Document Sample
					                                                                    APPENDIX               A

                                  COMBINING FORMS,
                                      AND SUFFIXES
Pertaining to                        Abnormal Conditions
-ac     pertaining to                -ago     abnormal condition,   disease
-al     pertaining to                -esis    abnormal condition,   disease
-ar     pertaining to                -ia      abnormal condition,   disease
-ary    pertaining to                -iasis   abnormal condition,   disease
                                     -ion     condition
-eal    pertaining to
                                     -ism     condition, state of
-ical   pertaining to
                                     -osis    abnormal condition,   disease
-ial    pertaining to
-ic     pertaining to
                                     Noun Endings
-ine    pertaining to
                                     -a       noun ending
-ior    pertaining to
                                     -e       noun ending
-ory    pertaining to                -um      singular noun ending
-ous    pertaining to                -us      singular noun ending
-tic    pertaining to                -y       noun ending


D4623-Ehrlich_App_A     4/10/08                 4:34:30pm                     497 of 514
    498           APPENDIX A

          A                                                        alb/i, alb/o,
                                                                                         albumin, protein
    a-                       no, not, without, away from,
                                                                   alg/e, algi/o,        relationship to pain
                                                                      alg/o, algesi/o
    -a                       noun ending
                                                                   -algesia, -algesic    painful, pain sense
    ab-                      away from, negative, absent
    abdomin/o                abdomen                               -algia                pain, painful condition
    -able                    capable of, able to                   align/o               bring into line or correct position
    abort/o                  premature expulsion of a              aliment/o             to nourish
                              nonviable fetus                      all/o, all-           other, different from normal,
    abrad/o, abras/o         rub or scrape off                                             reversal
    abrupt/o                 broken away from                      alopec/o              baldness, mangy
    abs-                     away from                             alveol/o              alveolus, air sac, small sac
    abscess/o                collection of pus, going away         ambi-                 both sides, around or about, double
    absorpt/o                suck up, suck in                      ambly/o               dull, dim
    -ac                      pertaining to                         ambul/o,              walk
    acanth/o                 spiny, thorny                            ambulat/o
    acetabul/o               acetabulum (hip socket)               ametr/o               out of proportion
    -acious                  characterized by                      -amine                nitrogen compound
    acne/o                   point or peak                         amni/o                amnion, fetal membrane
    acous/o,                 hearing, sound                        amph-                 around, on both sides, doubly
       acoust/o                                                    amput/o,              cut away, cut off a part of the body
    acquir/o                 get, obtain                              amputat/o
    acr/o                    extremities (hands and feet), top,    amyl/o                starch
                               extreme point                       an-                   no, not, without
    acromi/o                 acromion, point of shoulder blade     an-, ana-             up, apart, backward, excessive
    actin/o                  light                                 an/o                  anus, ring
    acu/o                    sharp, severe, sudden                 -an                   characteristic of, pertaining to
    acuit/o, acut/o          sharp, sharpness                      -ancy                 state of
    acust/o, -acusia,        hearing, sense of hearing             andr/o                relationship to the male
        -acusis                                                    aneurysm/o            aneurysm
    ad-                      toward, to, in the direction of       angi/o                blood or lymph vessel
    aden/o                   gland                                 angin/o               angina, choking, strangling
    adenoid/o                adenoids                              anis/o                unequal
    adhes/o                  stick to, cling to                    ankyl/o               crooked, bent, stiff
    adip/o                   fat                                   anomal/o              irregularity
    adnex/o                  bound to                              ante-                 before, in front of
    adren/o,                 adrenal glands                        anter/o               before, front
        adrenal/o                                                  anthrac/o             coal, coal dust
    aer/o                    air, gas                              anti-                 against
    aesthet/o                sensation, sense of perception        anxi/o, anxiet/o      anxiety, anxious, uneasy
    af-                      toward, to                            aort/o                aorta
    affect/o                 exert influence on                    ap-                   toward, to
    agglutin/o               clumping, stick together              -apheresis            removal
    aggress/o                attack, step forward                  aphth/o               ulcer
    -ago                     abnormal condition, disease           apic/o                apex
    agor/a                   marketplace                           ap-, apo-             separation, away from, opposed,
    -agra                    excessive pain, seizure, attack of                            detached
                               severe pain                         aplast/o              defective development, lack of
S   -aise                    comfort, ease                                                 development
N   -al                      pertaining to                         aponeur/o             aponeurosis (type of tendon)

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                        4/10/08                    4:34:55pm                       498 of 514
                                                                PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES        499

apoplect/o            a stroke                             bartholin/o          Bartholin’s gland
append/o,             appendix                             bas/o                base, opposite of acid
   appendic/o                                              bi-                  twice, double, two
aqu/i, aqu/o,         water                                bi/o                 life
   aque/o                                                  bifid/o              split, divided into two parts
-ar                   pertaining to                        bifurcat/o           divide or fork into two branches
arachn/o              spider web, spider                   bil/i                bile, gall
arc/o                 bow, arc or arch                     bilirubin/o          bilirubin
-arche                beginning                            bin-                 two by two
areat/o               occurring in patches or circum-      -blast               embryonic, immature, formative
                        scribed areas                                             element
areol/o               little open space                    blephar/o            eyelid
-aria                 connected with                       borborygm/o          rumbling sound
arrect/o              upright, lifted up, raised           brachi/o             arm
arter/o, arteri/o     artery                               brachy-              short
arthr/o               joint                                brady-               slow
articul/o             joint                                brev/i, brev/o       short
-ary                  pertaining to                        bronch/i, bronchi/o, bronchial tube, bronchus
as-                   toward, to                              bronch/o
asbest/o              asbestos                             bronchiol/o          bronchiole, bronchiolus
-ase                  enzyme                               brux/o               grind
aspir/o, aspirat/o    to breathe in                        bucc/o               cheek
asthen-, -asthenia    weakness, lack of strength           burs/o               bursa, sac of fluid near joint
asthmat/o             gasping, choking                     byssin/o             cotton dust
astr/o                star, star-shaped
at-                   toward, to
                      incomplete, imperfect
                      plaque, fatty substance
athet/o               uncontrolled                         cadaver/o             dead body, corpse
atop/o                strange, out of place                calcane/o             calcaneus, heel bone
atres/i               without an opening                   calc/i                calcium, lime, the heel
atri/o                atrium                               calci-, calc/o        calcium
attenuat/o            diluted, weakened                    calcul/o              stone, little stone
aud-, audi/o,         ear, hearing, the sense of hearing   cali/o, calic/o       cup, calyx
   audit/o                                                 call/i, callos/o      hard, hardened and thickened
aur/i, aur/o          ear, hearing                         calor/i               heat
auscult/a,            listen                               canalicul/o           little canal or duct
   auscult/o                                               canth/o               corner of the eye
aut/o                 self                                 capill/o              hair
-ax                   noun ending                          capit/o               head
ax/o                  axis, main stem                      capn/o                carbon dioxide, sooty or smoky
axill/o               armpit                                                       appearance
azot/o                urea, nitrogen                       capsul/o              little box
                                                           carb/o                carbon

                                                           carbuncl/o            carbuncle
                                                           carcin/o              cancerous
bacill/o              rod-shaped bacterium (plural,        cardi/o, card/o       heart
                        bacteria)                          cari/o                rottenness, decay
bacteri/o             bacteria (singular, bacterium)       carot/o               stupor, sleep
balan/o               glans penis                          carp/o                wrist bones                             S
bar/o                 pressure, weight                     cartilag/o            cartilage, gristle                      N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                       4/10/08                    4:34:55pm                        499 of 514
    500       APPENDIX A

    caruncul/o           bit of flesh                        cili/o                eyelashes, microscopic hair-like
    cat-, cata-,         down, lower, under, downward                                projections
       cath-                                                 cine-                 relationship to movement
    catabol/o            a breaking down                     circ/i                ring or circle
    cathart/o            cleansing, purging                  circulat/o            circulate, go around in a circle
    cathet/o             insert, send down                   circum-               around, about
    caud/o               lower part of body, tail            circumcis/o           cutting around
    caus/o, caust/o      burning, burn                       circumscrib/o         confined, limited in space
    cauter/o, caut/o     heat, burn                          cirrh/o               orange-yellow, tawny
    cav/i, cav/o         hollow, cave                        cis/o                 cut
    cavern/o             containing hollow spaces            clasis, -clast        break down
    cec/o                cecum                               claudicat/o           limping
    -cele                hernia, tumor, swelling             claustr/o             barrier
    celi/o, cel/o        abdomen, belly                      clav/i                key
    cement/o             cementum, a rough stone             clavicul/o, cleid/o   clavicle, collar bone
    cent-                hundred                             climacter/o           crisis, rung of a ladder
    -centesis            surgical puncture to remove fluid   clitor/o              clitoris
    cephal/o, -ceps      head                                -clonus               violent action
    cera-                wax                                 clus/o                shut or close
    cerebell/o           cerebellum                          -clysis               irrigation, washing
    cerebr/o             cerebrum, brain                     co-                   together, with
    cerumin/o            cerumen, earwax                     coagul/o,             clotting, coagulation
    cervic/o             neck, cervix (neck of uterus)          coagulat/o
    cheil/o              lip or lips                         coarct/o,             press together, narrow
    cheir/o              hand                                   coarctat/o
    chem./i, chem/o,     drug, chemical                      cocc/i, cocc/o,       spherical bacteria
       chemic/o                                                 -coccus
    chir/o               hand                                coccyg/o              coccyx, tailbone
    chlor/o              green                               cochle/o              spiral, snail, snail shell
    chlorhydr/o          hydrochloric acid                   coher/o, cohes/o      cling, stick together
    chol/e               bile, gall                          coit/o                a coming together
    cholangi/o           bile duct                           col/o                 colon, large intestine
    cholecyst/o          gallbladder                         coll/a                glue
    choledoch/o          common bile duct                    colon/o               colon, large intestine
    cholesterol/o        cholesterol                         colp/o                vagina
    chondr/i,            cartilage                           column/o              pillar
       chondr/o                                              com-                  together, with
    chord/o              spinal cord, cord                   comat/o               deep sleep
    chore/o              dance                               comminut/o            break into pieces
    chori/o,             chorion, membrane                   communic/o            share, to make common
       chorion/o                                             compatibil/o          sympathize with
    choroid/o            choroid layer of eye                con-                  together, with
    chrom/o,             color                               concav/o              hollow
       chromat/o                                             concentr/o            condense, intensify, remove excess
    chron/o              time                                                        water
    chym/o               to pour, juice                      concept/o             become pregnant
    cib/o                meal                                conch/o               shell
    cicatric/o           scar                                concuss/o             shaken together, violently agitated
    -cidal               pertaining to killing               condyl/o              knuckle, knob
S   -cide                causing death                       confus/o              confusion, disorder

          D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                      4/10/08                   4:34:55pm                       500 of 514
                                                                    PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES        501

coni/o                 dust                                    cusp/i                point, pointed flap
conjunctiv/o           conjunctiva, joined together,           cutane/o              skin
                        connected                              cyan/o                blue
consci/o               aware, awareness                        cycl/o                ciliary body of eye, cycle
consolid/o             become firm or solid                    -cyesis               pregnancy
constipat/o            pressed together, crowded together      cyst-, -cyst          bladder, bag
constrict/o            draw tightly together                   cyst/o                urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid
-constriction          narrowing                               cyt/o, -cyte          cell
contact/o              touched, infected                       -cytic                pertaining to a cell
contagi/o              infection, unclean, touching of         -cytosis              condition of cells

contaminat/o           render unclean by contact, pollute
contine/o,             keep in, contain, hold back, restrain
   continent/o                                                 dacry/o               tear, lacrimal duct (tear duct)
contra-                against, counter, opposite              dacryocyst/o          lacrimal sac (tear sac)
contracept/o           prevention of conception                dactyl/o              fingers, toes
contus/o               bruise                                  de-                   down, lack of, from, not, removal
convalesc/o            recover, become strong                  debrid/e              open a wound
convex/o               arched, vaulted                         deca-, deci-          ten, tenth
convolut/o             coiled, twisted                         decidu/o              shedding, falling off
convuls/o              pull together                           decubit/o             lying down
copi/o                 plentiful                               defec/o, defecat/o    free from waste, clear
copulat/o              joining together, linking               defer/o               carrying down or out
cor/o                  pupil                                   degenerat/o           gradual impairment, breakdown,
cord/o                 cord, spinal cord                                               diminished function
cordi/o                heart                                   deglutit/o            swallow
core/o                 pupil                                   dehisce/o             burst open, split
cori/o                 skin, leather                           deliri/o              wandering in the mind
corne/o                cornea                                  delt/o                Greek letter delta, triangular shape
coron/o                coronary, crown                         delus/o               delude, mock, cheat
corp/u, corpor/o       body                                    dem/o                 people, population
corpuscul/o            little body                             -dema                 swelling (fluid)
cort-                  covering                                demi-                 half
cortic/o               cortex, outer region                    dendr/o               branching, resembling a tree
cost/o                 rib                                     dent/i, dent/o        tooth, teeth
cox/o                  hip, hip joint                          depilate/o            hair removal
crani/o                skull                                   depress/o             press down, lower, pressed or sunk
-crasia                a mixture or blending                                           down
creatin/o              creatine                                derma-, dermat/o,     skin
crepit/o, crepitat/o   crackling, rattling                        derm/o
crin/o, -crine         secrete                                 desic/o               drying
cris/o, critic/o       turning point                           -desis                surgical fixation of bone or joint, to
-crit                  to separate                                                     bind, tie together
cry/o                  cold                                    deteriorat/o          worsening or gradual impairment
crypt/o                hidden                                  dextr/o               right side
cubit/o                elbow                                   di-                   twice, twofold, double
cuboid/o               cube-like                               dia-                  through, between, apart, complete
culd/o                 cul-de-sac, blind pouch                 diaphor/o             sweat
cult/o                 cultivate                               diaphragmat/o         diaphragm, wall across
-cusis                 hearing                                 diastole/o            standing apart, expansion

