied research subfields of psychology, and differentiate the
      mental health professions of clinical psychology and psychiatry.

Why Do Psychology? (pp. 11-15)

6.    Describe the hindsight bias, and explain how it often leads us to perceive psychological
      research as merely common sense.

7.    Discuss how overconfidence contaminates our everyday judgments.

8.    Explain how the scientific attitude encourages critical thinking.

How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? (pp. 15-27)

9.    Describe the relationship between psychological theories and scientific research.

10.   Compare and contrast case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation, and explain the
      importance of proper sampling.

11.   Describe both positive and negative correlations, and explain how correlational measures can
      aid the process of prediction.

12.   Explain why correlational research fails to provide evidence of cause-effect relationships.

13.   Discuss how people form illusory correlations and perceive order in random sequences.
                                                         Chapter 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science


14.    Identify the basic elements of an experiment, and discuss how experimental control contributes to
       causal explanation.

Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology (pp. 27-31)

15.    Explain the value of artificially simplified laboratory conditions in learning about principles of
       behavior, and discuss the generalizability of psychological research in terms of culture and
       gender.

16.    Explain why psychologists study animals, and discuss the ethics of experimentation with both
       animals and humans.

17.    Describe how personal values can influence psychologists' research and its application, and
       discuss the possibility for misuse of research findings.

Tips for Studying Psychology (pp. 31-32)

18.   Discuss several principles for effective learning, and explain the SQ3R study method.


       Prescientific psychology, p. 2
       Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: a
1.     Who most clearly affirmed that the mind continues to exist after physical death?
      a. Socrates
      b. Aristotle
      c. Darwin
      d. Wundt

       Prescientific psychology, p. 2
       Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
2.     Socrates emphasized the importance of _______ as a source of knowledge.
      a. experience
      b. animal spirits
      c. experimentation
      d. logic

       Prescientific psychology, p. 2
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
3.     Plato affirmed the importance of:
      a. replication.
      b. empiricism.
      c. innate ideas.
      d. random assignment.
CHAPTER         2
Neuroscience and Behavior


Learning Objectives
Neural Communication (pp. 38-43)

1.    Explain why psychologists are concerned with human biology.

2.    Describe the structure of a neuron, and explain how neural impulses are generated.

3.    Describe how nerve cells communicate, and discuss the impact of neurotransmitters and drugs
      on human behavior.

The Nervous System (pp. 43-46)

4.    Identify the major divisions of the nervous system and describe their functions, noting the
      three types of neurons that transmit information through the system.

The Brain (pp. 46-58)

5.    Describe the functions of the brainstem, thalamus, and cerebellum.

6.    (Close-Up) Identify and describe several techniques for studying the brain.

7.    Describe the structures of the limbic system and their functions.

8.    Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex, and describe the sensory and motor functions of
      the cortex.

9.    Discuss the importance of the association areas, and describe how damage to several different
      cortical areas can impair language functioning.

Brain Reorganization (pp. 58-62)

10.   Explain what brain plasticity reveals about our capacity to recover from injury to the nervous
      system.

11.   Describe research on the split brain, and discuss what it reveals regarding normal brain
      functioning.
                                                                        Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior


The Endocrine System (pp. 63-64)

12. Describe the nature and functions of the endocrine system.


       Introduction, p. 37
       Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: a
 1.    Phrenology highlighted the presumed functions of:
      a. specific brain regions.
      b. neurotransmitters.
      c. hormones.
      d. the right side of the brain.

       Introduction, p. 37
       Difficult, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: d
 2.   The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to
      which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a:
      a. neurologist.
      b. behavior geneticist.
      c. psychoanalyst.
      d. phrenologist.

       Introduction, p. 37
       Easy, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: b
 3.   Dr. Wolski does research on the potential relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies
      and mood states. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?
      a. phrenology
      b. biological psychology
      c. psychoanalysis
      d. clinical psychology

      Introduction, p. 37
      Medium, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: a
 4.    A biological psychologist would be most interested in the relationship between:
      a. body chemistry and violent behavior.
      b. skull shape and character traits.
      c. self-esteem and popularity.
      d. brain size and cell structure.

      Neurons, p. 38
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: c
 5.    Dendrites are branching extensions of:
      a. neurotransmitters.
      b. endorphins.
      c. neurons.
      d. endocrine glands.
CHAPTER        3
The Nature and Nurture of Behavior


Learning Objectives

Genes: Our Biological Blueprint (pp. 69-70)

1.    Describe the composition and physical location of genes.

Evolutionary Psychology: Maximizing Fitness (pp. 70-75)

2.    Discuss the impact of evolutionary history on genetically predisposed behavioral tendencies.

3.    Identify gender differences in sexual behavior, and describe and evaluate evolutionary
      explanations for those differences.

Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences (pp. 75-81)

4.    Describe how twin and adoption studies help us differentiate hereditary and environmental
      influences on human traits.

5.    Discuss how differences in infant temperament illustrate the effect of heredity on
      development, and describe the interaction of genetic and environmental influences on human
      traits.

Environmental Influence (pp. 82-89)

6.    Explain why we should be cautious about attributing children's successes and failures to
      parental influence.

7.    Explain how twins may experience different prenatal environments, and describe the effect of
      early experience on brain development.

8.    Describe how development is influenced by the individual's peer group and culture.

The Nature and Nurture of Gender (pp. 90-93)

9.    Describe the impact of sex chromosomes and sex hormones on biological development.

10.   Discuss the importance of gender roles, and explain how social and cognitive factors
      contribute to gender identity and gender-typing.
                                                                Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture of Behavior


Postscript: Reflections on Nature and Nurture (pp. 93-95)

11. Discuss the danger of blaming nature and nurture for our own personal failings.


      Genes: Our biological blueprint, p. 69
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: a
1.     A human sperm cell contains:
      a. 23 chromosomes.
      b. 23 genes.
      c. 46 chromosomes.
      d. 46 genes.

      Genes: Our biological blueprint, p. 69
      Difficult, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: e
2.     Chromosomes are contained within:
      a. brain cells.
      b. sperm cells.
      c. bone cells.
      d. blood cells.
      e. all of the above.

      Genes: Our biological blueprint, p. 69
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: a
3.     A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a:
      a. gene.
      b. gender schema.
      c. chromosome.
      d. hormone.
      e. neurotransmitter.

      Genes: Our biological blueprint, p. 69
      Difficult, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: d
4.     Sperm is to cell as DNA is to:
      a. testosterone.
      b. schema.
      c. synapse.
      d. molecule.

      Evolutionary psychology, p. 70
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: c
5.     Dmitry Belyaev and Lyudmilla Trut successfully domesticated wild foxes by means of:
      a. cloning.
      b. gender-typing.
      c. selective mating.
      d. gene splicing.
      e. hormone injections.
CHAPTER        4
The Developing Person


Learning Objectives
Prenatal Development and the Newborn (pp. 99-102)

1.    Discuss the course of prenatal development and the destructive impact of teratogens.

2.    Describe the capacities of the newborn and the use of habituation for assessing infant
      cognition.

Infancy and Childhood (pp. 103-115)

3.    Describe the impact of physical maturation on infants' capacities and motor skills.

4.    Describe Piaget's view of how the mind develops, and discuss his stage theory of cognitive
      development, noting current thinking regarding cognitive stages.

5.    Discuss the effect of body contact, familiarity, and responsive parenting on infant social
      attachments.

6.    Describe the benefits of a secure attachment and the impact of parental neglect and separation
      on childhood development.

7.    Discuss possible effects of different parenting styles on children.

Adolescence (pp. 115-123)

8.    Define adolescence and identify the major physical changes that occur during this period of
      life.

9.    Describe adolescents' growing reasoning power and Kohlberg's theory of moral development.

10.   Discuss the search for identity and the development of intimate social relationships during the
      adolescent years.

Adulthood (pp. 124-134)

11.   Identify the major physical changes that occur in middle and older adulthood.
                                                                               Chapter 4 The Developing Person


12.    Describe the impact of aging on adult memory and intelligence.

13.    Explain why the path of adult development need not be tightly linked to one's chronological
       age.

14.    Discuss the importance of family and work commitments in adult development.

15.    Describe people's life satisfaction across the life span and their reactions to death or the
       prospect of dying.

Reflections on Two Major Developmental Issues (pp. 134-136)

16.    Summarize current views regarding continuity versus stages and stability versus change in
       lifelong development.


