Designing for Construction Safety and Health by qox18395

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									 Designing for Construction Safety and 
 Health
 From Research to Practice

 John Gambatese, PhD, PE
 School of Civil and Construction Engineering
 Oregon State University


 CIB W099 Conference
 Melbourne, Australia
 October 21‐23, 2009




    Designing for Construction Safety and 
                  Health is…
• The application of the Prevention 
  through Design (PtD) concept to the 
  design of a construction project

• Recognizing construction site safety 
  as a design criterion

• “Safety Constructability”
                      What research tells us…
    • 22% of 226 injuries that occurred from
        2000‐2002 in Oregon, WA,  and CA1
    • 42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990‐
      20031
    • 60% of fatal accidents resulted in part 
      from decisions made before site work 
      began2
    • 63% of all fatalities and injuries could be 
      attributed to design decisions or lack of 
      planning3

1   Behm, M., “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Constr. Safety Concept” (2005)
2  European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

3   NSW WorkCover, CHAIR Safety in Design Tool, 2001




                       Additional Motivations
      • Ability to influence safety is greatest early in 
        the project schedule (Szymberski, 1997) 
      • Moral and ethical standards
           – “Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, 
             health, and welfare of the public.” (NSPE Code of 
             Ethics)
                                                                           Environmental
      • Hierarchy of controls
      • Sustainability
                                                                            Sustainability
                                                           Economic                               Social
                          Examples in Practice




                 Resources and Processes
 • Establish design for
   safety expectations
 • Include construction and
   operation perspective
 • Identify design for safety
   process and tools




           Design                                 Internal        External        Issue for
           Kickoff              Design
                                                  Review          Review         Construction




                            Trade contractor   • QA/QC        • Focused safety
                              involvement                       review
                                               • Cross-
                                                 discipline   • Owner review
                                                 review
(Source: Hecker et al., 2005)
             Resources and Processes
                                   Project Phase


                                               CHAIR-2
            Begin        CHAIR-1                               Commence
           Concept
                                               CHAIR-3        Construction
            Design


                        Review of             Review of
                      Concept Design        Detailed Design



       Construction Hazard Assessment and Implication Review 
                              (CHAIR)

(Source: NSW WorkCover, CHAIR Safety in Design Tool, 2001)




             Resources and Processes
       Design for Safety and Health 
               Components
• Ability
• Opportunity
• Responsibility
• Authority
• Motivation




       Design for Safety and Health 
               Components
• Ability          • Knowledge of construction
                     site hazards, associated risk,
•   Opportunity      and how to create safe
•   Responsibility designs
                   • Able to access and use design
•   Authority
                     for safety resources and
•   Motivation       processes
                     Education, training, and tools
     Design for Safety and Health 
             Components
• Ability
• Opportunity      • Available resources

• Responsibility • Access to site and resources
                   • Acceptable within contract
• Authority
                   • Accepted within project team
• Motivation         and culture
                   • A need to consider safety
                    Right place, right time, right
                              resources




     Design for Safety and Health 
             Components
• Ability
• Opportunity
• Responsibility    • Assessing project risk and
                      developing options to
• Authority           mitigate risk are within
• Motivation          contracted scope of work
                      and/or standard practice
                      Safety is a design criterion
     Design for Safety and Health 
             Components
• Ability
• Opportunity
• Responsibility
                   • Authorized to select and
• Authority          prescribe designs based on
• Motivation         safety risk assessments and
                     option evaluations
                       Safety is a high priority




     Design for Safety and Health 
             Components
• Ability
                   • Good business practice
• Opportunity
                   • Contracted scope of work
• Responsibility   • Moral/ethical standard
• Authority        • Governing legislation
• Motivation       • Standard design practice
                   • Interest in construction
                     worker safety and health
                   Designing for safety has value
    Steps to Designing for Construction 
             Safety and Health

1         2       3        4        5         DfCSH




    Steps to Designing for Construction 
             Safety and Health

1         2       3        4        5         DfCSH

• Education, training, and tools
    – Safety in architecture/engineering education
    – Professional continuing education classes
    – Safety in professional licensure requirements
    – Visualization and work flow tools
    Steps to Designing for Construction 
             Safety and Health

1         2       3        4        5         DfCSH

• Right place, right time, right resources
    – Safety review in project development process
    – Integrated project delivery methods
    – Co‐locating design and construction staff
    – Supported by owner/client (resources)




    Steps to Designing for Construction 
             Safety and Health

1         2       3        4        5         DfCSH

• Safety is a design criterion
    – Part of standard design practice
    – Incorporated into design codes
    – Contractually prescribed by owner/client
    – Required by legislation
      Steps to Designing for Construction 
               Safety and Health

  1               2        3             4            5              DfCSH

 • Safety is a high priority
       – Authorization to modify the design for safety
       – Designing out the hazard is first choice 
       – Safety and health given high priority relative to 
         other project criteria




                         Research Findings
 • Priority of project criteria




*Ranking:
  1 = Highest priority
  6 = Lowest priority
  A smaller number 
  represents higher
  priority.
                               (Source: Gambatese, J., Behm, M., and Hinze, J. (2005).
                               “Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety.”
                               Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE,
                               131(9), 1029-1036)
    Steps to Designing for Construction 
             Safety and Health

1         2        3       4          5       DfCSH

• Designing for safety has value
    – Lifecycle savings outweigh costs, and economically 
      feasible for designers  
    – Improvements in safety, quality, productivity
    – Morally/ethically responsible
    – Desired by owners/clients (priority)




    Steps to Designing for Construction 
             Safety and Health

1         2        3       4          5       DfCSH

• Designed for construction safety and health
    – Construction site hazards eliminated/reduced
    – Improvements in safety, quality, productivity
    – Improvements in maintenance safety
    – Design and construction integration/collaboration
                                                         Taxonomy
 Design and                                Manufacturing Levels
                                                                                    Project
                                                                                                                    Construction


 Construction 




                                                                                                                     Product Design
                                                                   Process Design
                                                  Product Design
 Integration                                                                        Division




                                                                                    Activity
                                                                                                                                           Design-Fabrication
                                                                                                                                           Interface
                                                                                    Basic Task

                                           Machine                                                                                         Technology

                                                                                    Elemental Motion




                                                                                                   Process Design
                                   Design-Fabrication




                                                                                                                             Fabrication
                                           Interface
(Source: Everett, J.G. and
Slocum, A.H. , 1994. “Automation                                                    Orthopedics

                                                   Fabrication
and Robotics Opportunities:
Construction versus
Manufacturing.” Journal of
Construction Engineering and                                                        Cell
Management, ASCE, Vol. 120, No.
2, pp. 443-452)




      Expected Impacts: “Trajectories”
  • Increased prefabrication
  • Increased use of less hazardous 
    materials and systems
  • Increased construction engineering
  • Increased spatial investigation
  • Increased collaboration & integration

(Source: Toole, T.M. and Gambatese, J.A., 2008. “The Trajectories
of Prevention through Design in Construction.” Journal of Safety
Research, Special issue on Prevention through Design, Elsevier and
the National Safety Council, 39, 225-230)
 Designing for Construction Safety 
 and Health
 From Research to Practice

• Questions?    Comments?
• For more information:
 john.gambatese@oregonstate.edu 

								
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