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                         4/10/08                      4:34:56pm                        501 of 514
    502           APPENDIX A

    didym/o                  testes, twins, double                 edentul/o               without teeth
    diffus/o                 pour out, spread apart                ef-                     out
    digest/o                 divide, distribute                    effect/o                bring about a response, activate
    digit/o                  finger or toe                         effus/o                 pouring out
    dilat/o, dilatat/o       spread out, expand                    ejaculat/o              throw or hurl out
    -dilation                widening, stretching, expanding       electr/o                electricity, electric
    dilut/o                  dissolve, separate                    eliminat/o              expel from the body
    diphther/o               membrane                              em-                     in
    dipl/o                   double                                emaciat/o               wasted by disease
    dips/o, -dipsia          thirst                                embol/o                 something inserted or thrown in
    dis-                     negative, apart, absence of           embry/o                 fertilized ovum, embryo
    dislocat/o               displacement                          -emesis                 vomiting
    dissect/o                cutting apart                         emet/o                  vomit
    disseminat/o             widely scattered                      -emia                   blood, blood condition
    dist/o                   far                                   emmetr/o                in proper measure
    distend/o,               stretch apart, expand                 emolli/o                make soft, soften
       distent/o                                                   en-                     in, within, into
    diur/o, diuret/o         tending to increase urine output      encephal/o              brain
    divert/i                 turning aside                         end-, endo-             in, within, inside
    domin/o                  controlling, ruling                   endocrin/o              secrete within
    don/o                    give                                  enem/o                  end in, inject
    dors/i, dors/o           back of body                          enter/o                 small intestine
    -dote                    what is given                         ento-                   within
    -drome                   to run, running                       eosin/o                 red, rosy
    -duct                    opening                               epi-                    above, upon, on
    duct/o                   to lead, carry                        epidemi/o               among the people, an epidemic
    duoden/i,                duodenum, first part of small         epididym/o              epididymis
       duoden/o                intestine                           epiglott/o              epiglottis
    -dural                   pertaining to dura mater              episi/o                 vulva
    -dynia                   pain                                  epithel/i, epitheli/o   epithelium
    dys-                     bad, difficult, or painful            equin/o                 pertaining to a horse
                                                                   -er                     one who

          E                                                        erect/o
                                                                   erg/o, -ergy
    e-                       out of, from                          erot/o                  sexual love
    -e                       noun ending                           eruct/o, eructat/o      belch forth
    -eal                     pertaining to                         erupt/o                 break out, burst forth
    ec-                      out, outside                          erythem/o,              flushed, redness
    ecchym/o                 pouring out of juice                      erythemat/o
    ech/o                    sound                                 erythr/o                red
    eclamps/o,               flashing or shining forth             es-                     out of, outside, away from
       eclampt/o                                                   -esis                   abnormal condition, disease
    ectasia, -ectasis        stretching, dilation,                 eso-                    inward
                               enlargement                         esophag/o               esophagus
    ecto-                    out, outside                          -esthesia, esthesi/o    sensation, feeling
    -ectomy                  surgical removal, cutting out,        esthet/o                feeling, nervous sensation, sense of
                               excision                                                      perception
    -ectopy                  displacement                          estr/o                  female
    eczemat/o                eruption                              ethm/o                  sieve
S   -edema                   swelling                              eti/o                   cause
N   edem-, edemat/o          swelling, fluid, tumor                eu-                     good, normal, well, or easy

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                        4/10/08                   4:34:56pm                         502 of 514
                                                                  PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES        503

-eurysm                widening                              flat/o                flatus, breaking wind, rectal gas
evacu/o, evacuat/o     empty out                             flex/o                bend
ex-                    out of, outside, away from            flu/o                 flow
exacerbat/o            aggravate, irritate                   fluor/o               glowing, luminous
exanthemat/o           rash                                  foc/o                 focus, point
excis/o                cutting out                           foll/i                bag, sac
excori/o, excoriat/o   abrade or scratch                     follicul/o            follicle, small sac
excret/o               separate, discharge                   foramin/o             opening, foramen
excruciat/o            intense pain, agony                   fore-                 before, in front of
exhal/o, exhalat/o     breathe out                           -form, form/o         resembling, in the shape of
exo-                   out of, outside, away from            fornic/o              arch, vault, brothel
exocrin/o              secrete out of                        foss/o                ditch, shallow depression
expector/o             cough up                              fove/o                pit
expir/o, expirat/o     breathe out                           fract/o               break, broken
exstroph/o             turned or twisted out                 fren/o                device that limits movement
extern/o               outside, outer                        frigid/o              cold
extra-                 on the outside, beyond, outside       front/o               forehead, brow
extreme/o,             extremity, outermost                  -fuge                 to drive away
   extremit/o                                                funct/o, function/o   perform, function
extrins/o              from the outside, contained outside   fund/o                bottom, base, ground
exud/o, exudat/o       to sweat out                          fung/i                fungus
                                                             furc/o                forking, branching

    F                                                        furuncul/o
                                                                                   furunculus, a boil, an infection
faci/o                 face, form

-facient               making, producing
fasci/o                fascia, fibrous band
fascicul/o             little bundle                         galact/o              milk
fatal/o                pertaining to fate, death             gamet/o               wife or husband, egg or sperm
fauc/i                 narrow pass, throat                   gangli/o,             ganglion
febr/i                 fever                                    ganglion/o
fec/i, fec/o           dregs, sediment, waste                gangren/o             eating sore, gangrene
femor/o                femur, thigh bone                     gastr/o               stomach, belly
fenestr/o              window                                gastrocnemi/o         gastrocnemius, calf muscle
fer/o                  bear, carry                           gemin/o               twin, double
-ferent                carrying                              gen-, gen/o, -gen     producing, forming
-ferous                bearing, carrying, producing          -gene                 production, origin, formation
fertil/o               fertile, fruitful, productive         -genic, -genesis      creation, reproduction
fet/i, fet/o           fetus, unborn child                   genit/o               produced by, birth, reproductive
fibr/o                 fiber                                                         organs
fibrill/o              muscular twitching                    -genous               producing
fibrin/o               fibrin, fibers, threads of a clot     ger/i                 old age
fibros/o               fibrous connective tissue             germin/o              bud, sprout, germ
fibul/o                fibula                                geront/o              old age
-fic, fic/o            making, producing, forming            gest/o, gestat/o      bear, carry young or offspring
-fication              process of making                     gigant/o              giant, very large
-fida                  split                                 gingiv/o              gingival tissue, gums
filtr/o, filtrat/o     filter, to strain through             glauc/o               gray
fimbri/o               fringe                                glen/o                socket or pit
fiss/o, fissur/o       crack, split, cleft                   gli/o                 neurologic tissue, supportive tissue    S
fistul/o               tube or pipe                                                  of nervous system                     N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                          4/10/08                  4:34:56pm                         503 of 514
    504        APPENDIX A

    globin/o, -globulin   protein                                hirsut/o               hairy, rough
    globul/o              little ball                            hist/o, histi/o        tissue
    glomerul/o            glomerulus                             holo-                  all
    gloss/o               tongue                                 hom/o                  same, like, alike
    glott/i, glott/o      back of the tongue                     home/o                 sameness, unchanging, constant
    gluc/o                glucose, sugar                         hormon/o               hormone
    glute/o               buttocks                               humer/o                humerus (upper arm bone)
    glyc/o, glycos/o      glucose, sugar                         hydr/o, hydra-         relating to water
    glycer/o              sweet                                  hygien/o               healthful
    glycogen/o            glycogen, animal starch                hymen/o                hymen, a membrane
    gnath/o               jaw                                    hyper-                 excessive, increased
    -gnosia               knowledge, to know                     hyp-                   deficient, decreased
    -gog, -gogue          make flow                              hypn/o                 sleep
    goitr/o               goiter, enlargement of the thyroid     hypo-                  deficient, decreased
                            gland                                hyster/o               uterus
    gon/e, gon/o          seed
                          gonad, sex glands
    gracil/o              slender                                -ia                    abnormal condition, disease, plural
    grad/i                move, go, step, walk                                            of -ium
    -grade                go                                     -ial                   pertaining to
    -gram                 a picture or record                    -ian                   specialist
    granul/o              granule(s)                             -iasis                 abnormal condition, disease
    -graph                a picture or record, machine for       iatr/o                 physician, treatment
                            recording record                     -iatrics               field of medicine, healing
    -graphy               the process of producing a picture     -iatrist               specialist
                            or record                            -iatry                 field of medicine
    gravid/o              pregnancy                              -ible                  capable of, able to
    -gravida              pregnant                               -ic                    pertaining to
    gynec/o               woman, female                          ichthy/o               dry, scaly
    gyr/o                 turning, folding                       -ician                 specialist
                                                                 icter/o                jaundice

                                                                 idi/o                  peculiar to the individual or organ,
                                                                                          one, distinct
    hal/o, halit/o        breath                                 -iferous               bearing, carrying, producing
    halluc/o              great or large toe                     -ific                  making, producing
    hallucin/o            hallucination, to wander in the mind   -iform                 shaped or formed like, resembling
    hem/e                 deep red iron-containing pigment       -igo                   attack, diseased condition
    hem/o, hemat/o        blood, relating to the blood           -ile                   capable of
    hemi-                 half                                   ile/o                  ileum, small intestine
    hemoglobin/o          hemoglobin                             ili/o                  ilium, hip bone
    hepat/o               liver                                  illusi/o               deception
    hered/o, heredit/o    inherited, inheritance                 im-                    not
    herni/o               hernia                                 immune/o               immune, protection, safe
    herpet/o              creeping                               impact/o               pushed against, wedged against,
    heter/o               other, different                                                packed
    -hexia                habit                                  impress/o              pressing into
    hiat/o                opening                                impuls/o               pressure or pushing force, drive,
    hidr/o                sweat                                                           urging on
S   hil/o                 hilum, notch or opening from a         in-                    in, into, not, without
N                           body part                            incis/o                cutting into

           D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                       4/10/08                       4:34:57pm                      504 of 514
                                                                     PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES        505

incubat/o              incubation, hatching                  -itis                   inflammation
indurat/o              hardened                              -ium                    structure, tissue
-ine                   pertaining to                         -ive                    performs, tends toward
infarct/o              filled in, stuffed                    -ize                    to make, to treat
infect/o               infected, tainted
infer/o                below, beneath
infest/o               attack, assail, molest                    J
inflammat/o            flame within, set on fire             jejun/o                 jejunum
infra-                 below, beneath, inferior to           jugul/o                 throat
infundibul/o           funnel                                juxta-                  beside, near, nearby
ingest/o               carry or pour in
inguin/o               groin
inhal/o, inhalat/o
                       breathe in
                       to force or throw in
                                                             kal/i                   potassium
innominat/o            unnamed, nameless
                                                             kary/o                  nucleus, nut
inocul/o               implant, introduce
                                                             kata-, kath-            down
insipid/o              tasteless
                                                             kel/o                   growth, tumor
inspir/o, inspirat/o   breathe in
                                                             kera-                   horn, hardness
insul/o                island
                                                             kerat/o                 horny, hard, cornea
insulin/o              insulin
                                                             ket/o, keton/o          ketones, acetones
intact/o               untouched, whole
                                                             kines/o, kinesi/o,      movement
inter-                 between, among
intermitt/o            not continuous
                                                             -kinesis                motion
intern/o               within, inner
                                                             klept/o                 to steal
interstiti/o           the space between things
                                                             koil/o                  hollow or concave
intestin/o             intestine
                                                             kraur/o                 dry
intim/o                innermost
                                                             kyph/o                  bent, hump
intoxic/o              put poison in
intra-                 within, inside

intrins/o              contained within
intro-                 within, into, inside
introit/o              entrance or passage                   labi/o                  lip
intussuscept/o         take up or receive within             labyrinth/o             maze, labyrinth, the inner ear
involut/o              rolled up, curled inward              lacer/o, lacerat/o      torn, mangled
iod/o                  iodine                                lacrim/o                tear, tear duct, lacrimal duct
-ion                   action, process, state or condition   lact/i, lact/o          milk
ion/o                  ion, to wander                        lactat/o                secrete milk
-ior                   pertaining to                         lamin/o                 lamina
ipsi-                  same                                  lapar/o                 abdomen, abdominal wall
ir-                    in                                    laps/o                  slip, fall, slide
-is                    noun ending                           -lapse                  to slide, fall, sag
ir/i, ir/o,            iris, colored part of eye             laryng/o                larynx, throat
   irid/o, irit/o                                            lat/i, lat/o            broad
is/o                   same, equal                           later/o                 side
isch/o                 to hold back                          lav/o, lavat/o          wash, bathe
ischi/o                ischium                               lax/o, laxat/o          loosen, relax
-ism                   condition, state of                   leiomy/o                smooth (visceral) muscle
iso-                   equal                                 lemm/o                  husk, peel, bark
-ist                   a person who practices, specialist    -lemma                  sheath, covering
-isy                   noun ending                           lent/i                  the lens of the eye                      S