      Prenatal development, p. 100
      Difficult, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
1.    During the course of successful prenatal development, a human organism begins as a(n)
      ________ and finally develops into a(n) _______
      a. embryo; zygote
      b. zygote; embryo
      c. embryo; fetus
      d. zygote; fetus
      e. fetus; embryo

      Prenatal development, p. 100
      Difficult, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
2.    The formation of a placenta signals the onset of ___ development
      a. ovular
      b. zygotic
      c. fetal
      d. embryonic

      Prenatal development, p. 100
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: a
 3.   The heart begins to beat and the liver begins to make red blood cells during the
      period of prenatal development.
      a. embryonic
      b. fetal
      c. zygotic
      d. ovular

      Prenatal development, p. 100
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
 4.    A teratogen is a(n):
      a. fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division.
      b. unborn child with one or more physical defects or abnormalities.
      c. chromosomal abnormality.
      d. substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.
CHAPTER       5
Sensation


Learning Objectives

Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles (pp. 142-146)

1.     Contrast the processes of sensation and perception.

2.     Distinguish between absolute and difference thresholds, and discuss research findings on
       subliminal stimulation.

3.     Describe the phenomenon of sensory adaptation, and explain its functional value.

Vision (pp. 146-156)

4.    Explain the visual process, including the stimulus input, the structure of the eye, and the
      transformation of light energy into neural activity.

5.    Discuss the different levels of visual information processing and the value of parallel
      processing.

6.    Explain the Young-Helmholtz and opponent-process theories of color vision, and describe the
      nature of color constancy.

The Other Senses (pp. 156-165)

7.    Explain the auditory process, including the stimulus input and the structure and function of the
      ear and how sounds are located.

8.    Describe the sense of touch, and explain the basis of pain.

9.    Describe the senses of taste and smell, and comment on the nature of sensory interaction.

10.   Distinguish between kinesthesis and the vestibular sense.

Perceptual Organization (pp. 165-175)

11.   Discuss Gestalt psychology's contribution to our understanding of perception.

12.   Explain the figure-ground relationship, and identify principles of perceptual grouping in form
      perception.
                                                                                        Chapter 5 Sensation


13.    Discuss research on depth perception involving the use of the visual cliff, and describe the
       binocular and monocular cues in depth perception.

14.    Describe the perceptual constancies, and show how the perceived size-distance relationship
       operates in visual illusions.

Perceptual Interpretation (pp. 175-182)

15.    Describe the debate over the role of nature and nurture in perception, and discuss what
       research findings on sensory deprivation and restored vision have contributed to this debate.

16.   Explain what the use of distorting goggles indicates regarding the adaptability of perception.

17.   Discuss the effects of assumptions, expectations, and contexts on our perceptions.

18.    State the claims of ESP, and explain why most research psychologists remain skeptical.


       Sensation and perception, p. 141
       Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
1.     The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:
      a. sensory interaction.
      b. subliminal perception.
      c. accommodation.
      d. sensation.

      Sensation and perception, p. 141
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
2.     Perception is the process by which:
      a. stimulus energies are detected.
      b. stimulus energies are transformed into neural activity.
      c. sensory input is selected, organized, and interpreted.
      d. nerve cells respond to specific features of a stimulus.

      Sensation and perception, p. 141
      Difficult, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: b
3.    Sensation is to _______ as perception is to
      a. encoding; detection
      b. detection; interpretation
      c. interpretation; organization
      d. organization; adaptation

      Sensation and perception, p. 141 Difficult, Conceptual, Objective
      1, Ans: e
4.    Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ___ as recognizing the sound
      sequence as a familiar melody is to ______ .
      a. the just noticeable difference; accommodation
      b. absolute threshold; difference threshold
      c. sensory interaction; feature detection
      d. feature detection; sensory interaction
      e. sensation; perception
CHAPTER          6
States of Consciousness


Learning Objectives
Waking Consciousness (pp. 187-189)

1.    Discuss the nature of consciousness and its significance in the history of psychology.

2.    Discuss how our perceptions are directed and limited by selective attention.

3.    Contrast conscious and subconscious information processing.

Sleep and Dreams (pp.   189-203)


4.    Describe the cyclical nature and possible functions of sleep.

5.    Identify the major sleep disorders.

6.    Discuss the content and possible functions of dreams.

Hypnosis (pp.   203-208)


7.    Discuss hypnosis, noting the behavior of hypnotized people and claims regarding its uses.

8.    Discuss the controversy over whether hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

Drugs and Consciousness (pp. 208-220)

9.    Discuss the nature of drug dependence, and identify some common misconceptions about
      addiction.

10.   Describe the physiological and psychological effects of depressants, stimulants, and
      hallucinogens.

11.   Discuss the factors that contribute to drug use.
CHAPTER          7
Learning


Learning Objectives
Introduction to Learning (pp. 225-228)

1.    Discuss the importance of learning and the process of learning associations.

Classical Conditioning (pp. 229-236)

2.    Describe the general process of classical conditioning as demonstrated by Pavlov's
      experiments.

3.    Explain the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and
      discrimination.

4.    Discuss the importance of cognitive processes and biological predispositions in classical
      conditioning.

5.    Explain the importance of Pavlov's work, and describe how it might apply to an understanding
      of human health and well-being.