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                         4/10/08                      4:34:57pm                         505 of 514
    506          APPENDIX A

    lenticul/o              shaped like a lens, pertaining to a    mamm/o                 breast
                              lens                                 man/i                  madness, rage
    -lepsy                  seizure                                man/i, man/o           hand
    lept/o                  thin, slender                          mandibul/o             mandible, lower jaw
    -leptic                 to seize, take hold of                 -mania                 obsessive preoccupation
    lepto-                  small, soft                            manipul/o              use of hands
    letharg/o               drowsiness, oblivion                   manubri/o              handle
    leuk/o                  white                                  masset/o               chew
    lev/o, levat/o          raise, lift up                         mast/o                 breast
    lex/o, -lexia           word, phrase                           mastic/o,              chew
    libid/o, libidin/o      sexual drive, desire, passion            masticat/o
    ligament/o              ligament                               mastoid/o              mastoid process
    ligat/o                 binding or tying off                   matern/o               maternal, of a mother
    lingu/o                 tongue                                 matur/o                ripe
    lipid/o, lip/o          fat, lipid                             maxill/o               maxilla (upper jaw)
    -listhesis              slipping                               maxim/o                largest, greatest
    lith/o, -lith           stone, calculus                        meat/o                 opening or passageway
    lithiasis               presence of stones                     medi/o                 middle
    lob/i, lob/o            lobe, well-defined part of an organ    mediastin/o            mediastinum, middle
    loc/o                   place                                  medic/o                medicine, physician, healing
    loch/i                  childbirth, confinement                medicat/o              medication, healing
    -logy                   study of                               medull/o               medulla (inner section), middle,
    longev/o                long-lived, long life                                           soft, marrow
    lord/o                  curve, swayback bent                   mega-, megal/o         large, great
    lumb/o                  lower back, loin                       -megaly                enlargement
    lumin/o                 light                                  mei/o                  less, meiosis
    lun/o, lunat/o          moon                                   melan/o                black, dark
    lunul/o                 crescent                               mellit/o               honey, honeyed
    lup/i, lup/o            wolf                                   membran/o              membrane, thin skin
    lute/o                  yellow                                 men/o                  menstruation, menses
    lux/o                   to slide                               mening/o,              membranes, meninges
    lymph/o                 lymph, lymphatic tissue                  meningi/o
    lymphaden/o             lymph gland                            menisc/o               meniscus, crescent
    lymphangi/o             lymph vessel                           mens/o                 menstruate, menstruation, menses
    -lysis                  breakdown, separation, setting free,   menstru/o,             occurring monthly
                              destruction, loosening                 menstruat/o
    -lyst                   agent that causes lysis or loosening   ment/o                 mind, chin
    -lytic                  to reduce, destroy                     mes-                   middle
                                                                   mesenter/o             mesentery

                                                                   mesi/o                 middle, median plane
                                                                   meso-                  middle
    macro-                  large, abnormal size or length, long   meta-                  change, beyond, subsequent to,
    macul/o                 spot                                                           behind, after or next
    magn/o                  great, large                           metabol/o              change
    major/o                 larger                                 metacarp/o             metacarpals, bones of the hand
    mal-                    bad, poor, evil                        metatars/o             bones of the foot between the tarsus
    -malacia                abnormal softening                                             and toes
    malign/o                bad, evil                              -meter                 measure, instrument used to measure
    malle/o                 malleus, hammer                        metr/i, metr/o,        uterus
S   malleol/o               malleolus, little hammer                 metri/o

             D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                       4/10/08                       4:34:57pm                      506 of 514
                                                                   PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES          507

-metrist              one who measures                        natr/o                 sodium
-metry                to measure                              nause/o                nausea, seasickness
micr/o, micro-        small                                   necr/o                 death
mictur/o,             urinate                                 -necrosis              tissue death
  micturit/o                                                  neo-, ne/o             new, strange
mid-                  middle                                  nephr/o                kidney
midsagitt/o           from front to back, at the middle       nerv/o, neur/i,        nerve, nerve tissue
milli-                one-thousandth                             neur/o
-mimetic              mimic, copy                             neutr/o                neither, neutral
mineral/o             mineral                                 nev/o                  birthmark, mole
minim/o               smallest, least                         nid/o                  next
minor/o               smaller                                 niter-, nitro-         nitrogen
mio-                  smaller, less                           noct/i                 night
-mission              to send                                 nod/o                  knot, swelling
mit/o                 a thread                                nodul/o                little knot
mitr/o                a miter, having two points on top       nom/o                  law, control
mobil/o               capable of moving                       non-                   no
monil/i               string of beads, genus of parasitic     nor-                   chemical compound
                        mold or fungus                        norm/o                 normal or usual
mono-                 one, single                             nuch/o                 the nape
morbid/o              disease, sickness                       nucle/o                nucleus
moribund/o            dying                                   nucleol/o              little nucleus, nucleolus
morph/o               shape, form                             nulli-                 none
mort/i, mort/o,       death, dead                             numer/o                number, count
  mort/u                                                      nunci/o                messenger
mortal/i              pertaining to death, subject to death   nutri/o, nutrit/o      nourishment, food, nourish, feed
mot/o, motil/o        motion, movement                        nyct/o, nyctal/o       night
mu/o                  close, shut
muc/o, mucos/o
                      many, much
muscul/o              muscle                                  ob-                    against
mut/a                 genetic change                          obes/o                 obese, extremely fat
mut/o                 unable to speak, inarticulate           obliqu/o               slanted, sideways
mutagen/o             causing genetic change                  oblongat/o             oblong, elongated
my/o                  muscle                                  obstetr/i, obstetr/o   midwife, one who stands to receive
myc/e, myc/o          fungus                                  occipit/o              back of the skull, occiput
mydri/o               wide                                    occlud/o, occlus/o     shut, close up
mydrias/i             dilation of the pupil                   occult/o               hidden, concealed
myel/o                spinal cord, bone marrow                ocul/o                 eye
myocardi/o            myocardium, heart muscle                odont/o                tooth
myom/o                muscle tumor                            -oid                   like, resembling
myos/o                muscle                                  -ole                   little, small
miring/o              tympanic membrane, eardrum              olecran/o              elbow, olecranon
myx/o, myxa-          mucus                                   olfact/o               smell, sense of smell
                                                              olig/o                 scanty, few

                                                              -ologist               specialist
                                                              -ology                 the science or study of
nar/i                 nostril                                 -oma                   tumor, neoplasm
narc/o                numbness, stupor                        om/o                   shoulder
nas/i, nas/o          nose                                    oment/o                omentum, fat                             S
nat/i                 birth                                   omphal/o               umbilical cord, the navel                N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                        4/10/08                     4:34:58pm                           507 of 514
    508           APPENDIX A

    onc/o                    tumor                                 pall/o, pallid/o        pale, lacking or drained of color
    -one                     hormone                               palliat/o               cloaked, hidden
    onych/o                  fingernail or toenail                 palm/o                  palm of the hand
    o/o, oo/o                egg                                   palpat/o                touch, feel, stroke
    oophor/o                 ovary                                 palpebr/o               eyelid
    opac/o, opacit/o         shaded, dark, impenetrable to light
                                                                   palpit/o                throbbing, quivering
    -opaque                  obscure
                                                                   pan-                    all, entire, every
    oper/o, operat/o         perform, operate, work
                                                                   pancreat/o              pancreas
    opercul/o                cover or lid
                                                                   papill/i, papill/o      nipple-like
    ophthalm/o               eye, vision
    -opia                    vision condition                      papul/o                 pimple
    opisth/o                 backward                              par-, para-             beside, near, beyond, abnormal,
    -opsia, -opsis,          vision, view of                                                 apart from, opposite, along side of
       -opsy                                                       par/o                   to bear, bring forth, labor
    opt/i, opt/o,            eye, vision                           -para                   to give birth
       optic/o                                                     paralys/o,              disable
    or/o                     mouth, oral cavity                       paralyt/o
    orbit/o                  orbit, bony cavity or socket          parasit/o               parasite
    orch/o, orchid/o,        testicles, testis, testes             parathyroid/o           parathyroid glands
       orchi/o                                                     pares/i                 to disable
    -orexia                  appetite                              -paresi                 partial or incomplete paralysis
    organ/o                  organ                                 paret/o                 to disable
    orgasm/o                 swell, be excited                     -pareunia               sexual intercourse
    orth/o                   straight, normal, correct             pariet/o                wall
    -ory                     pertaining to                         parotid/o               parotid gland
    os-                      mouth, bone                           -parous                 having borne one or more children
    -ose                     full of, pertaining to, sugar         paroxysm/o              sudden attack
    -osis                    abnormal condition, disease           -partum, parturit/o     childbirth, labor
    osm/o                    pushing, thrusting                    patell/a, patell/o      patella, kneecap
    -osmia                   smell, odor                           path/o, -pathy          disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
    oss/e, oss/i             bone                                  paus/o                  cessation, stopping
    ossicul/o                ossicle (small bone)                  -pause                  stopping
    oste/o, ost/o            bone                                  pector/o                chest
    -ostomy                  surgically creating an opening        ped/o                   child, foot
    -ostosis                 condition of bone                     pedi/a                  child
    ot/o                     ear, hearing                          pedicul/o               louse (singular), lice (plural)
    -otia                    ear condition                         pelv/i, pelv/o          pelvic bone, pelvic cavity, hip
    -otomy                   cutting, surgical incision            pen/i                   penis
    ov/i, ov/o               egg, ovum                             pend/o                  to hang
    ovari/o                  ovary                                 -penia                  deficiency, lack, too few
    ovul/o                   egg                                   peps/i, -pepsia,        digest, digestion
    ox/i, ox/o, ox/y         oxygen                                   pept/o
    -oxia                    oxygen condition                      per-                    excessive, through
    oxid/o                   containing oxygen                     percept/o               become aware, perceive
    oxy/o                    the presence of oxygen in a com-      percuss/o               strike, tap, beat
                               pound                               peri-                   surrounding, around
                                                                   perine/o                perineum

          P                                                        peristals/o,
                                                                                           constrict around

S   pachy-                   heavy, thick                          peritone/o              peritoneum
N   palat/o                  palate, roof of mouth                 perme/o                 to pass or go through

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                       4/10/08                       4:34:58pm                       508 of 514
                                                                     PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES        509

pernici/o              destructive, harmful                      -plasm               formative material of cells
perone/o               fibula                                    plasm/o              something molded or formed
perspir/o              perspiration                              -plastic             pertaining to formation
pertuss/i              intensive cough                           -plasty              surgical repair
petechi/o              skin spot                                 ple/o                more, many
-pexy                  surgical fixation                         -plegia              paralysis, stroke
phac/o                 lens of eye                               -plegic              one affected with paralysis
phag/o                 eat, swallow                              pleur/o              pleura, side of the body
-phage                 a cell that destroys, eat, swallow        plex/o               plexus, network
-phagia                eating, swallowing                        plic/o               fold or ridge
phak/o                 lens of eye                               pne/o-               breath, breathing
phalang/o              phalanges, finger and toe                 -pnea                breathing
phall/i, phill/o       penis                                     -pneic               pertaining to breathing
pharmac/o,             drug                                      pneum/o,             lung, air
   pharmaceut/o                                                     pneumon/o
pharyng/o              throat, pharynx                           pod/o               foot
phas/o                 speech                                    -poiesis            formation, to make
-phasia                speak or speech                           poikil/o            varied, irregular
phe/o                  dusky                                     pol/o               extreme
pher/o                 to bear or carry                          poli/o              gray matter of brain and spinal cord
-pheresis              removal                                   pollic/o            thumb
phil/o, -phil,         attraction to, like, love                 poly-               many
   -philia                                                       polyp/o             polyp, small growth
phleb/o                vein                                      pont/o              pons (a part of the brain), bridge
phlegm/o               thick mucus                               poplit/o            back of the knee
phob/o, -phobia        abnormal fear                             por/o               pore, small opening
phon/o, -phonia        sound, voice                              -porosis            lessening in density,
phor/o                 carry, bear, movement                                           porous condition
-phoresis              carrying, transmission                    port/i              gate, door
-phoria                to bear, carry, feeling, mental state     post-               after, behind
phot/o                 light                                     poster/o            behind, toward the back
phren/o                diaphragm, mind                           potent/o            powerful
-phthisis              wasting away                              pract/i, practic/o  practice, pursue an occupation
-phylactic             protective, preventive                    prandi/o, -prandial meal
-phylaxis              protection                                -praxia             action, condition concerning the
physi/o, physic/o      nature, physical                                                performance of movements
-physis                to grow                                   -praxis             act, activity, practice use
phyt/o, -phyte         plant                                     pre-                before, in front of
pigment/o              pigment, color                            precoc/i            early, premature
pil/i, pil/o           hair                                      pregn/o             pregnant, full of
pineal/o               pineal gland                              prematur/o          too early, untimely
pinn/i                 external ear, auricle                     preputi/o           foreskin, prepuce
pituit/o, pituitar/o   pituitary gland                           presby/o            old age
plac/o                 flat plate or patch                       press/o             press, draw
placent/o              placenta, round flat cake                 priap/o             penis
plak/o, -plakia        plaque, plate, thin flat layer or scale   primi-              first
plan/o                 flat                                      pro-                before, in behalf of
plant/i, plant/o       sole of foot                              process/o           going forth
plas/i, plas/o,        development, growth, formation            procident/o         fall down or forward
   -plasia                                                       procreat/o          reproduce                                S