Operant Conditioning (pp. 237-248)

6.    Describe the process of operant conditioning, including the procedure of shaping, as
      demonstrated by Skinner's experiments.

7.    Identify the different types of reinforcers, and describe the major schedules of partial
      reinforcement.

8.    Discuss the effects of punishment on behavior.

9.    Discuss the importance of cognitive processes and biological predispositions in operant
      conditioning.

10.   Explain why Skinner's ideas were controversial, and describe some major applications of
      operant conditioning.
                                                                                         Chapter 7 Learning


Learning by Observation (pp. 248-252)

11. Describe the process of observational learning as demonstrated by Bandura's experiments, and
      discuss the impact of antisocial and prosocial modeling.


       Introduction to learning, p. 225
       Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
 1.     According to the text, learning:
       a. always produces an improvement in behavior.
       b. requires the ability to think abstractly.
       c. enables us to adapt to our environment.
       d. does not occur in simple animals.

       Introduction to learning, pp. 225, 226
       Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
 2.   By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the
      process of:
      a. habituation.
      b. spontaneous recovery.
      c. classical conditioning.
      d. observational learning.
      e. operant conditioning.

      Introduction to learning, p. 226
      Easy, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: c
 3.    Response-stimulus associations are to _______ as stimulus-stimulus associations are to

      a.   latent learning; observational learning
      b.   generalization; discrimination
      c.   operant conditioning; classical conditioning
      d.   secondary reinforcement; primary reinforcement
      e.   acquisition; extinction

      Introduction to learning, p. 227
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
 4.   By pushing vending machine buttons, children often learn that this action is associated with
      the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:
      a. latent learning.
      b. respondent behavior.
      c. spontaneous recovery.
      d. operant conditioning.
      e. habituation.
CHAPTER        8
Memory



Learning Objectives
The Phenomenon of Memory (pp. 257-260)

1.    Describe memory in terms of information processing, and distinguish among sensory memory,
      short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Encoding: Getting Information In (pp. 260-265)

2..   Distinguish between automatic and effortful processing, and discuss the importance of
      rehearsal.

3.    Explain the importance of meaning, imagery, and organization in the encoding process.

Storage: Retaining Information (pp. 265-272)

4.    Describe the limited nature of sensory memory and short-term memory.

5.    Describe the capacity and duration of long-term memory, and discuss the biological changes
      that may underlie memory formation and storage.

6.    Distinguish between implicit and explicit memory, and identify the different brain structures
      associated with each.

Retrieval: Getting Information Out (pp. 272-275)

7.    Contrast recall, recognition, and relearning measures of memory.

8.    Describe the importance of retrieval cues and the impact of environmental contexts and
      internal emotional states on retrieval.

Forgetting (pp. 275-281)

9.    Explain why the capacity to forget can be beneficial, and discuss the role of encoding failure
      and storage decay in the process of forgetting.

10.   Explain what is meant by retrieval failure, and discuss the effects of interference and
      motivated forgetting on retrieval.
                                                                                  Chapter 8 Memory


Memory Construction (pp. 281-287)

11.   Describe the evidence for the constructive nature of memory and the impact of imagination
      and leading questions on eyewitness recall.

12.   Describe the reliability of children's eyewitness recall.

13.   Discuss the controversy over reports of repressed and recovered memories of childhood sexual
      abuse.

Improving Memory (pp. 287-288)

14.   Explain how an understanding of memory can contribute to effective study techniques.


      Information processing, p. 259
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
1.     The process of encoding refers to:
      a. the persistence of learning over time.
      b. the recall of information previously learned.
      c. getting information into memory.
      d. the motivated forgetting of painful memories.
      e. a clear memory of an emotionally significant event.

      Information processing, p. 259
      Medium, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: d
2.     Storage is to encoding as _______ is to __
      a. recognition; recall
      b. imagery; mnemonics
      c. rehearsal; retrieval
      d. retention; acquisition
      e. priming; relearning

      Information processing, p. 259
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
3.     The process of getting information out of memory storage is called:
      a. priming.
      b. encoding.
      c. relearning.
      d. retrieval.
      e. rehearsal.