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                          4/10/08                      4:34:58pm                        509 of 514
    510           APPENDIX A

    proct/o                  anus and rectum                        radiat/o              giving off rays or radiant energy
    prodrom/o                running ahead, precursor               radicul/o             nerve root
    product/o                lead forward, yield, produce           raph/o                seam, suture
    prolaps/o                fall downward, slide forward           re-                   back, again
    prolifer/o               reproduce, bear offspring              recept/o              receive, receiver
    pron/o, pronat/o         bent forward                           recipi/o              receive, take to oneself
    pros-                    before                                 rect/o                rectum, straight
    prostat/o                prostate gland                         recticul/o            network
    prosth/o,                addition, appendage                    recuperat/o           recover, regain health
       prosthet/o                                                   reduct/o              bring back together
    prot/o, prote/o          first                                  refract/o             bend back, turn aside
    protein/o                protein                                regurgit/o            flood or gush back
    proxim/o                 near                                   remiss/o              give up, let go, relax
    prurit/o                 itching                                ren/o                 kidney
    pseud/o                  false                                  restor/o              rebuild, put back, restore
    psor/i, psor/o           itch, itching                          resuscit/o            revive
    psych/o                  mind                                   retent/o              hold back
    ptomat/o                 a fall                                 reticul/o             network
    -ptosis                  droop, sag, prolapse, fall             retin/o               retina, net
    -ptyal/o                 saliva                                 retract/o             draw back or in
    -ptysis                  spitting                               retro-                behind, backward, back of
    pub/o                    pubis, part of hip bone                rhabd/o               rod, rod-shaped
    pubert/o                 ripe age, adult                        rhabdomy/o            striated muscle
    pudend/o                 pudendum                               rheum/o,              watery flow, subject to flow
    puerper/i                childbearing, labor                       rheumat/o
    pulm/o, pulmon/o         lung                                   rhin/o                nose
    pulpos/o                 fleshy, pulpy                          rhiz/o                root
    puls/o                   beat, beating, striking                rhonc/o               snore, snoring
    punct/o                  sting, prick, puncture                 rhythm/o              rhythm
    pupill/o                 pupil                                  rhytid/o              wrinkle
    pur/o                    pus                                    rigid/o               stiff
    purpur/o                 purple                                 ris/o                 laugh
    purul/o                  pus-filled                             roentgen/o            x-ray
    pustul/o                 infected pimple                        rotat/o               rotate, revolve
    py/o                     pus                                    -rrhage, -rrhagia     bleeding, abnormal excessive fluid
    pyel/o                   renal pelvis, bowl of kidney                                   discharge
    pylor/o                  pylorus, pyloric sphincter             -rrhaphy              surgical suturing
    pyr/o, pyret/o           fever, fire                            -rrhea                flow or discharge
    pyramid/o                pyramid-shaped                         -rrhexis              rupture
                                                                    rube-                 red

          Q                                                         rug/o                 wrinkle, fold

    quadr/i, quadr/o         four
          R                                                         sacc/i, sacc/o
    rabi/o                   madness, rage                          sacr/o                sacrum
    rachi/o                  spinal column, vertebrae               saliv/o               saliva
    radi/o                   radiation, x-rays, radius (lateral     salping/o             uterine (fallopian) tube, auditory
S                              lower arm bone)                                             (eustachian) tube

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                         4/10/08                    4:34:58pm                       510 of 514
                                                              PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES        511

-salpinx              uterine (fallopian) tube            -sol                solution
san/o                 sound, healthy, sane                solut/o, solv/o     loosened, dissolved
sangu/i, sanguin/o    blood                               soma-, somat/o      body
sanit/o               soundness, health                   somn/i, somn/o      sleep
saphen/o              clear, apparent, manifest           son/o               sound
sapr/o                decaying, rotten                    sopor/o             sleep
sarc/o                flesh, connective tissue            spad/o              draw off, draw
scalp/o               carve, scrape                       -spasm, spasmod/o   sudden involuntary contraction,
scapul/o              scapula, shoulder blade                                   tightening, or cramping
schiz/o               division, split                     spec/i              look at, a kind or sort
scintill/o            spark                               specul/o            mirror
scirrh/o              hard                                sperm/o, spermat/o sperm, spermatozoa, seed
scler/o               sclera, white of eye, hard          sphen/o             sphenoid bone, wedge
-sclerosis            abnormal hardening                  spher/o             round, sphere, ball
scoli/o               curved, bent                        sphincter/o         tight band
-scope                instrument for visual examination   sphygm/o            pulse
-scopic               pertaining to visual examination    spin/o              spine, backbone
-scopy                visual examination                  spir/o              to breathe
scot/o                darkness                            spirill/o           little coil
scrib/o, script/o     write                               spirochet/o         coiled microorganism
scrot/o               bag or pouch                        splen/o             spleen
seb/o                 sebum                               spondyl/o           vertebrae, vertebral column,
secret/o              produce, separate out                                     backbone
sect/o, secti/o       cut, cutting                        spontane/o          unexplained, of one’s own accord
segment/o             pieces                              spor/o              seed, spore
sell/o                saddle                              sput/o              sputum, spit
semi-                 half                                squam/o             scale
semin/i               semen, seed, sperm                  -stalsis            contraction, constriction
sen/i                 old                                 staped/o, stapedi/o stapes (middle ear bone)
senesc/o              grow old                            staphyl/o           clusters, bunch of grapes
senil/o               old age                             -stasis, -static    control, maintenance of a constant
sens/i                feeling, sensation                                        level
sensitiv/o            sensitive to, affected by           steat/o             fat, lipid, sebum
seps/o                infection                           sten/o              narrowing, contracted
sept/o                infection, partition                -stenosis           abnormal narrowing
ser/o                 serum                               ster/o              solid structure
seros/o               serous                              stere/o             solid, three-dimensional
sial/o                saliva                              steril/i            sterile
sialaden/o            salivary gland                      stern/o             sternum, the breastbone
sider/o               iron                                stert/o             snore, snoring
sigm/o                Greek letter sigma                  steth/o             chest
sigmoid/o             sigmoid colon                       -sthenia            strength
silic/o               glass                               stigmat/o           point, spot
sin/o, sin/u          hollow, sinus                       stimul/o            goad, prick, incite
sinistr/o             left, left side                     stol/o              send or place
sinus/o               sinus                               stom/o, stomat/o    mouth, oral cavity
-sis                  abnormal condition, disease         -stomosis, -stomy   furnish with a mouth or outlet, new
sit/u                 place                                                     opening
skelet/o              skeleton                            strab/i             squint, squint-eyed
soci/o                companion, fellow being             strat/i             layer                                    S

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                      4/10/08                   4:34:59pm                        511 of 514
    512           APPENDIX A

    strept/o                 twisted chain                          tele/o               distant, far
    striat/o                 stripe, furrow, groove                 tempor/o             temporal bone, temple
    stric-                   narrowing                              ten/o, tend/o        tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
    strict/o                 draw tightly together, bind or tie     tenac/i              holding fast, sticky
    strid/o                  harsh sound                            tendin/o             tendon
    stup/e                   benumbed, stunned                      tens/o               stretch out, extend, strain
    styl/o                   pen, pointed instrument                terat/o              malformed fetus
    sub-                     under, less, below                     termin/o             end, limit
    subluxat/o               partial dislocation                    test/i, test/o       testicle, testis
    sucr/o                   sugar                                  tetan/o              rigid, tense
    sudor/i                  sweat                                  tetra-               four
    suffoc/o, suffocat/o     choke, strangle                        thalam/o             thalamus, inner room
    sulc/o                   furrow, groove                         thalass/o            sea
    super-, super/o          above, excessive, higher than          thanas/o, thanat/o   death
    superflu/o               overflowing, excessive                 the/o                put, place
    supin/o                  lying on the back                      thec/o               sheath
    supinat/o                bend backward, place on the back       thel/o               nipple
    suppress/o               press down                             therap/o,            treatment
    suppur/o,                to form pus                               therapeut/o
       suppurate/o                                                  therm/o              heat
    supra-             above, upper, excessive                      thio-                sulfur
    supraren/o         above or on the kidney, suprarenal           thora/o, thorac/o    chest
                         gland                                      -thorax              chest, pleural cavity
    -surgery           operative procedure                          thromb/o             clot
    sutur/o            stitch, seam                                 thym/o               thymus gland, soul
    sym-               with, together, joined together              -thymia              a state of mind
    symptomat/o        falling together, symptom                    -thymic              pertaining to the mind, relating to
    syn-               together, with, union, association                                  the thymus gland
    synaps/o, synapt/o point of contact                             thyr/o, thyroid/o    thyroid gland
    syncop/o           to cut short, cut off                        tibi/o               tibia (shin bone)
    -syndesis          surgical fixation of vertebrae               -tic                 pertaining to
    syndesm/o          ligament                                     tine/o               gnawing worm, ringworm
    syndrom/o          running together                             tinnit/o             ringing, buzzing, tinkling
    synovi/o, synov/o  synovial membrane, synovial fluid            -tion                process, state or quality of
    syphil/i, syphil/o syphilis                                     toc/o, -tocia,       labor, birth
    syring/o           tube                                            -tocin
    system/o,          body system                                  tom/o                cut, section, slice
       systemat/o                                                   -tome                instrument to cut
    systol/o           contraction                                  -tomy                process of cutting
                                                                    ton/o                tension, tone, stretching

          T                                                         tone/o
                                                                                         to stretch
                                                                                         tonsil, throat
    tachy-                   fast, rapid                            top/o                place, position, location
    tact/i                   touch                                  tors/o               twist, rotate
    talip/o                  foot and ankle deformity               tort/i               twisted
    tars/o                   tarsus (ankle bone), instep, edge of   tox/o, toxic/o       poison, poisonous
                               the eyelid                           trabecul/o           little beam marked with cross bars
    tax/o                    coordination, order                                           or beams
    techn/o, techni/o        skill                                  trache/i, trache/o   trachea, windpipe
S   tectori/o                covering, roof-like                    trachel-             neck

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                       4/10/08                     4:34:59pm                       512 of 514
                                                               PREFIXES, COMBINING FORMS,   AND   SUFFIXES        513

tract/o               draw, pull, path, bundle of nerve   uve/o                iris, choroid, ciliary body, uveal tract
                        fibers                            uvul/o               uvula, little grape
tranquil/o            quiet, calm, tranquil
trans-                across, through
transfus/o            pour across, transfer                   V
transit/o             changing                            vaccin/i, vaccin/o   vaccine
transvers/o           across, crosswise                   vacu/o               empty
traumat/o             injury                              vag/o                vagus nerve, wandering
trem/o                shaking, trembling                  vagin/o              vagina
tremul/o              fine tremor or shaking              valg/o               bent or twisted outward
treponem/o            coiled, turning microbe             valv/o, valvul/o     valve
tri-                  three                               var/o                bent or twisted inward
trich/o               hair                                varic/o              varicose veins, swollen or dilated
trigon/o              trigone                                                    vein
-tripsy               to crush                            vas/o                vas deferens, vessel
-trite                instrument for crushing             vascul/o             blood vessel, little vessel
trop/o, -tropia       turn, change                        vast/o               vast, great, extensive
troph/o, -trophy      development, nourishment            vect/o               carry, convey
-tropic               having an affinity for              ven/o                vein
-tropin               to stimulate, act on                vener/o              sexual intercourse
tub/i, tub/o          tube, pipe                          venter-              abdomen
tubercul/o            little knot, swelling               ventilat/o           expose to air, fan
tunic/o               covering, cloak, sheath             ventr/o              in front, belly side of body
turbinat/o            coiled, spiral shaped               ventricul/o          ventricle of brain or heart, small
tuss/i                cough                                                      chamber
tympan/o              tympanic membrane, eardrum          venul/o              venule, small vein
-type                 classification, picture             verg/o               twist, incline
                                                          verm/i               worm

                                                          verruc/o             wart
                                                          -verse, -version     to turn
-ula                  small, little                       vers/o, vert/o       turn
-ule                  small one                           vertebr/o            vertebra, backbone
ulcer/o               sore, ulcer                         vertig/o,            whirling round
uln/o                 ulna (medial lower arm bone)           vertigin/o
ultra-                beyond, excess                      vesic/o              urinary bladder
-um                   singular noun ending                vesicul/o            seminal vesicle, blister, little bladder
umbilic/o             navel                               vestibul/o           entrance, vestibule
un-                   not                                 vi/o                 force
ungu/o                nail                                vill/i               shaggy hair, tuft of hair
uni-                  one                                 vir/o                poison, virus
ur/o                  urine, urinary tract                viril/o              masculine, manly
-uresis               urination                           vis/o                seeing, sight
ureter/o              ureter                              visc/o               sticky
urethr/o              urethra                             viscer/o             viscera, internal organ
urg/o                 press, push                         viscos/o             sticky
-uria                 urination, urine                    vit/a, vit/o         life
urin/o                urine or urinary organs             viti/o               blemish, defect
urtic/o               nettle, rash, hives                 vitre/o              glassy, made of glass
-us                   thing, singular noun ending         voc/i                voice
uter/i, uter/o        uterus                              vol/o                palm or sole

D4623-Ehrlich_App_A                       4/10/08                  4:34:59pm                         513 of 514
    514           APPENDIX A

                             roll, turn
    vulv/o                   vulva, covering              -y               noun ending

    xanth/o                  yellow                            Z
    xen/o                    strange, foreign             zo/o             animal life
    xer/o                    dry                          zygomat/o        cheek bone, yoke
    xiph/i, xiph/o           sword                        zygot/o          joined together


              D4623-Ehrlich_App_A               4/10/08               4:35:00pm               514 of 514
                                                                                            APPENDIX                    B

                                                                  AND THEIR
Reminders about abbreviations: (1) An abbreviation can        ACD          absolute cardiac dullness; acid-citrate-dex-
have several meanings. (2) A term can have several ab-                      trose; anterior chest diameter; area of
breviations. When in doubt, always verify the meaning of                    cardiac disease
the abbreviation!                                             ACE          acute care of the elderly; aerobic chair
                                                                            exercises; angiotensin-converting enzyme
                                                              ACG          angiocardiogram; angiocardiography; apex

    A                                                         ACH
                                                                           adrenocortical hormone
A2 or A2     aortic valve closure                             ACL          anterior cruciate ligament
A            abnormal; adult; age; allergy; anaphylaxis;      ACLS         advanced cardiac life support
               anesthesia; anterior; antibody; auscultation   ACT          activated coagulation time; anticoagulant
a            accommodation; acid                                            therapy
aa           amino acid                                       ACTH         adrenocorticotropic hormone
AA, AC       alopecia areata; asthma; asthmatic               ACU          acute care unit; ambulatory care unit
AAA          abdominal aortic aneurysm                        ACVD         acute cardiovascular disease
AAL          anterior axillary line                           AD           admitting diagnosis; advanced directive; after
AAV          adeno-associated virus                                         discharge; Alzheimer’s disease; right ear
A&B          apnea and bradycardia                            ADC          AIDS dementia complex
A/B          acid-base ratio                                  ADD          attention deficit disorder
AB, Ab,      abortion                                         ADE          acute disseminated encephalitis; adverse
  ab                                                                        drug event
AB, Abnl,    abnormal                                         ADH          adhesion; antidiuretic hormone
  abn                                                         ADHD         attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Ab           antibody                                         ADL          activities of daily life; activities of daily living
ABC          aspiration, biopsy, cytology                     ad lib       as desired
Abd,         abdomen                                          adm          admission
  Abdo                                                        ADR          adverse drug reaction
ABE          acute bacterial endocarditis                     ADS          antibody deficiency syndrome
ABG          arterial blood gases                             ADT          admission, discharge, transfer
ABP          arterial blood pressure                          AE, A/E      above elbow
ABR          auditory brainstem response                      AED          automated external defibrillation
abx          antibiotics                                      AF           acid-fast; amniotic fluid; atrial flutter
ac           acute                                            AF, A fib,   atrial fibrillation
AC, ac       anticoagulant; before meals                        AFib                                                              S
acc          accident; accommodation                          AFB          acid-fast bacilli                                      N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                         4/10/08                    4:36:49pm                           515 of 532
    516          APPENDIX B

    AFP             alpha-fetoprotein                                ANS          anterior nasal spine; autonomic nervous
    Ag              antigen                                                        system
    AH              abdominal hysterectomy                           ant, ANT     anterior
    AHD             antihypertensive drug; arteriosclerotic heart    ANUG         acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
                      disease; autoimmune hemolytic disease          AOD          arterial occlusive disease
    AI              accidentally incurred; aortic insufficiency;     AODM         adult-onset diabetes mellitus
                      atherogenic index                              AOM          acute otitis media
    AID             acute infectious disease; artificial insemina-   A&P          anatomy and physiology; anterior and
                      tion donor                                                   posterior; auscultation and percussion
    AIDS            acquired immunodeficiency syndrome               AP           abruptio placenta; angina pectoris; ante-
    AIH             artificial insemination husband                                roposterior; anterior-posterior; appendec-
    AIHA            autoimmune hemolytic anemia                                    tomy; appendicitis
    AJ, aj          ankle jerk                                       APAP         acetaminophen
    AK              above knee                                       Aph          aphasia
    AKA             above-knee amputation                            APLD         aspiration percutaneous lumbar diskectomy
    alb             albumin                                          aPTT         activated partial thromboplastin time
    ALD             aldosterone                                      aq           aqueous; water
    alk             alkaline                                         AR           abnormal record; achievement ration; alarm
    ALL             acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute                            reaction; artificial respiration
                      lymphocytic leukemia                           ARD          acute respiratory disease
    ALND            axillary lymph node dissection                   ARDS         acute respiratory distress syndrome; adult
    ALP             acute lupus pericarditis; alkaline                             respiratory distress syndrome
                      phosphatase                                    ARF          acute renal failure; acute respiratory failure
    ALS             advanced life support; amyotrophic lateral       ARI          acute respiratory infection
                      sclerosis; antilymphocytic serum               ARM          artificial rupture of membranes
    ALT, alt        alternative; altitude                            ART          arthritis; assisted reproductive technology
    alt dieb        alternate days; every other day                  AS           ankylosing spondylitis; aortic stenosis;
    alt hor         alternate hours                                                astigmatism; left ear
    alt noct        alternate nights                                 ASA          acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
    Am              amnion                                           ASAP         as soon as possible
    AMA             advanced maternal age; against medical           ASCVD        arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease
                      advice; American Medical Association           ASD          atrial septal defect
    amb             ambulance; ambulatory                            ASH          asymmetrical septal hypertrophy
    AMD             age-related macular degeneration                 ASHD         arteriosclerotic heart disease
    AMI             acute myocardial infarction                      ASO          administrative services only; arteriosclerosis
    AML             acute myeloblastic leukemia; acute myelo-                      obliterans
                      cytic leukemia; amyotrophic lateral            ASS          anterior superior spine
                      sclerosis                                      AST          Aphasia Screening Test; aspartate amino-
    AMN             amniocentesis                                                  transferase
    amp             amplification; ampule; amputate                  As tol       as tolerated
    AMS             altered mental status; automated multi-          AT           Achilles tendon
                      phasic screening                               ATP          adenosine triphosphate
    amt             amount                                           atr          atrophy
    AN              aneurysm; anorexia nervosa                       AU           aures unitas; both ears
    ANA             antinuclear antibodies                           AUL          acute undifferentiated leukemia
    ANAS            anastomosis                                      aus, ausc,   auscultation
    anat            anatomy                                            auscul
    anes,           anesthesia; anesthetic                           A-V, AV      aortic valve; artificial ventilation;
S     anesth                                                                       arteriovenous; atrioventricular
N   ANLL            acute nonlymphocytic leukemia                    AVM          arteriovenous malfunction

             D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                        4/10/08                     4:37:05pm                             516 of 532
                                                                       ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS        517

AVN           atrioventricular node                        BPD            borderline personality disorder
AVR           aortic valve replacement                     BPH            benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign
A&W           alive and well                                               prostatic hypertrophy
Ax, ax        axilla; axillary                             BPM            beats per minute
AZT           Aschheim-Zondek test                         bpm            breaths per minute
                                                           BP&P           blood pressure and pulse
    B                                                      BPPV           benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
B             bruit                                        BR, Br         bed rest; bronchitis
B/A           backache                                     BRBPR          bright red blood per rectum
BA            bronchial asthma                             BRO,           bronchoscope; bronchoscopy
Ba            barium                                         Bronch
BAC           blood alcohol concentration                  BRP            bathroom privileges
BACT,         bacteria; bacterium                          BS             blood sugar; bowel sounds; breath sounds
  Bact,                                                    BSE            breast self-examination
  bact                                                     BSO            bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
BaE           barium enema                                 BT             bleeding time
BAO           basal acid output                            BUN            blood urea nitrogen
bas           basophils                                    BV             bacterial vaginosis; blood volume
BBB           blood-brain barrier; bundle branch block     Bx, bx         biopsy
BBT           basal body temperature

BC            bone conduction
BCC           basal cell carcinoma
BD            bronchodilator                               C1 through     cervical vertebrae
BDT           bone density testing                           C7
BE            barium enema; below elbow                    C              centigrade; Celsius; cholesterol;
BEAM          brain electrical activity map                                convergence; cyanosis
BED           binge eating disorder                        C.             chlamydia
BFP           biologic false positive                      c              centimeter
bid, b.i.d.   bis in die; twice a day                      c              with
BID           brought in dead                              c              without
BIL, Bil,     bilirubin                                    Ca             calcium
  Bili                                                     CA, Ca         cancer; cardiac arrest; carcinoma;
bil           bilateral                                                    chronological age
BIN, bin      twice a night                                CAB            coronary artery bypass
BJ            Bence Jones                                  CABG           coronary artery bypass grafting
BK            below knee                                   CAD            computer-assisted diagnosis; coronary ar-
BKA           below-knee amputation                                        tery disease
Bld           blood                                        CAL            calcitonin
BM            bone marrow; bowel movement                  cal            calorie
BMB           bone marrow biopsy                           cap, caps      capsule
BMD           Becker’s muscular dystrophy; bone mineral    CAPD           continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
               density                                     card cath      cardiac catheterization
BMI           body mass index                              CAT            cataract
BMR           basal metabolic rate                         cath           catheter; catheterization; catheterize
BMT           barium meal test; bone marrow transplant     caut           cauterization
BNO           bladder neck obstruction                     CAVH           continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration
BNR           bladder neck resection                       CBC, cbc       complete blood count
BOM           bilateral otitis media                       CBF            capillary blood flow; coronary blood flow
BP            Bell’s palsy; bedpan; bathroom privileges;   CBI            continuous bladder irrigation                  S
               blood pressure                              CBR            complete bedrest                               N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                         4/10/08                   4:37:06pm                       517 of 532
    518          APPENDIX B

    CBS            chronic brain syndrome                            CMG         cystometrogram
    CC             chief complaint; colony count; cardiac cycle;     CML         chronic myelocytic leukemia
                     cardiac cauterization; creatinine clearance     CMM         cutaneous malignant melanoma
    cc             cubic centimeter (1/1,000 liter)                  CMV         controlled mechanical ventilation;
    CCA            circumflex coronary artery                                      cytomegalovirus
    CCCR           closed chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation        CNS         central nervous system; cutaneous nerve
    CCE            cholecystectomy                                                 stimulation
    CCPD           continuous cycle peritoneal dialysis              C/O, c/o    complains of
    CCr            creatinine clearance                              CO          carbon monoxide; coronary occlusion;
    CCU            coronary care unit                                              coronary output
    CD             communicable disease; contact dermatitis;         CO2         carbon dioxide
                     Crohn’s disease                                 COD         cause of death
    CDC            calculated date (day) of confinement; Cen-        COH         carbohydrate
                     ters for Disease Control and Prevention         COL         colonoscopy
    CDE            common duct exploration                           COLD        chronic obstructive lung disease
    CDH            congenital dislocation of the hip                 comp        compound
    CEA            carotid endarterectomy                            cond        condition
    CEPH           cephalic                                          contra      against
    CF             complete fixation; counting fingers; cystic       COPD        chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
                     fibrosis                                        CP          cardiopulmonary; cerebral palsy
    CFS            chronic fatigue syndrome                          CPA         carotid phonoangiograph
    CGL            chronic granulomatous leukemia                    CPAP        continuous positive airway pressure
    C gl           with correction; with glasses                     CPC         clinicopathologic conference
    CH             chromosome                                        CPD         cephalopelvic disproportion
    CHB            complete heart block                              CPE         cardiopulmonary edema
    CHD            congenital heart defects; coronary heart          CPK         creatine phosphokinase
                     disease                                         CPN         chronic pyelonephritis
    CHF            congestive heart failure                          CPPB        continuous positive-pressure breathing
    CHO            carbohydrate                                      CPR         cardiopulmonary resuscitation
    chol           cholesterol                                       CPS         cycles per second
    chole          cholecystectomy                                   CR          closed reduction; complete response; con-
    CI             conjunctivitis; coronary insufficiency                          ditioned reflex
    cib            food                                              CRC         colorectal carcinoma
    CID            cytomegalic inclusion disease                     CRD         chronic respiratory disease
    CIR, CIRR      cirrhosis                                         creat       creatinine
    CIRC,          circumcision                                      CRF         chronic renal failure
      circum                                                         CRP         C-reactive protein
    CIS             carcinoma in situ                                CRPS        complex regional pain syndrome
    CIT             conventional insulin treatment                   CRYO        cryosurgery
    CK              creatine kinase                                  C&S         culture and sensitivity
    ck              check                                            CS          central supply; complete stroke; conditioned
    Cl, cl          clinic; chloride                                              stimulus; Cushing’s syndrome
    CL              cholelithiasis; chronic leukemia; cirrhosis of   CSAP        cryosurgical ablation of the prostate
                      the liver; cleft lip; corpus luteum            C-section   cesarian section
    CLD             chronic liver disease                            CSF         cerebrospinal fluid
    CLL             chronic lymphocytic leukemia                     CSO         craniostenosis
    cl liq          clear liquid                                     CSR         central supply room; Cheyne-Stokes
    cm              centimeter (1/100 meter)                                       respiration
S   cm3             cubic centimeter                                 CT          computed tomography
N   CME             cystoid macular edema                            CTCL        cutaneous T cell lymphoma

             D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                        4/10/08                    4:37:06pm                       518 of 532
                                                                       ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS        519

CTD           cumulative trauma disorders                  disch         discharge
CTR           carpal tunnel release                        DJD           degenerative joint disease
CTS           carpal tunnel syndrome                       DKA           diabetic ketoacidosis
cu            cubic                                        DL            danger list
CUC           chronic ulcerative colitis                   DLE           discoid lupus erythematosus
CUG           cystourethrogram                             DM            dermatomyositis; diabetes mellitus; diastolic
CV            cardiovascular                                              murmur
CVA           cardiovascular accident; cerebrovascular     DMD           Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy
               accident                                    DNA           deoxyribonucleic acid
CVD           cardiovascular disease                       DNR           do not resuscitate
CVL           central venous line                          DNS           deviated nasal septum
CVP           central venous pressure; Cytoxan, vincris-   DOA           dead on arrival
               tine, prednisone                            DOB           date of birth
CVS           chorionic villus sampling                    DOC           date of conception
CWP           childbirth without pain                      DOE           dyspnea on exertion
Cx            cervix                                       DOMS          delayed-onset muscle soreness
CX, CXR       chest x-ray film                             DOT           directly observed therapy
cysto         cystoscopic examination; cystoscopy          DPT           diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus
cyt           cytology; cytoplasm                          DQ            developmental quotient
                                                           DR            diabetic retinopathy; digital radiography;
   D                                                       dr            dram; dressing
D             diopter; dorsal                              DRD           developmental reading disorder
d             day                                          DRE           digital rectal exam
DAT           diet as tolerated                            DRG           diagnosis-related group
db, dB        decibel                                      DRP           diabetic retinopathy
D&C           dilation and curettage                       D/S           dextrose in saline
D/C, d/c      diarrhea/constipation                        DS            Down syndrome
DCC           direct-current cardioversion                 DSA           digital subtraction angiography
DCIS          ductal carcinoma in situ                     DSD           dry sterile dressing
DCR           direct cortical response                     dsg           dressing
D/D, DD,      differential diagnosis                       DT            diphtheria and tetanus toxoids
  DDx, Ddx                                                 DT, DT’s,     delirium tremens
D&E           dilation and evacuation                        DTs
debr          debridement                                  DTP           diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis
Dg, dg        diagnosis                                                   vaccine
del           delivery                                     DTR           deep tendon reflex
DES           diethylstilbestrol                           du            decubitus ulcer
DEXA          dual energy x-ray absorptiometry             DUB           dysfunctional uterine bleeding
DF            dorsiflexion                                 DVA           distance visual acuity
DG, dg        diagnosis                                    DVI           digital vascular imaging
DGE           delayed gastric emptying                     DVT           deep vein thrombosis
DHFS          dengue hemorrhagic fever shock syndrome      D/W           dextrose in water
DI            diabetes insipidus                           DX, Dx        diagnosis
Diag, diag    diagnosis                                    DXA           dual x-ray absorptiometry
DIC           diffuse intravascular coagulation

diff          differential diagnosis
diopt, Dptr   diopter
DIP           distal interphalangeal                       E             encephalitis; enema; etiology                   S
diph          diphtheria                                   e             epinephrine; estrogen                           N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                          4/10/08                4:37:06pm                         519 of 532
    520        APPENDIX B