      Information processing, p. 259
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: a
4.    Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ___ memory
      a. short-term
      b. implicit
      c. mood-congruent
      d. explicit
      e. automatic
CHAPTER         9
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence


Learning Objectives
Thinking (pp. 293-302)

1.     Describe the nature of concepts and the role of prototypes in concept formation.

2.     Discuss how we use trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, and insight to solve problems.

3.     Describe how the confirmation bias and fixation can interfere with effective problem solving.

4.     Explain how the representativeness and availability heuristics influence our judgments.

5.     Describe the effects that overconfidence, framing, and belief perseverence can have on our
      judgments and decisions.

Language (pp. 302-315)

6.    Trace the course of language acquisition, and discuss alternative theories of language
      development.

7.    Discuss the relationship between thought and language.

8.    Describe the research on animal cognition and communication, and discuss the controversy
      over whether animals can use language.

Intelligence (pp. 315-336)

9.    Trace the origins of intelligence testing, and describe Stern's formula for the intelligence
      quotient.

10.   Discuss whether intelligence should be considered a general mental ability or many specific
      abilities, and describe its relationship to creativity.

11.   Describe modern tests of mental abilities such as the WAIS, and distinguish between aptitude
      and achievement tests.

12.   Describe test standardization, and explain the importance of appropriate standardization
      samples for effectively interpreting intelligence test scores.
                                                              Chapter 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence


13.   Distinguish between the reliability and validity of intelligence tests, and explain how
      reliability and validity are assessed.

14.   (Close-Up) Describe the two extremes of the normal distribution of intelligence.

15.   Discuss evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on intelligence.

16.   Describe group differences in intelligence test scores, and show how they can be explained in
      terms of environmental factors.

17.   Discuss whether intelligence tests are culturally biased.


      Thinking, p. 293
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
1.    Which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with the systematic study of problem
      solving, decision making, concept formation, and forming judgments?
      a. developmental psychology
      b. social psychology
      c. clinical psychology
      d. cognitive psychology
      e. personality psychology

      Thinking, p. 293
      Medium, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: d
2.    Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences people's
      assessments of financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
      a. developmental psychology
      b. biological psychology
      c. clinical psychology
      d. cognitive psychology
      e. personality psychology

      Concepts, p. 293
      Medium, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: c
3.    When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using
      this word as a(n):
      a. syndrome.
      b. heuristic.
      c. concept.
      d. algorithm.

      Concepts, p. 294
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
4.     A prototype is a:
      a. mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
      b. step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
      c. best example of a particular category.
      d. simple thinking strategy for solving problems efficiently.
CH AP TER         10

Motivation


Learning Objectives
Motivational Concepts (pp. 341-344)

1.    Define motivation, and identify several theories of motivated behavior.

2.    Describe Maslow's hierarchy of motives.

Hunger (pp. 345-357)

3.    Describe the physiological determinants of hunger.

4.    (Text and Close-Up) Discuss the impact of external incentives and culture on hunger, and
      describe the symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

5.    Describe research findings on obesity and weight control.

Sexual Motivation (pp. 357-370)

6.    Describe the human sexual response cycle, and discuss the impact of both hormones and
      psychological factors on sexual motivation.

7.    Identify factors contributing to increased rates of pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease
      among today's adolescents.

8.    Describe research findings on the nature and dynamics of sexual orientation, and discuss the
      place of values in sex research.

The Need to Belong (pp. 370-373)

9.    Describe the adaptive value of social attachments, and identify both healthy and unhealthy
      consequences of our need to belong.

Achievement Motivation (pp. 373-374)

10.   Discuss the nature and sources of achievement motivation.
C H AP T E R      11

Emotions, Stress, and Health


Learning Objectives
Theories of Emotion (pp. 379-383)

1.    Identify the three components of emotions and contrast the James-Lange and Cannon-Bard
      theories of emotion.

2.    Describe Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion, and discuss evidence suggesting that some
      emotional reactions involve no conscious thought.

Embodied Emotion (pp. 383-387)

3.    Describe the physiological changes that occur during emotional arousal, and discuss the
      relationship between arousal and performance.

4.    Describe the relationship between physiological states and specific emotions, and discuss the
      effectiveness of the polygraph in detecting lies.

Expressed Emotion (pp. 387-393)

5.    Describe some nonverbal indicators of emotion, and discuss the extent to which people from
      different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner.