    EBL         estimated blood loss                           epi, epil   epilepsy
    EBP         epidural blood patch                           epid        epidemic
    EBV         Epstein-Barr virus                             epis        episiotomy
    ECC         endocervical curettage; extracorporeal         EPO         erythropoietin
                  circulation                                  EPR         electron paramagnetic resonance; emer-
    ECCE        extracapsular cataract extraction                            gency physical restraint
    ECG         electrocardiogram; electrocardiography         EPS         extrapyramidal symptoms; exophthalmos-
    ECHO        echocardiogram; echocardiography                             producing substance
    E coli      Escherichia coli                               ER          emergency room; epigastric region
    ECT         electroconvulsive therapy                      ERCP        endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreato-
    ED          effective dose; emergency department; epi-                   graphy
                  dural; erythema dose; erectile dysfunction   ERPF        effective renal plasma flow
    EDA         epidural anesthesia                            ERT         estrogen replacement therapy; external
    EDC         estimated date (day) of confinement                          radiation therapy
    EDD         end-diastolic dimension                        ERV         expiratory reserve volume
    EDS         Ehlers-Danlos syndrome                         ESD         end-systolic dimension
    EDV         end-diastolic volume                           ESPF        end-stage pulmonary fibrosis
    EECG        electroencephalography                         ESR         erythrocyte sedimentation rate
    EEE         eastern equine encephalomyelitis               EST         electric shock therapy
    EEG         electroencephalogram; electroencephalo         ESRD        end-stage renal disease
                  graphy                                       ESWL        extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
    EENT        eye, ear, nose, and throat                     ESV         end-systolic volume
    EFM         electronic fetal monitor                       ET          embryo transfer; enterically transmitted;
    EGD         esophagogastroduodenoscopy                                   esotropia; eustachian tube
    EIA         enzyme immunoassay                             et          and
    EIB         exercise-induced bronchospasm                  ETF         eustachian tube function
    Ej          elbow jerk                                     ETI         endotracheal intubation
    EKG         electrocardiogram; electrocardiography         etiol       etiology
    ELISA       enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay              ETT         endotracheal tube; exercise tolerance test
    elix        elixir                                         EU          Ehrlich units; emergency unit; etiology
    EM          electron microscope; emmetropia; erythema                    unknown
                  multiforme                                   EV          esophageal varices
    emb         embolism                                       EWB         estrogen withdrawal bleeding
    EMG         electromyogram; electromyography               ex          excision; exercise
    EMP         emphysema                                      exam        examination
    EMR         educable mentally retarded; electronic         exp         expiration
                  medical record; eye movement record          ext         extraction; external
    EMS         early morning specimen; electromagnetic        Ez          eczema
    EN, endo    endoscopy
    Endo        endometriosis                                        F
    ENG         electronystagmography                          F           Fahrenheit
    ENT         ear, nose, and throat                          FA          fluorescein angiography; fluorescent anti-
    EOG         electro-oculogram                                            body; fructosamine test
    EOM         extraocular muscles; extraocular movement      FAS         fetal alcohol syndrome
    Eos, eosins eosinophils                                    FB          foreign body
    EP          ectopic pregnancy; evoked potential            FBS         fasting blood sugar
    EPF         early pregnancy factor; exophthalmos-          FCD         fibrocystic disease
S                 producing factor                             FDP         fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products
N   Epi, EPI    epinephrine                                    FECG        fetal electrocardiogram

           D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                     4/10/08                   4:37:06pm                       520 of 532
                                                                       ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS        521

FEF          forced expiratory flow                        GFR           glomerular filtration rate
FESS         functional endoscopic sinus surgery           GG            gamma globulin
fet          fetus                                         GGT           gamma-glutamyl transferase
FEV          forced expiratory volume                      GH            growth hormone
FFA          free fatty acids                              GHb           glycohemoglobin
FH           family history                                GI            gastrointestinal
FHR          fetal heart rate                              GIFT          gamete intrafallopian transfer
FHS          fetal heart sounds                            GIT           gastrointestinal tract
FHT          fetal heart tones                             glau, glc     glaucoma
FIA          fluorescent immunoassay; fluoroimmuno         GLTT          glucose tolerance test
               assay                                       gm            gram
Fluor        fluoroscopy                                   GN            glomerulonephritis
fMRI         functional magnetic resonance imaging         GP            general practice
FMS          fibromyalgia syndrome                         gr            grain
FNA          fine-needle aspiration                        grav I        pregnancy one; primigravida
FOBT         fecal occult blood test                       GS            general surgery
FPG          fasting plasma glucose                        GSW           gunshot wound
fr           French (catheter size)                        GT            glucose tolerance
FRC          functional residual capacity                  GTT           glucose tolerance test
FROM         full range of motion                          gtt           drops
FS           frozen section                                GU            genitourinary
FSH          follicle-stimulating hormone                  GVHD          graft-versus-host disease
FSP          fibrin-fibrinogen split products              GxT           graded exercise test
FSS          functional endoscopic sinus surgery           GYN, Gyn      gynecology
FT           family therapy
FTND         full-term normal delivery
FTT          failure to thrive                                H
FU, F/U      follow-up; follow up                          H             hydrogen; hypodermic; hyperopia
FUO          fever of unknown origin                       h             hour
FX, Fx       fracture                                      H&H           hemoglobin and hematocrit
                                                           HA            hemolytic anemia; histamine

                                                           HAA           hepatitis associated antigen; hepatitis
                                                                           Australia antigen
G            gingiva; glaucoma; glycogen                   halluc        hallucination
g            gram; gravida (pregnancy)                     HASHD         hypertensive arteriosclerotic heart disease
GA           gastric analysis; general anesthesia          HAV           hepatitis A virus
ga           gallium                                       HB            heart block; hemoglobin; hepatitis B; His
GAD          generalized anxiety disorder                                  bundle
GB           gallbladder                                   Hb            hemoglobin
GBM          glomerular basement membrane                  HBE           His bundle electrocardiogram
GBS          gallbladder series; Guillain-Barré syndrome   HbF           fetal hemoglobin
G-Cs         glucocorticoids                               HBGM          home blood glucose monitoring
GC           gonorrhea                                     HBP           high blood pressure
GCG          glucagon                                      HbS           sickle cell hemoglobin
G&D          growth and development                        HBV           hepatitis B virus
GD           Graves’ disease                               HC            Huntington’s cholera
GDM          gestational diabetes mellitus                 HCD           heavy-chain disease
GE           gastroenteritis                               HCG           human chorionic gonadotropin
GER          gastroesophageal reflux                       HCl           hydrochloric acid                               S
GERD         gastroesophageal reflux disease               HCL           hairy cell leukemia                             N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                     4/10/08                     4:37:07pm                         521 of 532
    522         APPENDIX B

    HCT, Hct,     hematocrit                                      HS         hamstring; heavy smoker; herpes simplex;
     hct                                                                      hospital stay
    HCV           hepatitis C virus                               hs, h.s.   at bedtime; hour of sleep
    HCVD          hypertensive cardiovascular disease             HSG        hysterosalpingogram
    HD            hearing distance; heart disease; hemodialy-     HSV        herpes simplex virus
                   sis; hip disarticulation; Hodgkin’s disease;   HSV-1      oral herpes simplex virus type 1
                   Huntington’s disease                           HSV-2      herpes simplex virus type 2
    HDL           high-density lipoproteins                       HT         Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; hormone therapy
    HDN           hemolytic disease of the newborn                ht         height; hematocrit
    HDS           herniated disk syndrome                         HTO        high tibial osteotomy
    HE            hereditary elliptocytosis; hyperextension       HV         hallux valgus; hospital visit
    He            helium; hemorrhage                              HVD        hypertensive vascular disease
    HEENT         head, eyes, ears, nose, throat                  HVT        hyperventilation
    HEM           hematuria                                       Hx         history
    HEM,          hemophilia; hemodialysis                        hypo       hypodermic
      hemo                                                        HYS        hysteroscopy
    hemat         hematocrit                                      HZ         herpes zoster
    hemi          hemiplegia                                      Hz         hertz
    HF            heart failure

    HG            hypoglycemia
    Hg            mercury
    HgA1c         glycohemoglobin test                            I          intensity of magnetism; iodine
    Hgb           hemoglobin                                      IABP       intra-aortic balloon pump
    HGE           human granulocytic ehrlichiosis                 IACP       intra-aortic counterpulsation
    HH            hiatal hernia                                   IADH       inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
    HIE           hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy                 IASD       interatrial septal defect
    Hi, his       histamine                                       IBC        iron-binding capacity
    HIS, Histo,   histology                                       IBD        inflammatory bowel disease
      histol                                                      IBS        irritable bowel syndrome
    HIV           human immunodeficiency virus                    IC         inspiratory capacity; intermittent claudica-
    H&L           heart and lungs                                              tion; interstitial cystitis
    HL            Hodgkin’s lymphoma                              ICCE       intracapsular lens extraction
    HLA           human leukocyte antigen                         ICCU       intensive coronary care unit
    HLR           heart-lung resuscitation                        ICD        implantable cardioverter defibrillator
    HM            hand motion; Holter monitor                     ICF        intracellular fluid
    HMD           hyaline membrane disease                        ICP        intracranial pressure
    HMO           health maintenance organization                 ICS        ileocecal sphincter; intercostal space
    hmt           hematocrit                                      ICSI       intracytoplasmic sperm injection
    HNP           herniated nucleus pulposus                      ICT        indirect Coombs’ test; insulin coma therapy
    HO            hyperbaric oxygen                               ICU        intensive care unit
    HOB           head of bed                                     I&D        incision and drainage
    H&P           history and physical                            ID         infectious disease; intradermal
    HP            hemipelvectomy; hyperparathyroidism             IDC        infiltrating ductal carcinoma; invasive ductal
    HPN           hypertension                                                 carcinoma
    HPO           hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian                  IDD        insulin-dependent diabetes
    HPS           hantavirus pulmonary syndrome                   IDDM       insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
    HPV           human papilloma virus                           IDK        internal derangement of the knee
    HR            heart rate                                      IDS        immunity deficiency state
S   hr            hour                                            IEMG       integrated electromyogram
N   HRT           hormone replacement therapy                     IF         interferon; interstitial fluid

          D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                        4/10/08                   4:37:07pm                         522 of 532
                                                                          ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS        523

             impaired fasting glucose
IgA          immunoglobulin A                                 j, jaund       jaundice
IgD          immunoglobulin D                                 jct            junctions
IgE          immunoglobulin E                                 JOD            juvenile-onset diabetes
IgG          immunoglobulin G                                 JRA            juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
IgM          immunoglobulin M                                 Jt             joint
IGT          impaired glucose tolerance                       JVP            jugular venous pressure; jugular venous
IH           infectious hepatitis; inguinal hernia                             pulse
IHD          ischemic heart disease
             infiltrating lobar carcinoma; invasive lobular
               carcinoma                                      K              potassium
ILD          interstitial lung diseases                       KB             ketone bodies
IM           infectious mononucleosis; intramuscular          KCF            key clinical findings
IMAG         internal mammary artery graft                    KCl            potassium chloride
IMF          idiopathic myelofibrosis                         KD             knee disarticulation
IMI          immunofluorescence                               KE             kinetic energy
IMV          intermittent mandatory ventilation               kg             kilogram
inf          inferior; infusion                               kj             knee jerk
Inflam,      inflammation                                     KO             keep open
   Inflamm                                                    KOH            potassium hydrochloride
I&O          intake and output                                KS             Kaposi’s sarcoma
IO           intestinal obstruction; intraocular              KUB            kidneys, ureters, bladder
IOD          iron-overload disease (hemochromatosis)          KVO            keep vein open
IOL          intraocular lens

IOP          intraocular pressure
IPF          idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
IPG          impedance plethysmography                        l              liter
IPPB         intermittent positive-pressure breathing         L1 through     lumbar vertebrae
IQ           intelligence quotient                              L5
irrig        irrigation                                       L&A            light and accommodation
IS           impingement syndrome; intercostal space          LA             left atrium
ISG          immune serum globulin                            lab            laboratory
isol         isolation                                        lac            laceration
IT           immunotherapy                                    LAD            left anterior descending
ITP          idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura              LAP            laparoscopy; leucine aminopeptidase
IU           international unit                               lap            laparotomy
IUD          intrauterine device                              lar, lx        larynx
IUP          intrauterine pressure                            laryn          laryngitis; laryngoscopy
IV           intravenous; intravenously                       laser          light amplification by stimulated emission of
IVC          inferior vena cava                                                radiation
IVCP         inferior vena cava pressure                      LASIK          laser in situ keratomileusis
IVD          intervertebral disk                              lat            lateral
IVDA         intravenous drug abuse                           LAVH           laparoscopically assisted vaginal
IVF          in vitro fertilization                                            hysterectomy
IVFA         intravenous fluorescein angiography              LB             large bowel; low back
IVP          intravenous pyelogram                            lb             pound
IVSD         interventricular septal defect                   LBBB           left bundle branch block                        S
IVU          intravenous urogram                              LBP            low back pain                                   N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                       4/10/08                        4:37:07pm                       523 of 532
    524         APPENDIX B