6.    Describe the effects of facial expressions on emotional experience.

Experienced Emotion (pp. 393-401)

7.    Discuss the catharsis hypothesis, and identify some of the advantages and disadvantages of
      openly expressing anger.

8.    Identify some potential causes and consequences of happiness, and describe how happiness is
      influenced by our prior experiences and by others' attainments.

Stress and Health (pp. 401-413)

9.    Describe the biology of the "fight or flight" response to stress and the physical characteristics
      and phases of the general adaptation syndrome.

10.   Discuss the health consequences of catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily hassles.
                                                                    Chapter 11 Emotions, Stress, and Health


11.   Describe the effects of a perceived lack of control, economic inequality, and a pessimistic
      outlook on health.

12.   Discuss the role of stress in causing coronary heart disease, and contrast Type A and Type B
      personalities.

13.   Describe how stress increases the risk of disease by inhibiting the activities of the body's
      immune system.

14.   Describe the impact of learning on immune system functioning.

Promoting Health (pp. 414-424)

15.   Identify and discuss different strategies for coping with stress, and explain why people should
      be skeptical about the value of complementary and alternative medicine.


      Theories of emotion, p. 379
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
1.     The basic components of emotion are:
      a. sympathetic arousal, parasympathetic inhibition, and cognitive labeling.
      b. physical gestures, facial expressions, and psychological drives.
      c. expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.
      d. cognition, affect, and behavior.

      The James-Lange theory, pp. 379-380
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: b
2.     Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry . . afraid because we tremble"?
      a. Stanley Schachter
      b. William James
      c. Walter Cannon
      d. Richard Lazarus
      e. Charles Darwin

      The James-Lange theory, p. 380
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: a
3.     The James-Lange theory of emotion states that:
      a. to experience emotion is to be aware of one's physiological responses to an emotion-
         arousing event.
      b. the expression of emotion reduces one's level of physiological arousal.
      c. an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both physiological arousal and the
         subjective experience of emotion.
      d. to experience emotion one must be physically aroused and able to cognitively label the
         emotion.
 CHAPTER       12
Personality


Learning Objectives
Historical Perspectives on Personality (pp. 429-442)

1.    Describe what is meant by personality, and explain how Freud's treatment of psychological
      disorders led to his study of the unconscious.

2.    Describe Freud's view of personality structure in terms of the interactions of the id, ego, and
      superego.

3.    Identify Freud's psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on
      behavior.

4.    Discuss how defense mechanisms serve to protect the individual from anxiety.

5.    Explain how projective tests are used to assess personality.

6.    Discuss the contributions of the neo-Freudians, and describe the shortcomings of Freud's
      ideas.

7.    Describe the humanistic perspective on personality in terms of Maslow's focus on self-
      actualization and Rogers' emphasis on people's potential for growth.

8.    Describe humanistic psychologists' approach to personality assessment, and discuss the
      criticisms of the humanistic perspective.

Contemporary Research on Personality (pp. 442-464)

9.    Discuss psychologists' interest in personality types, and describe research efforts to identify
      fundamental personality traits.

10.   Explain how personality inventories are used to assess traits, and identify the Big Five trait
      dimensions.

11.   Discuss research regarding the consistency of behavior over time and across situations.

12.   Describe the social-cognitive perspective, and discuss the important consequences of personal
      control, learned helplessness, and optimism.
                                                                                   Chapter 12 Personality


13.   Describe how social-cognitive researchers assess behavior in realistic situations, and evaluate
      the social-cognitive perspective on personality.

14.   Describe psychology's interest in people's sense of self, and discuss the benefits and liabilities of
      self-esteem and self-serving pride.

15.   Describe the impact of individualism and collectivism on self-identity and social relations.

16.   Identify examples of nonconscious information processing highlighted by contemporary
      research.


      Personality, p. 429
      Difficult, Conceptual, Objective 1, Ans: c
1.     The concept of "personality" most clearly embodies the notion of:
       a. moral integrity.
       b. self-consciousness.
       c. temporal consistency.
       d. self-actualization.
       e. gender identity.

      The psychoanalytic perspective, p. 430
      Difficult, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
2.    Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain
      patients' symptoms:
      a. resulted from the physical abuse they received from their parents during childhood.
      b. resulted from the loss of an internal locus of control.
      c. could not be removed by means of hypnosis.
      d. could not be explained readily in terms of neurological impairments.

      Exploring the unconscious, p. 430
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
3.    Freud observed that certain symptoms of illness were relieved when patients talked freely
      about their past. This led Freud to suspect that these symptoms resulted from:
      a. genetic defects.
      b. an inferiority complex.
      c. psychological processes.
      d. an internal locus of control.
      e. reciprocal determinism.

      Exploring the unconscious, p. 430
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: c
4.     The use of free association is central to the process of:
      a. identification.
      b. self-actualization.
      c. psychoanalysis.
      d. reciprocal determinism.
      e. unconditional positive regard.
CHAPTER        13
Psychological Disorders


Learning Objectives

Perspectives on Psychological Disorders (pp. 470-476)

1.    Identify the criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.

2.    Describe the medical model of psychological disorders, and discuss the bio-psycho-social
      perspective offered by critics of this model.

3.    Describe the aims of DSM-IV, and discuss the potential dangers associated with the use of
      diagnostic labels.

Anxiety Disorders (pp. 476-482)

4.    Describe the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive
      disorders.

5.    Explain the development of anxiety disorders from both a learning and a biological
      perspective.

Dissociative and Personality Disorders (pp. 482-486)

6.    Describe the characteristics and possible causes of dissociative identity disorder.

7.    Describe the nature of personality disorders, focusing on the characteristics of the antisocial
      personality disorder.

Mood Disorders (pp. 486-496)

8.    Describe major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

9.    Explain the development of mood disorders, paying special attention to the biological and
      social-cognitive perspectives.

Schizophrenia (pp. 496-501)

10.   Describe the various symptoms and subtypes of schizophrenia, and discuss research on its
      causes.
                                                 C h a p t e r 13   P sy ch o l og i ca l D i s o rd e r s )


Rates of Psychological Disorders (pp. 501-502)

11. Describe the prevalence of various disorders and the timing of their onset.


     Defining psychological disorders, p. 470
     Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
1.    Mental health workers label behavior psychologically disordered when they judge it:
     a. prejudicial, unconsciously motivated, ingenuine, and insane.
     b. biologically based, unconsciously motivated, aggressive, and difficult to change.
     c. selfish, habitual, and avoidable.
     d. atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable.

     Defining psychological disorders, p. 470
     Medium, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: c
2.   Savannah often appears nervous and agitated; she frequently talks loudly and laughs almost
     uncontrollably. Her behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as psychologically disordered if it
     is:
     a. not caused by a biological impairment.
     b. difficult for her to discontinue.
     c. socially unacceptable and disturbing to others.
     d. the product of unconscious motives.

     Defining psychological disorders, p. 470
     Medium, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: b
3.   Alexis is socially withdrawn and she fears and distrusts many people. This behavior is most
     likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is:
     a. a long-standing pattern of behavior.
     b. rationally unjustifiable.
     c. not caused by a biological disorder.
     d. a response to a stressful life situation.

     Understanding psychological disorders, pp. 470-471
     Medium, Conceptual, Objective 2, Ans: c
4.   The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of
     demon possession is that these explanations:
     a. were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia.
     b. encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity.
     c. led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.
     d. absolved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.

     Understanding psychological disorders, p. 471
     Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 2, Ans: a
5.    According to the medical model, psychological disorders are:
     a. sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured.
     b. maladaptive responses to a troubling environment.
     c. purely imaginary symptoms of distress.
     d. learned habits that need to be extinguished.
CHAPTER         14
Therapy


Learning Objectives
The Psychological Therapies (pp. 507-518)

1.    Discuss the aims and methods of psychoanalysis, and explain the critics' concerns with this
      form of therapy.

2.    Identify the basic characteristics of the humanistic therapies as well as the specific goals and
      techniques of client-centered therapy.

3.    Identify the basic assumptions of behavior therapy, and discuss the classical conditioning
      techniques of systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning.

4.    Describe therapeutic applications of operant conditioning principles, and explain the critics'
      concerns with this behavior modification process.

5.    Describe the assumptions and goals of the cognitive therapies and their application to the
      treatment of depression.

Group and Family Therapies (pp. 518-519)

6.    Discuss the rationale and benefits of group therapy, including family therapy.

Evaluating Psychotherapies (pp. 519-529)

7.    Discuss the findings regarding the effectiveness of the psychotherapies, and explain why
      ineffective therapies are often mistakenly perceived to be of value.

8.    Describe the commonalities among the psychotherapies, and discuss the role of values and
      cultural differences in the therapeutic process.