    LBW           low birth weight                                MAR      multiple antibiotic resistant
    LBBX          left breast biopsy and examination              MBC      maximal breathing capacity
    LCIS          lobular carcinoma in situ                       MBD      minimal brain damage
    L&D           labor and delivery                              mc       millicurie
    LDD           light-dark discrimination                       mcg      microgram
    LDL           low-density lipoproteins                        MCH      mean corpuscular hemoglobin
    LE            left eye; life expectancy; lower extremity;     MCHC     mean corpuscular hemoglobin
                    lupus erythematosus; lymphedema                         concentration
    LES           lower esophageal sphincter                      MCT      mean circulation time
    lg            large                                           MCV      mean corpuscular volume
    LH            luteinizing hormone                             MD       macular degeneration; medical doctor;
    LHBD          left heart bypass device                                  muscular dystrophy
    LHF           left-sided heart failure                        MDS      myelodysplastic syndrome
    lig           ligament                                        MDR-TB   multidrug-resistant tuberculosis
    liq           liquid                                          ME       middle ear
    litho         lithotripsy                                     MED      minimal effective dose; minimal erythema
    LLE           lower left extremity                                      dose
    LLL           left lower lobe                                 men      meningitis; menstruation
    LLQ           left lower quadrant                             men,     meningitis
    LLSB          left lower sternal border                        mgtis
    L/min         liters per minute                               mEq      milliequivalent
    LMP           last menstrual period                           MET      metastasis
    LNMP          last normal menstrual period                    met      metastasize
    LOC           level of consciousness; loss of consciousness   M&F      mother and father
    LOM           limitation of motion; loss of motion            MFT      muscle function test
    LOS           length of stay                                  mg       milligram
    LP            light perception; lumbar puncture; lumbo-       MG       myasthenia gravis
                    peritoneal                                    mgm      milligram
    LPF           low-power field                                 MH       malignant hyperpyrexia; malignant hyper-
    LPS           lipase                                                    thermia; marital history
    LR            light reaction                                  MHC      mental health care
    LRDKT         living related donor kidney transplant          MI       mitral insufficiency; myocardial infarction
    LRT           lower respiratory tract                         MICU     medical intensive care unit; mobile intensive
    LSB           left sternal border                                       care unit
    lt            left                                            MID      multi-infarct dementia
    LTB           laryngotracheobronchitis                        MIDCAB   minimally invasive direct coronary artery
    LTC           long-term care                                            bypass
    LTH           lactogenic hormone; luteotropic hormone         MIP      maximal inspiratory pressure
    LUE           left upper extremity                            ml, mL   milliliter
    LUL           left upper lobe                                 MLD      manual lymph drainage; minimum lethal
    LUQ           left upper quadrant                                       dose
    LV            left ventricle                                  MM       multiple myeloma; malignant melanoma
    LVH           left ventricle hypertrophy                      mm       millimeter
    lymphs        lymphocytes                                     mm Hg    millimeters of mercury
                                                                  MND      motor neuron disease

                                                                  MNT      medical nutrition therapy
                                                                  MO       morbid obesity
    M              meter; murmur; myopia                          MODY     maturity-onset diabetes of the young
S   MABS           monoclonal antibodies                          MOM      milk of magnesia
N   MAO            maximal acid output; monoamine oxidase         mono     monocytes

            D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                      4/10/08                 4:37:08pm                        524 of 532
                                                                       ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS        525

MP           metacarpal-phalangeal                         No            number
MPD          myofascial pain dysfunction                   noc, noct     night
MR           mental retardation; metabolic rate; mitral    NOFTT         nonorganic failure to thrive
               regurgitation                               NP            nasopharynx
MRA          magnetic resonance angiography                NPC           no point of convergence
MRD          medical record department                     NPO           nothing by mouth
MRI          magnetic resonance imaging                    NR            no response
MS           mitral stenosis; multiple sclerosis; muscu-   NREM          no rapid eye movements
               loskeletal                                  NS            nephrotic syndrome; normal saline; not
MSH          melanocyte-simulating hormone                                stated; not significant; not sufficient
MTD          right eardrum                                 NSAID         nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
MTS          left eardrum                                  NSR           normal sinus rhythm
MTX          methotrexate                                  nst           nystagmus
MV           mitral valve                                  NSU           nonspecific urethritis
MVP          mitral valve prolapse                         Nt            neutralization
MY, Myop     myopia                                        NTD           neural tube defect
myel         myelogram                                     NTG           nitroglycerin
myop         myopia                                        N&V           nausea and vomiting
                                                           NVA           near visual acuity

                                                           NVD           nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea; neck vein
N&T          nose and throat                               NVS           neural vital signs
NA           not applicable; numerical aperture            NYD           not yet diagnosed
Na           sodium                                        ny            nystagmus
NaCl         sodium chloride

NAD          no acute disease; no apparent distress
NB           newborn
N/C          no complaints                                 OA            osteoarthritis
NCV          nerve conduction velocity                     OAB           overactive bladder
NED          no evidence of disease                        OB            obstetrics
NEG, neg     negative                                      OB-GYN        obstetrics and gynecology
Neph         nephron                                       obl           oblique
neuro        neurology                                     OBS           organic brain syndrome
NF           National Formulary; necrotizing fasciitis;    Obs           obstetrics
              neurofibromatosis                            OC            office call; oral contraceptive
N/G          nasogastric (tube)                            OCC           occasional
ng           Neisseria gonorrhoeae                         OCD           obsessive compulsive disorder
NGF          nerve growth factor                           OCT           oral contraceptive therapy
NGU          nongonococcal urethritis                      OD            overdose; right eye (oculus dexter)
NHL          non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma                        od            once a day
NI           nuclear imaging                               OGN           obstetric-gynecologic-neonatal
NICU         neurologic intensive care unit                OGTT          oral glucose tolerance test
NIDDM        non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus       oint          ointment
NK cell      natural killer cell                           OJD           osteoarthritic joint disease
NKA          no known allergies                            OM            otitis media
NLP          neurolinguistic programming                   OME           otitis media with effusion
N&M          nerves and muscles; night and morning         OMR           optic mark recognition
NM           nuclear medicine                              OOB           out of bed
nm           neuromuscular                                 O&P           ova and parasites                               S
NMR          nuclear magnetic resonance                    OP            oropharynx; osteoporosis; outpatient            N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                       4/10/08                   4:37:08pm                         525 of 532
    526           APPENDIX B

    OPA              oropharyngeal airway                           PCA      prostate cancer
    OPD              outpatient department                          PCKD,    polycystic kidney disease
    Ophth            ophthalmic                                       PKD
    OPT              outpatient                                     PCNL     percutaneous nephrolithotomy
    OPV              oral poliovirus vaccine                        PCO,     polycystic ovary syndrome
    OR               operating room                                   PCOS
    ORIF             open reduction internal fixation               PCP      Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    ORT              oral rehydration therapy                       PCT      plasmacrit time
    Orth             orthopedics                                    PCU      progressive care unit
    OS               left eye (oculus sinister)                     PCV      packed cell volume
    os               mouth                                          PD       interpupillary distance; Parkinson’s disease;
    OSA              obstructive sleep apnea                                   peritoneal dialysis; postural drainage
    OT               occupational therapy; old tuberculin           PDA      patent ductus arteriosus
    OTC              over-the-counter                               PDD      pervasive developmental disorder
    Oto              otology                                        PDL      periodontal ligament
    OU               each eye (oculus unitas)                       PE       physical examination; preeclampsia
    oz               ounce                                          PEA      pulseless electrical activity
    OXT              oxytocin                                       Peds     pediatrics
                                                                    PEEP     positive end-expiratory pressure
                                                                    PEF      peak expiratory flow rate
                                                                    PEG      pneumoencephalogram; pneumoencepha-
          P                                                         PEL      permissible exposure limit
    P                percussion; phosphorus; physiology; poste-     per      by; through
                       rior; presbyopia; progesterone; prolactin;   PERLA    pupils equally reactive (responsive) to light
                       pulse                                                   and accommodation
    P&A              percussion and auscultation                    PERRLA   pupils equal, round, reactive to light and
    PA               pernicious anemia; physician’s assistant;                 accommodation
                       polyarteritis; posteroanterior; pulmonary    PET      positron emission tomography; preeclamp-
                       artery                                                  tic toxemia
    PA, pa           pathology                                      PFT      pulmonary function test
    PAC              premature atrial contraction                   PG       pregnant; prostaglandin
    PACAB            port-access coronary artery bypass             PGH      pituitary growth hormone
    PADP             pulmonary artery diastolic pressure            PGL      persistent generalized lymphadenopathy
    PAMP             pulmonary arterial mean pressure               PH       past history; personal history; public health
    Pap              Papanicolaou smear                             pH       acidity; hydrogen ion concentration
    PAR              perennial allergic rhinitis; postanesthetic    PHN      postherpetic neuralgia
                       recovery                                     PI       present illness
    PARA (P1)        full-term infants delivered                    PICU     pulmonary intensive care unit
    paren            parenterally                                   PID      pelvic inflammatory disease
    PASP             pulmonary artery systolic pressure             PIF      peak inspiratory flow
    PAT              paroxysmal atrial tachycardia                  PIH      pregnancy-induced hypertension
    Path             pathology                                      PK       pyruvate kinase; pyruvate kinase deficiency
    Pb               presbyopia                                     PKD      polycystic kidney disease
    PBC              primary biliary cirrhosis                      PKR      partial knee replacement
    PBI              protein-bound iodine                           PKU      phenylketonuria
    PBP              progressive bulbar palsy                       PL       light perception
    PBT4             protein-bound thyroxine                        pl       placenta
S   PC               pheochromocytoma; prostate cancer              PLC      platelet count
N   p.c.             after meals                                    PLMS     periodic limb movements in sleep

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                       4/10/08                4:37:08pm                        526 of 532
                                                                        ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS        527

PLS          primary lateral sclerosis                      preg           pregnant
PLTS         platelets                                      preop          preoperative
PM           evening or afternoon; physical medicine;       prep           prepare
              polymyositis; postmortem                      PRK            photorefractive keratectomy
PMA          progressive muscular atrophy                   p.r.n.         as needed
PMDD         premenstrual dysphoric disorder                proct          proctology
PMH          past medical history                           prog,          prognosis
PMI          point of maximal impulse                          progn
PMN          polymorphonuclear neutrophils                  PROM           passive range of motion; premature rupture
PMP          past menstrual period; previous menstrual                      of membranes
              period                                        pro time       prothrombin time
PMR          physical medicine and rehabilitation; poly-    PRRE           pupils round, regular, and equal
              myalgia rheumatica                            Prx            prognosis
PMS          premenstrual syndrome                          PS, Ps         psoriasis
PMT          premenstrual tension                           PSA            prostate-specific antigen
PMVS         prolapsed mitral valve syndrome                PSS            progressive systemic sclerosis; physiologic
PN           peripheral neuropathy; postnatal                               saline solution
PN, Pn,      pneumonia                                      psych          psychiatry
  PNA,                                                      PT             paroxysmal tachycardia; physical therapy;
  pneu,                                                                     prothrombin time
  pneum                                                     pt             patient; pint
PND          paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; postnasal drip   PTA            percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
PNH          postnatal headache                             PTE            pulmonary thromboembolism
Pno          pneumothorax                                   PTC            percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
PNP          peripheral neuropathy                          PTCA           percutaneous transluminal coronary
PNS          parasympathetic nervous system; peripheral                     angioplasty
              nervous system                                PTD            permanent and total disability
PO, p.o.     by mouth; orally; phone order; postoperative   PTE            parathyroid extract; pulmonary thrombo-
POC          products of conception                                         embolism
polys        polymorphonuclear leukocytes                   PTH            parathyroid hormone; parathormone
POMR         problem-oriented medical record                PTSD           posttraumatic stress disorder
POS          polycystic ovary syndrome                      PTT            partial thromboplastin time; prothrombin
pos          positive                                                       time
post-op      postoperatively                                PU             peptic ulcer; pregnancy urine; prostatic
PP           placenta previa; postpartum; postprandial                      urethra
              (after meals); pulse pressure                 PUD            peptic ulcer disease; pulmonary disease
ppb          parts per billion                              pul            pulmonary
PPBS         postprandial blood sugar                       P&V            pyloroplasty and vagotomy
PPD          purified protein derivative                    PV             peripheral vascular; plasma volume; poly-
ppm          parts per million                                              cythemia vera
PPS          postperfusion syndrome; postpolio syn-         PVC            premature ventricular contraction
              drome; progressive systemic sclerosis         PVD            peripheral vascular disease
PPT          partial prothrombin time                       PVE            prosthetic valve endocarditis
PPV          positive-pressure ventilation                  PVOD           peripheral vascular occlusive disease
PR           peripheral resistance; pulse rate              PVS            persistent vegetative state
Pr           presbyopia; prism                              PVT            paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia
pr           by rectum                                      pvt            private
PRA          plasma renin activity                          PWB            partial weight-bearing
PRC          packed red cells                               PWP            pulmonary wedge pressure                       S
PRE          progressive restrictive exercise               Px             prognosis                                      N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                      4/10/08                       4:37:08pm                       527 of 532
    528           APPENDIX B

          Q                                                          RHD
                                                                     Rh neg
                                                                              rheumatic heart disease
                                                                              Rhesus factor negative
    q                every                                           Rh pos   Rhesus factor positive
    qd, q.d.         every day                                       RIA      radioimmunoassay
    qh, q.h          every hour                                      RICE     rest, ice, compression, elevate
    q2h              every 2 hours                                   Rick     rickettsia
    QID, qid,        four times a day                                RIST     radioimmunosorbent
       q.i.d.                                                        RK       radial keratotomy
    qm               every morning                                   RL       right leg
    qn               every night                                     RLC      residual lung capacity
    qns              quantity not sufficient                         RLD      related living donor
    qod              every other day                                 RLE      right lower extremity
    qoh              every other hour                                RLL      right lower lobe
    QOL              quality of life                                 RLQ      right lower quadrant
    qs               quantity sufficient                             RLS      restless legs syndrome
    qt               quart; quiet                                    RM       respiratory movement
    q.q.             each                                            RMD      repetitive motion disorder
    quad             quadrant; quadriplegia; quadriplegic            RML      right mediolateral
                                                                     RMSF     Rocky Mountain spotted fever