The Biomedical Therapies (pp. 529-534)

9.    Identify the common forms of drug therapy.

10.   Describe the use of electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery in the treatment of
      psychological disorders.
                                                                                      Chapter 14 Therapy




Preventing Psychological Disorders (pp. 534-535)

11. Explain the rationale of preventive mental health programs.


     The psychological therapies, p. 507
     Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
1.    An eclectic therapist is one who:
     a. prescribes the use of drugs as part of psychotherapy.
     b. emphasizes that active listening is the major technique in all effective therapies.
     c. prefers to engage in therapy in a group setting.
     d. uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches.

     The psychological therapies, p. 507
     Medium, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: e
2.   Dr. Byrne is a clinical psychologist who often uses operant conditioning techniques to treat her
     clients. She also encourages them to modify their thought patterns, and on occasion she interprets
     their transference behaviors. Dr. Byrne's therapeutic approach would best be described as:
     a. client-centered.
     b. biomedical.
     c. psychoanalytic.
     d. behavioral.
     e. eclectic.

     Psychoanalysis, p. 508
     Medium, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: c
3.   Mr. Choi's therapist wants to help him become aware of his conflicting childhood feelings of
     love and hate for his parents. The therapist's goal best reflects a primary aim of:
     a. client-centered therapy.
     b. cognitive therapy.
     c. psychoanalysis.
     d. systematic desensitization.
     e. operant conditioning techniques.

     Psychoanalysis, p. 508
     Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: e
4.    A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is:
     a. stress inoculation training.
     b. systematic desensitization.
     c. observational learning.
     d. active listening.
     e. free association.
CHAPTER         15
Social Psychology


Learning Objectives
Social Thinking (pp. 539-544)

1.     Describe the importance of attribution in social behavior and the dangers of the fundamental
       attribution error.

2.     Identify the conditions under which attitudes have a strong impact on actions.

3.     Explain the foot-in-the-door phenomenon and the effect of role playing on attitudes in terms of
       cognitive dissonance theory.

Social Influence (pp. 545-554)

4.     Discuss the results of experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and
       informational social influence.

5.    Describe Milgram's controversial experiments on obedience, and discuss their implications for
      understanding our susceptibility to social influence.

6.    Describe conditions in which the presence of others is likely to result in social facilitation,
      social loafing, or deindividuation.

7.    Discuss how group interaction can facilitate group polarization and groupthink, and describe
      how minority influence illustrates the power of individuals.

Social Relations (pp. 555-578)

8.    Describe the social, emotional, and cognitive factors that contribute to the persistence of
      cultural, ethnic, and gender prejudice and discrimination.

9.    Describe the impact of biological factors, aversive events, and learning experiences on
      aggressive behavior.

10.    Discuss the effects of observing pornography and violent video games on social attitudes and
       behavior.

11.    Explain how social traps and mirror-image perceptions fuel social conflict.
                                                                                  Chapter 15 Social Psychology



12.    Describe the influence of proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity on interpersonal
       attraction.

13.    Explain the impact of physical arousal on passionate love, and discuss how companionate love is
       nurtured by equity and self-disclosure.

14.   Describe and explain the bystander effect, and explain altruistic behavior in terms of social
      exchange theory and social norms.

15.   Discuss effective ways of encouraging peaceful cooperation and reducing social conflict.


      Social psychology, p. 539
      Easy, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: b
 1.   Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think
      about, influence, and relate to one another?
      a. developmental psychology
      b. social psychology
      c. personality psychology
      d. experimental psychology
      e. clinical psychology

      Attributing behavior to persons or to situations, p. 539
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: e
 2.    Attribution theory was designed to account for:
      a. the process of revealing intimate aspects of ourselves to others.
      b. the impact of both heredity and environment on social behavior.
      c. social facilitation and social loafing.
      d. the loss of self-awareness that occurs in group situations.
      e. how people explain others' behavior.

      Attributing behavior to persons or to situations, p. 539
      Easy, Conceptual/Application, Objective 1, Ans: e
 3.   Ksana insists that her boyfriend's car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for
      the accident provides an example of:
      a. the bystander effect.
      b. deindividuation.
      c. ingroup bias.
      d. the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
      e. a dispositional attribution.

      Attributing behavior to persons or to situations, p. 539
      Medium, Factual/Definitional, Objective 1, Ans: d
 4.    Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their
      or to their ________
      a. heredity; environment
      b. biological motives; psychological motives
      c. cognitions; emotions
      d. dispositions; situations
      e. abilities; effort

								
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