                                                                     RNA      ribonucleic acid
                                                                     RND      radical neck dissection
    R               rectal; respiration; right                       R/O      rule out
    RA              refractory anemia; rheumatoid arthritis;         ROA      radiopaque agents
                      right arm; right atrium                        ROM      range of motion; rupture of membranes
    rad             radiation absorbed dose                          ROP      retinopathy of prematurity
    RAF             rheumatoid arthritis factor                      ROPS     rollover protection structures
    RAI             radioactive iodine                               ROS      review of systems
    RAIU            radioactive iodine uptake determination          ROT      right occipitis transverse
    RAS             reticular activating system                      RP       radiopharmaceuticals; Raynaud’s phenom-
    RAST            radioallergosorbent                                         enon; relapsing polychondritis; retrograde
    RAT             radiation therapy                                           pyelogram
    RBBB            right bundle branch block                        RPF      renal plasma flow
    RBC             red blood cell; red blood count                  RPG      retrograde pyelogram
    RBCV            red blood cell volume                            rpm      revolutions per minute
    RBE             relative biologic effects                        RPO      right posterior oblique
    RCA             right coronary artery                            RPR      rapid plasma reagin
    RD              respiratory distress; retinal detachment         RQ       respiratory quotient
    RDA             recommended daily allowance                      R&R      rate and rhythm
    RDS             respiratory distress syndrome                    RR       recovery room; respiratory rate
    RE              right eye                                        RSD      repetitive stress disorder
    reg             regular                                          RSDS     reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome
    rehab           rehabilitation                                   RSHF     right-sided heart failure
    rem             roentgen-equivalent-man                          RSI      repetitive stress injuries
    REM sleep       rapid eye movement sleep                         RSR      regular sinus rhythm
    RER             renal excretion rate                             RSV      right subclavian vein
    resp            respiration                                      RT       radiation therapy; renal transplantation;
    RF              renal failure; respiratory failure; rheumatoid              respiratory therapy
                      factor; rheumatic fever                        rt       right; routine
S   RFS             renal function study                             RTA      renal tubular acidosis
N   RH              right hand                                       rt lat   right lateral

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                       4/10/08                 4:37:09pm                       528 of 532
                                                                          ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS        529

rtd          retarded                                         SDAT           senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type
RU           roentgen unit; routine urinalysis                SDM            standard deviation of the mean
RUE          right upper extremity                            SDS            sudden death syndrome
RUL          right upper lobe                                 sec            second
RUQ          right upper quadrant                             sed rate       sedimentation rate
RV           residual volume; right ventricle                 seg            segmented neutrophils
RVG          radionuclide ventriculogram                      SEM            scanning electron microscopy
RVH          right ventricular hypertrophy                    semi           half
RVS          relative value schedule                          SES            subcutaneous electric stimulation
RW           ragweed                                          sev            sever; severed
Rx           prescription; take; therapy; treatment           SF             scarlet fever; spinal fluid
                                                              SG             serum globulin; skin graft
                                                              SGA            small for gestational age
     S                                                        SH             serum hepatitis; sex hormone; social history
s            without                                          sh             shoulder
S-A          sinoatrial node                                  SI             saturation index
S&A          sugar and acetone                                SICU           surgical intensive care unit
SA           salicylic acid; sinoatrial; sperm analysis;      SIDS           sudden infant death syndrome
               surgeon’s assistant                            sig            let it be labeled
SAAT         serum aspartate aminotransferase                 SIRS           systemic inflammatory response syndrome
SAB          spontaneous abortion                             SIS            saline infusion sonohysterography
SACH         self-assessed change in health                   SISI           short increment sensitivity index
SAD          seasonal affective disorder                      SLE            St. Louis encephalitis; systemic lupus
SAH          subarachnoid hemorrhage                                           erythematosus
SAL          sensorineural activity level; sterility assur-   SLND           sentinel lymph node dissection
               ance level; suction-assisted lipectomy         SLPS           serum lipase
Sal, Salm    salmonella                                       SM             simple mastectomy
SALP         salpingectomy; salpingography; serum             sm             small
               alkaline phosphatase                           SMA            sequential multiple analysis
Salpx        salpingectomy                                    SMAC           sequential multiple analysis computer
SAM          self-administered medication program             SMG            senile macular degeneration
SARS         severe acute respiratory syndrome                SMR            submucous resection
SAS          short arm splint; sleep apnea syndrome; social   SMRR           submucous resection and rhinoplasty
               adjustment scale; subarachnoid space           SNR            signal-to-noise ratio
SB           small bowel; spina bifida; stillbirth; suction   SNRI           serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake
               biopsy                                                          inhibitor
SBE          subacute bacterial endocarditis                  SNS            sensory nervous system; sympathetic
SBO          small bowel obstruction                                           nervous system
SC, sc       subcutaneous                                     SO             salpingo-oophorectomy
SC           Snellen chart; spinal cord                       SOAP           symptoms, observations, assessments, plan;
SCA          sickle cell anemia                                                subjective, objective, assessment, plan
SCC          squamous cell carcinoma                          SOB            shortness of breath
SCD          sudden cardiac death                             SOM            serous otitis media
schiz        schizophrenia                                    SONO           sonography
SCI          spinal cord injury                               SOP            standard operating procedure
SCID         severe combined immune deficiency                sos            if necessary
SCT          sickle cell trait                                spec           specimen
SD           septal defect; shoulder disarticulation;         SPECT          single photon emission computerized
               spontaneous delivery; standard deviation;                       tomography                                    S
               sudden death                                   SPF            skin protective factor; sun protective factor   N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                       4/10/08                        4:37:09pm                       529 of 532
    530           APPENDIX B

    sp gr            specific gravity                               TAH-BSO     total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral
    SPP              suprapubic prostatectomy                                     salpingo-oophorectomy
    SPR              scanned projection radiography                 TAO         thromboangiitis obliterans
    SQ               subcutaneous                                   TB          tuberculosis
    SR               sedimentation rate; stimulus response;         TBD         total body density
                       system review                                TBF         total body fat
    SRS              smoker’s respiratory syndrome                  TBG         thyroxine-binding globulin
    ss               half                                           TBI         thyroxine-binding index
    SS               signs and symptoms; Sjögren’s syndrome;        TBW         total body weight
                       soap solution                                TCD         transcranial doppler
    SSE              soap suds enema                                TCDB        turn, cough, deep breathe
    SSRI             selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor         TCP         time care profile
    SSU              sterile supply unit                            TD          total disability; transdermal
    ST               esotropia; sclerotherapy                       TDM         therapeutic drug monitoring
    staph            staphylococcus                                 TDT         tone decay test
    stat             immediately                                    TE          tetanus; tonsillectomy
    STD              sexually transmitted disease; skin test dose   TEE         transesophageal echocardiography
    STH              somatotropic hormone                           temp        temperature
    STK              streptokinase                                  TEN         toxic epidermal necrolysis
    strab            strabismus                                     TENS        transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
    strep            streptococcus                                  TES         treadmill exercise score
    STS              serologic test for syphilis                    TFS         thyroid function studies
    STSG             split thickness skin graft                     TGA         transposition of great arteries
    subcu,           subcutaneous                                   THA         total hip arthroplasty
      sub-Q                                                         THR         total hip replacement
    SUI              stress urinary incontinence                    TIA         transient ischemic attack
    supp             suppository                                    TIA-IR      transient ischemic attack incomplete
    surg             surgical; surgery                                            recovery
    SVC              superior vena cava                             TIBC        total iron-binding capacity
    SVD              spontaneous vaginal delivery                   TID, tid,   times interval difference; three times a day
    SVG              saphenous vein graft                              t.i.d.
    SVN              small volume nebulizer                         tinct       tincture
    SX               symptom reduction                              TJA         total joint arthroplasty
    Sx               symptoms                                       TKA         total knee arthroplasty
    Sz               seizure                                        TKO         to keep open
                                                                    TKR         total knee replacement
                                                                    TLC         tender loving care; total lung capacity

                                                                    TLE         temporal lobe epilepsy
                                                                    TM          temporomandibular; tympanic membrane
    T                temperature; thrombosis                        TMD         temporomandibular disease; temporoman-
    T1 through       thoracic vertebrae                                           dibular disorder
      T12                                                           TMJ         temporomandibular joint
    T3               triiodothyronine                               TMs         tympanic membranes
    T4               thyroxine                                      Tn          normal intraocular tension
    T&A              tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy                TND         term normal delivery
    TA, TAB          therapeutic abortion                           TNF         tumor necrosis factor
    tab              tablet                                         TNI         total nodal irradiation
    TACT             target air-enema computed tomography           TNM         tumor, nodes, metastases
S   TAF              tumor angiogenesis factor                      TO          telephone order
N   TAH              total abdominal hysterectomy                   top         topically

              D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                       4/10/08                   4:37:09pm                       530 of 532
                                                                     ABBREVIATIONS   AND   THEIR MEANINGS         531

TP           testosterone propionate; total protein       UK            unknown
TPA, tPA     tissue plasminogen activator; Treponema      UL            upper lobe
               pallidum agglutination                     ULQ           upper left quadrant
TPBF         total pulmonary blood flow                   umb           umbilical; umbilicus
TPI          Treponema pallidum immobilization            UN            urea nitrogen
TPN          total parenteral nutrition                   ung           ointment
TPR          temperature, pulse, respiration              UOQ           upper outer quadrant
TPUR         transperineal urethral resection             UPP           urethral pressure profile
TR           tuberculin residue                           UR            upper respiratory
tr           tincture                                     ur            urine
trach        trachea; tracheostomy                        URD           upper respiratory disease
TRBF         total renal blood flow                       URI           upper respiratory infection
TRH          thyrotropin-releasing hormone                urol          urology
Trich        trichomonas                                  URQ           upper right quadrant
TS           Tourette syndrome                            URT           upper respiratory tract
TSD          Tay-Sachs disease                            US            ultrasonic; ultrasonography
TSE          testicular self-examination                  USP           United States Pharmacopeia
TSH          thyroid-stimulating hormone                  UTI           urinary tract infection
TSP          total serum protein                          UV            ultraviolet
TSS          toxic shock syndrome                         UVJ           ureterovesical junction
TST          thallium stress test; tuberculin skin test
TT           thrombin time
TTH          thyrotropic hormone                              V
TULIP        transurethral ultrasound-guided laser-       V           ventral; visual acuity
               induced proctectomy                        VA          vacuum aspiration; visual acuity
TUMT         transurethral microwave therapy              vag         vaginal
TUR          transurethral resection                      VAS         vasectomy
TURP         transurethral resection of prostate;         VB          viable birth
               prostatectomy                              VBAC        vaginal birth after cesarean
TV           tidal volume; tricuspid valve                VBP         ventricular premature beat
TVH          total vaginal hysterectomy                   VC          acuity of color vision; vena cava; vital
TW           tap water                                                  capacity
TWE          tap water enema                              VCUG        voiding cystourethrogram
Tx           traction; treatment                          VD          venereal disease
                                                          VDG         venereal disease, gonorrhea

                                                          VDH         valvular disease of heart
                                                          VDRL        Venereal Disease Research Laboratory
U            units                                        VDS         venereal disease, syphilis
U/A, UA      urinalysis                                   VE          visual efficiency
UB           urinary bladder                              Vent, ventr ventral
UC           ulcerative colitis; urine culture; uterine   VEP         visual evoked potential
              contractions                                VER         visual evoked response
UCD          usual childhood diseases                     VF          ventricular fibrillation; visual field; vocal
UCG          urinary chorionic gonadotropin; uterine                    fremitus
              chorionic gonadotropin                      V fib       ventricular fibrillation
UCR          unconditioned reflex                         VG          ventricular gallop
UE           upper extremity                              VH          vaginal hysterectomy
UFR          uroflowmeter; uroflowmetry                   VHD         valvular heart disease; ventricular heart
UG           upper gastrointestinal; urogenital                         disease                                         S
UGI          upper gastrointestinal                       VI          volume index                                      N

D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                       4/10/08                   4:37:10pm                        531 of 532
    532           APPENDIX B

    vit cap          vital capacity                                  w/o        without
    VLDL             very-low-density lipoprotein                    WR, W.r.   Wassermann reaction
    VP               venipuncture; venous pressure                   wt         weight
    V&P              vagotomy and pyloroplasty                       w/v        weight by volume
    VPC              ventricular premature contraction
    VPRC             volume of packed red cells
    VS, vs           vital signs                                           X
    VSD              ventricular septal defect                       X          xerophthalmia
    VTAs             vascular targeting agents                       x          multiplied by; times
    VV               varicose veins                                  XDP        xeroderma pigmentosum
    VVF              vesicovaginal fistula                           XM         cross-match
    VZV              varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox)             XR         x-ray
                                                                     XT         exotropia

          W                                                          XU         excretory urogram

    W                water
    WA               while awake                                           Y
    WB               weight-bearing; whole blood
                                                                     y/o        year(s) old
    WBC              white blood cell; white blood count
                                                                     YOB        year of birth
    W/C, w/c         wheelchair
                                                                     yr         year
    wd               wound
    WD, w/d          well-developed

    WDWN             well-developed, well-nourished
    wf               white female
    w/n              well-nourished                                  Z          atomic number; no effect; zero
    WNL              within normal limits                            zyg        zygote


              D4623-Ehrlich_App_B                          4/10/08                4:37:10pm                      532 of 532